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For 1910++

This file is devoted to presenting basic Timeline information for website readers. The items are often sketchy, and some have been extracted from other websites managed by Dan Byrnes. These Timelines will be added-to intermittently, as new data and new e-mail arrives. Book titles will be entered according to the timeframes they treat. -Ed

This is file Timelines20 - To go to the next file in this Merchant Networks Timelines series of files, 21, the last of the series- Timelines21

Reference items

Merchant Networks Timelines
From 1720 to the 1920s There are now 21 files in this series
Files are filled with data for ten-year periods (decadally) These data have been years in compilation. Their trend is to follow the changing shapes of the British Empire.

1905: South Africa: The world's largest diamond, the Cullinan, is discovered near Pretoria, South Africa, weighing in at 3106 carats.

1910: After 150 years of failed attempts to rid their country of opium, the Chinese are finally successful in convincing the British to dismantle the India-China opium trade.
From website based on book: Opium: A History, by Martin Booth Simon and Schuster, Ltd., 1996. e-mail info@opioids.com

1911: First powered aircraft flight in Western Australia made by Joseph Hammond at Perth, in a Bristol Boxkite.

1911: Roald Amundsen is first to reach the South Pole.

By 1911, British explorer Sir Henry Wickham stands beside a large rubber tree in Malaya, grown from seeds be smuggled from Brazil to Kew, 1877 and probably earlier.

1911: China: Declaration of a republic under Sun-Yat-Sen, who is succeeded by Chiang-Kai-Shek. Later arises the resettlement of Taiwan by such republicans.

Money Gloom - A List of Financial Downturns

2012: Predictions early in year of a rugged period not unlike 2007-2009. Gloom reigns concerning the EU. Greece continues as a dangerous zone for EU integrity. Comment often mentions sovereign debt levels of nation states and management/mismanagement of same; sovereign debt crisis.

2008-2009: Probable global recession. UK has late 2000s recession.

2008: See front cover, Time Magazine, 13 October 2008, The New Hard Times. Time Magazine, and 3 November, 2008, A Sea Of Debt.

December 2007-June 2009, USA recession for 18 months. USA sees problems with subprime mortgage crisis and US housing bubble.

March 2001-Nov 2001: USA recession for eight months.

2001-2003: Argentina has ¨severe financial crisis in emerging markets.¨

1994: Mexico has ¨severe financial crisis in emerging markets.¨ IMF did try to help to bail-out 18 December 2000.

1998: Colombia has ¨severe financial crisis in emerging markets.¨

1994: Mexico has ¨severe financial crisis in emerging markets.¨

1997: Korea (South), Malaysia and Thailand have ¨severe financial crisis in emerging markets.¨

1997-1999: Japan has L-shaped contraction.

1994: Mexico has ¨severe financial crisis in emerging markets.¨

1993-1994: Japan has U-shaped recession.

1992: Japan has recession.

July 1990-March 1991: USA recession for eight months, short-sharp contraction. Some reference can be made to 1990 Oil Price Shock. But the 1990s can be seen is USA´s longest period of growth in US history. Canada suffers by 1990.

1991: UK has early 1990s recession. Finland and Sweden have recession.

1990: Japan has ¨great recession¨.

1987: Crash in World Stock Markets.

1987: Norway has recession.

1982-1983: Australia has recession.

Early 1980s: UK has early 1980s recession.

July 1981-Nov 1982: USA recession (double-dip) for 14 months.

1980: USA has recession.

1977: Spain has financial crisis but not as bad as leads to a recession.

1978-1979: Oil-shock situation for world due to Iranian Revolution (which was partly due to actions of USA).

1975: UK has mid-1970s recession.

1974-1975: USA has U-shaped or prolonged slump.

1973-1975: USA has recession Nov 1973-March 1975. The so-called Oil Shock was in 1973. USA 1973-1974 had a stock market crash.

1973-1974: Oil-shock situation for world due to OPEC Oil Embargo.

1969-1970: USA has recession Dec 1969-Nov 1970.

1962: Australia has credit-crunch.

1960-1961: USA has recession April 1960-February 1961.

1954: USA has short-sharp contraction.

1956-1957: Oil-shhock situation due to Suez Crisis.

1953: USA has recession July 1953-May 1954.

1949: USA has U-Shaped (double-dip) recession.

1945: USA has recession (February-October) of 1945. (One view is that from 1945, the USA will suffer ten recessions.)

1943: India: Bengal suffers a major famine. We imagine this must have coincided with a major economic downturn, to say the least.

1937: USA has Recession of 1937.

1932: January: USA: Congress establishes Reconstruction Finance Corp. to lend to banks, insurance companies, building and loan associations, agricultural credit groups and railroads.

August 1929-March 1933: Great Depression (for say, eleven years). UK Great Depression seems worst 1930-1931. New Zealand and Australia are affected. The 1929 beginning of The Great Depression is logged at October. In 1931 are outbreaks of food riots in USA.

1928: Downturn in German economy.

1926-1927: Mild recession in USA.

1923: Hyperinflation in Germany. (In the popular imagination, people took a wheelbarrow of money to pay for ordinary food shopping.) In New Zealand are economic woes and farmers struggle with their committments due to slump in world commodity prices.

1920-1921: Short but painful recession in USA prior to The Roaring Twenties. 1920: The West Coast Gasoline Famine of 1920 (California).

August 1918-March 1919: Post-World War One recession. Severe hyperinflation in Europe. UK has recession 1919-1921.

1913-1914: USA has recession.

1910-1911: USA has Panic of 1910-1911.

1907: Wall Street USA experiences Panic of 1907. Part of response was the creation of the US Federal Reserve System (as a lender of last resort, and at instigation some say of banker J. P. Morgan).

1902-1904: USA has recession.

1901: Stock market crash in USA. Followed by 1902-1904 recession.

1899-1900: USA has recession.

1896: USA has Panic of 1896.

1893: USA has Panic of 1893 to maybe June 1894. Some withdrawal of European investment in USA.

1890s: Economic woes in Australia, worst in colony of Victoria. Severe drought till 1903 did nothing to help.

1890-1891: Recession in USA. Trough occurs in Canada by 1889.

1887-1888: Recession in USA.

1882-1885: Recession in USA.

1870s-1890s: New Zealand suffers from weak export prices.

1873-1896: In UK has been some talk of The Long Depression 1873-1896.

1873: Panic of 1873 and The Long Depression in USA, lasting maybe to March 1879.

1871-1872: A Canadian website on these topics mentions a world-wide financial crisis of 1871-1872 mentioned by few other websites.

1869-1870: USA recession.

1867: Downturn in the Far East. Agra Bank and Commercial Bank suspend payment in 1866. Dent and Co. suspend payment in January 1867. Lyall, Still and Co. fail in March 1867. Things improve by 1869.

1865-1867: Recession in USA.

1860-1861: USA recession. (US Civil War began 12 April, 1861 and ended April 1865. (One researcher for 1862-1864 finds the world´s first oil-shock situation, as supplies of turpentine from the South were cut off, and alcohol supplies were reduced.)

1857: Panic of 1857 in USA. There had been a European Bubble of speculation in US railroads. Loss of confidence in US banks. Downturn in Canada in 1857. ¨In the autumn of 1857, ..., the collapse of the largest insurance company in the country sparked a catastrophic economic crisis throughout the North. During the financial panic that followed, prices on the New York Stock Exchange plunged by 45 per cent, hundreds of banks failed, railroads went backrupt, factories closed, and overnight there was mass unemployment running into hundreds of thousands. The panic of 1857 spread too Britain too -- where investors held, among other securities, 80 million pounds worth of railroad stocks and bonds. Only the Southern cotton-growing States escaped the panic largely unscatched, apparently vindicating the superiority of a slave system over the factory-based economy of the North.¨ From Amanda Foreman, A World on Fire: An Epic History of Two Nations Divided. London, Allan Lane/Penguin, 2010., p. 37. (On the American Civil War)

1853-1854: Recession in USA. (Wikipedia pages on recession): It is estimated that since 1854 the USA has experienced 32 cycles of expansion-contraction with average of 17 months contraction and 38 months expansion.

1847-1848: Recession in USA.

1845-late 1846: Recession in USA.

1840s: Depression in NSW Australia. Was worst during 1842-1843.

Late 1839-late 1843: Depression in USA. Deflation and defaultings on debt.

1839: Britain has an economic crisis in mid-1839, and Bank of England lifts the discount rate which “heightened panic in the English money market – by 9 May 1839.

1836-1838: Sharp downturn in US economy. About 600 bank failures. Cotton market collapses. Lack of confidence in paper money.

1837-1862: Note: There is not national or Federally-supervised presence in banking in the US, although a host of State and local regulations operated. In 1863, due to financial pressures of the Civil War, US Congress passed National Banking Act. One view is this began in 1836 when application of silver-backed money created a money shortage.

1833-1834: USA economy declines moderately. Later recovery assisted by land speculations. One view is this began in 1832.

1830s: India: Major downturn for the indigo industry, a number of investors in England find themselves burned.

1828-1829: Britain had forbidden USA to trade with English colonies in 1826. USA retaliated likewise in 1828. Recession for 1828-1829.

1825-1826: Some panic in 1825, and economic downturn in USA in 1826.

1825: Britain: Has financial panic. (List of dates for financial crashes and panics)

1825: Cf, W. E. Cheong, China Houses and the Bank of England Crisis of 1825, Business History, Vol. 15, Issue 1, 1973.

1822-1823: USA has depression.

1819: Financial Panic in USA. Depressed cotton prices being one symptom. One cause said to be contraction of money supply by Second bank of USA leading to credit crunch.

1815-1821: USA: Six-year depression follows the end of the War of 1812:

1812: USA has brief period of recession.

1807: USA: Depression of 1807, maybe for six years. The website recession.org says here, ¨The next recession confirmed occurred in the years between 1807 and 1814, and was called the Depression of 1807. This depression was primarily caused by the Embargo Act of 1807, signed into effect by-then President Thomas Jefferson (who is blamed by some for all this). This Act destroyed a good part of shipping related industries, and it was fought hard by the Federalists, who allowed smuggling to take effect in New England as a result of the Act.¨

1802-1804: Recession.

Panic of 1797: Occurring 1796-1799, three years. Britain has insolvency risk due to cost of war with France, and problems cross the Atlantic to affect USA.

1790: (Wikipedia page on List of Recessions USA): Estimate is that USA has had 47 recessions since 1790.

1788: Britain has some financial panic.

1772: Britain and Scotland, Amsterdam and in the American colonies, the effects of the 1772 Fordyce Crash, caused by Alexander Fordyce and his undue speculations in East India stocks in both London in Amsterdam.

1769-1773: India: Bengal, major famine amid drought, ten million or one third of people died. This website has only ever seen one table of trade statistics (East India Company etc) for the period. The odd finding was that British activity (exports) in the region suffered little, but the figures for Dutch activity show a dramatic downturn. It does look as though the British managed to offload the ill-effects onto the Dutch. The British did have a major financial crash in 1769 after a bubble burst following the military successes of Lord Clive about 1757 (Battle of Plassey). The Bengal textile industry collapsed. Most of the blame is sheeted to British policies of the day. The famine-struck areas included the areas known today as West Bengal, Bangladesh, parts of Assam, Orissa, Bihar and Jharkhand.

1763: Financial downturn in Europe following the end of the Seven Years War (1756-1763).

1720: In France, the Mississippi Bubble bursts.

1720: In Britain the South Sea Bubble bursts in 1720, and nearby in France bursts the Mississippi Bubble earlier promoted by John Law in France. (List of dates for financial crashes and panics)

Compiled by Dan Byrnes

1911: Japan: Revision of Anglo-Japanese Alliance; US-Japan, Anglo-Japanese, German-Japanese Treaties of Amity, Trade, and Navigation

1911: September: World's first aerial bombing campaign is conducted in Libya by Italians, some years before the outbreak of World War One. An airman named Giulio Gavotti dropped four grenades on the Ottoman enemy outside Tripoli, though he did little damage. His action was observed by staff officer Major Giulio Douhet, who ten years later wrote a book, The Command of the Air, suggesting that the terror unleashed by mass bombing of civilian targets would help shorten wars.

1911: First powered aircraft flight in Western Australia made by Joseph Hammond at Perth, in a Bristol Boxkite.

1911: Japan: Revision of Anglo-Japanese Alliance; US-Japan, Anglo-Japanese, German-Japanese Treaties of Amity, Trade, and Navigation

1912: The English capital of India is moved from Calcutta to Delhi.

1912: Brazil's monopoly of rubber production dies as the rubber plantations of the Far East begin to flourish.

1912: Japan: Emperor Meiji dies. End of Meiji period. General Nogi commits suicide to serve his Emperor in death.

1912: Japan: TAISHO Period (1912-26), Emperor Taisho

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1912: Robert Scott reaches the South Pole but dies on his return trip.

1913: Ernest Shackleton launches Imperial TransAtlantic Expedition aimed at crossing Antarctica.

1913-1932: Japan: Taisho democracy

1913: Japan: Political parties win power from other elites. The Women's Movement.

1914-1918 - Entry of Japan into WWI. Japan aligns itself with allies against Germany. Suffers only 1,210 casualties and prospers greatly from increased European demand for its industrial products. The transition from an agricultural society to an industrial one is facilitated.

1914: Formation of Indian Science Congress Association.

1914: Of an Australian population of over four million (4.6 million?), 800,000 been born in the UK. A vast majority had at least one British grandparent (the "crimson thread of kinship", and without the British connection the Australian economy would have foundered. About 331,000 Australian troops went overseas, 215,000 became casualties, 60,000 were killed. There was a 65% chance of becoming a casualty. Australia's voluntary enlistment rate was 7.5 per cent. Women spent 50 million hours knitting socks etc., and raised 16 million pounds for patriotic funds. Some 97% of Australia's population had ancestors in UK or Ireland; about 80% were English or Scots. Since 83% were born in Australia, 17% were recent migrants. Many of the early-enlisting were just off the boat, and possibly genuinely saw themselves as going to confront the enemies of "Home".
(Source: From an article by Carl Bridge in Quadrant.) But on views-of-the-day on social Darwinism, eugenics and racial purity, also the nature-nurture debate, see Paul Crook, 'War's Genetic Disaster? The First World War Debate over the Eugenics of Warfare, War and Society, Vol. 8, No. 1, May 1990., pp. 47ff.

1914: First use of the term, birth control. In June 1914 in a US publication, a term devised by women's rights activist Margaret Sanger and her friends.

August 1914: Australia is at war. (World War I)

4 August 1914: Britain declares war on Germany, which has just invaded Poland. The issue became civilization-against-barbarism.

October 1914: Turkey comes into WWI on Germany's side, and so threatened the east bank of the Suez Canal and on their common border with Russia.

1914: 17 December: The passage of Harrison Narcotics Act which aims to curb drug (especially cocaine but also heroin) abuse and addiction in US. It requires doctors, pharmacists and others who prescribed narcotics to register and pay a tax.

1914: Dr Grant Mansfield, (when at UNE, Australia), 'The Costs of War: patriotism and price fixing during the opening months of the Great War in Australia', covering part of his PhD research. Explaining how some Australian business people took advantage of the war by immediately increasing the price of goods such as sugar, bread and meat. Mansfield in newspaper interview says "there was no excuse for this. In this respect, Australians didn't all enter the war with the purest of patriotic feelings." (Item: Armidale Exporess, 24 September 2008).

1915: First expression of Theory of Continental Drift (plate tectonics) by German meteorologist, Alfred Wegener. But little supportive evidence is found till the 1960s.

1915 -1921 Demands forced on China - a new concession from China.

21 February 1915: The Germans under Hindenburg heavily defeat the Russians under Siever at the Winter Battle of Masuria. Russians lose more than 20,000 men.

April 1915: Gallipoli: The ships carrying Australian troops are escorted in by Japanese cruisers.

June 1915: A wave of fervour in Australia as 12,500 men volunteer, twice the April intake. By November 1915, Australia was counted as having 60,000 men fit and of military age, govt. asked them if they are willing to enlist. By mid-1916, Australia thought it needed 128,000 men and was 47,000 short, before the Somme battle of July 1916, with huge casualties. Recruiting ran at 6000 men per month.

1915: Outrageous massacre: The Turkish Government massacres up to 1.5 million Christian Armenians as the Ottoman Empire dies. The Turkish leader of the day was Enver Pasha. Judged as one of the greatest crimes against humanity of the Twentieth Century, not surprisingly, later much admired by Adolf Hitler.

18-19 December 1915: Gallipoli: Allied withdrawal on nights, a spectacular success.

1915-1916: Hussein-McMahon correspondence. Britain promises to create an Arab kingdom in exchange for war support.

1916: Sykes-Picot Accords. Secret British-French agreement to divide the postwar Middle East between them.

1915-1916: Hussein-McMahon correspondence. Britain promises to create an Arab kingdom in exchange for war support.

1916: Sykes-Picot Accords. Secret British-French agreement to divide the postwar Middle East between them.

1916: Mexico: A US force of 12,000 soldiers led by General John Pershing is ordered to Mexico to capture revolutionary leader Pancho Villa.

21 February 1916: Battle of Verdun in France begins World War One. It is the longest and bloodiest battle of the war with more than one million killed.

After July 1916: Australian radicals began to form anti-conscription groups. The trade union movement in NSW and VIC in Sept. 1916 declared against any form of conscription, and unionists warned of a general strike if conscription was introduced.

28 October 1916: A referendum in Australia on conscription, and anti-conscription won narrowly (voting not yet compulsory!!), 2,247,590 voting and NO won by 72,476 votes only.

1916: Arab revolt against Turkish rule. (See career of T. E. Lawrence, "Lawrence of Arabia", and his book, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom.

1917: Balfour Declaration. In exchange for war support, Britain promises Jews a "national home" in Palestine (without prejudice to the "civil and religious rights" of the non-Jewish population).

1917 Jerusalem recaptured by Allies, World War I following an Australian capture of Beersheba.

January 1917: Lenin in his Zurich exile, trumpeted his faith in socialism to a young audience, sadly concluded, "We of the older generation may not live to see the decisive battles of this coming revolution". Soon he was to be told, "There is a revolution in Russia"". And Lenin could scarcely believe it. He rushed with Krupskaya to the lakeside for newspapers, and read telegraphed reports. He wanted mightily to find a way back to Russia. Might he pose as a neutral Swede? He met with other revolutionaries in Switzerland. Martov suggested the sealed train idea. Which appeared, with the help of Parvus (ie, Helphand).

About 28 February 1917: In three days the 400-year-old Romanov dynasty collapses. Whilst there is no new government, Czar Nicholas is at liberty, his authority still recognised in many parts of the country.

16 March 1917: (Lockhart, Reilly, p. 82): The Czar abdicates. The body of Rasputin, who had been murdered a few months before was dug up and burnt.

March 1917: Revolution in Russia, Lenin etc, see notes below.

3 April 1917: (Segal. p. 129) Lenin arrives in Petrograd. His followers had set out to provide an impressive reception, the whole square in the Finland Station was filled with welcomers, mainly soldiers lined the platform, which was decorated with banners and triumphal arches in red and gold.
4 April 1917: Lenin at the Tauride Palace to a meeting of Bolsheviks, Mensheviks and independents.

8 April 1917: Day after Lenin's theses appeared in Pravda, Kamenev in an editorial note repudiated them on the grounds that they assumed the end of the bourgeois democratic revolution.

13 April 1917: Lenin on a stopover in Stockholm refused to meet Helphand personally. Radek spent most of the day with him to act, apparently, as go-between, and Helphand spent most of April 13 with him. Lenin spent much money on the Bolshevik Press.

14 April 1917: Conference of the Petrograd Bolsheviks, Lenin proposed that the party work for the transfer of all power to the Soviets. Kamenev against this and he defeated.

24 April 1917: All-Russian conference of the Bolsheviks. The party adopted the slogan, "All Power To The Soviets".

4 May 1917: Trotsky met by a delegation of internationalists from Petrograd, including Uritsky, from the Bolshevik central committee. Mensheviks sent no one to greet him. At the Finland Station, to an excited crowd, Trotsky called for a second, socialist revolution.

5 May 1917: Petrograd Soviet met to consider inclusion of socialist ministers in provisional government. Cries of "Trotsky. We want comrade Trotsky" soon rang out.

10 May 1917, Lenin and Trotsky meet.

3 June 1917: From early June, June 3 for three weeks, the first All -Russian Congress of the Soviets was in session.

1917: About 4 July: (J. Carmichael, on Trotsky, pp. 169-170)): The Right-wing elements in the Russian capital are stimulated by some news. The patriotic (ie, right wing) press had published documents to the effect that Lenin had been subsidised (to the tune of about 666 million US, two thousand million deutschmarks, thirty five million pounds) by the German General Staff - for the maintenance of a huge daily press throughout the country for propaganda purposes. Helphand was perhaps the principal channel for the money. The German intent being the immobilisation of the eastern front, which involved crippling the Russian Government, etc. (Later, Lenin in a letter to New Life, specifically denied any complicity with the Germans, or with Furtstenberg and Kozlovsky.)
By August 1917: By August, the Bolsheviks had 41 newspapers and journals, 21 in Russian, the rest in minority languages. Newspapers came out at the rate of one and a half million per week, or 320,000 per day, often distributed for nothing.

1917, 25 July, The Dutch spy known as Mata Hari, Margaretha Geertruida Zelle, sentenced to death for spying for Germany during World War One.

4 September: 1917: Trotsky released from gaol.

1917: Early September: (Lockhart, Reilly, p. 83). Lenin, in Finland, moved swiftly and secretly into the Russian capital.

25 October 1917: Russia: Around 6.30am, the Winter Palace is occupied "practically painlessly". German Government is still feeding money to the Bolsheviks to keep Russia out of the war. By 8 November, Lenin's policy was to make peace with Germany.

25 October 1917: The Civil War in Russia 1918-1919, published in 1919, was published on Lenin's orders. Lenin declared that "on October 25, 1917, civil war in Russia was a fact".
Others, Soviet historians, saw June 18, 1918 as the start of full-scale civil war. (Note: With Russian history, dates may differ by up to 13 days due to use of the Russian vs the European calendar).

1917: Hawaii: Death of Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaii's last sovereign (1838-1917).

1918: June forward: Germany has continued transmitting huge sums, forty million gold marks, both to the Bolsheviks and to their various rivals. (The Bolsheviks were banking on a German collapse.)

31 August 1918: (Lockhart, Reilly, p. 103) Dora Kaplan, a Social-Revolutionary, fired two bullets at point blank range at Lenin as he was leaving a meeting in Moscow. It was a miracle Lenin was not killed outright.

Forgotten spot at Sierra Leone: Oct-Nov 1918: Twenty two Australian soldiers now buried in a Freetown cemetery, following action as reinforcements, plus some men with Capt. C Christiansen in Sep. 1917. Possibly dead of an influenza epidemic on British ships. The great influenza epidemic of 1918-1919 killed about 20 million people, more than WWI did.

11 November 1918: Peace in Europe, a day of great rejoicing, Armistice Day.

1918 - Siberian Expedition against Russian Revolution in concert with US and Great Britain. Rice riots, strikes, and open defiance of the National Family ideology.

1919: At Amritsar, India, British troops shoot nearly 380 of Ghandi's followers.

1919: Formation of Indonesian Communist Party.

1919: Japan: Versailles Peace Conference - first non-Western nation to have made it into the club of the Western great powers - German holdings in Shantung Provinces in China and German islands of the North Pacific became Japanese

1920: Prince of Wales visits Australia as a gesture of appreciation for WWI efforts, though he came as a "missionary of Empire".

10 January 1920: League of Nations organised with Australia as an original member.

1920: Japan: May First Day. Leftist intellectual trends alarm the authorities.

1920: First commercial radio broadcast in US and women also gain the right to vote in US.

1927: Greg Grandin, Fordlandia: The Rise and Fall of Henry Ford´s Forgotten Jungle City. Metropolitan Books, 2010, 432pp. (US car manufacturer Henry Ford from 1927 once tried to establish a utopia in the Brazilian Amazonia, to produce rubber, but also to be an American-style dream place to live. He ended spending millions of dollars on two ¨Fordist¨ towns and unsurprisingly came to jungle grief)

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