E-mail the Webmaster: Dan Byrnes
Merchant Networks - A project seldom if ever developed for the Internet ... a website to return to ...
A website intended to be of greatest use for anyone interested in economic history ... maritime history ...
The newest file added March 2010 to this website is on problem names and problem people, merchant names proving frustrating, on which we find that insufficient information is available for our purposes- Ed
If files are less than one month old on the website they will be marked as such with a "new" graphic.
If you value the information
The About Page - for The Merchant Networks Website Project
In Chinese - a translation Page - Explaining the website (About)
Genealogy listings (Plus a chronologised bibliography)
E-mailers new Latest e-mail to this website
E-mailers old A selection of old e-mail regathered for this website
Bibliography - Merchant Networks Specially selected material for further reading at a non-amateur-level
Formats - a page now being redesigned
New research on problem names, problem people. Brief notes only
gaps.htm - Lines for new research - 1 (beginning with an attack on the views of Lyndon LaRouche) A newly-arising series of seven files where the author identifies some gaps in existing narratives and tries to fill in the gaps. File7 will have notes on the Signers of the American Declaration of Independence. Not all files of this series are uploaded yet.
Ideas on working with Genealogy - a page now being redesigned
Genealogy extra - a page now being redesigned
Lists A guide in yet another format to this website's files and topics - Includes: hyperlinks to files on individual merchant names - go direct.
Galleries menu Re picture galleries of this website - a page now being redesigned
Genealogy menu Beware, a long, slow-loading file - a page now being redesigned
Guides menu (several files of various non-HTML formats) - Includes: a guide to ships in the slave trade in spreadsheet format
Jamaica menu For several chapters on late C18th/early C19th Jamaica by Peter Dickson (UK).
Timeframes/Periods Guides to, eg, for a period such as before/after 1775, before/after 1800
About Merchant Networks See the "About page" as listed above
Bibliography - General
Links page Hyperlinks to interesting websites on history since 1600 - A page being gathered slowly but now more regularly updated.
Methodology Aspects of methodology for work on merchant networks, as an approach
Newspaper articles Various, some quite old, some quite recent
Theme song for this website (page to be deleted from website)
Wills of notable people To be updated
Timelines6 - and in series to file 21
Folder - Ships - A new series of files on ship movements (where possible, dated by year of departure) now being improved on the Net.
The files are: (1) = shipstimeline1 From 1600 to before the American Revolution 1775
(2) = shipstimeline2 1775 to 1810 (including the early convict ships to Australia)
(3) = shipstimeline3 from 1810++
(4) = shipstimeline4 From about 1850++
(5) = shipstimeline5 from 1880++
(6) = shipstimeline6 for toward 1900. ships/shipstimeline7.htm - now in preparation
Folder - galleries
With files galjamaica1.htm and gallery1.htm and gallondon1.htm and london1.htm and wills2.htm
Folder - gaps
With files (many still not yet uploaded) Gaps and gaps1.htm to gaps7.htm -
Folder - genealogy -
With files gendiscuss.htm and gendiscussbuilder.htm, with subfolder "web" with 147 alpha-named subfolders (listed at Contents) each containing a mini-genealogy website on selected lineages for Britain, colonial America/USA, Anglo-India and Australia.
|Early in 2009, Londoner collaborators Ken Cozens and Derek Morris published Wapping 1600-1800: A Social History of an Early Modern London Maritime Suburb. The East London History Society, 2009. Above is a graphic of a noted painting by William J. Huggins of ship Thomas King entering London Dock, which is held at Museum of London Docklands, reproduced on the book's back cover.|
Folder - guides with files formats.htm and slavingsummary.xls
Folder- images - Technical only
With files jamaica1.htm and jamaica2.htm and jamaica3.htm and jamaica4.htm and jamaica5.htm and jamaica6.htm and jamaica7.htm and jamaica7a.htm and pics and subfolder (to be deleted) "jamaicapics"
Folder - periods
With files contents.htm and lists htm and menuperiods.html and periods.html
With subfolders 1775before and 1775after and 1800after (and periodnewstuff and postcrusades to be deleted)
Folder - Periods
With files 1800dunbar.htm a biographical item on Duncan Dunbar
and 1800londonbankers.htm - A standard list of London's bankers of 1800
and 1804plummer.htm biographical item
and 1824brooksrbt.htm biographical item on Australia trade merchant Robert Brooks
and 1827indigo.htm biographical item on John Prinsep and the later downturn
and 1830lindsay.htm biographical item on W> S.Lindsay shipowner
and 1831somes.htm biographical item on shipowner Joseph Somes
and 1834norman.htm biographical item on the British bankers Norman
and 1849enderbys.htm biographical item on the second (and failed) South Whale Fishery
and hodsonlists.htm (listings for genealogy purposes) on Anglo-Indian names of interest
and lordsmayor1.htm (mini-genealogies for selected Lords Mayor of London) and lordsmayor2.htm and lordsmayor3.htm and lordsmayor4.htm and lordsmayor5.htm and lordsmayor6.htm and lordsmayor7.htm and lordsmayor8.htm and lordsmayor9.htm and lordsmayor10.htm all in series.
With files - periods periods/1775before
With files 1421china.htm re Gavin Menzies' book on Chinese Admiral Zheng He
and 1680hayward.htm biographical item
and 1717convshippers.htm on England's convict contractors to America to 1775
and campbelldun1.htm biographical item
and cozensrich.htm biographical item
and holdensam.htm biographical item
and menzies1421aa.htm (to be deleted)
and noyjoseph.htm biographical item
Folder - Periods - With files periods/1775after
With files 1775creditors.htm
and 1786mather.htm biographical item,
and 1786richards.htm biographical item
and 1789calvert.htm biographical item
and 1789etches.htm biographical item
and 179spennyjames.htm biographical item
and 1797macaulay.htm biographical item
and campbellduncan.htm biographical item
and hibbertgeorge.htm biographical item
and kable.html biographical item
and londonmerchants1.htm (lists of particular merchants)
and swf1.htm (lists re Britain's South Whale Fishery to 1800)
and walton.htm and walton1.htm (two files not for public access)
and wills1.htm (a page for redesign)
Folder - jamaica
Folder images - technical only
Folder stylesheet - Technical only
Folder - blackheath -
The Blackheath Connection by Dan Byrnes, With 40+ chapters and associated files of commentary and additional information.
THE BLACKHEATH CONNECTION
A formal history of convict transportation to early European Australia
Contents: On 47+ chapters of The Blackheath Connection: This file lists all contents in brief. This website book is also available online as a mirror site at: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/contentsbc.htm
An introduction to The Blackheath Connection: How to view a new perspective: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/article3.htm article3.htm
Acknowledgements and Credits: Great gratitude to all those who helped this long research project: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/credits.htm credits.htm
Reactions/feedback on this website: Here you may be able to get in touch with like-minded history researchers or family historians: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/reaction.htm reaction.htm
The William Bligh problem : This article treats: Literary problems arising from writers failing to assess relevant family-history connections of Bligh in history written since the mutiny on the Bounty (1789). http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/bligh.htm bligh.htm
ERRORS: In various history books written in the Twentieth Century: This article explains how problems of perspectives if not factual errors have arisen due to ignorance of maritime history: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/errors.htm errors.htm
The Duncan Campbell Letterbooks: This article treats: Provenance of the Duncan Campbell Letterbooks, with commentary. Historians of the UK, US, and Australia have never seen Campbell as chairman of the British Creditors, in the context of the the settlement of Australia as an outcome of the American Revolution... we might say, "fallout forgotten"! These Letterbooks are held at Mitchell Library, Sydney: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/letters.htm letters.htm
Questions of Slavery: This set of 2-3 articles treats: Lists of English-speaking merchants engaged in the slave trades to about 1800: see files various - http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/slavebc.htm slavebc.htm, slavery.htm, slaverylw.htm
The Phantom First Fleet: The "First Fleet of convict ships" to Australia before the real First Fleet. This article treats: the formerly-unknown role of London Alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay in first efforts to send convicts to distant "Botany Bay", New Holland: Entirely new material at the time of writing. http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/phantom.htm phantom.htm
A Bitter Pill: This special article treats: Thomas Jefferson and the previously untold story of The British Creditors and their efforts to recover debt monies from before 1775 - what then is the moral reputation of the Founding Fathers of the United States - the writers of the US Constitution? Here, an Australian writer finds new things to say about the foundations of the US from 1786-1789: also concerning how the American Revolution successfully scattered British mercantile interests: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/bitter.htm bitter.htm
'Emptying the Hulks' - Duncan Campbell and the first three fleets of convict ships to Australia: This article treats: the first three convict fleets as a unified maritime push by Britain into the Pacific - which is not how such matters have ever been seen before. Now, we can ask and answer, what historical material has been lacking here for two centuries? http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/article2.htm article2.htmThe Blackheath Connection: The original article written 1989-1990 which sparked this large website project: This article treats: Personnel, locations and matters quite unknown to historians of UK, US and Australia prior to 1989. Some on Freemasonry: "The Blackheath Connection: London Local History and the Settlement at New South Wales, 1786-1806", By Dan Byrnes, (Revised 1996) http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/article1.htm article1.htm
The First Campbells on Jamaica: As the most recent addition to The Blackheath Connection - relevant genealogy http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/jamaica.htm jamaica.htm
Chapter 1: This chapter treats: John St Barbe (d1816) and his Seething Lane link to Walsingham: The convict contractor lists: The degradation of convict status in Virginia: Jonathan Forward Sydenham and relics: The export of rattlesnakes: The bad press of the convict transportation system: Redirecting the English convict service: An unrecognised small mercy: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc1.htm thebc1.htm
Chapter 2: This chapter treats: The Elusive Duncan Campbell (1726-1803): The Massacre at Glencoe: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc2.htm thebc2.htm
Chapter 3: This chapter treats: Genealogical shock Part 1: Seeking the facts of Campbell genealogy: Colonel John Campbell of Black River Jamaica and the Darien Company and the Claibornes of Virginia: (circa 1700): Jamaica planters and economic history: The 1685 invasion of Scotland: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc3.htm thebc3.htm
Chapter 4: This chapter treats: "Many are now possessed of opulent fortunes": English expansionism and genealogical shock, Part II: The origins of Neil Campbell of the College of Glasgow: Jean Campbell and an Earl of Argyll? Life at the College of Glasgow: Simson the heretic: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc4.htm thebc4.htm
Chapter 5: This chapter treats: The popular Mollie Campbell: The boy Duncan Campbell (1726-1803): Influence of graduates of the College of Glasgow: Wedding of Mollie Campbell: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc5.htm thebc5.htm
Chapter 6: This chapter treats: A discovery of Jamaica: Statistics on Jamaica: A Scots heritage: Slavery on Jamaica: Duncan and Rebecca Campbell: Campbell the arch convict contractor: Shipping in the convict service, 1717-1785: Britain’s state of crime: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc6.htm thebc6.htm
Chapter 7: This chapter treats: Poverty and prisoners: Were there criminal classes? The great crime problem of Britain: Blinkered vision on transportation: ‘Robustious days’: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc7.htm thebc7.htm
Chapter 8: This chapter treats: Redevelopment of the convict service from 1716: Property in the service of the body of the convict: Before Duncan Campbell’s reappearance: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc8.htm thebc8.htm
Chapter 9: This chapter treats: Duncan Campbell’s reappearance: The partnership John Stewart and Campbell JS&C: Campbell visits Virginia: Commercial complexities: Official contracts to transport: The dread of gaol fever: Brutality on a convict ship: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc9.htm thebc9.htm
Chapter 10: This chapter treats: Society of Arts, Manufacture and Commerce: George III: A new environment for the American merchants in London: Debt problems: Wilkes, the lightning rod of liberty: George III ascends the throne: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc10.htm thebc10.htm
Chapter 11: This chapter treats: Alderman William Beckford: Britain glances again at the Pacific: Random slices on family matters from 1758: Increases in numbers of convicts: Commerce and the Campbell family: More random slices and Richard Betham: More convicts versus less credit in the colonies: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc11.htm thebc11.htm
Chapter 12: This chapter treats: Before the financial bust of 1772: Quarantines against convicts: A family uproar: Legal commentary from Blackstone: Colonial political feeling rises: Death again in Campbell’s household: Capt. Cook in the Pacific: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc12.htm thebc12.htm
Chapter 13: This chapter treats: The Tayloes of Virginia and William and Thomas Eden: Matthew Ridley as agent for JS&C: Sundry Campbell Letters: William Beckford as absentee Jamaica landowner: Transportation opens from Scotland: End of Capt. Colin Somerville: Tobacco and customs laws: List of Duncan Campbell’s North American correspondents: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc13.htm thebc13.htm
Chapter 14: This chapter treats: ‘The whole city was in tears’: Currying favour with gaolers: ‘Think what you are about’: Moving into Mincing Lane: The little-known Sir Robert Herries: Background to the Boston Tea Party and the international tea trade: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc14.htm thebc14.htm
Chapter 15: This chapter treats: Protesting about affairs in India: The "first bank at Canton": Questions of the opium trade: The Boston Tea Party revisited: American grievances: Radical tactics and financing the American Revolution: Death of Rebecca Campbell: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc15.htm thebc15.htm
Chapter 16: This chapter treats: Founding Fathers and the debt repudiation question: More on Robert Morris: Debts in the colonies, reaction in Britain to non-payment of debts: The British Creditors: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc16.htm the bc16.htm
Chapter 17: This chapter treats: Deepening of debt problems: Analysis of debt questions: The English South Whale Fishery: Brief history of British whaling: Whaling connections: Gathering destruction of the convict service: The death of Rebecca Campbell: Financing the American Revolution: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc17.htm thebc17.htm
Chapter 18: This chapter treats: Duncan Campbell and legislation: ‘all of my business is to show him hell’: The paper trail on convicts: Hypocrisy and the Hulks: Parliament and the Thames in 1776: Hulks Act of 1776: Jealousy of Trinity House: Finding work for non-transportable prisoners: Seaworthy "hulks": Justitia and Tayloe: Campbell’s contribution to the 1776 Hulks Act: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc18.htm thebc18.htm
Chapter 19: This chapter treats: The new regime for Thames hulks prisoners: Tobacco in North America: ‘Or on any other navigable river’: ‘Becoming resignation to the divine will’: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc19.htm thebc19.htm
Chapter 20: This chapter treats: More on Robert Morris and tobacco: London merchants, 1775-1800: History and amnesia: More London merchants: The hulks, continued: Campbell’s merchant leadership: Campbell’s former agent, Matthew Ridley: War and hulks business: Transportation not to America, 1779: ‘Nests of pestilence’: The Gordon Riots, 1780: Hurricanes over Jamaica: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc20.htm thebc20.htm
Chapter 21: This chapter treats: Hurricanes over Jamaica: Matthew Ridley and Robert Morris: Before Lord Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown... the year 1781: History, amnesia and William Bligh: A daughter disappoints: Convict records: the paper trail revisited: 'Becky, gone': Lord Cornwallis surrenders: ‘a very deep hole in my capital’: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc21.htm thebc21.htm
Chapter 22: This chapter treats: Trade policy: Evan Nepean at the Home Office: Transportable convicts and sovereignty over a place: The problem of terra nullius: On Gov. Phillip’s Commissions. Hulks business. The African Plan, Stage One: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc22.htm thebc22.htm
Chapter 23: This chapter treats: Fear of an organised police force: Flotsam on a crime wave: The British Creditors: Part 1: The British Creditors: Part 2: A new ship Britannia: A business overview, 1782: Alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay: ‘The fear of its awakening’: The blasting of London’s tobacco traders: Land dealings in North America. ‘Shame, Neil, Shame!’: Bligh’s favour to Campbell: Endnotes: On the "structure" of convict shipping to Australia: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc23.htm thebc23.htm
Chapter 24: This chapter treats: 'The fleet now daily expected': 'You do not mention Henny': Death in New London: More on the British Creditors 1: William Bligh, merchants, prestige, and literary confusion: The outlook of George M. Macaulay: More on the British Creditors: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc24.htm the bc24.htm
Chapter 25: This chapter treats: The resumption of convict transportation 1783: ‘Men unworthy to remain in this island’ Part One: A business overview: Henry Dundas and attitudes of the East India Company: From the Bengal famine to Penang: The Larkins family of Blackheath: Secret plans for men unworthy Part Two: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc25.htm thebc25.htm
Chapter 26: This chapter treats: George Moore’s first ship, Swift 1: Matra-esque problems: Army contractors and Loyalists in North America: Further mutiny on George Moore’s ships: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc26.htm thebc26.htm
Chapter 27: This chapter treats: Confusions of the year 1784: Pitt and the East India Company problem: The mystery of Sir George Young and unnamed merchants in 1784: Slavers out whaling or sealing? Rewriting the legislation in 1784: Pepper-Arden’s inane first draft, March 1784: 'Mr Campbell does not think himself authorized’: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc27.htm thebc27.htm
Chapter 28: This chapter treats: After Selwyn’s rewrite of the legislation, August 1784: The legal foundations of New South Wales: Duncan Campbell, The British Creditors, Loyalists, and Matra’s plans: Campbell’s new warrant for the hulks: Softening up the East India Company: Matters relating to Fletcher Christian: ‘I presume to hand your lordship’: Robert Morris and American tobacco, 1784: Crowded hulks versus ‘the length of the navigation’: The heart of darkness revisited: ’Next in degree to that of death’: Ships for Nootka Sound: Transported labour and later views on Australian culture: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc28.htm the bc28.htm
Chapter 29: This chapter treats: The hulks are ‘quite full’: No convicts for hard labour: Into the hearts of darkness: Whalers and sealers: ‘The ill-judged parsimony of ministers’: The convict republic in the heart of darkness: Further into the heart of darkness: Duncan Campbell and questions of tobacco: The interest groups within the East India Company: ‘They must be resisted by force’: Lord Beauchamp’s committee: 1785. ‘Man and arm your ships’: The unknown rise of the unknown Thomas Shelton: Botany Bay or Das Voltas? A report never finally printed: Pulling down overcrowded gaols? http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc29.htm thebc29.htm
Chapter 30: This chapter treats: The vain ambitions of the Nantucket whalers: Campbell’s preoccupations with land in Kent: ‘I fear Mr Adams demands are not the most moderate’: Convicts at Cumberland Fort, Portsmouth: Duncan Campbell and The Blackheath Connection: ‘The gaols are in so crowded a state’: ‘Destitute in all comforts of life’: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc30.htm thebc30.htm
Chapter 31: This chapter treats: Debt collecting in America: London petitions the king: Descended from those written out of history: An overview of the Botany Bay debate as a problem in history: Britain’s ambit claim in the Pacific: The year 1786: Social life in the Campbell-Bligh connection: French whaling threatens London’s whalers: A secret quote: The campaign to reinstate the ‘taps’ in the gaols: The London petition of March 1786: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc31.htm the bc31.htm
Chapter 32: This chapter treats: The Debt Repudiation Question: an exoneration for the Founding Fathers of the United States of America: Thomas Jefferson’s trade mission to Great Britain: Questions of whaling: Lord Carmarthen and the British Creditors’ petition: ‘A bitter pill he and his friends could never swallow’: After the Jefferson-Campbell meeting: Significance of the Jefferson-Campbell meeting: The East India Company, the whalers, and an ulterior motive: Further political pressure on the convict problem: a quickening of pace: Convicts and priorities: George Macaulay’s unfathomable desire to transport convicts to Africa: The "accursed monopoly" of the East India Company: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc32.htm thebc32.htm
Chapter 33: This chapter treats: Futile debate: Duncan Campbell moves his convict records: Lord George Gordon leaks the Botany Bay story: Diplomatic awareness of Britain’s intentions in the Pacific: Lord Gordon’s Prisoner’s Petition: Robert Hughes and The Fatal Shore: Some conclusions on the Botany Bay debate: Convict shipping to Australia and The Navy Office Accounts: Possible personal intervention by George III: Bureaucracy, a variety of plans, and the First Fleet: The Botany Bay debate and terra nullius: London steps up the pressure about prisoners: Botany Bay becomes a real alternative: The anonymously-written ‘Heads of a Plan’: George Macaulay and a phantom First Fleet: The South whalers begin to explore the Pacific: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc33.htm thebc33.htm
Chapter 34: This chapter treats: The First Fleet misunderstood: Alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay disappears from history: America sends ships to China: West India merchants, slaves, Macaulay, Campbell, and ships to Tahiti for breadfruit: The role of William Richards: history and amnesia: Newspaper coverage: Gathering the First Fleet ships: Merchants and the "Botany Bay debate": East India Company distaste for "Botany Bay": The role of the evangelists: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc34.htm thebc34.htm
Chapter 35: This chapter treats: Questions on forcing convicts to labour at Botany Bay: Newspaper coverage of the First Fleet: Thomas Shelton and the Home Office: The lack of a contract for the First Fleet: The contract maker, Thomas Shelton: A strange preamble to an Act for transporting convicts: Gathering the First Fleet convicts: More on the role of Thomas Shelton: In the prisons: ‘so very undigested and very expensive a scheme’: 10 January, 1787: a day of meetings: Arthur Phillip’s reputation: London and Freemasonry after the First Fleet (From May 1787): A brief chronology: Payments to merchants: Arthur Phillip, governor of New South Wales: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc35.htm thebc35.htm
Chapter 36: This chapter treats: Emptying the hulks: The First Three Convict Fleets to Australia: An alternative theory on the mounting of the breadfruit voyage: More emptying of the hulks: The disappearance of George Moore: The ambitions of William Richards: Before the departure of the First Fleet: The Bligh-Campbell Connection: Some aspects of crewing the Bounty: The tenders for a breadfruit ship: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc36.htm thebc36.htm
Chapter 37: This chapter treats: HMAV Bounty and the Bligh-Campbell connection: Further aspects of the crewing of Bounty: Lack of merchant interest in Pacific opportunities: After Bligh’s open boat voyage: Duncan Campbell hears of the mutiny on HMAV Bounty: The return of William Bligh: Fletcher Christian’s family attacked: Heywood’s faux pas: Lady Penrhyn, alderman Macaulay and Tahiti: Lady Penrhyn’s secret orders: Bligh and Blackheath Freemasonry: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc37.htm the bc37.htm
Chapter 38: This chapter treats: Thames hulks prisoners and work protocols: The convicts on the Lion revolt: The reappearance of Camden, Calvert and King, slavers of the Africa Company: Nova Scotia still on the books for convict transportation: A lack of news from Botany Bay: Sir Joseph Banks and the Blackheath Connection: A little-known transportation to America: A Desultory beginning: 1788: January 26, 1788: 1788: Snippets and Coincidences: British whaling, 1788: Jeremy Bentham visits the hulks: Selling the labour of the Thames hulks prisoners: The appearance of the Knuckle Club at Blackheath: 1789: Aspects of commercial life: The innocent William Richards tries again: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc38.htm the bc38.htm
Chapter 39: This chapter treats: Digesting the news from NSW: Observations after the Bounty mutiny: Shipping matters in London: A further attempt to recover American debts: The formation of the NSW Corps: The year 1789 - Part 2: Reports on the Nootka Convention: Slave fetters for the Second Fleet: Specially selected artificers: The continually crowded gaols: After Bligh’s open boat voyage: Prisoner problems persist: The odious Second Fleet captains: John Macarthur duels with Captain Gilbert: The Second Fleet ships gather: Unknown activities of the London slavers: The year 1790: The Botany Bay debate revisited: Duncan Campbell hears of the mutiny on HMAV Bounty: Campbell’s reaction to Bligh’s return: The whalers and the Third Fleet: Irish remarks on the resumption of transportation: London contractors associated with NSW: Endnotes: (1) On Martinez and Spanish fury at Nootka: (2) After the Second Fleet in London: Reasons for the spoiling of maritime history: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc39.htm thebc39.htm
Chapter 40: This chapter treats: At the Board of Trade, 1790: John St Barbe’s letter on carrying convicts: William Richards attacked: Botany Bay and India: The year 1791: Lloyd’s names and interest in the Pacific: ‘do you keep me out of the scrape’: A war of secrecy: The Third Fleet embarkation continues: As the Third Fleet departed: Phases of The Blackheath Connection: The Macaulay-St Barbe Partnership: Capt. Manning’s views of prospects at Sydney: Before Bligh’s second breadfruit voyage: Bligh’s second breadfruit voyage and the interests of the London Missionary Society: Before Heywood’s vocabulary of the Tahitian language went to the London Missionary Society: The departure of the Pitt: Whalers, the Pacific, the Third Fleet, and the crushing of William Richards: Richards reacts to news from Botany Bay: William Richards before his bankruptcy: Richards further on business to New South Wales: At the Board of Trade: Moves against slavery: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc40.htm thebc40.htm
Chapter 41: This chapter treats: Duncan Campbell’s sons tour the Continent: Chasing American Debts: John St Barbe and Captain William Raven: On the New South Wales Corps: Between Blackheath and New Zealand: The year 1792: The Larkins family expresses interest in New South Wales: A feud between slavers: The African trade war continues: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc41.htm thebc41.htm
Chapter 42: This chapter treats: The Battle of the Red Book and the Green Book at Lloyd’s: Campbell fires his American agent: William Russell, and role of the Court Brothers: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc42.htm thebc42.htm
Chapter 43: This chapter treats: ‘The serpent we are nursing at Botany Bay’: The mystery of the merchants not named by Sir George Young: Where the money went (Part One): Where the money went (Part Two): Did NSW profits flow to Blackheath? http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc43.htm thebc43.htm
Chapter 44: This chapter treats: The Scottish Martyrs: More aftermaths of the American Revolution: financial matters: Duncan Campbell’s will: Life in Duncan Campbell’s household: Campbell relinquishes the hulks: Hulks administration from 1800: The death of Duncan Campbell in 1803: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc44.htm the bc44.htm
Chapter 45: This chapter treats: The year 1795: The year 1796: The Blackheath Connection (Phase Two): Blackheath and the London Missionary Society: further phases within The Blackheath Connection: Phase Two to 1800: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc45.htm the bc45.htm
Chapter 46: This chapter treats: An Australasian quadrangular
trade pattern: Further on James Duncan of Blackheath: The
Blackheath Connection (the beginning of Phase Two): Duncan
Campbell’s last years: Varieties of business:
Chapter 47: Conclusions - The End http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/blackheath/thebc47.htm thebc47.htm
Folder - slavery - Another website book by Dan Byrnes, The English Business of Slavery. Made available in association with The Merchant Networks Project. On timeframes from 1530. Precedes the timeframes treated in Dan Byrnes' The Blackheath Connection (basically 1700-1810).
THE ENGLISH BUSINESS OF SLAVERY
Volume One of The Blackheath Connection series - a new revised version of this website soon to appear - how England became engaged with the business of slavery...
The Business of Slavery - Preamble: This website treats the engagement of the English nation in the business of slavery from 1530: : http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/business/index.html
The Business of Slavery - Chapter 0: Introduction: http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/business/business0.html
The Business of Slavery - Chapter 1: This chapter treats: Finding a way to Australia: The European spiritualization of the location of Australia - Questions of Cartography-Mapping - How did Australian come to the world's attention? English views from 1500 - Anchors into Australia's heritage of maritime history - Four major themes - Endnotes on merchants - http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/business/business1.html
The Business of Slavery - Chapter 2: This chapter treats: Elizabeth 1 inherits the oceans of the earth - The Dudley family - The English engagement with slavery - The English-Morocco trade - The North-west Passage - The English move to slaving business - The Hawkins-Gonson-Winter naval rivalry story - The Asiento, the Spanish slaving concession - http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/business/business2.html
The Business of Slavery - Chapter 3: This chapter treats: Hawkins' third slaving voyage - Intermarriages - Sir William Winter: "a stubborn fighter" - While Drake circumnavigates the world - The First Bargain with the navy - The Hawkins-Winter rivalry - Puritans and piracy - The growth of English companies - http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/business/business3.html business3.html
The Business of Slavery - Chapter 4: This chapter treats: Sir William Winter re-examined - Drake harries the Spanish - The time of the Spanish Armada - Fresh maritime business arises - A quickening in business - The Winter family story continued - http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/business/business4.html
The Business of Slavery - Chapter 5: This chapter treats: Further on the time of Henry VIII - The Boleyn family and other political scenarios - The bible-study group of Catherine Parr, wife of Henry VIII - John Dee - Religious factionalism - Puritans and business - Endnotes - http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/business/business5.html
The Business of Slavery - Chapter 6: This chapter treats: Expansionism and The Levant - London's Lord Mayors - Commoner families and aristocracy - http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/business/business6.html
The Business of Slavery - Chapter 7: This chapter treats: Beyond the Levant - A sense of global expansion - Slavery and the origins of Modern Capitalism - The Barbary/Morocco trade - Sources of commodities - The London backers of Ralph Fitch's travels - http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/business/business7.html
The Business of Slavery - Chapter 8: This chapter treats: Amazonia - the understated English adventure - Origins of the English East India Company - The Earl of Warwick, Puritan noble - The appearance of Martin Noell - http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/business/business8.html
The Business of Slavery - Chapter 9: This chapter treats: Courteen and Terra Australia Incognita - Questions of handling bullion - Virginia to 1749: how it grew from Amazon adventures - London's Virginia merchants regroup - Dissolution of the Virginia Company - Puritan business and the Mayflower - Convict transportation to colonies - Endnotes on Maurice Thomson - http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/business/business9.html
The Business of Slavery - Chapter 10:This chapter treats: Caribbean chaos - Matters on Barbados - Maurice Thomson as trader - Seeds of Cromwell's Western Design - Appearance of Prince Rupert - Notes various on Noell and Povey - Convict transportation - After the Western Design - Colonial consolidations - Slavery and rise of the English Whigs - Endnotes on Godschall - http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/business/business10.html
The Business of Slavery - Chapter 11: This chapter treats: Sir William Courteen and the struggle for control of Barbados - The Earl of Carlisle and proprietary rights to the Caribbean - The English find Barbados - Cartographic arguments - Control over Barbados and Providence Island - http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/business/business11.html
The Business of Slavery - Chapter 12: This chapter treats: Enter Willoughby of Parham - The Courteen Association - http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/business/business12.html
The Business of Slavery - Chapter 13: This chapter treats: The Guinea Company - The Courteen debts - Endnotes - http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/business/business13.html
The Business of Slavery - Chapter 14: This chapter treats: The Asiento silver exchange - The English in the Caribbean - The Royal Africa Company of 1672 - The English on the African Gold Coast - Cromwell and commercial developments - The Restoration - Convict transportation - The proprietors of Carolina - A royal slaving company - http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/business/business14.html
The Business of Slavery - Chapter 15: This chapter treats: Progress of English East India Company - Sir Josiah Child manages the East India Company - http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/business/business15.html
The Business of Slavery - Chapter 16: Re-exploring William Dampier as explorer - etc: Not placed on the Net for "security reasons": Ends the book.
The Business of Slavery - Bibliography: Select Bibliography: businessbib.html at: http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/business/businessbib.html
Nil to date for public access
NB: Note that in future, advice of new files on the website will be listed only on this sitemap page.
New: Timeline/Chronology files are now slowly appearing on this website in series 1-4 from the first file available - Timelines1- Click here
This website on Merchant Networks in history used to use a drop-down-menu for navigation. This system has now been outgrown and a new navigation system designed. The new navigation system will be kept as simple as possible for ease of cruising the information provided.
Below are links to the newest files added to the website.
For Chinese readers of the website: Click here to read a new promotional page for this website translated into Chinese
Note 1: In July 2009 this domain was shifted from a server in Adelaide to one in Melbourne Australia. Related to this was the use of a new system for uploading files to the website which will enable faster and more frequent page revisions.
Note 2: Of 29 April 2009: Announcing the first upload of a new set of files for this website, a concerted attack on the ways in which US "paranoid conspiracy theorists" active on the Internet since 1997 or so have been dabbling with economic history in order to confuse the more ignorant members of the US electorate. Chief of the "theorists" to be encountered is Lyndon LaRouche, one of the most virulent of such US commentators. For this series, the directory and filenames concerned are gathered under the umbrella-heading of "gaps" in history. Go now to the first file: gaps.htm and follow in series.
Note 3: Of 17 July 2008: Shortly, The Merchant Networks Project will be unveiling a new website feature which has been long in planning ... an on-line searchable maritime history database which will list ship voyages by date, with entries searchable by shipowner, captain name, ship name. This database is now in a test phase, prior to an official launch as part of this website. (The listings in the test database were built around normally-available data on convict ships sailing to Australia 1788++) Listings on trans-Atlantic shipping in different timeframes will be added in due course.
Once this new feature of the website is in operation, navigation of the site will be rejigged and improved - Editor
This database (by 29 July 2008) is now available and you can check the test version from its launch-page at: Shipping Database Launch Page
Click here to discover ... Who links to this Merchant Networks website.
[And, yes, this Merchant Networks Project could also become something like a surfable book, or a website book ... an idea we first met in the late 1990s, and an idea we still feel is well worth pursuing on the Internet using a variety of formats!]
The Merchant Networks Webmaster, Dan Byrnes, is the author behind The Blackheath Connection, a major work on the history of the transportation of convicts from England to North America and then Australia, 1717-1810.
Latest work for this website: Work now being considered by the Byrnes/Cozens research duo includes: On William Duer and other financiers associated with "the financier of the American Revolution", such as Robert Morris. A late-2007-added file (as work-in-progress) is on methodology used here for work on merchant networks. From April 2008, many new genealogy mini-websites are being added, plus data on genealogies of Lord Mayors (Lords Mayor?) of London - see for example at: http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/periods/1800after/lordsmayor1.htm and the same for file2 of that series. For a fuller explanation on these Lords Mayor files, see the website's listing file at: Contents/Listing
Tech update: 7 June 2007: This website is lately made with open source web editor kit Quanta Plus and produced with a Linux system running ...
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