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This file is devoted to presenting basic Timeline information for website readers. The items are often sketchy, and some have been extracted from other websites managed by Dan Byrnes. These Timelines will be added-to intermittently, as new data and new e-mail arrives. Book titles will be entered according to the timeframes they treat. -Ed

To go to the next file in this Merchant Networks Timelines series of files, Timelines6

For 1760++

Merchant Networks Timelines
From 1720 to the 1920s There are now 21 files in this series
Files are filled with data for ten-year periods (decadally) These data have been years in compilation. Their trend is to follow the changing shapes of the British Empire.

1718-1867: On the English Convict Contractors 1718-1867 - in the chronological order of their involvements:
Evidently, the merchants active in the convict service between England and North America after 1717 had survived the South Sea Bubble well. After 1717, a list of the names of British convict contractors to North America (in roughly the chronological order of their first appearance in records) would include:

1717: Francis March, London: 1718 Jonathan Forward, London; 1720 members of the Lux family, Darby, John, and Francis, probably London (later linked to Jonathan Forward's operations) and in 1750, William Lux; 1721, 1722, Jonathan Forward Sydenham of London; 1722, Cheston, ?; 1731, various men named Reed, to 1771; 1737, Joseph Weld in Dublin; 1739, Andrew Reid, London, with James and Andrew Armour, London, and John Stewart of London; 1740ff, Moses Israel Fonesca, London; 1740, Samuel Sedgley, Bristol; 1740, James Gildart, Liverpool; 1744, John Langley, Ireland; 1745, Reid and Armour, London; 1745, Sydenham and Hodgson, London; 1747, William Cookson of Hull; 1749, Jonathan Forward Sydenham a nephew of Jonathan Forward; 1749, Stewart and Armour, London; 1750, Andrew Reid, London; ; 1750, Samuel Sedgely and Co of Bristol; John Stewart and (Duncan) Campbell, London (JS&C); 1758, Sedgely and Co (Hillhouse and Randolph), Bristol; 1759, Stewart and Armour, London; 1760, Sedgely and Hillhouse of Bristol; 1763, Andrew Reid retired; 1764, John Stewart and Duncan Campbell, London; 1766, Patrick Colquhuon, Glasgow; 1766, Sedgely and Co at Bristol replaced by William Randolph, William Stevenson, James Cheston, Bristol; 1767, Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston, Bristol? with a colonial agent Cheston; 1768, Jonathan Forward Sydenham, London or nearby counties; 1769, Dixon and Littledale, Whitehaven; 1769, Sedgely, Bristol; 1769, any ships captain providing necessary securities could transport felons; 1770, James Baird, Glasgow; 1772, John Stewart died, Duncan Campbell carried on alone in London until 1775. At Bristol, Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston (SRC) were active till 1776; they made ill-advised and vain attempts to transport felons to North America at the end of the American Revolution. Wisely, Duncan Campbell did not.
The above list has been re-compiled from myriad information compiled by historians working independently between 1933 and 1987 on the original documentation of transportation to North America. [Historians such as A. E. Smith, Oldham, Coldham -[Peter Wilson Coldham, Emigrants in Chains. Phoenix Hill, Far Thrupp, Stroud, Gloucestershire, Allan Sutton, 1992.], Eris O'Brien, Shaw, Ekirch [Roger A. Ekirch, Bound for America: The Transportation of British Convicts to the Colonies, 1718-1775. Oxford University Press. And also, importantly, Roger A. Ekirch, 'Great Britain's Secret Convict Trade To America, 1783-1784', American Historical Review, Vol. 89, No. 5. December 1984., pp. 1285-1291.] and Kenneth Morgan, 'The Organisation of the Convict Trade To Maryland: Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston, 1768-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, Vol. 42, No. 2, April, 1985., pp. 201-227. ]
Often-mentioned merchants were obviously stayers in the convict service .[John M. Hemphill, Virginia and the English Commercial System, 1689-1733. London, Garland, 1985. [Facsimile of a 1964 Ph.D thesis, Princeton University, pp. 152ff, on matters such as changes in tobacco export inspection procedures from 1713 to 1730, prior to consideration of the 1733 Excise Act instigated by Walpole. By 1713 (Marcus Rediker, Between The Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Merchant Seamen, Pirates and the Anglo-American Maritime World, 1700-1750. Cambridge, 1987., p. 281) Virginia merchants remained very apprehensive about pirates disturbing trade. ]

Notably in maritime terms, merchants shipping felons had a commercial advantage over their competitors - their voyage out was partly or wholly paid. The merchants' inconvenience was that they had to wait till convicts became available from the courts before despatching a ship outward, and given the seasonal nature of shipping colonial tobacco home, this did not always suit ship turn-arounds.

Craig Allen Bailey (thesis), The Irish Network: A Study of Ethnic Patronage in London, 1760-1840, School of Advanced study, University of London, 2004.

1760: Dies English convict contractor Jonathan Forward in 1760 aged 80. He had extensive estates in the West Country left to his daughter Elizabeth, wife of Robert Byng, seventh son of Viscount Torrington, who became a paymaster of the navy, then governor of Barbados. (Coldham, Emigrants in Chains, p. 86.)

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1760: Appearance of first map of Hong Kong, showing only the island's west coast, prepared by East India Captain George Hayter, of EICo ship York.

1760: John St Barbe whaling investor, and on 2 December, 1682 were married John St Barbe to Honor Norton, at St Mary's White Chapel, London, and on 16 Sept, 1765 was christened John St Barbe at Saint Catherine by the Tower London, the son of John St Barbe and the mother was Ann, and on 30 June, 1772 were married John St Barbe and Margaret Galbraith, at St Botolph Bishopsgate, London, and on July 1775 was christened at St Botolph Without Aldgate, John Dekewer [sic] St Barbe son of John and Margaret St Barbe; and on 2 Feb, 1779 was christened at Saint Katherine by the Tower, Harriet St Barbe daughter of John and Margaret St Barbe; and on 7 May, 1780 was christened at Saint Paul, Deptford, London, Carolina St Barbe father John and mother Margaret; and on 7 Feb, 1782 was christened Henrietta St Barbe at Saint Katherine by the Tower and also Frances christened the same day 7 Feb, 1782, mother Margaret; and on 13 May, 1785 was christened Etheldred [sic] Saint Barbe at St Botolph Without Aldgate, London, father Kingsman Baskett Saint Barbe mother Mary; and on 21 Mar, 1783 was christened at Greenwich Kent, Allan St Barbe son of John and Margaret; and on 26 Nov, 1802 were married Henrietta St Barbe and William Heyliger, at Saint Mary's, Portsea, Hampshire; and on 22 May, 1810 was christened at Allhallows London Wall, London, female child Ethildred [sic] daughter of John St Barbe and mother Elizabeth; and on 20 Dec, 1854 was christened John Frampton St Barbe son of John St Barbe and Eleanor at Holy Trinity, Paddington, London. Mormon IGI (computer) and mystery? on 2 Aug, 1810 Ann St Barbe married Edward Allen at Saint Mary, Lewisham, Kent, England, name St Barbe, back to 1580 in Wiltshire. Mormon IGI (computer).

1760: Chinese government publishes edict of "Five Regulations" for foreign traders in Canton. (Keswick, on Jardine-Matheson, appendices.)

1760: Carolinas: One James Crockat dealt sometimes in slaves. In 1760 the Crockat interest took in Alexander Watson and Richard Grubb. A firm formed at Charles Town, Carolina, commercially linked to Crockat's brother John, Ebenezer Simmons and Benjamin Smith; that firm dissolved in 1745. Smith then took one John Palmer as a partner, during the 1759 troubles with the Cherokee Indians. Joseph Nutt in South Carolina handled military supplies. In 1760 and 1761, Smith and Nutt imported 600 slaves. Here, Nutt and Crockat also dealt with John Beswicke; there were matters also perhaps with South Carolina merchants Henry Laurens, Benjamin Smith and John McQueen. [See Kellock, pp. 127-138]. James Crockat for a time was possibly a leading merchant at Charleston, Carolina, and in 1736 is supposed to have been prominent in insurance. In 1739 he returned to London where he traded extensively with America and also Canada. In 1749 he became London agent for South Carolina and remained so for seven years.

In April 1761 Frederick Pigou Jnr became partner of William Neate. Pigou Snr was in manufacturing and selling gunpowder, a partner with Miles Peter Andrews, at 28 Budge Row. Pigou Jnr went from Neate in 1768 and tried to take over Neate's correspondents. Booth had been briefly in New York, in 1759 with a store. By 1773, Pigou Jnr's father was a director of the EICo, and wanted tea consigned. The owners of the Nancy to carry tea to New York were William Kelly and Co and perhaps John Blackburn qv in Kellock. After the revolution began, Pigou returned to England, but in 1777 as British troops occupied he returned to New York, but back in England by 1779 or 1780. The partnership had been ended. Booth tried to set up alone but by 1782 was bankrupt. Booth once wrote a book on a complete system of book-keeping. Pigou and Booth in 1790 claimed £6056 from New York and Pennsylvania.
(On Frederick Pigou, see Olson, Making the Empire Work, citations p. 244, Note 59.)

1761: Samuel Whitbread, Brewer, of Yeoman stock, began to acquire property in Bedfordshire from 1761. He married as his second wife Lady Mary Cornwallis, second daughter of Lord Cornwallis; by 1760 he'd acquired the second largest brewery in London. Samuel Whitbread, a brewery in Lower Street, East Smithfield. (See Roger Fulford, Samuel Whitbread (1764-1815): A Study in Opposition. London, Macmillan, 1967.

Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor 1761-1762 Sir Samuel Fludyer - The Fludyers lived in the Greenwich - Blackheath area of London
Descendants of Samuel FLUDYER (c.1704) and sp: Elizabeth DE MONSALLIER (c.1704)
2. London Lord Mayor Sir Samuel Brudenell FLUDYER, Bart1 (b.1704;d.21 Jan 1786) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN sp: Caroline BRUDENELL wife2 (c.1758;m.2 Sep 1758) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN sp: Jane CLERKE wife1 (d.15 Mar 1757) 3. London Lord Mayor Sir Samuel Brudenell FLUDYER, Bart2 (b.8 Oct 1759;d.17 Feb 1833) sp: Maria WESTON, cousin (m.5 Oct 1786) 3. MP George FLUDYER (b.Sep 1761;d.15 Apr 1837) sp: Mary FANE dr4 (c.1792) 4. Mary FLUDYER dr1 (b.18 Apr 1793) sp: Arthur George ONSLOW Baron6 Onslow (b.25 Oct 1777;m.21 Jul 1818;d.24 Oct 1870) 4. Caroline FLUDYER wife2 (d.4 Jul 1824) sp: John CUST Earl1 Brownlow (b.19 Jun 1779;m.22 Sep 1818) 4. Elizabeth FLUDYER sp: MP Sir Philip Christopher MUSGRAVE, Bart8 (b.1794)
2. London Lord Mayor, army contractor, Sir Thomas FLUDYER (b.1711;d.19 Mar 1769) sp: Mary CHAMPION (c.1755) 3. Mary FLUDYER heir (b.Jun 1755;d.11 Sep 1808) sp: Trevor Charles ROPER Lord Dacre-9238 (b.14 Jun 1745;m.2 Mar 1773;d.4 Jul 1794) 4. child1 ROPER 2. Anne FLUDYER sp: Blackwell Hall factor (wool), William MARSH (d.2 Mar 1778) 3. MP Samuel MARSH (b.1736;d.18 Mar 1795) sp: Frances Elizabeth BENNET wife2 (m.31 Jul 1773) sp: Annabella GRAEME wife1 (m.1762)


1761: Battle of Panipat between the Marathas and Ahmad Shah Durrani of Afghanistan; great Afghan victory.

1762: British fleet captures Manila in Philippine Islands from Spain.

East India merchant, David Scott Snr
Merchant David Scott Snr
Thought to be a portrait of merchant David Scott Snr.

1762-1786: David Scott Snr makes a fortune as a free merchant at Bombay 1762-1786 and became a director East India Company when he came home. He dealt in London with the wealthy and eccentric John Farquhar.
(Christie, non-elite MPs, p. 71.)

1762: Jacques Rousseau publishes his treatise on education, Emile. The book influences The Enlightenment and The Romantic Movement which came later.

List of London Bankers 1763:
BIDDULPH and COCKS, BLAND, BARNETT and BLAND, BOLDERO, CARTER and Co., CASTELLS, WHATLEY, CHILDS and Co., Temple Bar, CLIFFE, WALPOLE and CLARKE, GISSINGHAM, COOPER, COUTTS; FREAME, BARCLAY and FREAME, FULLER , Son, and WELCH, GINES, GOSLING Sir Francis, BENNET and GOSLING, HANKEY Sir Joseph, Sir Thomas and Mr Joseph Chaplin Hankey, HOARE, RICHARD and RICHARD, MURRAY, PEWTRESS and ROBARTS, ROFFEY, JAMES, NEALE and FORDYCE, SMITH and PAYNE, SMITH, WRIGHT and GRAY, SNOW and DENN, without Temple Bar, VERE, GLYN and HALIFAX, WILLIS, READE and Co., WRIGHT.
From Little London Directory 1677 by J. C. Hutton, reprinted in The Handbook of London Bankers F. G. Hilton-Price, 1876.

1763: L. J. Ragatz, The Decline of the Planter Class in the British Caribbean, 1763-1833. 1928.

1763: S. C. Johnson, A History of Emigration from the United Kingdom to North America, 1763-1912. 1913. *

1763: In 1763, Philip Carteret Webb is solicitor to the Treasury (England). (Rude, Wilkes-Liberty, p. 23.)

1763: Robert Melville, see DNB Vol. XIII, pp. 246-247, governor of ceded West Indian islands in 1763. Hon LLD (Edin). FRS. London. an energetic supporter of the Scottish Corporation of London, and other Scottish charities. In 1759 he invented a carriage ordnance piece equivalent to an 8 inch howitzer, and by 1872, 429 navy ships used guns of this class - carronade. named for their manufacturer, the Carron Company of Stirlingshire. But Campbell, historian of the Carron Company, has some doubt about Melville's unequivocal claim as inventor of the carronade gun.
R. H. Campbell, Carron Company. Edinburgh, Oliver and Boyd, 1961. (A Company History).

1763: John Strettel, (Kellock, London debt claimants of 1790 appendix, p. 147.) John Strettel (1721-Aug 1786) father prominent merchant in Philadelphia, and John later supplying the Indian Commissioners of Pennsylvania, exchanging goods for furs. By 1763, John Strettel at Mr Cooke's, Sise Lane, later by 1769 had his own premises at 1 Riches Court, Lime Street. Claimed debts of £14,848, with interest, Pennsylvania and New York. But in January 1775, he had been appointed with Brook Watson and a Mr Hunter to represent the trading interests of Quebec. (Kellock).

1763: Neufville and Christopher Rolleston, all in South Carolina debts, in 1763 and 1769, Carolina merchant Rolleston at 14 Tokenhouse Yard, but in Feb 1775 petition on American affairs signed by Ridgway and Rolleston at 7 Ironmonger Lane, at which time William Lee listed Rolleston of Neufville and Rolleston, bitter enemies of America, though Rolleston did not sign anti-Wilkite address. Neufville possibly John or Edward of Charles Town, South Carolina, in 1770 Edward Neufville is concerned re rice duty to Carolina. In 1783, Rolleston was a new member of Lloyd's, and in 1785 he was no partner but merchant and insurance broker at 4 Copthall Court, Throgmorton St.

1763: Perkins, Buchanan and Brown, (Kellock, London debt claimants of 1790, appendix, p. 139.) In 1763, William Perkins alone at Dolphin Court, Tower Street, then he acquired as partners William Brown and Thomas Buchanan, Buchanan an absentee partner, son of a wealthy Glasgow merchant, he went to New York at age 18 to serve in counting house of his father's cousin, Walter Buchanan. In 1768 was the New York firm of Walter and Thomas Buchanan, importers from Scotland and England. They were bankrupted by 1773, or at least, their associates Perkins and Brown were, as partners of Thomas Buchanan. They were reportedly owed upwards of £70,000 sterling. In 1790 they claimed £22,533 in Maryland and Virginia. Perkins, Buchanan and Brown, Kellock, London debt claimants of 1790 appendix p. 139. In 1763, William Perkins alone at Dolphin Court, Tower Street, then he acquired as partners William Brown and Thomas Buchanan, Buchanan an absentee partner, son of a wealthy Glasgow merchant, he went to New York at age 18 to serve in counting house of his father's cousin, Walter Buchanan. In 1768 was the New York firm of Walter and Thomas Buchanan, importers from Scotland and England. They were bankrupted by 1773, or at least, their associates Perkins and Brown were, as partners of Thomas Buchanan. They were reportedly owed upwards of £70,000 sterling. In 1790 they claimed £22,533 in Maryland and Virginia.-Kellock; (Notes from Devine, Tobacco Lords, p. 11), There was in Glasgow the famous Virginia Mansion which once belonged to James Buchanan.

1763: (Schmidt, p. 2.) Two of the most active merchants in the Rappahanock Valley are James Miller and James Robb, advertising convict servants.

1763: Edward and Thos Hunt, Thomas and Rowland Hunt, Love Lane, Aldermanbury, leading in Virginia tobacco by 1763, Thos Hunt also director of London Assurance Co, 7 Love Lane, by 1772 had become Thomas and Rowland Hunt, dealt with Robert Carter of Nomin Hall, and William Nelson the chief merchant of Yorktown; disliked by William Lee as enemies of America; all debts in Virginia, as in Kellock's article.

1763, 7 April: Treasury and John Stewart of London make an Article of Agreement concerning transportation of convicts. (T.54/39.)

1763: Britain becomes dominant power in India as a result of the Treaty of Paris.

1764: London Lord Mayor of 1764 - William Stephenson.

1764: Bengal, Battle of Buxar, won by Clive of India.

1764: Invention of the spinning jenny. James Watt invents separate condenser for steam engine.

1764: A Jamaica agent 1764-1794, was Stephen Fuller. By 1789, one Stephen Fuller a merchant is agent for Jamaica, active on question of proposed abolition of slave trade. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p.125.)

Follows an impression of the family history of agent for Jamaica, Stephen Fuller (full of surprises):
Descendants of MP John FULLER
1. MP John FULLER sp: Elizabeth ROSE;
2. MP John FULLER sp: Miss DARELL; 2. MP Rose FULLER (b.1708;d.1777) sp: Bonella HODGES wife2 (b.1704;d.1735) sp: Ithamar MILL wife1 (m.1737;d.1738) sp: Ithamar (spouse problem - wife1?) VASSALL
2. Jamaica agent Stephen FULLER Miss NOTKNOWN
3. Sarah FULLER sp: MP Sir Hans SLOANE (b.1739;m.1772;d.1827)
4. Maria Sloane FULLER sp: MP Joseph JEKYLL (b.1754;d.1837)
3. Phillipa FULLER sp: MP William DICKINSON (b.1745;d.1806)
2. Rev Henry FULLER sp: Miss FULLER;
3. MP John FULLER (b.1756;d.1834);
3. Frances FULLER sp: MP Lancelot II BROWN (b.1748;d.1802)
2. Elizabeth FULLER wife3 sp: William SLOANE;
3. MP Sir Hans SLOANE (b.1739;d.1827) sp: Sarah FULLER-39558 (m.1772);
3. Sarah SLOANE sp: MP Francis ANNESLEY (b.1663) sp: Sir, Bart Richard FOWLER;
4. Sir Bart Hans FOWLER; 4. Sarah FOWLER sp: Colonel HODGES;
5. Thomas HODGES-FOWLER-62299 (d.1820)

1764: Invention of the spinning jenny. James Watt invents separate condenser for steam engine.

List of London Bankers 1765:
AMYARD and MERCER, ASGILL, NIGHTINGALE and WICKENDEN, BACKWELL, HART, DARRELL and CROFT, BIDDULPH and COCKS, BLAND, BARNET, BLAND, BROWN , HENTON, BLAND, GRAY and STEPHENSON, BOLDERO, CARTER and Co., BRASSEY, LEE and Son, CASTELLS and WHATLEY, CLIFFE, WALPOLE, CLARKE, CHILD and Co., joining in Temple Bar, COOPER, GISSINGHAM, COLEBROOK Sir George, COUTTS James, DRUMMOND and Co., FREAME, BARCLAY, FREAME, FULLER and WELCH, FULLER and COPE, GINES George and William, GOSLING, GOSLING, CLIVE, HANKEY, HOARE, RICHARD and RICHARD, HUNT and ROBINSON, KNIGHT and BATSON, MARTIN, STONE and BLACKWALL, MURRAY, PEWTRESS and ROBARTS, ROFFEY, JAMES, NEALE and FORDYCE, SMITH and PAYNE, SNOW and DENNE, Anchor without Temple Bar, VERE, GLYNN, HALIFAX, WILLIS, READ and Co., WRIGHT.
From Little London Directory 1677 by J. C. Hutton, reprinted in The Handbook of London Bankers F. G. Hilton-Price, 1876.

1765: Reaction in American colonies to Stamp Act is so violent, London merchants took view to have it repealed, see Trecothick testimony. The Act was repealed, and a new one in 1766 eased some duties and established Jamaica and Dominica as free ports, this latter to reduce illegal trade which drained off silver. But then Britain tightened customs regulations. In all, competition is so severe it violated common sense. (Kellock's article, p. 110.)

1765: In 1765, merchant Charles Ridgely, a Baltimore merchant, purchased goods from James Russell and Molleson of London, worth L1550. By early 1767 the London creditors were complaining of lack of payment. T Thompson p 15. Ridgely's debt did not stop him from purchasing additional goods from John Buchanan London merchant, valued at L1756. In late 1770, William Molleson no longer in partnership with James Russell, sent goods to Ridgely worth L2909. In 1772, Molleson was complaining he had not been paid by Ridgely. (T. Thompson, p. 15.)

1765: Prakash asserts the new EICo opium monopoly dating from about now ought to be regarded as a distinct "innovation" with important consequences. From 1765 the Patna EICo men organised all this [opium trade] more rigourously. The first opium buyers were Indian merchants, other British, the Dutch VOC, till the trade steadied itself, when finally opium was sold at an EICo auction at Calcutta. Prakash notes that profits of 175-300 per cent were obtained from opium. Radical alterations set in with opium trade from 1773.

Economic historians often utilise basic concepts such as supply and demand, of elasticity vs inelasticity of demand, more sophisticated concepts (as with Wallenstein) but the historian of Eighteenth Century economic activity needs to remain particularly aware of the increasing sophistication used by financiers, as in London and Amsterdam, as they spun complicated webs of short and long-term credit around the basic activities of gathering and transporting commodities worth exchanging; when of course, advances on credit might have been made in respect of differential profit margins over different time spans.

These credit-webs cannot be quantified usefully, but the intents of their use were often linked to coercing native populations into European definitions of productivity, to harnessing traditional, diversely used croplands to what became regionalised monocultures, thereby disrupting societal patterns. These credit-webs, considered as investment lead-times, were often created so that European merchants could outpace their native merchant competitors.

(It is revealing and ironic that since the 1970s, the Japanese have successfully applied this tactic in the US and Australia, using a longer investment lead-time, 30 years, than the supposedly sophisticated US traders can compete with).

Treatments of world flows of bullion can also provide useful insights on broader financial issues for the period 1750-1800, but such detail is beyond the scope of this web page. Simultaneously, from the point of view of non-Europeans in India, Asia and the Far East, gross inequities were institutionalised as Capitalism was used to re-organise production and consumption in traditional, often Muslim societies, which had often, by 1500 or so, offered a more satisfying life than any non-Mediterranean European country could offer.
These views from a piece by Dan Byrnes.)
(See Om Prakash, Opium Monopoly In India and Indonesia in the Eighteenth Century, Indian Economic and Social History Review, 24, 1, 1987., pp. 65-67.)

So follows, with regard to Bombay, many commercial names and dates...

List of London Bankers 1766:
BATSON, STEPHENSON and HOGGART, BIDDULPH and COCKS, BLAND, BARNETT, BROWN, HENTON and Son, CASTELLS and WHATLEY, CHILD Robert and Co., Temple Bar, CLIFFE, WALPOLE and CLARKE, COOPER and GISSINGHAM, COUTTS James and Thomas, DRUMMOND, FREAME, SMITH, BENING, FULLER William and Son, GINES, GOSLING, GOSLING and CLIVE, HOARE, RICHARD and RICHARD, LEE and AYTON, MURRAY and Co., PEWTRESS and ROBARTS, ROFFEY, JAMES, NEALE and FORDYCE (spectacular failure in 1772), SMITH and PAYNE (also known as Smith, Payne and Smiths, with Smith a huge genealogy lasting to the Nineteenth Century, much less on Payne), VERE, GLYN and HALIFAX, WELCH and ROGERS, Cornhill, WILLIS, READE and Co., WRIGHT.
From Little London Directory 1677 by J. C. Hutton, reprinted in The Handbook of London Bankers F. G. Hilton-Price, 1876.

1766: Alexander Adamson first comes to Bombay as a young writer in 1766, a punctilious "workaholic", religious overmuch; to the end of his life he gave up hope of returning to England. Died 1807. By 1800 he had "a huge investment in Canton".
(Anne Bulley, Bombay Country Ships, 1790-1833. London, Curzon Press, 2000. ISBN 0-7007-1236-4., pp. 178ff.)

1765: British Creditor Lists: Samuel Gist, (Kellock, London debt claimants of 1790, appendix, p. 123), became a London tobacco merchant by about 1765 and rose fast and high so that in 1773-1775 he was next to Lydes in tobacco taken from the Upper James Naval District, and in Jan 1775 he was one of three men appointed to represent Virginia trade on the committee to draw memorials to Parlt. Gist had gone out in 1737 to Virginia to be a factor for a Bristol house. and he became a merchant there (Bristol or Virginia?) ten years later. By 1757 he had a large-ish plantation in the James Valley near Little Richmond. In 1789 he valued his Virginian place at £23,000, but the title was vested in his daughter who had married a William Anderson of Hanover County. Gist not counted friendly to America in 1769. A Virginian woman then in London complained to Thos Jefferson in 1786 about being in debt but maybe Gist could relieve her. Gist still in tobacco trade still after 1790, he left the counting house in Savage Gardens for one in 10 America Square, and had a house in Gower Street, Bloomsbury. He claimed a pre-war debt in Virginia of £34,000.

1766: William Russell at Piscataway by 1766 was corresponding with Stewart and Campbell of London; after 1782 he became an agent for Duncan Campbell. William Russell had resided in London in 1762. He was probably the Russell of Russell and Hodge importing convict servants to the Potomac in the 1760s. (Sources: Jacob M. Price, 'One Family's Empire'.)

1766: The year Scots begin playing golf at Blackheath, London in earnest.
March 2002: For more information on Blackheath in London, visit a site managed by the noted local historian there, Neil Rhind, now preparing his third book on the history of his area: http://www.blackheath.org

1766: Arthur Shakespear Esq., 108 Pall Mall in 1799; William Shakespear (private) 37 Hart St, Bloomsbury 1800. (Holden's Directory - London - The Shakespear genealogy in the Nineteenth Century stretched out to India).

1766: The name Currie, of London. Capt Currie circa 1841; Mark John Currie, born 1785, London, son of the late Mark Currie Esq, by Elizabeth, daughter of John Close, Easby, County York, and first cousin of Raikes Currie MP. Capt Currie rose to rank of vice-admiral, died 1 May, 1874, Collington House, Thicket Road, Anerley. Also, Raikes Currie, born 15 April, 1801, member of Glyn & Co, bankers, MP for Northampton, died Minley Manor, Farnborough, Hants October 16, 1881. William Currie Esq MP, 26 George St, Westminster (1800 Holden's Directory of 1799 addresses). Leonard Currie Esq, Bromley in Holden's 1800 Directory of 1799 addresses; John Currie Esq, Bromley in Holden's 1800 Directory of 1799 addresses; Isaac Currie private, 35 New Broad Street. (Holden's Directory). (British Biographical Archives).

Barlow Trecothick - An indication of American indebtedness arose when Barlow Trecothick assembled figures on the value of his own exports and on those of seven other reputable firms including David Barclay and Sons and Lane, Son and Fraser. He said they had a combined debt of £956,579. When asked by members of Parlt re testimony he made on the necessity of repealing the Stamp Act, how long these sums had been due, he said it was impossible to say "due to the roundabout nature" of much of the American trade. Citing Trecothick Testimony, Feb 11, 1766, British Museum, Newcastle Papers, 30,030 vol. 145, 88-89. Kellock, p. 109. Trecothick and Co, Kellock, London debt claimants of 1790 appendix p. 148. Barlow Trecothick son of a London sea-captain, told MPs in Feb 1766 he had lived in Boston, then in Jamaica, been in American trade for 23 years. In Boston he had been apprenticed to Charles Apthorp. By 1763 he was trading to West Indies and also to New England. Trecothick in 1764 was a London alderman and in 1768 a City MP. In December 1765 he chaired a meeting for the relief of American trade. later debts claimed of £28,000 Mass, Conn, Rhode Island and New York. About the time American Rev breaks out, Barlow Trecothick ill and could not assist negotiations.
1765, reaction in colonies to Stamp Act so violent, London merchants took view to have it repealed, see Trecothick testimony. The Act repealed, and a new one in 1766 eased some duties and established Jamaica and Dominica as free ports, this latter to reduce illegal trade which drained off silver. But then Britain tightened customs regulations. In all, competition so severe it violated common sense. (Kellock's article, p. 110.)

1766: Harry Piper, seller of convict labour in America - In 1766 the Jenny arrived in the James River from Newcastle. NB: Harry Piper was of Alexandria. [Schmidt, p. 2]

1766, John Hancock at Boston annoyed as he found Gilbert Harrison of London had charged him interest on overdrafts on one of Harrison's "rare accounts", so Hancock took his business to Harrison and Barnard and found George Hayley would take him on, and later he got a large advance from Hayley. Kellock p. 111. citing W. T. Baxter, The House of Hancock. Cambridge, Mass., 1945., pp. 245-247, 248, 251-252.

1766: An indication of American indebtedness arose when Barlow Trecothick assembled figures on the value of his own exports and on those of seven other reputable firms including David Barclay and Sons and Lane, Son and Fraser. He said they had a combined debt of £956,579. When asked by members of Parlt re testimony he made on the necessity of repealing the Stamp Act, how long these sums had been due, he said it was impossible to say due to the roundabout nature of much of the American trade. Citing Trecothick Testimony, 11 Feb., 1766, British Museum, Newcastle Papers, 30,030 vol. 145, 88-89. (Kellock's article, p. 109.)

In 1766, the British merchants Perkins, Buchanan and Brown of London deleted goods from the order of Thomas Hyde, an Annapolis merchant, and otherwise pressured Hyde for debts. (T Thompson, p. 21.)

1766: Trecothick and Co, Kellock, London debt claimants of 1790 appendix p. 148. Barlow Trecothick son of a London sea-captain, told MPs in Feb 1766 he had lived in Boston, then in Jamaica, been in American trade for 23 years. In Boston he had been apprenticed to Charles Apthorp. By 1763 he was trading to West Indies and also to New England. Trecothick in 1764 was a London alderman and in 1768 a City MP. In December 1765 he chaired a meeting for the relief of American trade. later debts claimed of £28,000, Mass, Conn, Rhode Island and New York.

1766: (On George III and his interest in Pacific exploration, see Hugh Carrington, The Discovery of Tahiti: A Journal of the Second Voyage of HMS Dolphin round the World by George Robertson, 1766-1768. Hakluyt Society, 2nd ser, xcviii. London, 1948., cited by Morrell, p. 14).

1766: Alexander Adamson (to 1800 a partner from Bombay with David Scott Senior in London) first comes to Bombay as a young writer in 1766; a punctilious "workaholic", religious overmuch, he gave up hope of returning to England. Adamson by 1792 breaks his own partnership with the growingly over-ambitious James Tate (who bankrupts by 1800).

1766-1805: Opium trader and country trader James Scott. (It is not known if he was related to EICo director David Scott Snr. ) James is active by 1766. Parents unknown. By 1805 or so in Bulley, Bombay Ships, he trades (in opium?) with Alexander Adamson (partner of David Scott Senior) of Bombay. James still active about Penang by 1805, see Anthony Webster re controversy over colony's money management, re Robert Townsend Farquhar, variously. This James Scott is an old shipmate and then business partner of Francis Light of Penang. Light in turn is/was connected with London EICo director Lawrence Sulivan (1713-1786), the enemy of Clive of India.
(H. P. Clodd, Malaya's First British Pioneer: The Life of Francis Light. London, Luzac and Co., 1948., p. 22.)
NB: Lawrence Sulivan's son Stephen (1742-1821) was later an opium trader to China.

Follows an impression of a section of Light family history (which is studded with illegitimacies). This Light family is now (August 2002) being re-examined by an Australian relative in Queensland.
Descendants of Mary LIGHT (parents unknown), who had a son Francis to Squire William Negus in England
1. Mary LIGHT, and Squire, William NEGUS; 2. Opium merchant and founder of Penang, Francis LIGHT (b.1740;d.1794) sp: Martina ROZELLS (m.1772;d.1822);
3. Anne Lukey LIGHT sp: Dr, EICo staffer, Charles HUNTER (m.1809); 3. Surveyor-designer of Adelaide, South Australia, Colonel William LIGHT (b.1786;d.1839) sp: E. Miss PEROIS wife1 (about 1821) - sp: Mary BENNET wife2 (b.1804;m.1824;d.1878); br 3. Sarah LIGHT General James WELCH (m.1794); 3. Francis Lanoon LIGHT (b.1790;d.1823) sp: Charlotte ARBONI
4. Sarah Martina LIGHT sp: George Matthew KOENITZ (m.1835)
4. LIGHT William (b.1816) 4. LIGHT Robert Rollo (b.1819) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN; 5. Chief Clerk Court, Francis LIGHT (b.1835;d.1906) sp: Janet JEREMIAH
6. Augusta Victoria LIGHT (b.1877;d.1972) sp: George Gilbert BAIN (b.1862;d.1942);
3. Mary LIGHT sp: Indigo planter, Bengal, George BOYD (m.1805)

1766: (T. Thompson, p. 23), William Lux in 1766 helped form a chapter of the Sons of Liberty in Baltimore. Merchants mainly joined this group, which Maryland governor Robert Eden called the most "pronounced rebellious and mischievous organisation in the province of Maryland."

Before 1767: 1652: English merchants obtain letters patent granting freedom of trade from Bengal. In 1690, Job Charnock sets up factory and officially founds Calcutta.

Forbes and Co of Bombay (founded 1811) was preceded by the activities of Mr. John Forbes of New Strathdon, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, from 1767 in Bombay in the service of the EICo. The Forbes family severed connections with the ongoing Bombay operations many decades ago (from 2001).
1767: There are possibly two reports on this man - some confusion may exist to date. John Forbes, founder of what becomes Forbes and Co. of Bombay. Birth: Belleberg in Sep. 1743, died 20 June, 1782; son of John Forbes and mother, Christian Shepherd. He leaves India in 1799. (By another report, a John Forbes arrives Bombay in 1784? - See Hodson Lists?) In early life goes to Bombay, becomes an extensive merchant in India, makes a fortune, he eventually re-purchased Newe, his family estate. He begins his Bombay trading house in 1767, and is presumably the man who inspires the new, larger firm Forbes of Bombay on 1 August 1811.
(Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Forbes of Newe. Later citations on Forbes probably related to this man are in H. Ellis, biographer of Lachlan Macquarie, pp. 51, 79, 86-87, 98. An uncle of Sir Charles Forbes MP of Forbes and Co. Bulley, Bombay Country Ships, 1790-1833, pp. 190ff.)

1767: The British East India Company's import of opium to China reaches "a staggering two thousand chests of opium per year".
(From website based on book: Opium: A History, by Martin Booth Simon and Schuster, Ltd., 1996. e-mail info@opioids.com)

Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor for 1767-1768 Thomas Harley
Descendants of Edward HARLEY Earl Mortimer Earl3 Oxford (b.1699;d.11 Apr 1755) and sp: Martha MORGAN
2. Banker, London Lord Mayor Thomas HARLEY Rt Hon (b.1730;d.1 Dec 1804) sp: Anne BANGHAM
3. Sarah HARLEY wife2 (b.19 Oct 1760;d.15 Feb 1837) sp: Thomas Robert Auriol HAY Earl10 Kinnoul (b.18 Mar 1751;m.3 Jun 1781;d.12 Apr 1804) 4. Thomas Robert HAY Earl11 Kinnoul (b.5 Apr 1785;d.18 Feb 1866) sp: Louisa Barton (Burton) ROWLEY (d.6 Mar 1885) 4. Louisa HAY (d.17 Jul 1902) sp: Sir Thomas MONCRIEFFE, Bart7 (b.1822) 4. Sarah Maria HAY sp: Bishop George MURRAY, of Rochester 3. Anne HARLEY (b.13 May 1759;d.4 Apr 1840) sp: George RODNEY Baron2 Rodney (b.25 Dec 1753;m.10 Apr 1781;d.2 Jan 1802) 4. George RODNEY Baron3 Rodney (b.17 Jun 1782;d.21 Jun 1842) sp: Charlotte Georgiana MORGAN (m.27 Feb 1819;d.19 Feb 1878) 4. Hon. Robert RODNEY (b.1786;d.1826) sp: Anne DENNETT 3. Margaret HARLEY (b.1766;d.1830) sp: MP Sir John BOYD, Bart2 of Kent (b.1750;m.1784;d.1815) 4. Sir John BOYD, Bart3 (b.1786) 4. Augustus BOYD (b.1787;d.1788) 4. Margaret BOYD 4. George BOYD (b.1793) 4. Margaret BOYD 2. Edward HARLEY Earl4 Oxford (b.2 Sep 1726;d.8 Oct 1790) sp: Susanna ARCHER A fortune 2. Bishop Hon. John HARLEY of Hereford (c.1788) sp: Roach VAUGHAN 3. Edward HARLEY Earl5 Oxford-38715 (b.20 Feb 1773;d.28 Dec 1848) sp: Jane Elizabeth SCOTT (c.1794;m.3 Mar 1794)
4. Coloniser Charlotte Mary HARLEY (c.1823;d.1880) sp: Colonist at NSW, Anthony BACON, Cavalry Officer (b.1796;m.1823;d.1864) 4. Alfred HARLEY Earl6 Oxford (b.10 Jan 1809;d.19 Jan 1853) sp: Eliza NUGENT Illegit (m.17 Feb 1831;d.14 Sep 1877)


1767: Dixon and Littledale of Whitehaven: By 24 October 1767, Dixon and Littledale were convict contractors of Whitehaven. Their colonial agent in Virginia was Harry Piper. Littledale is a name seen in lists of shipbuilders in England after 1820. (Sources: A. Roger Ekirch, Bound for America: the Transportation of British Convicts to the Colonies, 1718-1775. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1987.

1768: J. B. Bishop, A Chronicle of 150 Years: The Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York, 1768-1918. 1918. *

c1768: Priestly's brewery experiments lead to soda water, eudiometer.

List of London Bankers 1768:
AMYAND, STAPLES and Co., ASGILL, NIGHTINGALE and WICKENDEN, BACKWELL, HART, DURRELL and CROFT, BIDDULPH and COCKS, BLAND and BARNETT, BROWN, HENTON and Son, BOLDERO, CARTER and Co., BRASSEY, LEE and AYTON, CASTELLS and WHATLEY, CLIFFE, WALPOLE and CLARKE, CHILDS R. and Co., joining Temple Bar, COOPER GISSINGHAM, COLEBROOKE, LESSINGHAM and Co., COUTTS, DRUMMOND, FREAME , BARCLAY and FREAME, FULLER Son and WELCH, FULLER and COPE, GINES, GOSLING and CLIVE, HANKEY, HOARE, RICHARD and RICHARD, HUNT and ROBINSON, KNIGHT, BATSON and Co., MARTIN, STONE and BLACKWELL, MURRAY, PEWTRESS and ROBARTS, ROFFEY, JAMES, NEALE and FORDYCE.
From Little London Directory 1677 by J. C. Hutton, reprinted in The Handbook of London Bankers F. G. Hilton-Price, 1876.
Ends the list of London bankers so far...

1768: A cousin to Benjamin Franklin was a whaler, Capt Timothy Folger of Nantucket. In 1768, Folger made the first mapping of the Gulf Stream, having sailed it, which obviously made sailing to Europe faster. Folger found the stream more or less by keeping an eye on whales. (Tuchman, The First Salute. 1988., p. 450).
For various Folger-Starbuck family history see website (Error 403 - forbidden): http://www.s-starbuck.com/dat10.html

1769: James Watt's steam engine separates condenser from cylinder.

1769: Josiah Wedgewood (1730-1795) begins his new-vogue production in 1769. FRS 1783, FSA 1786, great figure in expansion of Staffordshire pottery manufacture.

1769: Nov 25: A Virginia importer of indentured servants and convicts Piper, to Dixon and Littledale at Whitehaven, re ship Ruby used that winter.

1769: A ship the William had been chartered by the Whitehaven convict contractors Dixon and Littledale, to be factored by Harry Piper, who had only recently settled in the Potomac area. [Schmidt, p. 4.]

1769: New Zealand: James Cook 1769 lands at several places and times. Cook returns 1773, 1777; introduced pigs and potatoes as source of nutrition for sealers' use and re-supply of sailors.

1769: John and Gilbert Buchanan. Between 1769 and 1773 the firm of John Buchanan was addressed at 14 Little Tower Street. Later known as John Buchanan and Son. From 1769, Buchanans had signed the anti-Wilkite address and then remained anxious about losing their clients, so they extended further credit. About 1769 Buchanan had had such a strong reaction in America that when a vessel he had chartered arrived in Annapolis, his agents, Messrs Dick and Stewart, had been forced to send it out again without unloading cargo. By April 1773, Buchanans had stopped payment as their credit was extended beyond endurance. In 1773, (Kellock's article, p. 119), Gilbert Buchanan was sent by his father to America to settle various affairs. He stayed till August 1775, when he had to leave as he was a Loyalist. In 1783 he claimed help as having remained a Loyalist, and he was then a clergyman. In 1790 he claimed a pre-war debt of £73,784. (Kellock, London debt claimants of 1790, appendix, p. 118).

1769: Merchant of Mark Lane and Clapham, London, Capel HANBURY, (died 2 Jun 1769), son of Charles HANBURY and Caudia NOTKNOWN wife2, married to Mary LUNN.
Burke's Landed Gentry for Hanbury of Kingscote Maurward.

1770: Arthur L. Jensen, Maritime Commerce of Colonial Philadelphia. Madison, Wisconsin, State Historical Society of Wisconsin for the Dept. of History, University of Wisconsin, 1963.

1770: William A. Baker, A Maritime History of Bath, Maine and the Kennebec River Region. (Two Vols.) Bath, 1973. (US maritime history) *

1770: Great Bengal Famine. (Too-little-studied -Ed)

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