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For 1780-1800 (work-in-progress)

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This file is devoted to presenting basic Shipping Timeline information in a global perspective for website readers. The items are often sketchy, and some have been extracted from other websites managed by Dan Byrnes. Where possible, ships will have their date-of-departure noted as the compilers believe that a ship's departure date gives some indications of the business plan of the owners, whatever the outcome of the voyage. These Timelines will be added-to intermittently, as new data and new e-mail arrives. Book titles will be entered according to the timeframes they treat.

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This is file Shipping Timeline6 - To go back to the previous file in this Merchant Networks series, Ships Timeline 5

c.1778: Contractor, John Wilkinson, London shipbroker, single largest shipping supplier to Navy Board by 1770s, second only to John Julius Angerstein. Angerstein for this business partnered with Thomas Lewis by 1777, at Throgmorton Street.

1780: Begins List of some Lords Mayor of London: 1780, wine merchant Brackley Kenney [Kennett] 1781-?
- 1782, Newnham is Mayor.
1783,Robert Peckham:
1784: Richard Clark:
1785: Richard Clark:
1786: John Burnell?
1787: Sainsbury, Jan. 10:
1788: Boydell(?) engraver
1789: William Gill:
1790: William Pickett: Brook Watson:
1791 Boydell(?)
1792: ?
1793: January 1, Sir James Sanderson;
1794, Mayor, Paul Le Mesurier.

1781: Contractor, military re "Pacification of Scotland", banker Sir Lawrence Dundas (1710-1781). (See PDF file to hand on his career) (From MNP's specialist sub-lists on merchants who are contractors to goverment)

1782: Aug, Mr Justice Buller is written-to by hulks overseer, Duncan Campbell, re plans to send convicts to Africa.

1782: Begins a Brief List of Aldermen of London, from 1782.
1782, Ald Newnham, Mr Sainsbury:
1783 Brass Crosby: John Hart: Wm Pickett: Sir Thos Halifax: Thos Sainsbury: John Boydell: Sir James Esdale:
1784: Richard Clark: Thos Knight: John Hopkins: Evan Pugh (also 1781): William Gill: John Hopkins:
1785, Brook Watson, alder. See Feb. 14, 1805,and in 1802, General Boyd whaler owned by Watson and Co. Master, Owen Bunker. Paul Le Mesurier, Francis Buller (Justice): Thos Harley: John Gill: Brook Watson: James Townsend: Henry Kitchen: John Boydell: John Burnell: Robert Peckham:
1785, Paul Le Mesurier,Esq. MP. (Any relation to the Guernsey MP?)
1785, alder is Francis Justice Buller,
1786, Mr Alderman Curtis (Sir William) owner of Lady Penrhyn, First Fleet:
1787: Newnham: Sir Benj Hammett:
1788: Sawbridge, a reformer but nevertheless a pro-slaver:
1791: See Boydell re trial of Capt. D. Trail, re Neptune to Botany Bay
1797, Ald. Harley. Chamberlain is Mr Ald. Clark.

1782: Charles Greenwood active 1782 probably of Cox Cox and Greenwood army agents, parents unknown etc. (A name difficult to research)

Year 1783

Reference item: 1783: See C. Northcote Parkinson, (Ed), The Trade Winds: A Study of British Overseas Trade during the French Wars 1793-1815. London. Allen and Unwin. 1948., p. 26. In 1783, was formation of an unchartered association, the North-West Co. of Montreal re the Canadian fur trade. See also p. 36, in C. Ernest Fayle, 'Shipping and Marine Insurance', in the essays Parkinson presents.

Reference item 1783: David Syrett, Shipping and the American War. London, 1970.

Reference item 1783++: R. Langdon, (Ed.), American Whalers and Traders in the Pacific: A Guide to Records on Microfilm. Canberra, Pacific Manuscripts Bureau, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1978.

Year 1784

1784: Begins Short List List of East India Company personnel.

1784, Nathaniel Smith is chairman court of directors EI Co. (1788 also?)

1789, William Ramsay, dep-secretary of HEICO:

1792 dies Thomas Morton, sometime Sec. of Court of Directors.

1792ish, chairman of EICo, Sir Francis Baring.

1795, John Pringle is HEICO agent at Cape of Good Hope, writing to Sir Joseph Banks on 6 March, 1795.

1796, case of a ship to the Pacific, Duff, James Duncan later to be a convict contractor, is reputed to be an East India broker, of Great Tower Hill.

1797, William Ramsay, Chairman EICO.

1798, David Scott Jnr a director, EICo. 1800-1810, in London, David Scott Jnr dealt with Robert Campbell.

1799, Jan., James Cobb, secretary of EICO Court of Directors.

1802: Sir William Pulteney, Bart, Director of EICo: Ends this list.



Convict contractor, slave contractor, Africa Co. figure, Anthony Calvert (1735-1809) of London, of firm Camden, Calvert and King.

Engineer/ contractor to HEICo in India, Sir MP John Call (1732-1801).

1784: Contractor, "Pacification contractor" in India, Augustus Cleveland (1754-1784).

1784: Contractor naval stores (sea biscuits), Timothy and Sir William Curtis. Son of Sir William, Timothy Abraham Curtis (1786-1857).

1784+: Ill-fated new entrant to convict contracting from Britain, George Moore.

Handcuffs graphic by Phillip Russell p>New prison hulks contractors in Portsmouth, are Bradley brothers. See The Blackheath connection.

1784: Empress of China. (US ship of 1784). Owners, Robert Morris et al. Captain John Green. 22 Feb 1784- 1784 28 August. General trade to China. Arranged by a New York consortium including Daniel Parker. Arrives home 1785. Did she make any second voyage to China?

NB: A rumour exists, lively on the Internet, that Pennsylvania ironmaster and patriot Mark Bird and his brother-in-law Peter Turner owned and outfitted a ship United States sent to China in 1784, allegedly the second American ship to visit China after Empress of China sent by Robert Morris also sailing in 1784. United States actually went to India (Pondicherry), not China. (See James Wilbert Snyder Jnr., The first American voyage to India: being excerpts from the log of the ship United States from Philadelphia to Pondicherry, 1784. New York, 1938.) The question of any internationally-trading American ships managed by Mark Bird cannot yet be answered well by consulting websites.

1784: American ship The Light Horse. Owners, US merchant Elias Haskett Derby. Captain Notknown. To Russia. Trader. Exploring trade US to Russia, from a website

1784: Reference item: G. Bhagat, 'Americans and American Trade in India, 1784-1814', The American Neptune, Vol. 46, No. 1, 1986.

See especially: Philip Chadwick Foster Smith, ‘The Empress of China’s Voyage, 1784-1785’, The American Neptune, Vol. 46, No. 1, 1986., pp 25-33. Philip Chadwick Foster Smith, The Empress of China, Philadelphia, Philadelphia Maritime Museum, 1984.

See also Derek Hayes, Historical Atlas of the Pacific Northwest: Maps of Exploration and Discovery. Seattle, Sasquatch Books, 2000. 1570612153. Frederic W. Howay, (Ed.), The Dixon-Meares Controversy. (Reprint) Amsterdam, N. Israel, 1969. James R. Gibson, Otter Skins, Boston Ships, and China Goods: The Maritime Fur Trade of the Northwest Coast, 1785-1841. Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1992. Paperback edition of 1999. (We are grateful to Georgina Chaseling for drawing our attention to Gibson’s title.)

Year 1785

1785: Contractor finance, for Eastern trade in S/E Asia, Thomas Fitzhugh (1728-1800).

1785: Gunpowder contractor in India, later wealthy investor of London, John Farquhar (1751-1826).

Contractor, finances to British government/EICo of India, David Scott Senior (1746-1805).

Late 1780s: finance contractor to US government, Henry Merttins Bird (born 1755) of the firm Bird, Savage and Bird). Note: According to David McCullough, John Adams. New York, Simon and Schuster, 2001, p. 576, a fine biography, John Adams when second president of the USA, and/or by late 1803 had invested personal funds, $13,000, with Bird, Savage and Bird, which failed in 1803. Adams had done so on the advice of his son, John Quincy Adams. Bird, Savage and Bird had been British bankers for the US Treasury. To rectify the disastrous consequences of his mistake, John Quincy sold his own house in Boston, took out his savings, borrowed, and bought enough of his parents' property to cover the losses. Other notes from this book follow ...

Unspecified: Military supplies contractor, finance contractor James Cockburn (1729-1804).

1785: Richard "Rum" Atkinson (1738-1785), army contractor with Mure, Son and Atkinson, West India Merchants tempe Am Rev.

1785: Betsey. Owners, James Strange and David Scott Snr. Captain Henry Laurie. 8 Dec 1785. For n/w American furs. Sealing. Betsey is formerly named Captain Cook. Interest of David Scott Snr, the British reorganiser of the opium trade.

1785: The Chinese became more interested in n/w American seal furs from 1785 if not earlier. Cook had been to the American seal-fur gathering area, Nootka Sound, on his third vain voyage in search of The North West Passage. It seems, to 1785, that a decade or less had to pass before serious British interest arose in selling seal fur to China, bearing in mind that Cook had also noted many seals at Dusky Bay, New Zealand, on his first voyage. But not till the founding of a convict colony were British-based seal-fur takers sensitised to Australasian locations.

1785: Experiment (sealer). Owner, James Strange of India. Capt Henry Guise. Sealing to n/w America. Bengal Fur Company. Part of James Strange's expedition backed by David Scott Snr of Bombay.

1785 America: Joseph Russell's whaler Rebecca, built by George Claghorn, was launched in New Bedford and would go on in 1791 to be the first American vessel to make the trip to the Pacific and back, rounding Cape Horn twice. Benjamin Franklin composed his Maritime Observations, published in 1786 January -- American cotton was first shipped to England – 1786. (This item is from a US timeline website on maritime history.)

1785: Sea Otter (Or, Hamon of 1785). Owner John Henry Cox. Captain James Hanna. 15 Apr 1785 - Dec 1785 to Macao. Sealing at n/w America. Hanna and Partners. Hanna is the first-known sealer to go to N/w America.

1785: Grand Turk (dubious?). Owner, Elias Haskett Derby. Captain Ebenezer West. Trader, Mauritius/China. Capt. Ebenezer West charters her for Derby

1785: Peter Mestairs/Mestaers of London has out whalers Jupiter and Triumph: on one is American Capt. Daniel Coffin:

Year 1786

1786: William Richards, contractor for the First Fleet to Australia circa 1786. (A name difficult to research)

1786: Contractor, rumoured to have earlier been a navy broker, William Richards II (nd), later the contractor for the First Fleet to Australia. Bankrupted. It has in the past been mistakenly thought that his son William Richards was later a minor convict contractor (captain of a convict ship) to Australia. Sydney researcher Gary Sturgess by 2011 had established that this was incorrect, these are separate families producing Willisms Richards.

1786: Contractor, financial services international, Peter Thellusson (1737-1797).

1786: Convict contractor, minor, re First Fleet, James Mather (?). Better seen as a whaling investor.l

Army contractor John Learmonth, dates unspecified, married to Margaret Watson. (A name difficult to research)

c1786: Larkins family of Blackheath, long-term East Inda Company connections. (Names difficult to research)

1786: Reference item: : J. M. Ward, British Policy In The South Pacific, 1786-1893, Australian Publishing Company. Sydney. 1948. Cited in DL Mackay.

1786: Feb, (Steven, Trade, Tactics, Territory, pp. 72-74). A whalers' memorial to British govt.

1786: Sea Otter (2). Owner, John Henry Cox. Captain James Hanna. May 1786 - Feb 1787. Sealing at n/w America. See websites on sealing at n/w America.

1786: Sea Otter (Meares.) Owners, Meares and Tipping. Captain William Tipping. 2 March 1786.

1786: Lynx. Owner, Duncan Campbell of London. Captain William Bligh (later of Bounty). West Indies trade. Bligh sailing here with Fletcher Christian. Owner Campbell later tendered Lynx to the Navy for what became Bligh's Bounty voyage but she was not accepted. -Ed

1786: Imperial Eagle (Loudoun). Owners, John Reid and Daniel Beale. Captain Charles Barkley. Sealer, Austrian East India Co. John Reid and Daniel Beale concocted idea of an "Austrian EICo" and recruited former EICo captain Charles Barkley, who buys a ship Loudon in London (with his own money) and renames it Imperial Eagle.

1786: King George (sealer). Owner, Richard Cadman Etches. Captain Portlock/Dixon. April 1787. For King George's Sound Co, See on sealing voyages of Portlock/Dixon to n/w America

1786: Emilia. Owner, Samuel Enderby Snr. Captain James Shields. 1786-1790, 1786-1787. First English whaler into the Pacific, by Cape Horn, returning home by 1790 with full cargo of sperm oil. Of which Enderbys were very proud.

1786:

Queen Charlotte (sealer). Owner Richard Cadman Etches. Capt George Dixon. April 1787. King George's Sound Co. See remarks on sealing to n/w America.

Reference item 1786: Charles Campbell, The Intolerable Hulks: British Shipboard Confinement, 1776-1857. Bowie, Maryland, Heritage Books, Inc., 1994.


Gathering the First Fleet ships:

Reference Item 1786++: Margaret Steven, Trade, Tactics and Territory: Britain in the Pacific, 1783-1823. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press, 1983.

Reference Item 1786++: Eduoard A. Stackpole, Whales and Destiny: The Rivalry between America, France and Britain for Control of the Southern Whale Fishery, 1785-1825. University of Massachusetts Press, 1972.

Reference Item: Arthur Phillip, The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay, With an Account of the Establishment of the Colonies of Port Jackson and Norfolk Island, including the journals of Lts. Shortland, Watts, Ball and Capt. Marshall. Melbourne, Facsimile edition for Georgian House, 1950.

Reference Item: Wilfrid Oldham, Britain's Convicts to the Colonies. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1990. (With a commentary by Dan Byrnes)

Reference Item: Jonathan King and John King, Philip Gidley King: A Biography of the Third Governor of New South Wales. North Melbourne, Australia, Methuen Australia Ltd., 1981.

Roger J. B. Knight, `The First Fleet, Its State and Preparation, 1786-1787', pp. 121-136, in John Hardy and Alan Frost, Studies from Terra Australis to Australia. Canberra, Occasional Paper No. 6, Australian Academy of the Humanities, 1988.

Reference Item: Dr Noel Dan, 'Surgeons of the First Fleet', Australian Medical Association Gazette, 15 May, 1980., pp. 16-17.

Reference Item: K. M. Dallas, Trading Posts or Penal Colonies: The Commercial Significance of Cook's New Holland Route to the Pacific. Hobart, Fuller's Bookshop, 1969.

W. J. Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers in Southern Waters. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1977. [Angus and Robertson Non-Fiction Classics Edition]

Reference Item: See A. K. Cavanagh, 'The Return of the First Fleet ships', The Great Circle, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1989., pp. 1-16.

Dan Byrnes, "Commentary" to Wilfrid Oldham, Britain's Convicts to the Colonies. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1990. ISBN 0 908120 77 X.

Dan Byrnes, "Outlooks for the English South Whale Fishery, 1782-1800, and the "great Botany Bay debate'", The Great Circle, Vol. 10, No. 2, October, 1988., pp. 79-102. ISSN 0156-8698. (On the strategies used by British whalers to open up the Pacific Ocean. Written before discovery of The Blackheath Connection in 1989 - updated, 1996). Total words, 19,319. Total pages, 38.

Dan Byrnes, ""Emptying The Hulks": Duncan Campbell and the First Three Fleets to Australia", The Push from the Bush: A Bulletin of Social History, April, 1987., pp. 2-23. ISSN 0155 8633. (Updated 1996)

Reference Item: Dan Byrnes, "The Blackheath Connection: London Local History and the Settlement at New South Wales, 1786-1806", The Push: A Journal of Early Australian Social History, No. 28, 1990., pp. 50-98. ISSN 0155 8633. ISBN 0 646 09384 3. (Updated, 1996) Total words, 31,776. Total pages, 83.

Reference Item:

Mollie Gillen, The Founders of Australia: A Biographical Dictionary of the First Fleet. With appendices by Yvonne Browning, Michael Flynn, Mollie Gillen. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1989.

Reference item 1786++: Harold B. Carter, Sir Joseph Banks, 1743-1820. London, British Museum (Natural History), 1988.
Banks' sets of interests almost ensured that he would take an interest in whichever shipping would be going newly into the Pacific Ocean, while his patterns of association, including with George III, helped ensure that nothing would interfere with his interests in ship movements. Carter especially in his biography of Banks outlines a set of information on Banks' interests in shipping which maritime historians have not yet emphasised - matters which these listings will re-explore.

Reference item 1786++ Dawson - Sir Joseph Banks - Warren R. Dawson, (Ed.), The Banks Letters: A Calendar of the Manuscript Correspondence of Sir Joseph Banks. London, Published by order of the trustees of the British Museum, 1958.

Reference item: Kate Thomas, A Biographical Appraisal of John Hunter RN (1737-1821). (Hons Thesis) University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 1992.

1786: King George - British registry, Capt Nathaniel Portlock, arrived 24 May, 1786, departed 13 Jun, 1786 - came a second time in Nov 1786 and a third in Sept. 1787. Accompanied by Queen Charlotte. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

Queen Charlotte - British registry, Capt. George Dixon, with Portlock's expedition, arrived 26 May, 1786, departed 13 June, 1786. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1786: Boussole - French naval frigate, La Pérouse in command; arrived 29 May, 1786, departed 30 May, 1786. He landed at Maui only. Accompanied by Astrolabe. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1786: Astrolabe - French naval frigate, de Langle in command, with La Pérouse's expedition; arrived 29 May, 1786, departed 30 May, 1786. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1786: March, (Steven, TTT pp. 69ff) reports feverish activity first half of year, pro-whaling. Lord Dorset to Carmarthen re whale fisheries. 14 March, Sir James Harris at Hague to Carmarthen. Whale lobby in London gathers strength. Alexr Champion Jnr lives in Winchester St. John St Barbe c/- John's Coffee House.

1786: Addresses: Timothy and William Curtis, [sea] biscuit makers, 236 Wapping (London Directories). Together with Richard Henry Clark in 1788 at same address. Also, separate, Curtis, William, jun., Esq., Alderman, 236 Wapping, in 1786: in 1789 at Southgate or 40 Old Broad Street, in 1795 at Old South Sea House, Broad Street.

1786-1788/9: Addresses: St. Barbe and Green(e), ships husbands, and Insurance Brokers, 33 Seething Lane. (London Directories). St. Barbe, merchant, was at 1 Little Marlborough Street, London, in 1790).

Year 1787

1787: Princess Royal (sealer). Owner, Richard Cadman Etches. Captain Charles Duncan. Sealer at n/w America for King George's Sound Co.

1787: Providence.Owner or master, John Brown. Dec 1787. To Canton. Trader. John Brown/Providence. Arrives home July 1789.

1787: Alliance. Owner, Robert Morris. Captain Notknown. American Trader. Cargo worth $500,00. Isolated notes

1787: April -- Elias Derby's ship Grand Turk anchors at Port Louis, Maritius, beginning American participation in the Eastern trade.  Later that year the Grand Turk, chartered by a French trader, becomes the first New England ship to reach China. (This item is from a US timeline website on maritime history.)

1787: Prince of Wales (sealer - Nootka). Owner, Richard Cadman Etches. Captain James Colnett. 1787. Sealing at N/w America for King George's Sound Co with ship Princess Royal Capt. Charles Duncan.

1787: Nootka - British registry; John Meares, master; arrived Aug. 2, 1787, departed Sept. 2, 1787. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1787: Queen Charlotte - British registry; Capt George Dixon; with Portlock's expedition; arrived Sept. 5, 1787, departed Sept. 18, 1787. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1787: King George - British registry; Capt. Nathaniel Portlock; arrived 27 Sept., 1787, departed 8 Oct., 1787. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1787: Imperial Eagle or Loudoun - Charles William Barkley, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1787: Prince of Wales - British registry; James Colnett, master; spent winter of 1787-88 at Hawaii; accompanied by Princess Royal. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1787: Princess Royal - British registry, merchant vessel; Charles Duncan, master; spent winter of 1787-88 at Hawaii with Prince of Wales. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

July, 1787: Some names associated with Mestairs in the British whale fishery are John Leach; James Moore of Surrey, James Dunn and William Hamilton:

Christmas on the First Fleet

Christmas on the First Fleet

Compiled by Gary Sturgess (Sydney) in 2012

The Judge Advocate, David Collins, in Sirius:

Christmas Day found us in the latitude of 42° 10’ south, and steering, as we had done a considerable time, an east-south-east course. We complied, as far as was in our power, with the good old English custom, and partook of a better dinner this day than usual; but the weather was too rough to admit of much social enjoyment.

Lieutenant Ralph Clark, on board Friendship, writing in his journal to his wife:

This being Christmas Day, kissed your dear image as [I usually do] on Sundays – God, I wish you Betsey, my dear beloved wife and [my] sweet boy both a Merry Christmas & Happy New Year and many, many of them – O God grant that I was home with you to eat of your goose and apple pie, for I shall have only a poor dinner here.

He added the following day: ‘Several of the marines got much in liquor yesterday’.

Sergeant James Scott, in Prince of Wales:

Being Christmas Day, Latd 42° 16’ Longd 105° 00’ East, wind fair, weather hazy. Dined off a piece of pork and apple sauce, a pie of beef & plum pudding, and crowned the day with 4 bottles of rum, which was the best we vitr’ens could afford.

Private John Easty, in Scarborough:

Thick cloudy weather with fresh breezes, the wind at north. Steered ESE in Lattd of 42° 50’ South and Longtd 108° East.

The chaplain, Reverend Richard Johnson, in Golden Grove:

I do assure you we ate our roast pig and plum pudding with great relish, though with no less difficulty, our plates &c tumbling down, and we scarcely able to keep upon our seats.

Log of Golden Grove:

Fresh breezes and cloudy. Killed a hog for the ship’s company. Made and shortened sail occasionally. Employed variously. Fleet in company.

Log of Alexander:

Moderate gales with a great sea. Observed an eclipse of the moon. Employed as usual.

Arthur Bowes Smyth, the surgeon on Lady Penrhyn:

This being Christmas Day, I gave a quantity of currants out of the box of necessaries (of which I had a good quantity remaining) to the three marines on board to make a plum pudding, also to the boatswain and carpenter’s mess with the 2nd, 3rd and 4th mates in them. The Captain allowed them a reasonable quantity of grog to cheer their hearts and to distinguish the day.


(Ends this compilation

Year 1788

1788: re 1788 - Aust's first named piece of music is The Rogue's March, played 9 Feb, 1788, when a soldier caught in the convict women's tent was drummed out [of the marines].

1788: Estimated Aboriginal population of Australia is 750,000, about the population of London. See Anthony Barker, What Happened When: A Chronology of Australia from 1788. Allen and Unwin, reviewed in Australian newspaper, 13-6-1992.

1788: HM Supply. RN. First Captain John Hunter. Captain Henry Lidgbird Ball, Lt. Jan 1788. To Norfolk Island.

Handcuffs graphic by Phillip Russell

1788: HM Sirius RN,lead ship of First Fleet to Australia. Captain Arthur Phillip. 1787-1788. Create new colony at NSW

1788: Scarborough (1). Owners, Hopper Brothers. Captain John Marshall. 1787-1788. Convict transport, part of First Fleet. Cumpston's Register.

1788: Prince of Wales (1). Owner James Mather. Captain John Mason. 1787-1788. Convict transport, see Bateson.

1788: Charlotte. Owner, Unknown. Captain Thomas Gilbert. 1787-1788. Convict transport of First Fleet. See Bateson.

1788: Alexander. Owners, William Walton and others. Captain Duncan Sinclair. 1787-1788. Convict transport of First Fleet. See Bateson.

1788: Friendship (2). Owners Hopper Brothers. Captain Francis Walton, 1787-1788. Convict Transport of First Fleet. See Bateson.

1788: Borrowdale. Owners, Leightons. Capt Readihon Hobson. 1787-1788. Storeship to NSW. See Bateson.

Charles Bateson, The Convict Ships, 1787-1868. [Orig. 1959] Sydney, A. H. and A. W. Reed, 1974.

John S. Cumpston, Shipping Arrivals and Departures, Sydney, 1788-1825. Canberra, Roebuck, 1963-1964.

1788: Capt James Magee - In 1788 the ship Astrea owned by King Derby and Capt James Magee with supercargo Thomas Handasyd Perkins goes to Baltic ports. So it was that T. H. Perkins was given his start by Derby? See Jacques M. Downs, The Merchant as Gambler, Major William Fairchild Magee, 1765-1820. Rhode Island History, Vol. XXVII, No. 4, November 1969.

By early December 1788, Britisher J. H. Meares was again to Canton; a few days after his arrival the ship Prince of Wales (not the ship of that name of the First Fleet) and Princess Royal which had been fitted out from London by John and [Richard?] Cadman Etches and Co., sailing to Canton for a trading voyage on the NW coast of America, with licences from EICo and the South Sea Co., with John Etches as supercargo. See Meares Memorial, 1790. (J. Meares sailing for Messrs. Etches, Cox and Co.)

1788: Fishburn. Owner, Leighton. Captain Robert Brown. 1787-1788. Storeship as part of First Fleet.

1788: L'Astrolabe. French Navy. Unknown. Jan 1788

1788: Lady Penrhyn. Owner (Sir, London alderman) Sir William Curtis. Captain William Cropton/Crofton Sever. 1787-1788. Convict transport. Later bought by Wedderburns of West India trade. See Bateson. Byrnes.

1788: Lady Juliana (Second Fleet). Owners? Captain Aitken. Unknown. 1788. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1788: Golden Grove. Owners, Leightons. Captain Unknown. 1787-1788. First Fleet storeship.

1788: La Boussole. French Navy. Unknown. Jan 1788.

1788: La Boussole (a). French Navy. Captain Daniel.

1788: Felice - Britsh registry; John Meares, master; arrived 18 Oct., 1788, departed 26 Oct., 1788. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1788: Iphigenia - British registry, ship; William Douglas, master; arrived 6 Dec., 1788, departed 16 Mar., 1789; accompanied by North West America. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1788: North West America - British registry, schooner; Robert Funter, master; arrived 6 Dec., 1799, departed 15 March, 1789. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1788 and later: List of Subscribers to Surgeon John White's Journal re NSW: Joseph Allan Esq: James Adair, Recorder of London: Mr Barnard: Sir Joseph Banks: Sir Charles Bunbury: Edward Barwell: William Caslon: Mark Currie: Mr Henry Chapman: Robert Calvert: Charles Calvert: Thomas Fitzhugh: Captain Gilbert: Lord Hawke: Thomas Hibbert: George Hibbert: John Hunter Esq (surgeon): Mr Kennion: Richard Keys Esq: Lord Lucan: Sir William Molesworth: William Pitt: Sir Hyde Parker: John Pratt.

Year 1789

1789: Rose Hill Packet. Sydney local ship, captain Unknown. 5 Oct 1789 launched, 1789.

1789: HM Guardian. RN. Captain Edward Riou Lt RN. 12 Sep 1789, Wrecked off Sth Africa. Convict transport, supply ship. See Bateson.

1789: Catherine (whaler 1789). 1788. Owner Thomas Guillaume. Captain John Cole. 1789 lost. Whaler, lost

1789: Astrea (of 1789). Owners Elias Haskett Derby and James Magee. Capt James Magee. 1789. T. H. Perkins to Baltic ports. T. H. Perkins is supercargo. NB: Capt James Magee is a relative of Perkins' mother. THP here has just gotten married and in 1788-1789 sails for Derby to China. See notes re Perkins and W. F. Magee qv.

Reference Item: 1789: Sian Rees, The Floating Brothel: The Extraordinary Story of the Lady Juliana and its cargo of female convicts bound for Botany Bay. Hodder, 2001. (Historical account of a shipload of women convicts transported to Australia in 1789 - the ship Lady Juliana)

1789: Mercury sealer/ Owner, John Henry Cox. Captain, John Henry Cox. 1789-1790. Sealer to n/w America. She is a 152-ton Britsh snow, later named Gustavus III and sailed under Swedish flag though still owned by Cox.

1789: Mercury (of 1789). Owners, Swedish. Capt John Henry Cox. Exploration. A nominally Swedish voyage, ship earlier named Gustaf III, Cox being a nominal Swedish official looking into n/w America, see re his later career and trading at Canton.

1789: HM Bounty. RN. Capt William Bligh. 1787-1789. Exploration, transfer of breadfruit from Tahiti. Former owners, Brown, Welbank, Petyt. See re mutineer Fletcher Christian, mutiny April 1789, etc.

Essay Section by Dan Byrnes

By 15 September, 1786 William Richards had offered three ships to Government for "The First Fleet". By 19 September, William Richards Jnr. and Fernie (who remains still unknown) contacted the East India Company directors offering Scarborough, Brothers, and William and Mary, then Scarborough, Brothers, William and Mary, Britania (sic) and Brittania (sic) to carry tea cargoes. By 25 September, the East India Company had surveyed at least three of Richards' ships, so that he could properly tender their use. The idea had increasingly taken hold that the costs of the exercise to government - (perhaps to the king's Civil List?) - would be lessened by bringing home tea from Canton. (By 23 September, William Wilberforce had been responsible for recommending the Rev. Richard Johnson as chaplain for the new colony).

Handcuffs graphic by Phillip Russell

Bateson,The Convict Ships, p. 80. A ship named Prince of Wales owned by James Mather, a South whaler, built at Sidmouth, 1779, captained by a John Mason, was not the POW of Fleet 1. But the Mather-owned POW may have been the ship POW sent by John and Cadman Etches mentioned by J. H. Meares, but the second POW was also owned by Mather. Shaw, Convicts and The Colonies, p. 76, Note 2. Pitt to Wilberforce, 23 Sept. 1796. Byrnes, `Emptying The Hulks', Note 29. In 1793, James Mather, was of Cornhill, managing a wharf at Blackwall. Other whale fishery wharves were Paul's wharf, Mr. Lucas' wharf at Rotherhithe.
Information for the name Borrodaile (Borradaile) is sketchy and indeterminate. William Borrodaile (died 1826) dealt in the Australian trade and became a member of the Van Diemen's Land Company; he was perhaps the brother of a woman who married into the Lloyd family of bankers? (George Sugden Le Couteur, Colonial Investment Adventure, 1824-1855: a comparative study of the establishment and early investment experiences in New South Wales, Tasmania and Canada, of four British companies. Ph.D. thesis, Sydney University. 1978., presents a list of members of the Van Diemen's Land Company, list of 1826. Broeze, Brooks, variously). William Borrodaile of Surrey was possibly the trader who had a first fleet ship? (Burke's Landed Gentry for Lloyd of Dolorbran.) He was of Bedford Hill, Streatham, Surrey. William Money was an East India Company shipowner, active 1790. (He was probably the one in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Boxall with a daughter who married William Percival Boxall and see also, for Chatfield,  with a daughter of one William Money noted. (Chatterton, Mercantile Marine, pp. 94ff) Richard Borradaile Lloyd (1839-1913) was a London banker, son of Richard Harman Lloyd and Isabella Mary Borradaile; he married Catherine Jean Campbell Money. (Burke's Landed Gentry for Lloyd of Dolorbran. Julia Money (died 1902), was daughter of Rev. William Money, noted in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Ryder/Harrowby. In general, the Borradaile descent involves the later names, Money, Gurney and Lloyd the banking family. See also, Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Wigram.

The shipowners Richards dealt with as he gathered the First Fleet included Leightons, Hoppers of Scarborough, William Walton and Co., the whaler James Mather and the Greenland whaler, alderman William Curtis, (though most of these merchants did not continue their involvements with the Pacific).

Whether he realised it or not at the time, Richards would develop numerous worthy ideas about servicing the new colony's needs for shipping. But also whether he knew it or not, he was inviting the competition of merchants who wished to see the Pacific explored commercially. Richards' more idealistic ideas were inimical to their ambitions.

So Richards gathered other ships: the Three Brothers, Friendship, Britannia, Scarborough, Lady Penrhyn, later Alexander in lieu of Friendship, then Golden Grove in lieu of Three Brothers; and Borrowdale in lieu of Young William (Young William may have been a whaler owned by the whaler Daniel Bennet, later of Blackheath). Later, Richards tendered Fishburne and another Friendship to complete his contract.
Oldham, his original thesis: Wilfrid Oldham, The Administration of the System of Transportation of British Convicts, 1763-1793. Ph.D. thesis. London University. 1933., pp. 415, 430, 468, 430.

Richard's own ideas for use of the ships were well in line with government policy on the colony's purpose and likely development, and would have been useful if pursued. Government, as though in contempt of its own guidelines, first pulled the rug from under him by accepting tenders much cheaper than Richards' and allowing an atrocity to occur - the Second Fleet - then allowing a consortium of whalers and slavers - the Third Fleet - to organise more shipping than Richards could organise.

But who paid for it all? It seems, the First Fleet transportation was paid for from the king's Civil List. Maxine Young, writes: "Before 1815, it was the practise to borrow money from the king's current Civil List revenues to pay the running costs of New South Wales and other expenses concerning the colony. The money advanced was repaid by parliament in the next Miscellaneous Supply Grants."
Paying for the new convict colony from the king's Civil List might be the explanation for one striking feature of the exercise - it was consistently underfunded. If so, any notion of the new colony being an Imperial venture is given a slightly different complexion - a complexion suffused with the hues of royal outrage at the continued state of crime, at men unworthy, in the king's eyes, to remain in the kingdom!
Maxine Young, 'The British administration of New South Wales, 1786-1812', pp. 23-41., in J. J. Eddy and J. R. Nethercote, From Colony to Coloniser: Studies in Australian Administrative History. Sydney, Hale and Iremonger, 1987.

Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor (1795-1796) Sir Wiliam Curtis
Descendants of Joseph Wapping CURTIS, (b.1715;d.1771) business of sea biscuits at Wapping and sp: Mary TENNANT (d.1789)
2. London Lord Mayor, Freemason, Sir William CURTIS, Bart1 (b.1752;d.1829) sp: Anne CONSTABLE (m.9 Nov 1776;d.7 May 1853)
3. Investor in Australian Agric. Co., Charles CURTIS (b.1795;d.1878) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN
4. Charles William CURTIS sp: Miss NOTKNOWN 4. Henry Downing CURTIS 4. Maj-General DSO, Reginald CURTIS (b.1863;d.1922) sp: Hilda Margaret BARRINGTON (m.1894;d.1929)
3. George CURTIS (b.10 Sep 1784) 3. Banker Timothy Abraham CURTIS, investor in Australian Agricultural Co. (b.30 Jan 1786;d.1857) sp: Margaret Harriet GREEN wife1 (m.1809;d.8 Jun 1847) 4. Lt.-General William Frederick CURTIS 4. Colonel James Charles CURTIS sp: Frances Pitt (Browne?) CONSTABLE (m.17 May 1851) 3. Sir William CURTIS, Bart2 (b.2 Mar 1782;d.1847) sp: Mary-Anne LEAR (m.19 Nov 1803;d.1864) 4. Sir William CURTIS, Bart3 (b.26 Aug 1804) sp: Georgina STRATTON (m.18 May 1831) 4. George CURTIS (b.15 Sep 1805) 3. Rebecca Mary CURTIS sp: RN Capt. Timothy CURTIS 4. Army Capt. Constable CURTIS (d.30 Mar 1909) sp: Henrietta Mary Anne ADAMS, cousin
2. Biscuit baker, Freemason, Timothy CURTIS of Hackney (b.1743;d.1804) sp: Elizabeth WILDBORE, (a cousin) 3. William CURTIS 2. James CURTIS (b.1750;d.1835) 2. Rev. Charles CURTIS, Bengal India (b.1784;d.1805) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN 3. RN Capt Timothy CURTIS sp: Rebecca Mary CURTIS 4. Capt. (army) Constable CURTIS (d.30 Mar 1909)


December 1786: A London wit wrote satirically:
Away with those whimsical bubbles of air,
Which only excite a momentary stare;
Attentions to plans of utility pay,
Weigh anchor, and steer for Botany Bay.
Let no one think much of a trifling expense,
Who knows what may happen a hundred years hence?
The loss of America what can repay?
New colonies seek for at Botany Bay.


Of the First Fleet ...

Lady Penrhyn was owned by Alderman (later, Sir) William Curtis. She was also chartered by alderman Macaulay once she'd left Sydney to go to Nootka Sound for seal furs under Lt. John Watts, but ended arriving at Tahiti, thence China, before Bligh arrived at Tahiti in HMAV Bounty (as noted above).

Lady Penrhyn, convict transport, females only, 333 tons, Capt William Crofton Sever of 12 Princess Square, Ratcliffe Highway. Chief mate Nicholas Anstis, (master of Surprise of the Second Fleet). Took prisoners at Deptford or Spithead. Owner, alderman William Curtis. Possibly built Thames, 1786 and therefore her maiden voyage? Under East India Company Charter, departing Sydney in May 1788 after discharge from government employ in March. On leaving Sydney, taking a declaration from Gov. Phillip, proceeded east, Capt. Sever in July naming Macaulay and Curtis Islands after the owner and the alderman having chartered the vessel to obtain furs on the North-west American Coast. As the crew by then had scurvy, the ship went to Tahiti, thence China for a cargo of tea. The vessel may possibly have been named for the Lady of Richard Pennant, Lord Penrhyn, Chairman of the Planters and Merchants of the West Indies. Vessel later sold to the London firm of Wedderburns and put to the London -Jamaica run. E. A. Stackpole in "Whales and Destiny" presumes her voyage was an exploration of potential whaling grounds.
Lloyd's Lists of this period indicate - Also to China was alderman G.M. Macaulay's ship Pitt, Capt. G. Couper. Some other ships registered with Lloyds that year (1786-1787) were the First Fleet ships, Scarborough, Capt. J. Marshall, owned by Thomas Hopper, to Botany Bay, and Prince of Wales, Capt. J. Mason, for Botany Bay, owned by South Whaler J(ames) Mather of Cornhill.

Prince of Wales, Capt. John Mason. Convict transport, 350 tons. Mason died, being replaced by Samuel Moore on the voyage home. Ship built Thames in 1786. Launched 12 August after building by Christopher Watson and Co. Departed Sydney to be in England via Cape Horn and Rio, reaching Falmouth on 22 March 1788, at Deptford April 30. Owned by James Mather, South whaler, merchant of Cornhill. This vessel later continued to sail out of London.

Alexander, 445 tons, Capt. Duncan Sinclair. Convict transport. The largest ship of First Fleet. Owners, Walton and Co. of Southwark, firm headed by William Walton. Took late-arriving convicts before she sailed. Surgeon, William Balmain. Some 16 male convicts died before she sailed. Left Sydney about 13-14 July, 1788, in company with Borrowdale, Friendship and Prince of Wales.

Storeship Fishburn, 378 tons, owned by Leightons. Capt. Robert Brown, storeship, 378 tons. Acting mate, Keltie, sometime RN. First mate is [Archibald?] Armstrong. Discharged from government employ on 18 November, 1788, being delayed whilst cellars were built ashore for Fishburn's cargo of three years' supply of rum. Thence England via Cape Horn and Rio de Janeiro for England in company with Golden Grove, until losing sight of her on 11 April 1789 at Falklands for recovery of sick members. She arrived home to be discharged from HM service at Deptford on 25 May 1789.

Storeship Borrowdale owners, Leightons, 275 tons, departing 13 May 1787 as part of First Fleet. Contracted by William Richards Jnr. Crew of around 20. Capt. Hobson Reed (also perhaps known as Readihon Hobson?). Second mate was one William Richards (it is not known if he was a relative of Richards the fleet contractor). Departed Sydney 14 July, 1788 for England via Cape Horn and Rio as one of the ships in government employ for the round trip, under the direction of Lt John Shortland, agent for the Transport Department. Crew so bad with scurvy that by mid-October, her captain took her into Rio de Janeiro.

Storeship Golden Grove, Capt. William Sharp. Storeship, 375 tons, owners unknown. First mate Simms, later on William and Ann of the Third Fleet. Departing England 13 May 1787. On this vessel came colony chaplain Rev. Richard Johnson. Left Sydney on 12 October 1788 to take 21 male and 11 female convicts to Norfolk Island. On 19 November 1788, left in company with Fishburn, both storeships delayed for want of a storehouse to hold their cargo (says Gillen who lists some crew). Home via Cape Horn. Also stayed at Falklands as crew had scurvy. (Gillen says she was 331 tons.) Later she was possibly put on Liverpool-Jamaica run, disappears from records.
References various: Bateson, Gillen, Founders of Australia.

Friendship, convict transport, 274 tons. Owned by George Moorson with Thomas, George and John Hopper of Scarborough. Capt. Thos. Walton. Master, Francis Walton. Ship scuttled on way home 14 July 1788 in Straits of Macassar in company with Alexander as crew bad with scurvy, resulting in a legal battle by owners, so annoying the contractor, William Richards. The case put to Treasury for reimbursement dragged on for several years (see a later file here). Took prisoners aboard at Plymouth. Carrying some prisoners from the Mercury mutiny including John Best.

Charlotte. Convict transport, 375 tons, probably owned by James Mather. (Mathews?) Mather may have once bought Cook's old ship, Endeavour, which was sunk as part of a blockage of Newport, Rhode Island, during the American Revolution? (a story still to be properly verified). Capt. Thomas Gilbert (not to be confused with Capt. John Gilbert of the Second Fleet, first appointed to the Neptune, with whom John Macarthur duelled before Gilbert was replaced by Capt. Donald Trail).). Out of government employ by 25 March, 1788. Departed 13 May 1787, from Portsmouth, part of First Fleet. Charlotte was later sold to Bond and Co., Walbrook merchants, and put to the London-Jamaica run, according to Bateson.
1 December, 1788: Alexander Duncan at Canton, a correspondent of Sir Joseph Banks, as was Alexander's brother, mentioned to Banks one Capt. Gilbert of a Botany Bay ship, a stuffed "kon-goroo" aboard which weighed 70 lbs. Alex Duncan was surgeon to the EICo factory, sought Banks' favours, which later were granted. (Dawson, Banks Letters, p. 281)

Scarborough. Convict transport, 430 tons, owned by Hoppers of Scarborough. Captain John Marshall. (The Hopper Islands were named for them.) Had an EICo charter for China tea. This ship was later placed in the Second Fleet for different contractors.
Shipowners Hoppers are listed in Treasury Board Papers petitioners with others letting ships to the Transport Board, T1/695, Reel 3553. They were the only shipowners letting vessels to NSW who were familiar as shipowners with the Transport Board, a fact probably meaning they already knew William Richards. Capt. William Richards, son of the First Fleet contractor, later commanded the convict transports Prince Regent, I, (3) in 1827; Roslin Castle, in 1833-34-35 to NSW.
(Bateson, The Convict Ships, pp. 347ff. See also Connah, Rowland and Oppenheimer, Captain Richard's House at Winterbourne - A Study In Historical Archaeology. Dept. of Prehistory and Archaeology, University of New England. 1978. Ch. 5.
Hoppers of Scarborough whose name was commemorated in the Hopper Islands named by Marshall. Made a second trip to Sydney with the second fleet, contractor being Calvert. (Capt. Marshall also named another island after Constantine John Phipps.)

Storeship Fishburn, 378 tons, owned by Leightons. Capt. Robert Brown, storeship, 378 tons. Acting mate, Keltie, sometime RN. First mate is [Archibald?] Armstrong. Discharged from government employ on 18 November, 1788, being delayed whilst cellars were built ashore for Fishburn's cargo of three years' supply of rum. Thence England via Cape Horn and Rio de Janeiro for England in company with Golden Grove, until losing sight of her on 11 April 1789 at Falklands for recovery of sick members. She arrived home to be discharged from HM service at Deptford on 25 May 1789.

Storeship Borrowdale owners, Leightons, 275 tons, departing 13 May 1787 as part of First Fleet. Contracted by William Richards Jnr. Crew of around 20. Capt. Hobson Reed (also perhaps known as Readihon Hobson?). Second mate was one William Richards (it is not known if he was a relative of Richards the fleet contractor). Departed Sydney 14 July, 1788 for England via Cape Horn and Rio as one of the ships in government employ for the round trip, under the direction of Lt John Shortland, agent for the Transport Department. Crew so bad with scurvy that by mid-October, Capt. took her into Rio de Janeiro.

Storeship Golden Grove, Capt. William Sharp. Storeship, 375 tons, owners unknown. First mate Simms, later on William and Ann of the Third Fleet. Departing England 13 May 1787. . On this vessel came colonly chaplain Rev. Richard Johnson. Left Sydney on 12 October 1788 to take 21 male and 11 female convicts to Norfolk Island. On 19 Nov. 1788, left in company with Fishburn, both storeships delayed for want of a storehouse to hold their cargo (says Gillen who lists some crew). Home via Cape Horn. Also stayed at Falklands as crew had scurvy. (Gillen says she was 331 tons.) Later she was possibly put on Liverpool-Jamaica run, later disappears from records.
References various: Bateson, Gillen, Founders of Australia.

Note: 26 March, 1789: Francis Masson at Cape Town sends Banks 422 species of seeds and or bulbs, per Alexander transport from NSW. (Carter, Banks, 1988. Noted from pp. 560ff, Appendix XIA)


1788: Across decades, revisionist have been afoot about the first British governor of Australia, Arthur Phillip. Many writers have seen him a small man doing an inadequate job, some kind of failure. A newly-arising view (January 2002) is that he was "a man of considerable intellect, widely read, a son of the European Enlightement, a gentleman proud to dine in his home with Sydney's most powerful Aboriginal warriors and a dedicated adherent to the rule of law", and also "organisationally brillant" with commanding the First Fleet (all from former NSW premier, Bob Carr). Professor in Australian History at University of New England, Alan Atkinson, rather demurs. Town planning was not one of Phillip's strengths, and the governor was "a highly imaginative authoritarian", he said. (Reported 26 January 2002, Australia Day)


Even by December 1788, decisions on "Botany Bay" were still fluid. Nepean had an idea that Nova Scotia might be settled as an alternative to NSW, that matters were flexible, that destinations could be changed. On 1 December, the Recorder of London had a long conference with Lord Sydney. The Times reported that the "The season is over for sending them [convicts] to Quebec or Nova Scotia, but assurances have been given that two ships, properly fitted up, shall be ready [within months] to carry convicts to America." There was an idea to send some men to Newfoundland in the fleet for the next season.
David L. Mackay, A Place of Exile: The European Settlement of New South Wales. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1985., p. 58. Ged Martin, 'The Alternatives to Botany Bay', pp. 152-168 in Ged Martin, (Ed.), The Founding of Australia: The Argument about Australia's Origins. Sydney, Hale and Iremonger, 1978.

1789: Note: The Nootka Sound area seized by Spanish who curtail British activity in the area. British merchants including William Curtis (owner of Lady Penrhyn) later protest vigorously. "The Nootka crisis" ends won by British interests.


THE SECOND FLEET

Part 2 - Section 4

The term "The Second Fleet" is something of a misnomer, as this "fleet" of five ships was split into two wings. The second three ships (Neptune, Scarborough and Surprise) were solely organised by the London firm of slavers, Camden, Calvert and King, who virtually sidelined Richards for future transportation business.
Note: 17 July, 1791: Sir Joseph Banks is consigned various samples by Capt. Trail, Neptune transport. (Noted from Carter, Banks, 1988, pp. 563ff, Appendix XIB)

The other Second Fleet ships were Lady Juliana, 401 tons, given a tea cargo by EICo, contracted for by William Richards, a slow sailor which still has the reputation of being a "floating brothel". Plus the ill-fated supply ship, HM Guardian.

Lady Juliana Capt. Aitkin: Owner, William Morris (who is little known). Contractor, William Richards. Ship taken up by September, 1788. (In October 1788, Richards laid before Treasury an extensive plan for convict transportation, by which time he knew little of what had already transpired at Botany Bay. The first First Fleet ship to return was Mather's Prince of Wales, 22 March, 1789.) Lady Juliana had freight by Richards and Moore. By 2 February, 1789, Richards had contracted to carry 226 female convicts. A crew member was Edward Powell who later came out free settler on Bellona. She had aboard Lt. Thoms Edgar, who had been out with Cook's last voyage as master on Discovery
Bateson, The Convict Ships, variously. Sian Rees, The Floating Brothel: The Extraordinary Story of the Lady Juliana and its cargo of female convicts bound for Botany Bay. Hodder, 2001.

THE THIRD FLEET

Part 2 - Section 5

The first four ships of the Third Fleet carried freight for India, most, if not all, for Nepean's friend, Alexander Davison. Governor Phillip was to complain on their arrival that space had thus been used which could have been filled with goods for the colony.
Phillip to Lord Grenville, 8 November, 1791, and to Navy Board, 9 November, 1791, HRA, I, I, pp. 295, 300-301.

So the vexed issue arose again, of private trade in a colony which had not been intended to develop an economy - a patently unworkable policy. Strategically, on a global front, it appears the London whalers were testing the usefulness of Sydney as a refreshment base, and also experimenting with the carriage of convicts and/or stores as a way of paying part of the voyage out. Certainly, the Third Fleet revealed deliberate exploratory strategies useful for the whalers.
Information given here comes from various sources. On freight, Navy Office Accounts, HRNSW, Vol. 2, as cited above. See Byrnes, 'Outlooks', variously. Otherwise Bateson, Cumpston, Stackpole, Dakin, Steven and footnotes in other sources too numerous to list. On the fate of Matilda, foundering near Tahiti, see Kennedy, Bligh, cited above. See also, R. Hodgkinson, Eber Bunker. Canberra, Roebuck, 1975.

Hitherto, reliance on an alleged but never-proven role of the East India Company in the establishment of New South Wales has prevented useful questions being asked about the strategic deployment of shipping by the Southern whalers. Contemplation of the East India Company attitude to the activities of Macaulay, Calvert, and other convict contractors to Sydney before 1800 is for the most part a study in the muttering acceptance of the inevitable. A Company chairman, Francis Baring, quite early remarked on "the serpent we are nursing at Botany Bay".

On 18 November, 1789 Camden, Calvert and King were awarded a contract for the Third Fleet, specifying 1,820 English convicts and 200 Irish. In mid-December Treasury informed the Navy Board that some of the ships to be sent were nearly ready to take their stores and provisions aboard.
J. C. Garran, 'William Wright Bampton and the Australian Merino', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society. Vol. 58, Part 1, March, 1972., p. 2. Other details are in Byrnes, 'Outlooks', variously. Garran has followed up his views on Bampton, and on Macaulay's Capt Edward Manning on Pitt, in J. C. Garran and Leslie White, Merinos, Myths and Macarthurs: Australian Graziers and their Sheep, 1788-1900. Canberra, Australian National University Press, 1985. Garran is interesting also on maritime outcomes after Phillip chartered Atlantic to purchase stores at Calcutta, and his views seem valid. And ibid., pp. 20, 31ff, 126ff.

Convict transport Mary Ann, 298 tons, carrying 150 female convicts, part-owned by her captain, Mark Monroe, according to Bateson may or may not be regarded as a Third Fleet ship. She sailed "independently" in 1791 (February 1791) with HM Gorgon, a storeship which also carried convicts. Mary Ann went whaling via Norfolk Island/Peru; she was owned by Mark Monroe and/or Lucas & Co.

Lists: The Third Fleet of convict ships to Australia:

Transport and storeship, Matilda, 460 tons, also whaler. Freight by Alexander Davison. Whaler. Contracted by Camden Calvert and King (CC&K). Possibly owned by Calvert. Capt. Matthew Weatherhead. Usually a south whaler but wrecked near Tahiti and some crew picked up by Bligh in HM Providence on his second breadfruit voyage. To Sydney by 1 August 1791. Thence fishery. Originally intended to Peru and/or India.
Note: Apparently mysteriously, 26 March 1792 a small vessel touched at Tahiti, Prince William Mary, and took some of wrecked Matilda's crew thence N/W coast America/Nootka Sound. In 1793: Whalers Jenny and Britannia called at Tahiti and picked up some of Matilda's crew. Presumably, the owners of these ships were in touch with each in London.

Convict transport and storeship, not a whaler, Atlantic, 422 tons. Some freight by A. Davison. Transport. Contracted for by CC&K. Capt. Archibald Armstrong. Went various trading voyages for Gov. Phillip to Calcutta . On return from India to Sydney in 1792, Phillip went home on her. Also went later to Norfolk Is.

Transport/whaler Salamander, 320 tons, Freight by A. Davison. CC&K contracted. Capt. William Irish. Owned by Joseph Mellish. Surgeon J? Nichol. To Sydney by 21 Aug., 1791. Thence Norfolk Island. Fishery - Norfolk Island/India.

Usually a whaler, William and Ann, 370 tons. Convict transport. Freight by A. Davison. Owned by Enderbys or Enderbys/St Barbe. Usually a South Whaler. Contracted CCK. Capt. Eber/Ebor Bunker. Portsmouth Division of fleet. Crew inc. Simms, first mate on Golden Grove of First Fleet 1. To Sydney, 28 August, 1791. (Bateson)
Eber Bunker (1761-1838, died NSW). The Bunker clan of Nantucket was extremely large, and today, much of their genealogy is available on the Internet. See Hodgkinson on Bunker, p. 4, p. 47 and elsewhere. See Newsletter of the Royal Australian Historical Society (RAHS), July 1972 p. 8, and June-July, 1976, p. 4-5. See Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers, p. 19, p. 30ff re Albion. Hainsworth, Sydney Traders, p. 239, p. 242. Eber's mother's name was Hannah, see R. Hodgkinson, 'Eber Bunker-Whale-Ship Captain of Parramatta', Newsletter Royal Australian Historical Society, June-July, 1986, pp. 4-5. Birthdate in Newletter of RAHS, July 1972, p. 8, in an article by Olive Havard which says Bunker had sheep on the Namoi at Keepit when he died in 1836, but this sheep matter cannot be verified by Tamworth's local historians. (Tamworth is the present writer's home town.) There is a genealogical tree of Eber's wife in the ML prepared by Marie Fearn, See Hogkinson, 'Eber Bunker - A New Look', Journal RAHS, March 1979., pp. 252ff. See Hodgkinson's treatment of Bunker at Liverpool, Sydney etc. In 1795 he sailed for Alexander and Benjamin Champion. Then Eber sailed for Enderbys. He had left Nantucket for England in 1786. His lineage as given by Hodgkinson, 'New Look', pp. 253-254, goes back to the Mayflower via his grandmother, Desire Gorman, and he was related to John Howard and Elizabeth Tilley. About the time of the American Revolution, James Bunker and his brother Simeon Bunker took a whaling lease in Barrington, Nova Scotia, but the effort failed as the British Government promoted her home ships (that is, Enderby ships of London).

Transport, Active, 350 tons, Capt. John Mitchinson. Arriving Sydney 26 Sept. 1791.

Transport and storeship, non-whaler, Queen, 380-400 tons. Owned by Enderbys whalers. Stores by A. Davison. With Irish convicts. Contractors, CC&K. Capt. Richard Owen. Only vessel sailing from Ireland. Arriving Sydney 26 Sept., 1791. Thence Norfolk Is/New Zealand. Fishery, Calcutta/India.

Transport/storeship, non-whaler, Albermarle, 530 tons. Grossly overcrowded. Freight by A. Davison. Contractors, CC&K. Capt. George Bowen. Arriving Sydney 13 Oct., 1791. Thence Bombay via Norfolk Is.

Transport, storeship, whaler, Britannia, owned by Enderbys. Freight by A. Davison. Other freight by St. Barbe and Green by account dated 15 Dec., 1791. Contractors, CC&K. Capt. Thomas Melville who had recently on Friendship been into the Pacific via Cape Horn and by South America for Enderbys. Arriving Sydney 14 Oct., 1791. Thence pioneered Australian whale fishery on NSW coast/Norfolk Island area.

Transport, non-whaler, Admiral Barrington, 527 tons, grossly overcrowded. Freight by Alex. Davison. Contractors CC&K. Capt. Robert Abbon Marsh/Petter Gossan. Surveyed by EICo re experiment in new method of surveying. Ship may have been earlier connected with Greenland Fishery. Arriving Sydney 14-16 Oct., 1791. Thence New Zealand, Bombay. In 1792 she was driven from her Bombay anchorage by gale to the Malouine Islands and wrecked. Some crew were slain by natives.

Transport William and Ann, 370 tons. Freight by A. Davison. Owned by Enderbys although Stackpole suggests owned by Calverts. Usually a South Whaler. Contractors CC&K. Capt. Ebor/Eber Bunker. Crew includes Simms, first mate on Golden Grove of First Fleet. Arriving Sydney 28 Aug., 1791.


SHIPS AFTER THE THIRD FLEET

Part 3 - Section 1

A variety of issues arise with discussion of the movement of convict and other ships between the Third Fleet and 1800. Some issues are with the question, how was the trading of the NSW Corps officers funded? Other issues arise regarding the dominance, if any, of any particular London merchants interested in the new Australian colony. Thirdly, were any London merchants interested in financing the officers of the NSW Corps? (The answer to which seems to be, no. The officers of the NSW Corps are treated in The Blackheath Connection - Chapter 40).

For example, between 1792-1800, John Macarthur, the paymaster of the NSW Corps, Sydney, drew Bills on the Corps' London agent (Cox, Cox and Greenwood) for more than £46,000 for investment in imported goods. (Are Hainsworth's entertaining speculations here erroneous or not?)
See D. R. Hainsworth, The Sydney Traders: Simeon Lord and his Contemporaries, 1788-1821. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1972., pp. 25ff.

Attention will be given here to the dates of the departures of convict ships, due to the matter of assessing the earlier decisions and motives of the shipowner involved - and any groupings amongst them. Australian historians have never given this matter attention, which is partly why we lack treatments on the population of merchants involved. Especially before 1800, whenever a ship was being prepared by her owners for a voyage to Botany Bay, news from the ship(s) most recently arrived from Botany Bay was still filtering through London. Especially at Blackheath. Each ship sailing for Botany Bay sailed first through a context of opinion developing in London about the new Australian colony.

Also it needs to be explained that in order to transport convicts, a shipowner had to tender his ship to the Navy Board/Transport Board, have her surveyed and accepted, and then he or his agent were required to sign a contract for the transportation with the only official in London empowered to make out such contracts, Thomas Shelton at the Old Bailey. (Shelton answered to the Home Office and by 1807 if not before, all his contracts listed the counties and areas the convicts came from.) Whether a ship was accepted by the EICo to take a cargo from ports under their control was a separate matter. All such business can be well illustrated by the departure of Pitt, owned by alderman George M. Macaulay.

In Navy Office Accounts (1793), found in Historical Records of NSW, are found lists of merchants taking contracts regarding ships for Botany Bay. For Pitt's voyage, the contract takers are listed as G. M. Macaulay and a man who was actually his neighbour, John St. Barbe. Both men at Blackheath lived close to the whalers Enderby. St Barbe was a whaling investor, Macaulay had earlier been interested with Lady Penrhyn in exploring prospects for sealing at Nootka Sound, and both Macaulay and St Barbe were underwriting names at Lloyd's in the City.

Shelton's Contract No. 5, was dated 15 June, 1791, with George Mackenzie Macaley (sic) for the Pitt, which usually sailed as an East Indiaman to China for tea and was wholly owned by Macaulay. (Inside Pitt was a small ship-in-frame, Francis, which was used on the coast about Sydney, reputedly put together and launched by Capt. William Raven - who was a partner with St Barbe in Britannia, a ship notable in its day in Sydney Harbour. (Unusually, it appears an original contract for Pitt remains with the NSW State Archives.)

At right: Macaulay's ship Pitt

Convict transport Pitt

15 June, 1791:
Indenture for the Pitt, copy of original, made on June 15, 1791, thirty first year of Geo III, .... between Thos Shelton of the Sessions House in the City of London, and George Mackenzie Macaulay of Chatam Place London, [transportable felons] 224 cons, 227 [names], And Whereas His Majesty by His Royal Sign manual bearing date at His Court of St James's the [15 June] 1791, [by act of parlt in 28th year of reign], initiated "an Act to continue several laws relating to the granting a bounty on the exportation of certain species of British and Irish linens exported, and taking off the duties on the importation of foreign [?] and yarns made of flax and to the preventing the committing of frauds & bankrupts and for continuing and (?) [of] several laws relating to the imprisonment and transportation of Offenders and has graciously thought fit to authorise and empower the above-named Thomas Shelton to make a Contract or Contracts with any person or persons for the effectual transportation of all the above named Offenders and to take securities from that person or persons so contracting for the effectual transportation of them pursuant to the sentences and orders aforesaid concerning them respectively And Whereas the said Thomas Shelton by virtue of such power and authority and in consideration of the Contract and Agreement of the said George Mackenzie Macaulay hereinafter mentioned and of the security to be given by him the said George Mackenzie Macaulay .................... by Bond or Writing obligatory for the effectual performance thereof hath agreed to and with the said George Mackenzie Macaulay (he being a fit person to transfer all the several before named Offenders unto him the said George Mackenzie Macaulay and his Assigns for such and the same terms for which they were ordered to be transported as herein abovementioned And the said George Mackenzie Macaulay in consideration thereof and of the property which he and his Assigns will have in the service of the said Offenders for and during the remainder of such terms and for divers other good and valuable Considerations him (?) (?) hath contracted and agreed to and with the said Thomas Shelton for the effectual transportation of the said Offenders pursuant to the sentences and orders aforesaid concerning them respectively Now This Indenture witnesseth that the said Thomas Shelton (?) of the power and authority given to him in this behalf as aforesaid and in pursuance of his said agreement with the said George Mackenzie Macaulay ...doth transfer all the several before named Offenders unto him the said George Mackenzie Macaulay and his assigns for such and the same terms for which they were ordered to be transported as herein before mentioned - And the said George Mackenzie Macaulay for the considerations aforesaid hath contracted and agreed and by their presents for himself his executors and Administrators and Assigns Doth contract and agree to and with the said Thomas Shelton in manner following, that is to say, that the said George Mackenzie Macaulay and his Assigns shall and will forthwith take and receive all the several before named Offenders and transport them or cause them to be transported effectually as soon as conveniently may be to the Eastern Coast of New South Wales or some one or other of the Islands Adjacent pursuant to the sentences and orders aforesaid concerning them respectively And shall and will procure such evidence as the nature of the case will admit of the landing there of the said several before named Offenders (death and casualties by Sea excepted) and produce the same to whom it may concern when lawfully called upon And shall not nor will by the wilful default of him the said George Mackenzie Macaulay or his Assigns suffer the said Offenders or any or either of them to return to Great Britain or Ireland during the respective terms .....
sgd in presence of ? Fitzpatrick and one other illegible, Thomas Shelton and George M Macaulay. Macaulay on 11 July, 1791 then agreed to assign [the prisoners] tho Gov. Phillip and his assigns, and all his rights in them, on 11 July, 1791.
(Probably, after the convicts had been loaded?)

Pitt, 775 tons, sailed under Capt. Edward Manning, arriving Sydney 14 Feb., 1792. Lloyd's Register for 1789 says she sailed 26 December, 1788, under Capt. Manning "for St Helens and Bencoolen, built 1780, husband G Macaulay". Carter in his biography of Banks says that by 2 January, 1793, botanist Colonel Robert Kyd at Calcutta, only months before his death, put on Pitt Capt Manning various samples including a mango tree for Banks. This then was on Pitt's return voyage from Sydney/China.
Carter, Banks, 1988, noted from pp. 563ff, Appendix XIB.

On 15 July, 1791, the surgeon on Pitt reported smallpox aboard. Opinons on the matter differed.

The general context of Pitt's departure can be guaged from the following ...

By April 1791, after squabbles with the Spanish, Vancouver was being sent from England to Nootka Sound to restore the trading post there and to further survey the Sandwich Islands.
K. M. Dallas, Trading Posts or Penal Colonies: The Commercial Significance of Cook's New Holland Route to the Pacific. Hobart, Fuller's Bookshop, 1969., p. 43. Margaret Steven, Trade, Tactics and Territory: Britain in the Pacific, 1783-1823. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press, 1983., pp. 82-83.

Interests in the Pacific had become more intensely concentrated since early in 1791. In January, London's South Whalers led by Enderbys had submitted a Memorial to the Committee for Trade asking for legislation on proposals that their vessels be allowed to proceed from the South Pacific to the Nootka Sound area, north of NW America. Enderby had expected that the whalers would use the new convict colony as a refreshment base. Of course, if interested in furs from Nootka Sound, the South Whalers were also interested in sales to the Chinese merchants at Canton - which might have made EICo hackles rise.

During April 1791, a new Bill was being drafted - for opening a trade through the South Seas to China. The EICo was firm that India-registered ships should not be permitted to trade between Asia and the north-west sealing coast of America and the adjacent islands. It was no accident here that St Barbe would also send his partner on Britannia, Capt. William Raven, to seek seal fur at Dusky Bay, New Zealand. (Cook had earlier noted the number of seals at Dusky Bay.) Nor an accident that the Bristol whaler Sydenham Teast sent mariner Charles Bishop into the mid-Pacific. It was also as a matter of whaler politics, no accident that after the second fleet had departed, Anthony Calvert and the whalers organised a third fleet, of course excluding William Richards and his interests. The third fleet after delivering its convicts to Sydney would split into two arms. One arm went into the Pacific, whaling. The other ships, with trading contracts for the Calvert firm, went either to China or India. The inspired whaler in the planning operations for this convoy was probably John St Barbe, who after the Third Fleet had left, personally arranged with George M. Macaulay for Pitt to carry out convicts. After the Third Fleet operation, the whalers continued to carry out convicts and their continuing interest in the Pacific whaling grounds was perfectly illustrated when after 1798 (during which wartime year, ships for their own protection were required to sail in convoy), they sent out the first really well-organised flotilla of whaling ships since the Third Fleet.

With whaler politics, the situations facing the EICo were that whalers and their associates (by the Whalers Bill of 1791) would be allowed to utilise EICo banking facilities at Canton - as a "new and independent traffic in their own preserve", meaning, freelancers could come into Canton with mixed cargoes and sell to the Hoong merchants. According to whaling historian Stackpole, the EICo directors recognised that the South Whalers had mustered "overwhelming political support", so the EICo had "conceded tho retaining their control of the China Trade at Canton." The Bill's passage was not quick, but later, Pitt had some patience vindicated by success of a Bill allowing whalers greater freedom to fish in Australian waters.
Eduoard A. Stackpole, Whales and Destiny: The Rivalry between America, France and Britain for Control of the Southern Whale Fishery, 1785-1825. University of Massachusetts Press, 1972., p. 155, Refer: Act 32 Geo III. c. 73 and Act 33 Geo III c. 90.

So while Bligh's second breadfruit voyage to Tahiti was being arranged, a great deal of other British shipping moving into the Pacific was also being contemplated. Bligh's latest ship, HM Providence (a new West Indiaman) was launched on 25 April. Bligh had received his comission for her by 16 April. Francis Godolphin Bond was appointed First Lt to Providence (420 tons launched at Blackwall, purchased from Mr Perry, ship to have marines from Chatam, a complement of 134 men.)

Contractor to government and a friend of Evan Nepean at the Home Office, Alexander Davison, by 4 May, 1791, had dated an account to Navy re Pitt, for £8846/10/8d for supplies. So Davison must have been prompted to act as supplier somewhat earlier. Also loaded in Pitt would be the 41-ton ship, in frame, with stores and furniture, Francis, valued at £901. Presumably then, Macaulay had decided by early May or even earlier to send her to Botany Bay, and presumably the Navy had unofficially decided already to use her. Assessment here may depend on conversations Macualay had with other residents of Blackheath, probably Enderbys and St Barbe.

In fact, a variety of word was about. By 18 May, 1791, (Grenville to Sir George Yonge), two extra companies of the newly raised NSW Corps were advised to go on Pitt, then lying at Gravesend. Two such companies were at Chatam Barracks, (the other company of the NSW Corps would remain in England until further ships were taken up.)

By 20 May, 1791, Lt. Richard Nairne was appointed as naval agent to Pitt, confirmed by Treasury. By about 21 June, 1791, Pitt was possibly at Portsmouth. On 23 June, an anonymous letter regarding convicts on Pitt was received by government officers, to be referred to by Henry Dundas, who the same day wrote to Treasury on convicts to be put aboard her. The later-wealthy Sydney colonist, John Piper (youthful in the NSW Corps), was on her at Portsmouth by 23 June. As was the later convict artist at Sydney, Watling, "the limner of Dumfries", sent from the Lion hulk at Portsmouth to the custody of Capt Manning of Pitt. Piper had entered the army (NSW Corps) as an ensign only the month before, in April.
Lloyd's Register for 1792-1793, East Indies list, noted: Sailed late 1791, Pitt 775 tons Capt Manning for NSWales and China, built river 1780, husband G Macaulay.

More news of Botany Bay would also soon come to hand, since by 5 May, 1791, Albermarle of the Third Fleet had arrived at St Jago; she sent a letter by a French ship which mentioned other Botany Bay ships, HM Gorgon, Admiral Barrington and Britannia.

Also, by 12 May, 1791, the First Fleet contractor, Richards, still hopeful for more business, wrote to Chas Long, Esq (at Treasury), offering to manage 300 convicts on a hulk - in England. (That is, Richards had conceived notions of competing with the major contractor then managing hulks prisoners, Duncan Campbell.)

News would also spread of William Bligh preparing for a second breadfruit voyage. Bligh by 17 May, 1791, was wanting supplies for HM Providence - in a letter he wrote, could Mr Larkins at Mr Perry's Dock at Blackwall supply wood? (And was this Mr. Larkins part of the Larkins family of Blackheath which owned Royal Admiral, which would soon follow Macaulay's Pitt to Botany Bay? A question on early British interest in the Pacific might be: just how cohesive - even, inspiring - were the interests of the mariner families of Blackheath?
This letter is noted in George Mackaness, (Ed.), 'Fresh Light On Bligh: some unpublished correspondence', Australian Historical Monographs, Vol. 5, (New Series). Review Publications, Dubbo, NSW, Australia, 1976 (Reprint). Lloyd's Register for 1791 indicates: Ships in EICo service, sailed 17 April, 1790, Royal Admiral Capt. E. H. Bond, for China, built River in 1777, husband T Larkins, 914 tons.


Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor 1759-1760 Sir Thomas Chitty with reference also to the Bond family of Newbury -
Descendants of Josiah Joseph CHITTY (b.1658;d.1713) and sp: Sarah HUSE (b.1681;d.1727)
2. Director Bank of England, London Lord Mayor, Sir Thomas CHITTY (c.1760;d.17 Oct 1762) sp: Eleanor HUBAND 3. Joseph CHITTY sp: Sarah CARTWRIGHT (d.4 May 1820) 4. Charles CHITTY (b.1804;d.1886) sp: Susannah Elizabeth Jordan JOURDAN (b.1786;d.1876) 5. Maj-General Walter Theodore CHITTY (b.10 Aug 1826;d.1904) sp: Helen Alves JAMESON (b.25 Nov 1834;m.1855;d.28 Jan 1884) 6. Helen Alves CHITTY (Helen II) sp: Senior NOTKNOWN 5. Arthur Whatley CHITTY (b.1824;d.1905) sp: Mary Anne JAMESON (m.1862;d.11 Jul 1823) 6. Ernest Richard Inglis CHITTY sp: Dorothy Ida Ada RAMSAY (m.1894) 7. Arthur Alexander Ernest MERLOTT-CHITTY sp: Anna Theodora OGILVY (c.1921;m.1922) 4. Barrister Joseph CHITTY (b.1776;d.1841) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN-9711 5. Thomas CHITTY (b.1802;d.13 Feb 1878) sp: Eliza CAWSTON 6. Thomas Edward CHITTY (d.4 May 1888) sp: Mary Ann WILLES 7. Barrister Sir Thomas Willes CHITTY, Bart1 (b.24 Jun 1855;d.15 Feb 1930) sp: Emily NEWBOLT wife1 (d.17 Aug 1903) sp: Beatrice Maud HALE 3. Eleanor CHITTY (c.1762) sp: Dockmaster George BOND (c.1762;d.1851) 4. Rev. Charles Frederick BOND sp: Miss NOTKNOWN 5. Essex Henry BOND (c.1772) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN (c.1780) 6. Capt. Essex Henry BOND (No. 2) (c.1792)
5. Essex Henry BOND (c.1772) 4. EICo, Capt. Thomas BOND (c.1788) 4. Miss BOND sp: Mr BROWN 4. Barrister George BOND sp: Kitty COOKE 5. Capt. Essex Henry BOND (b.Sep 1762)
(He is Capt of Royal Admiral I, convict transport to NSW in the early 1790s, owned by the Larkins family of Blackheath (He entered EICo service and made several voyages as a mate, then became captain. His first command seems to be as Capt of Royal Admiral on its fifth voyage to China, between 17/4/1790 and home 26/9/1791. On this voyage, a call at St Helena meant Bond married Mary Young on 1 May 1791. Some of their sons served with EICo also. After this, Royal Admiral's next voyage was to NSW thence China.) sp: Mary YOUNG
5. George Phillips BOND (d.1875) sp: Caroline Selina WOODWARD (m.1840)
6. Genealogist Peter Joseph Entwistle BOND
2. Josiah CHITTY (b.1691;d.1756) sp: Margaret THORNTON 2. Jacob CHITTY-20626 (b.1693)

Dark mutterings

Part 3 - Section 2

The scuttling of the Friendship: There were darker, unhappier mutterings about disaster ships going into the Pacific. Mentioning Richards, and regarding the earlier-dated charter party for the First Fleet, the owners of Friendship, after they had heard of her scuttling, had correspondence around 15 July, 1791. Mr Secretary Long of the Treasury wrote to Comm of Navy re the memorial of Samuel Hopper and other owners of Friendship; the owners (including Samuel Hopper) wanted to charge government for the loss of the ship, not the owners of Alexander. (Walton and Co. of Southwark.) Opinions on legalities were to be sought from the attorney-general. (Letter of 19 August, 1791.)

In a letter of 9 August, 1791, William Richards to the Navy Office referred to the scuttling of Friendship and freight of the ship; Richards at least was reimbursed for his own losses by Friendship (some £350/18/9d.)
See Historical Records of Australia, i, i, 1792-95, pp. 38-40. Treasury Board Papers, T1/695 Reel 3553, ML.

Convict ships listed by date of departure

Part 3 - Section 3

Note: Bateson lists ships by date of arrival at Sydney. Some are re-listed here by date of departure.

Referencce item 1790: Michael Flynn, The Second Fleet: Britain's Grim Convict Armada of 1790. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1993.

HM Gorgon: A naval ship, basically a storeship but carrying 31 male convicts. She sailed 15 March 1791, arriving Sydney 21 September. Best seen as a "loner" ship.

Another convict ship for Australia - Pitt: Departing June-July 1791 for Sydney, arriving 14 February, 1792. Capt. Edward Manning. Owned by London alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay.

Another convict ship for Australia - Kitty, Capt. George Ramsay. Departing March 1792 - Arriving 18 November, 1792.

Another convict ship for Australia - Royal Admiral 1: Departing 30 May 1792 - Arriving October 7, 1792.
Re: 1792 - Capt. Essex Henry Bond on convict transport Royal Admiral... Owned by Thomas Larkins, according to Bateson (p. 140), "a member of perhaps the most prominent family associated with the EICo's shipping"...
Cathy Dunn, Ladies of the Royal Admiral, 1792. Milton NSW, Cathy Dunn, c1996.

Follows a list of some descendants of EICO dockowner/ships husband Thomas LARKINS
1. Dockowner/ EICo ship's husband Thomas LARKINS (b.1746;d.1794) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN Miss 2. William LARKINS of Point House, Blackheath (b.1756;d.1800) 2. EICo shipowner John Pascal LARKINS (b.1765;d.1818) sp: Mary Ann SAMPSON 3. Georgiana LARKINS (IGI data only) (b.Mar 1802) 3. John Pascal LARKINS (IGI data only) sp: Mary Anne NOTKNOWN (IGI data only) (c.1827) 4. John Pascal LARKINS (IGI data only) (b.Jul 1827) 3. Susannah LARKINS wife1 (d.14 Jan 1832) sp: Sir Frederick CURRIE, Bart1 (In India) (b.3 Feb 1799;m.7 Aug 1820;d.11 Sep 1875) 4. Rev Sir Frederick Larkins CURRIE, Bart2 (b.18 Apr 1823) sp: Eliza Reeve RACKHAM wife1 (d.14 Apr 1861) 5. Sir Frederick Reeve CURRIE, Bart3 (Unm) (b.13 May 1851;d.27 Feb 1830) 5. Sir Walter Louis Rackham CURRIE, Bart4 (b.16 Mar 1856) sp: Bertha FREEMAN (m.28 Jun 1892;d.15 Jun 1951) sp: Mary Helen CORRIE wife2 4. Major Mark Edward CURRIE (b.10 Sep 1824;d.14 Dec 1868) sp: Jane wife1 UPWOOD 5. Lt-Col Frederick Alexander CURRIE sp: Geraldine Lucy GRAVES sp: Catherine GRAVES 4. Katherine Louisa CURRIE (d.26 Mar 1914) sp: Rev Edwin Francis Mersham DYKE of Kent (b.27 Sep 1842;m.22 Nov 1870;d.26 Aug 1919) 3. Jane Emma LARKINS (IGI data only) (b.Feb 1810) 3. George LARKINS (IGI data only) (b.Dec 1807) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN 4. J. P. LARKINS - at Calcutta sp: Miss NOTKNOWN 5. John Johnny LARKINS (c.1815) 3. Capt . Thomas LARKINS of London (c.1805) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN 4. EICo sailor William LARKINS Died Young (b.1770;d.May 1786)
See E. W. Bovill, 'Some Chronicles of the Larkins Family: the convict ship, 1792', The Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1954., pp. 120-121. George Thompson, 'Slavery and Famine: Punishments for Sedition, or An Account of the Miseries and Starvation of Botany Bay, by George Thompson, who sailed in the Royal Admiral May 1792 with some Preliminary Remarks by George Dyer, BA. Edited by George Mackaness, Sydney, Australian Historical Monographs, Vol. XXXI, New Series, (Orig. 1947).



Enderbys had a white lead factory (paint factory) at Gravel Lane, Southwark - an industry based on whale oil. George Enderby to his grandchildren in 1875 produced a debatable quote which ought to be famous ... "You will I think on consideration be of the opinion that unless there had been whaling ships to carry out the first convicts to Sydney, that the Government would have been obliged to select some nearer spot for the convicts..."
Samuel Enderby Junior of Croom Hill, Blackheath was by 1820 recommending the annexation of New Zealand as a way to control whalers and traders on its coasts, although by 1819, Australasian whale oil was virtually barred from London. D. R. Hainsworth, The Sydney Traders: Simeon Lord and his Contemporaries, 1788-1821. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1972., p. 139. See AGE Jones, Ships Employed, pp. 266ff.

Charles Enderby (d.1876), promoted the development of coastal New Zealand. His parents' generation had been part of The Blackheath Connection. The younger Enderby generation was notable for letting their whaling industry slip from their grasp, and failing to re-establish a new South Whale Fishery ranging New Zealand waters by 1849. A letter of 16 September, 1823, from S. Enderby and Son, William Mellish and Daniel Bennett and Son, to Lt. Col. Edward Nicolls, Royal Marines, outlined the advantages of whalers operating from New Zealand if a settlement existed there.
The names Enderby-Mellish-Bennett in this 1823 context are seen in pp. 28-31 of Phyllis Mander-Jones, (Ed.), Manuscripts in the British Isles Relating to Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific. Canberra, Australian National University, 1972. Adams, Fatal Necessity, listings. Broeze, Brooks, p. 227 on the 1849 South Whale Fishery failure. Note: When he returned home from examining New South Wales, Commissioner Bigge had used an Enderby home at Greenwich/Blackheath to write his three reports on the state of New South Wales. P. P. King a commissioner to the AA Co. had his shares in the AACo jointly with the Enderbys who acted as his agents. (Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 48., citing AA Co. Minutes, 4 July, 1833.) Such details suggest that with any suggestions concerning New Zealand development, Enderby interests were assuming the continued satisfactory progress of New South Wales. See also Historical Records of New Zealand, pp. 608-609. P. Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 205, Note 2.

By 1832, the complexity of merchant associations acting on Australasia was pronounced. From 1832, Robert Brooks, by then a convict contractor also, became interested in promoting an Australian whale fishery. He was still interested by 1848 when other London owners were Young, and Parbury, By 1846, Towns also was interested in whaling. Oil prices however collapsed in England in 1847-1848, In June 1849, Brooks actually joined the revised Southern Whale Fishery as a director. By January 1849, Charles Enderby with £100,000 capital initiated the Southern Whale Fishery to operate from the Aukland Islands south of New Zealand, and Enderby himself went out to Port Ross. Brooks was an investor, but all this was liquidated in a few years. Some investors in the venture were Frederic Somes (a convict contractor), John Gilmore, shipbroker W. S. Lindsay; and other shareholders included Thomas Baring and his partner Thomas Bates (who originally was an American), oil merchants William Beale and Elhanan Bucknell, shipowner Money Wigram (yet another convict contractor ), and a New Zealand shipbroker Willis. In Sydney, Robert Towns became agent for this second whale fishery.
Broeze, Brooks, p. 227 and Ch. 12, p. 109, p. 248. Robert Cambell to 1841 eased out of sperm whaling for sperm when the business began to sag from 1837. Whale oil prices collapsed in England in 1847-1848.


What might Enderby's father have thought of these failing ventures? Samuel Enderby Senior died in London in 1797, and in a sense, his passing marked the end of Phase One of The Blackheath Connection.

Some descendants of Samuel Enderby Senior (1718-1797) and his wife Elizabeth Buxton were:
2. Samuel Enderby Jnr., a whaler (b.1754;d.1829) sp: Mary (Gladwyn?/Goodwin
3. Elizabeth Enderby sp: Lt-General Henry William Gordon, the parents of 4. Major-General Charles George "Chinese" Gordon of Khartoum (b.1833;d.1885)
3. Mary Enderby who married Bostonian, Nathaniel Wheatley
3. William Enderby, 3. Henry Enderby (Gentleman, d.1876)
3. Mary Enderby who married Rev. G. Matthews of Blackheath.
3. New Zealand Co. investor Charles Enderby (d.1876),
2. George Enderby who married Miss Sampson, who remains unknown, but was probably related to Mary Ann Sampson, who married John Pascal Larkins of Blackheath, of the family owning convict transport, Royal Admiral.
2. Charles Enderby (b.1753;d.1819) sp: Elizabeth Goodwin
2. Whaler George Enderby (b.1762;d.1829) sp: Harriott Sampson ,
2. Confusingly, Mary Elizabeth Enderby married Charles Buxton (m.1783), son of George Buxton (d. 1805) FRS and Maria Chandler, while her sister 2. Hannah Enderby married Charles Buxton, son of Isaac Buxton and Sarah Fowell..

The Enderby family was solidly of the Blackheath area.

Amongst the Buxtons, some notable names were the Blackheath oil cooper, of Croom Hill,
, also a partner in a business at St Paul's wharf ...
Charles Buxton (b. 1703), married Hannah Read; 2. Dr George Buxton, FRS (b.1730;d.1805), 3. Charles Buxton sp: Mary Elizabeth Enderby (m.1783) 2. Isaac Buxton (b.1733) sp: Sarah Fowell (m.1755),
4. MP Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, Sir, Bart1 (b.1786;d.1845) sp: Hannah Gurney of Norfolk (m.1807;d.1872) of the Gurney financier family;
5. Sir Edward North Buxton Sir, Bart2 (b.1812;d.1858) sp: Catherine Gurney (m.1836;d.1911),
5. Thomas Fowell Buxton (d.1908) sp: Rachel Gurney (m.1845;d.1872) 5. Brewer, MP, Charles Buxton (b.1822;d.1871).

Follows, material from the will of Enderby Snr...
PROB 11/1297.

Samuel Enderby's will, today partially illegible, was proved at London on 31 October, 1797. He was of Earl Street in the City. His eldest son was Charles, whose much-mentioned sister Mary Elizabeth would inherit goods, furniture, plate china & glass, linen, books, pictures... a coach and two coach horses, plus coach furniture...various silver plate and linens, best chest of drawers, table, looking glass with wash hand basin, bed and bedsteads and all new furniture, white counterpanes, bedsteads. Son George inherited dining tables, two "Elbow Chairs" and other chairs in a new dining parlour, a mahogany bedstead, furniture various, and maybe some card tables. Wine and liquors were to be "equally divided".

Two sons got outbuildings, "a building yard and appointments thereto belonging and now in my occupation... Sons Charles, Samuel and George got amongst other things, due to an arrangment of 25 March, 1787, a co-partnership between their father, "Ships Debts Goods so as merchandise or otherwise to the amount & value of Eight Thousand Pounds apiece... I have since taken my son George into such copartner[ship] and "give him in like amount of Eight Thousand Pounds Now I do Hereby Confirm such gift respectively in favour of my said three Sons and further give to my Son's son Charles the sum of two thousand seven hundred pounds and to my sons Samuel & said George two further sums of five thousand pounds ... "

... "and Whereas I did by my Bond say on or about" [in 1787] ... he gave Mary Elizabeth £2000 [and perhaps an extra £5000] independently of husbands she might marry. And/or, money for her daughters Elizabeth and Mary on their majority.

There was also dated 29 January 1789 a complicated-but generous arrangement for Hannah, who had married Charles Buxton (or for Charles himself? It is unclear.). There was also mention of Reverend Mr Hugh at Salter's Hall, Mr Worthington, Mr Pastor Bowes Minister at [Dorchester or Surrey?], the Governors of Saint Thomas, Southwark, "my Brother in Law John? George Buxton and his wife, Sarah Buxton and John Buxton, Charlotte Ellison [servant?] if living, Sarah Buxton, George Buxton, and his wife, William Goodwin and his Wife, Mr Winter, Mr Bond.

Such was the will of an affluent, energetic man who had done something to provide ships to government for convict transportation. But the whalers would largely abandon the NSW fishery. For 8-9 November, 1799, Saunders Newsletter in London reported on 15 whalers "taken by Spanish cruisers" off the coast of South America.
HRNSW, Vol. 3, p. 741. See also Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers, p. 17: London was informed that fifteen whalers off the Pacific Coast of South America had been captured by the Spaniards.

This newsletter had reported that early in 1799, the whalers Sally, Bligh, Cornwall, Swain, Pomona, Clark, Diana, Lock, Britannia and Nautilus had left Sydney for employment in the NSW fishery. There were far more vessels working west of South America... About the time Enderby Senior died, only one more fleet of whalers would visit Sydney Harbour.
NB: Mention of Nautilus suggests Teast had her properly listed by the London-based whalers.

Reference item 1789: H. E. Maude, 'In Search of a Home: from the mutiny to Pitcairn Island (1789-1790)', Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. 67, 1956., pp. 104-131.

Reference item 1789: Robert V. J. Varman, The Bounty-Tahitian Genealogies of Pitcairn Island descendants on Norfolk Island. Central Coast, NSW, 1992

Reference item 1789: Paul Lareau, The H.M.S. Bounty Genealogies. St. Paul, Minnesota, 3rd Edition, 1995 (?)

Reference item 1789: George Mackaness, (Ed.), 'Fresh Light On Bligh: some unpublished correspondence', Australian Historical Monographs, Vol. 5, (New Series). Review Publications, Dubbo, NSW, Australia, 1976 (Reprint).

Reference item 1789: Richard Humble, Captain Bligh. London, A. Baker Ltd., 1976.

1789-1790: US ship Massachusetts is built at Quincy in 1789 for the US-China trade, badly, due to use of unseasoned white oak. By the time she got to Canton, she and her cargo of timber and barrelled beef were rotted and decayed, and she was sold.

1789: Iphigenia - British registry; William Douglas, master; arrived 20 July, 1789, departed 20 Aug., 1789. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1789: Columbia - Boston registry, ship; Robert Gray, master; arrived in August 1789. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1789: Mercury - British registry, brig; Capt. John Henry Cox, master; arrived 23 Sept., 1789, departed 25 Sept., 1789; George Mortimer on board. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1789: Joseph Lucas, is a Southern whaler.

1789: HM Guardian, Lt Riou. 12 Sept., 1789. 12 convict artificers contracted for by Richards. Wrecked at Cape of Good Hope, iceberg. Regarded as Second Fleet. (12) Hoppers of Scarborough. F2. Anthony Calvert.Capt. John Marshall. Scarborough. (13) F2 Surprise. Capt. Nicholas Anstis, chief mate of Lady Penrhyn, F1, slave fetters etc. On 27 August, 1789, George Whitlock of Crutched Friars, London, contracted (acting as agent for Camden, Calvert and King) for the transportation of 1005 convicts. His fee was pounds 22,370/2/8d. Proportionately less than the cost of the first embarkation. Ref DC/16.14. Also regarding Second Fleet, Justinian, Capt. Benjamin Maitland, EICO charter. Mr William Hamilton: (This name bobs up in records in July 1787 with whalers Mestairs, James Moree of Surrey, John Leach and James Dunn):

1789: May, 1789, St. Barbe and Co. have out whaler Stormont, Capt. Jas Bennett
May, 1789, Curling and Co. have out whaler Experiment, Capt. Will. Lucas
May, 1789, Enderby have out whaler Sandwich, Capt. Jas Shields.
May, 1789, Lucas and Spencer have out whaler Ranger, Capt. Mat. Swain.
Curling and Co. have out Experiment Capt. Will Lucas.
Lucas (Jos) and Spencer have out Ranger Capt. Mat. Swain.
Peter Mestairs has out Jupiter Capt. Daniel Coffin.

Year 1790

1790?: Estimated, active 1790s? British-American financier, Andrew Craigie (little known).

1790: Contractor, military supplies and various, MP Joseph Mellish (1716-1790), till replaced by Peregrine Cust. (From MNP's specialist sub-lists on merchants who are contractors to goverment)

1790: Scarborough (2). Owners Unknown. Captain John Marshall. 28 June 1790. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1790: Out July,1790. First south whaler in the Pacific. Enderby, Emilia, Capt. Jas, Shields.(exploring),

1790: Philadelphia. US-owned. Captain Thomas Patrickson. 1 Nov 1790 - Speculation trader to Sydney. Also to China.

1790: Neptune. Owner Unknown (maybe Camden, Calvert and King). Captain Donald Trail. 28 June 1790. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1790: Justinian. Owners Unknown. Captain Benjamin Maitland. 20 Jun 1790 - 28 July 1790. Storeship, trader to China.

1790: HM Gorgon. RN. Captain John Parker. 21 Sep 1790. Supply ship to Sydney. See Bateson.

1790: HM Pandora. RN. Captain Edward Edwards. Departed Portsmouth in November 1790. Wrecked on coral 29 August, 1791 about 5km northwestof Moulter Cay, 120km east of Cape York. Seaman William Moulter took pity onthe caged prisoners and freed ten of them. Some 89 of the ship's company survived. Mission to capture Bounty mutineers. See re unexpected capture of Mary Bryant and other convict escapers heading north from Sydney. A 24-gun frigate. Called to Matavia Bay, Tahiti, in March 1791. Tracked down 14 of Bounty mutineers, those who had not gone with Fletcher Christian to Pitcairn Island. Edwards caged his prisoners and searched at Cook Islands, Union, Samoan and Society islands. Had stopped at Sydney, then proceeded to Torres Strait. Wreck regarded as perhaps Australia's most significant shipwreck. Surgeon was George Hamilton, whose gold watch and surgical instruments were retrieved during 1984 work on the wreck. Pandora went down in one piece, settled onthe bottom and has remained largely undisturbed.

1790: Chesterfield. Owners Unknown. Captain Matthew Bowles Alt. 18 Nov 1790 - 10 Mar 1791. Whaler. Is still around NSW by April 1792, Cumpston's Register.

1790: HM Discovery. RN. Capt George Vancouver. 28 Sep 1790. Pacific exploration

1790: Waaksamheyd. Owner, Unknown. Capt Detmer Smith. 17 Dec 1790-28 Mar 1791. Food supplies for Sydney NSW. Or, De Waak Zaamheid - "Good Look Out".

1790: Joseph Ingraham on a trading voyage to the Pacific Northwest encountered six islands no American had before; he called them the Washington Islands -- today among the Marquesas Islands in French Polynesia.

Year1790

1790: Surprize (1). Owner Unknown. Captain Nicholas Anstis. 26 June 1790. Convict transport. Anstis had been chief mate of Lady Penrhyn.

1790: Britannia (Capt Raven). Owner John St Barbe. Captain William Raven. 25 Jul 1790- Oct-Dec 1790. Sealing. Cumpston's Register, To Dusky Bay, NZ, sealing.

1790: Eleanora - American registry, brig; Simon Metcalf, master; by ordering the Olowalu Massacre, Simon Metcalf provoked the natives to retaliation. This the Hawaiians accomplished by capturing the Fair American and murdering all the crew except Isaac Davis. When John Young, the boatswain, was sent ashore from the Eleanora a few days later, he was held by natives for fear he would tell Metcalf of the fate of the crew of the Fair American. Young and Davis became two of Kamehameha I's chief advisors. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1790: Fair American - American registry; Thomas Metcalf, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

Year 1791

1791: Reference item: Con Costello, Botany Bay - The Story Of The Convicts Transported From Ireland to Australia, 1791-1853. (On the transportation of 45,000 Irish.) Pub, 1987, 172pp.

Out 21 Dec., 1791: Curling, William on Britannia (?)

1791: Salamander. Owner, Unknown. Captain J. Nicol. 21 Aug 1791. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1791: Matilda of Third Fleet. Owner, Unknown. Captain Matthew Weatherhead. 1 Aug 1791. Convict transport, then to India. Cumpston's Register.

1791: HM Chatham.. RN. Captain W. R. Broughton. 1791. Exploration about Australia. With Discovery.

1791: Britannia (1). Owner, Samuel Enderby Snr. Captain Thomas Melville. 14 Oct 1791. Convict transport of Third Fleet. Samuel Enderby and Sons, see Bateson.

1791: William and Ann. Owner, T. &J. Mather (maybe). Captain Eber Bunker. 28 Aug 1791. Convict transport, whaler. First mate Sims is from Golden Grove earlier to Australia. Is he one of the Sims London whalers to be noted after 1800? See her in 1801, master Thos Harrison owned by Thos and Jn Mather, AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 236.

1791, Atlantic (1a). Chartered to India by Gov of NSW. Owners Unknown. Captain Archibald Armstrong. Convict transport of Third Fleet. From Calcutta. 20 June 1792 carrying food, cattle, sheep, goats to NSW. See Bateson.

1791: Panther. EICo. Captain John McCluer. Exploration. In 1791-1792, For EICo, with ship Endeavour, McCluer is a captain-hydrographer, suveying Palau and New Guinea coast before going west to Bencoolen via North Australian coast.

1791: Active, owner Unknown, Capt John Mitchinson, 26 Sep 1791, Convict transport, then to Bombay. Cumpston's Register.

1791: Albermarle, Owner Unknown, Capt George Bowen, 13 Oct 1791, Convict transport, Cumpston's Register.

1791: Admiral Barrington, Owner Unknown, Capt Robert Abbon Marsh, 16 Oct 1791, Convict transport, Cumpston's Register.

1791: Asia (US-1), M/O?, Capt Elijah Coffin, 1791, 1792 at Sydney, Whaler, sealer from Nantucket Island. Item from Wace and Lovett, p. 45.

1791: Queen. Owners, Unknown. Captain Richard Owen. 26 Sep 1791. Convict transport,part of Third Fleet. Cumpston's Register.

1791: Racehorse. Owners, Unknown US of 1791. Capt John Kendrick. 1791 to Hawaii. Exploring, gather sandalwood. Of Boston. Bostonian Kendrick finds sandalwood on Kauai of Hawaii.

1791 March -- John Kendrick became the first American to reach Nippon, Japan. 1792. (This item is from a US timeline website on maritime history.)

Reference item 1790++: David T. Hawkings, Bound for Australia. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1988. (A book helpful for genealogists)

1790s, Rhode Island: Cyprian Sterry, mainly of Providence Rhode Island, USA, slave trader of the 1790s with 15 voyages to Africa in 1794. Link to Captain Samuel Packard.

London families

Part 3 - Section 4

1799: Another convict ship for Australia - Friendship, 430 tons: Capt. Hugh Reed.
Owned by "prominent London shipowners", John and James Mangles. Departing Cork with Minerva, August 1799 - Arriving Sydney 16 February 1800. It is not generally appreciated that the first governor of Western Australia, James Stirling, had married to this same Mangles family, who thus had more connections to Australian pioneering than has been realised!
From an e-mailer ofMay 2010, Dear Merchant Neworks team, following up your last re. any image of the convict ship Minerva, I note that the surgeon aboard was John Washington Price who produced an illustrated journal of his travels. Is it possible that he may have made a watercolour or sketch of the ship. Also noted that Price was taught how to draw etc by the artist John William Lewin among whose works, apart from the superb illustrations of flora and fauna, there may also lurk a painting of the ship, in a general scene perhaps? Cheers, Peter.

Robert Mangles (1731-1788) of London was of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, and had sons John and James. About 1750 he went to London and set up as a ships chandler. (In litt per Ian Berryman in WA in March 1996.)
The Mangles genealogy given here has been sourced from the following references: ADB entry for James Stirling, governor of Western Australia. The IGI. Burke's Landed Gentry for Norman of Bromley Common. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Onslow. Cameron, Ambition's Fire, pp. 38-44. Hasluck, Thomas Peel, pp. 18-21ff. Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 421 and elsewhere. Stenton, British Parliamentarians, Vol. 1, pp. 258-259. On the banker family, Norman; Sir Henry Clay, Lord Norman. London, Macmillan, 1957. pp. 1-12. Youssef Cassis, `Bankers in English Society in the late eighteenth century'', p. 215. Cassis, City Bankers, p. 226. Kynaston, City of London, p. 29, p. 84. Burke's Landed Gentry for Lubbock formerly Bonham-Carter. ADB entry for General Sir Henry Wylie Norman, (1826-1904), governor of Queensland. Autobiography of George Wade Norman, Completed 3 September, 1857, Kent County Archives, Microfilm U310-F69. [Copy, Dixson Library, UNE]. On the genealogy of bankers Stone, see Clay, Norman, pp. 6-7. Lennard Bickel, Australia's First Lady: The Story of Elizabeth Macarthur. North Sydney, Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1991., pp. 175ff. Ralph W. Hidy, The House of Baring in American Trade and Finance: English Merchant Bankers at Work, 17630-1861. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1949., p. 15. Burke's Landed Gentry for Holland-Martin of Overbury.

1832++ James Mangles, a Whig MP For Guildford 1832-1837, son of Robert Mangles, was a ships chandler and an East India proprietor, also a director of the East India Company. He was part of the firm, F&C Mangles of London. (From a discursive citation we find that in Trevelyan's life of Macaulay, Vol. 1, p. 431, some of Macaulay's circle in India included Cameron and MacLeod the law commissioners, Mangles, Colvin and John Peter Grant, the latter three of a younger circle.) James Mangles seems to have married a woman Camden, who was maybe related to the family of Camden linked to the early convict contractors, Camden, Calvert and King? James the MP, married to Mary Hughes, had a nephew, Capt. [John?] Mangles, RN. James' address was 6 Cannon Row, London, and Woodbridge, Surrey. He was high sheriff for Surrey in 1808. This family, Mangles, is supposed to have once have had much discussion with James Stirling, later governor of Western Australia, on "colonising matters".
Some arcane ship-buying matters on Mangles' part are noted in Bateson, The Convict Ships, pp. 232ff and notes thereto. Confusingly, from 1816, the convict transport Mangles was owned not by Mangles, but by the Buckle firm.

Charles Edward Mangles, MP, "of the Australia trade" (1798-1873) also pursued East India interests. He was son of MP James Mangles, of F. G. Mangles and Mary Hughes, and was married to Rose Newcombe. Broeze, Brooks, p. 80, has Charles on the Board of the Union Bank of Australia (UBA), and as a senior partner of Mangles, Price and Co. (From 1834, Mangles Price and Co. were at New Broad St as names with Lloyd's.) It should be noted that the bank, Herries/Farquhar, became part of the UBA. Broeze, Brooks, p. 314, Note 56 has a man Mangles as treasurer of the Australasian Church Missionary Society by 1838. Pemberton, London Connection, p. 421. Charles was also chairman of the London and South-Eastern Railway, 1859-1872. Butlin, Australia and New Zealand Bank, p. 56 has him on the early board of the UBA.
I am grateful to Ian Berryman for discussion of some points here in litt. Broeze, Brooks, p. 80: by the 1830s the WA trade was dominated by Mangles Price and Co and the firm's senior partner Charles Edward Mangles was on the board of Union Bank of Australia.

1833: Circa: One element in the Mangles family story is of the "small world" variety, since two Mangles men married to sisters Newcombe - who were daughters of George Newcombe of the Audit Office. If working at the Audit Office by 1830, Newcombe may well have known of the auditing of the papers associated with the contract-making for transportation by Thomas Shelton, and of the bureaucratic arguments on that strange matter. Emily Mangles married to Norman, of the Norman banking family of Bromley Common, London. The Norman family connection meant some connection to the family Stone, of the bankers Stone-Martin, whose (financial ) history is linked to the origins of the bank begun by Francis Baring - although this financial history is not yet in useful detail. Further to the mysteries of the Stone banker family, Caroline Mangles married Rev. Arthur Onslow, who by his second wife, Marianna Campbell, had a son, Arthur Alexander Onslow, who married Elizabeth Macarthur, daughter of James II Macarthur and Emily Stone. Emily, who was from the same Stone family; Emily being daughter of banker, Henry Stone.
Here, in brief, one Harriet Herring married the later Sir Francis Baring. Her sister Mary married banker Richard Stone. Richard had a son, Henry Stone, banker of Lombard Street. In Clay's book on the bankers Norman, Henry Stone seems to be a partner in the bank Stone and Martin, later Martin and Co. From 1764, Francis Baring banked with his brother-in-law Richard Stone. Later, John Martin MP can be noticed in these family linkages, since the name Martin became linked with that of the Norman banker family of Bromley Common.

To 1833: Ross Donnelly Mangles (1801-1877) was an India Merchant, director of the East India Company, MP, son of MP James Mangles and Mary Hughes; he married Harriet Newcombe. Ross Donnelly was of 9 Henrietta St., Cavendish Sq., London, and of Woodbridge, Surrey. He had spent time in the Bengal Civil Service. He became a director of the New Zealand Co. and once visited New Zealand on banking matters, about 1841. He was a deputy-lieutenant of London. A liberal, he was also anti-Papist. He was appointed a Member for the Council of India in September 1858, to 1866.
Ellen Mangles of Woodbridge, Surrey, (1807-1874), married James Stirling, first governor of Western Australia. She once offered her own money to help failing Stirling businesses. She had five sons and six daughters.
Rev. Arthur Onslow (b.1773), rector of Crayford, Kent, was son of Lt-Col George Onslow MP and Jane Thorp. Arthur's first wife was Marianna Campbell, his second, Caroline Mangles.

1833: George Mangles is noticed in Catalogue of the Australian Historical Exhibition, 1-26 Feb., 1938. Australia's 150th Anniversary Celebrations Council. 1938. Copy Dixson Library, UNE. The West Australian settler arriving 1829, a stock manager, George Mangles was a cousin of Ellen Mangles, wife of Sir James Stirling. George left WA in 1833-34 to begin a shipping service.
Pamela Statham, (Compiler), Dictionary of Western Australians, 1829-1914. Two Vols. Vol. 1, Early Settlers, 1829-1850. Nedlands, Western Australia, University of Western Australia, August, 1979.

On the West Australian coast is a spot called Mangles Bay. Why is this? It is due to the marriage between Stirling, the first governor of Western Australia - as follows:

At first sight, it appears merely that the first governor of Western Australia, James Stirling, instrumental in moves to establish a colony there, had married Ellen Mangles. There was more to it than that, and the well-connected Mangles interests, mainly known as "an East India house", became a large investor in Australasia. Follows an impression of Mangles family history:
1. Robert MANGLES of London (b.1731;d.1788) sp: NOTKNOWN
2. Shipowner John MANGLES (b.1760;d.1837) married (probably) Harriet CAMDEN (c.1781;m.1781)
3. Capt RN James MANGLES (b.1786;d.1867)
2. MP for Guildford, James MANGLES (c.1800;d.1837) sp: Mary HUGHES (c.1823); 3. Australia trade merchant Charles Edward MANGLES (UBA) (b.1798;d.1873) sp: Rose NEWCOMBE (m.1832)l 4. Rose MANGLES (b.1835), 4. James Henry MANGLES (b.1832);
3. New Zealand Co member, Ross Donnelly MANGLES (b.1801;d.1877) sp: Harriet NEWCOMBE (m.1830), child, Louisa Malkyn MANGLES (b.1840) who married sp: Rev Henry Alexander MACNAGHTEN (b.1850;m.1873);
4. Emily MANGLES wife2 (d.1927) who married banker Charles Lloyd NORMAN (b.1833;d.1889);
4. Ellen MANGLES sp: John FENDALL (of a family active in British India) (b.1827;m.1854), child, 5. Louisa FENDALL who married Member of Supreme Court of India John LOWIS (d.1870), child 6. John Mangles LOWIS;
3. Ellen MANGLES of Woodbridge, Surrey, (b.1807;d.1874) sp: Governor WA Sir James STIRLING (b.1791;m.1823;d.1865), children including 4. Australian naval commander Frederick STIRLING (b.1829), 4. Andrew STIRLING (b.1826), 4. William STIRLING (b.1831), 4. Agnes STIRLING (b.1835), 4. Elenor STIRLING (b.1838) who married sp: James Alexander GUTHRIE (b.1823;m.1856;d.1873) and also to Orientalist/Writer, Forster Fitzgerald ARBUTHNOT (b.1833;m.1879;d.1901);
4. Soldier in India, Walter Albert STIRLING (b.1837;d.1857);
3. Emily MANGLES (b.1799), 3. Caroline MANGLES (c.1793) wh married Rev. Arthur ONSLOW (b.1773;m.1815), child (?) 4. Rev. Thomas George ONSLOW (b.1826) who married Edith Augusta HAWKINS wife1 (m.1853;d.1857) (Earlier, Lt-General Richard Onslow (1697-1760) was governor 1752-1759 of Fort St William in India His wife1 was Rose Bridges (died 8 Feb 1827-28) daughter of John Bridges. (Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Onslow. Namier/Brooke, Vol. 3, p. 230);
5. Edith Fanny HAWKINS (d.1944), sp: Charles Constable CURTIS (m.1882;d.1936)
3. MANGLES Hamilla Mary sp: William PRESTON RN, child 4. Ellen Jane PRESTON who married Stannard MCADAM;
4. D'Arcy Harrington PRESTON (b.1844), sp: Harriet UPAN; 4. Rev. (Prebendary of York), John D'Arcy Jervis PRESTON (b.1738) who married Jane CONSETT; 5. Admiral D'Arcy PRESTON (d.1847), sp: Sophia NARES; 6. RN, Unm, Edward Preston;
6. William PRESTON RN, sp: Hamilla Mary MANGLES, child, 7. Ellen Jane PRESTON;
7. D'Arcy Harrington PRESTON (b.1844), 7. Rev, Prebend York PRESTON John D'Arcy Jervis-108876 (b.1738);
6. John D'Arcy Jervis PRESTON (b.1795), sp: Wife1 Elizabeth SPENCE (m.1821), child, 7. John D'Arcy Warcop PRESTON (b.1795), sp: Emily Anne Augusta BROWNLOW; 7. Major Charles Edward PRESTON, sp: Ennisline MARTIN (m.1875);
7. Rear Admiral D'Arcy Spence PRESTON (b.1827), 7. JP William Warcop Peter PRESTON (b.1823) sp: Harriet Georgina Edith KERR (m.1864);
8. D'Arcy PRESTON, 8. Montague PRESTON;
7. Sophia Elizabeth PRESTON, sp: Rev. John BLOMEFIELD, 7. PRESTON Margaret Laura PRESTON, 7. Emily Ann PRESTON; and 7. Fanny PRESTON who married Sir Rev. Thoms Eardley BLOMEFIELD Bart3, (b.1820;m.1853). There was also a Western Australia settler, 3. George W. MANGLES, active about 1829.
//////// Ends list on Mangles family ////////

1790: In 1790 arrived to Sydney, Australia, Philadelphia, Capt. Thomas Patrickson. Then followed a lull. New moves came by 1792, when Hope, Captain Benjamin Page arrived to Sydney. (Via Cape of Good Hope, Page just happened to have aboard 7597 gallons of “new American spirits”, bought @ 4/6d gallon with a bill made out to the British Treasury.) Bartlett, p. 23, on US-Aust links over 20 years, between 1 Nov., 1792 and war of 1812, over 60 US ships visited Sydney, at least 20 bound for China, later came sealers and whalers.

Year 1791

1791: USA: Steamboat invented by John Fitch, of New Jersey; patented 1791. (This item is from a US timeline website on maritime history.)

1791: Mary Ann. Captain Mark Munroe part owner. 9 Jul 1791. Third Fleet convict transport. See Bateson.

1791: Jenny of Bristol. Owners Unknown. 1791-1792. To Nootka Sound from Bristol. She called at Tahiti to pick up Capt Matthew Weatherhead of wrecked Third Fleet ship Matilda

1791: Princess Royal - Formerly British registry, now under Spanish colors; Manuel Quimper, master; arrived Apr. 1791. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1791: Argonaut - British registry, merchant vessel; James Colnett, master; arrived Apr. 1791; credited with bringing first sheep to Kauai. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1791: Hope - American registry, brigantine, trader; Joseph Ingraham, master; arrived 6 Oct., 1791, departed 12 Oct., 1791. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1791: Lady Washington - American registry, sloop; Capt. John Kendrick, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1791: Hancock - American registry, brig; Capt. Crowell, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

Year 1792

1792: Contractor, naval supplies, John Taylor (died 1792). (From MNP's specialist sub-lists on merchants who are contractors to goverment)

1792: Royal Admiral (1). Owner, Thomas Larkins. Captain Essex Henry Bond. 7 Oct 1792. Convict transport, normally in EICo servicce. Later bought by William Wilson. See Bateson.

1792: Recherche. French. Captain Joseph-Antoine Bruni D'Entrecastaux. 1792. Exploration. In 1792-1793, also with ship Esperance.

1792: Pitt (1). London alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay. Captain Edward Manning. 14 Feb 1792. Convict transport, To Bengal, usually in EICo tea trade for Macaulay. Cumpston's Register.

1792: Philadelphia (of 1792). Owner Thomas Patrickson M/O. Captain Thomas Patrickson. Trader to China from Philadelphia. From Wace and Lovett.

1792: Kitty. Owner, Unknown. Captain George Ramsay. 18 Nov 1792 - 4 Jun 1792. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1792: Hope (first). Owners, Brown and Francis. Captain Benjamin Page. 1792 Sydney-Canton. 24 Dec 1792 - 10 Jan 1793. Sealer/trader from Providence, RI.

1792: El Descuvierta. Spanish Navy. Captain Alexandro Malaspina. 12 March 1792 - 20 April 1792. Exploration. Cumpston's Register.

1792: Hope of US (duplicate entry). Owners, Browna and Francis. Captain Martin Page. 1791-1792. Trader/sealer. Same as Benj Page?. From Providence RI, maybe same as Hope Benj Page?

1792: HM Providence. RN. Captain William Bligh. Second Breadfruit Voyage to Tahiti.

1792: Asia (USA), M/O?, Capt Elijah Coffin, 1791, 1792, Shark Bay, Australia. Whaler, sealer, to Cocos Is. From Nantucket Island. Item from Wace and Lovett, p. 45.

1792: Active (whaler1) Owners, Wilkinson and Reynolds, Capt Ranson Jones, 21 Jan 1790, 27 Feb 1792, Whaling, See AGE AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 193.

1792: Elijah Coffin in April-May 1792 is captain of the whaler-sealer Asia (owners unknown) from Nantucket, to Shark Bay n/w of West Australia, Cocos Island; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett) Coffin was from a very large family of Nantucket whalers/mariners.

During 1792-1793 sailed, Asia, possibly master/owner, Capt. Elijah Coffin. (for Shark Bay, n/w Australia?) In 1792-1793, Hope, owned by Brown and Francis of Rhode Island, Capt. Benjamin Page. Also in 1792, Philadelphia, possibly master/owner, Capt. Thomas Patrickson to Sydney.

December 1792, A British vessel Jenny reached Nootka Sound, from Bristol, she had called at Tahiti and picked up Capt. Matthew Wetherhead off the wrecked Matilda, earlier a ship of the Third Fleet to Australia. So Wetherhead must have been waiting on Tahiti deliberately on South Whale Fishery business, as he could have gone earlier with Bligh on Bligh's second breadfruit voyage pick-up. 17 December, 1792, Bligh in Providence called at St Helena where she received orders from England pointing locations in West Indies at which she was to touch, and deliver cargo. On Providence Bligh had picked up part of the crew of the wrecked London whaler, Matilda, wrecked near Marquesas Islands. Matilda wrecked at night near Muroroa or Osnaburg Island. 21 survivors. Bligh met them at Matavi Bay, Tahiti.

1792: Discovery - Capt. George Vancouver; accompanied by Chatham; arrived 2 Mar., 1792, departed 16 Mar., 1792. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1792: Chatham - Lieut. William Robert Broughton; accompanied Discovery; arrived 2 Mar, 1792, departed 16 Mar., 1792. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1792: Daedalus - British naval store ship; Lieut. Hergest; arrived 7 May, 1792, departed 12 May, 1792. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1792: Columbia - Boston registry, ship; Robert Gray, master; arrived 29 Oct, 1792, departed 3 Nov., 1792. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1791: Halcyon - Charles William Barkley, master; arrived 8 Nov., 1792, departed 15 Nov., 1792. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1792: Margaret - American registry, ship; Capt. Magee, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1792: Jenny - England; Capt. Baker, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1792: Dec. 1792, convict transport Boddingtons, Capt. Robert Chalmers, for William Richards, who had engaged Augustus Beyer. EICO charter for ship.

Out 28 April, 1792: ? Bros of Dunkirk Capt. D. Swain.

Year 1793

Out May, 1793: Simon Paul Queen Charlotte. (?) Estimate: Simon Paul of Tottenham Court Rd, May 1793, had out Queen Charlotte in fishery. TI/719.

1793: List of Subscribers to John Hunter's "Transactions", 1 January, 1793.
Addington, speaker, HOC; Pepper Arden; Sir Joseph Banks; Sir Charles Bunbury; Mr Barnard Jnr; Richard Barwell Esq; George Chalmers; Alexander Dalrymple; Alexander Davison; Samuel Enderby; W. Faden; Lord Grenville; John Hunter (surgeon); Lord Hawkesbury; Sir George Jackson; Mr Alderman Macaulay; Evan Nepean; Rt. Hon. W. Pitt; Mr Richardson; Vis. Sydney; Sir James Sanderson, Mayor; Robert Thornton; Nicholas Vansittart; Sir George Young.

August, 1793: (Stackpole. p. 182) Capt Thos Melville of Britannia Fleet 3 returns to NSW waters in that ship. Oct. 1793, Capt. Thos Melville out whaling (for Enderbys) on Speedy.

1793: See Capt. Thomas Melville of Fleet 3 ship Britannia in NSW waters. Dakin has his argument with Gov Phillip and his letter home to Enderbys. (See Stackpole, p. 182) He is possibly still out in August 1793.

1793: Sugar Cane. Owner, Unknown. Captain Thomas Musgrave. 17 Sep 1793. Convict transport, see Bateson.

1793: Shah Hormuzear. Owner (M/O), William Wright Bampton. Captain William Wright Bampton. 24 Feb 1793. Stores, provisions to NSW. Ship 18 May, 1793.

1793: Duke of Clarence. RN. Lt John Hayes. 25 Apr 1793 - 9 Jun 1793. Explore New Guinea. Cumpston's Register. Hayes/McCluer. Effort to annex n/e New Guinea. Had tried to obtain EICo interest, failed, trade with NG till 1801.

1793: Also given as Duchess of Clarence. RN. Captain Lt John Hayes. 1793. 25 Apr 1793 - 9 Jun 1793. Explore New Guinea area. Cumpston's Register

1793: Hope (of 1793). 1792. Owners Brown and Francis. Captain Benjamin Page. 1792-1793, Trader from Providence, RI. From Wace and Lovett.

1793: Fairy (of 1793). Owners, Of Boston. Captain Rogers. Sealer of Boston. Cumpston's Register, From Wace and Lovett.

1793: Descubierta. Spanish Navy. Captain Malaspina. 1792-1793. Exploration.

1793: Daedalus. HM? Lt James Hanson. 1792 - 20 Apr 1793 - 1 July 1793. Storeship to NSW. Cumpston's Register.

1793: Canada of 1793. Owner Notknown. Captain Muirhead. 1793 but did not sail. Convict transport per John St Barbe. John St Barbe tried to send but she is condemned as unfit. Did not sail.

1793: Boddingtons. Owners Unknown. Captain Robert Chalmers. 7 Aug 1793. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1793: Atrevida. Spain Navy. Captain Malaspina visiting Sydney. 1792 - 1793. Exploration. See chronology notes

1793: Francis. Local NSW ship, schooner. Owner, Gov. of NSW. Captain William House. 24 July 1793 - Local Sydney, local transport. Mate is Robert Watson from HM Sirius. Cumpston's Register.

1793: Bellona. Owners, Unknown. Capt Matthew Boyd. 16 Jan 1793. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1793: Amelia (US brig), Owner Unknown, Capt Trotter, 1793, n/w America, 1793, Sealing. Note from Howay on n/w American sealing.

Handcuffs graphic by Phillip Russell

1793: Another convict/storeship for Australia - Bellona:
Departing? Arriving 16 January, 1793. Capt. Matthew Boyd. Carrying 17 women convicts.

1793: Another convict ship for Australia - Boddingtons, 331 tons:
Departing Cork ? Arriving Sydney 7 August, 1793 carrying Irish convicts. Contractor William Richards. Capt. Robert Chalmers. Ship had "alarms" of convict mutiny risks. Boddingtons and Sugar Cane were the last two ships ever organised by William Richards, who was not heard of again. His son William III later became a convict ship captain, and a NSW settler, but rather mysteriously, and despite William III's status as a pioneer, little survives of the family history, which located at Walcha NSW at a property, Winterbourne.

1793: Another convict ship for Australia - Sugar Cane, 403 tons:
Departing Cork, 12 April, 1793 - Arriving 17 September, 1793 carrying Irish convicts. Contractor, William Richards. Capt. Thomas Musgrave.

In 1793 arrived from Boston: owner ? Rogers in 1793 had a snow/trader Fairy, captain not named, sailed from Sydney thence North Pacific and China.

In 1793, the Amelia brig, Capt. Trotter sailed for n/w America.

In March 1793, the Spaniard Malaspina visited Sydney with ships Descubierta/Descuvierta and Atrevida, 11 March, 1793, Two Spanish ships, treated with hospitality, invited two colony officers to ship for dinner. story by Bob Beale in The Sydney Morning Herald, 22 May, 1993, a member of the British Library staff has rediscovered three of the pictures from the Malaspina expedition to Sydney early 1793. Three large ink-and-wash drawings, the deputy map librarian was Mr Peter Barber, who was "examining the contents of an obscure file in a remarkable collection of 50,000 maps, charts, prints and drawings compiled by King George III" the so-called Kings Collections, also with scenes of New York and Toronto. The King apparently removed the drawings enclosed in a despatch to the then Home Secretary, Mr Dundas, from the then Lt. Gov of the colony, Major Francis Grose, to whom they had been given by the Spaniards ... executed by Don Fernando Brambila ..." Apparently the absence of the drawings had been noted earlier by PRO and scholars lamenting their absence.
Malaspina arrived in January 1793, when Bampton's ship Shah Hormuzear possibly was in Sydney Harbour at the time, it seems for political reasons the Spanish censored scenes depicting the convicts. Malaspina was privately critical of the colony on humanitarian and political grounds, especially about the treatment of the convicts. But Malaspina knew that Britain was keen at the time to promote the colony as a suitable place for emigration. So Bambila painted two sets of scenes, one sanitised for the British; one showing it as it was. One scene kept by the Spanish shows convicts in chains under armed guard being used in teams to pull a wagon, possibly a rick-shaw arrangement. The Spaniards arrived in Sydney on 13 March, 1793, and left on 11 April, Malaspina had secret orders to make military and commercial maps, records on the colony, and to find if Sydney was intended as a British naval base with a view to attacking the west coast of Spanish America and even California. But when Malaspina's voyage took years, and when he made his final report, his views were deemed seditious and he spent many years in jail; his reports were suppressed.

16 December, 1793, London: John St Barbe tendered a ship Canada (Capt Muirhead) for convict transportation, and on inspection the ship was condemned, replaced by Surprize Capt Patrick Campbell, 110 convicts, at 25 pounds per head, 20 pounds now, five pounds at delivery, as per Third Fleet arrangements under Lt. Bowen, etc., but the ship was found to be in a state to be condemned. This was surprisingly bad form from John St Barbe, who should have known ships far better than to try on this one for the convict service.

1793: One record of 1793 can perhaps be doubted as an "American discovery". But it is said that in 1793, US Capt. Jonathan Carnes discovered wild pepper growing on the north coast of Sumatra. He used the schooner Rajah to open a regular trade that greatly benefited Salem. His first profit was 700 per cent; US pepper handling increased to 1802 but declined after the 1812 war with Britain. Sumatran pepper remained a "backbone" of Salem's trade for about 50 years. See K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways. University of South Carolina Press, 1988., p. 57.

From a website - The Prince William Henry wintered on the Northwest Coast and was seen in 1793 by Chatham in May and by the Jefferson in June. It sailed to China at the end of the year but returned to the coast in 1795. In 1796, the ship was in Macao and was purchased by William Broughton as a consort vessel for the Providence.

1792-1793: From Providence, Rhode Island, Brown and Francis, in late 1792/1793 had out their trader Hope, Capt. Benjamin Page, to Sydney, thence Canton. Also, one Capt Martin Page is recorded as being on a trader/sealer from Providence, Hope, for owners Brown and Francis, to Sydney thence Canton. Probably, Benjamin and Martin Page were related (?).

In 1793: Arrived to Sydney from Boston: ? Rogers in 1793 had a snow/trader Fairy, owner ? Rogers, captain not named, sailed from Sydney thence North Pacific and China. On 1 Feb, 1793, France declared war against England, French privateers based at Mauritius, harried Dutch and English shipping in the Bay of Bengal and Straits of Malacca. In 1796 a strong French force tried to take Penang. See H. P. Clodd, Malaya’s First British Pioneer: The Life of Francis Light. London, Luzac and Co., 1948., pp. 122-123, re the French try to take Penang, where the fort is ridiculous, never improved since early days. Light re-fortified but the Gov-General in Bengal forbade it. Light thought the French no longer had Trincomalee, for could use Dutch ports or Manila. Malacca could not give France supplies. Andaman Islands no use. Junk Ceylon could be taken but was no use, too long to recover. So they'd take Penang, maybe with aid of Kedah Sultan? The Dutch Governor at Malacca was Couperous, sending news to Light, fearing a French attack. Cornwallis is still fighting Tipu Sultan. Cornwallis sent 60 men plus officers to Penang. To the end of 1793, British presence assisted by Admiral Rainier arriving with a 74-gun flagship, Suffolk. Clodd, Life of Francis Light, p. 125 says French forces had been ordered to avoid meeting the British navy.

1793: Discovery - Capt. George Vancouver; accompanied by Chatham; arrived 12 Feb., 1793, departed 30 Mar., 1793. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1793: Chatham - Lieut. Peter Puget; accompanied Discovery; arrived 12 Feb., 1793. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1793: Jefferson - American registry, trader; Capt. Roberts, master; arrived Mar 1793. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1793: Butterworth - English registry, trader; William Brown, master.

Year 1794

1794: Sydenham Teast of Bristol, had out Charles Bishop in Nautilus in Pacific.

1794: Out June, 1794. Donald, Robert, Swift. (?)
King, Thos. Spry. (?) Spencer, Chris Lucas (?)
Bennet, Daniel Fanny (?)
Delano, Harvey Kitty (?)
10 June, 1794. Yorke, Thos. New Hope Capt. Joshua Bunker (same, May 1795.
Dec. 1794. Bennett, Daniel, had out Lord Hawkesbury Capt. Henry Mackie, returning 2 Dec.

1794: (Stackpole, pp. 400-401, Appendix). SWF from GB, vessels returning in 1794.
Owners Ship Capt.
Curtis Arnold Wheatley, Patagonia SA
Duncan Chesterfield 180 Duncan
Mangles British Tar 347 Fitch
Mather Prince of Wales 318 Bolton, Coast of Peru, Pacific.
Source: Chalmers Papers/Pub. Lib. NSW. BT-6/95. BT 6/230 PRO.

1794: Halcyon. Owner Brown and Francis. Captain ?Benjamin?. 14 Jun 1794- 8 July 1794. Food/liquor on spec to Sydney. He is uncle of Benjamin Page. Halcyon (of 1794). W. F. Megee, Benj. Page. Benjamin Page

1794: Speedy (1). Owner Samuel Enderby Snr. Captain Thomas Melville. 8 Jun 1794-2 Aug 1794. Delivers food supplies, thence whaling

1794: Salamander (2). Owner Unknown. Captain William Irish. 11 Sep 1794-15 Nov 1794. Stores, whaling, India. Cumpston's Register.

1794: Resolution. Owner Locke? Captain John or Matthew Locke. 10 Sep 1794- 9 Nov 1794. Stores, whaler. Cumpston's Register.

1794: Prince Lee Boo. British. Captain Notknown. Nil as to Hawaii. Exploration. View civil war, in In company with Jackal.

1794: Lady Washington (US). Owner Notknown. Captain Notknown. Honolulu. Nil. Exploration, Views civil war. See Glen Barclay on Pacific History.

1794: Jackal of 1794. British. Owner Notknown. 1793-1794. Nil as to Hawaii. Exploration, View civil war. In company with Prince Lee Boo and US ship Lady Washington

1794: Hope (second)/ Owners Brown and Francis. Captain Page. 5 July 1794. Food, liquor on spec. Captain is uncle of Benjamin Page qv.

1794: Hope (of 1794). Owners Brown and Francis. Captain Martin Page. 1794. Sealer, trader to Canton from Providence, RI. From Wace and Lovett

1794: Halcyon trader. Owner B. Page, Megee. Captain Benjamin Page. US trader, Sydney then to Canton. From Providence RI. From Wace and Lovett.

1794: Halcyon (Other). Owner Brown and Francis. Captain Benjamin Page. 14 Jun 1794-8 July 1794. Supplies to Sydney, liquor on spec. Supercargo Megee. Owned WF Megee and Benj Page. Martin Page?

1794: Fancy snow. Owner Dell. Captain Thomas Edgar Dell. 9 July 1794-29 Sep 1794. Food supplies. Dell?. Formerly chief mate of Shah Hormuzear. Cumpston's Register.

1794: Surprize (2). Owner British. Captain Patrick Campbell. 25 Oct 1794 - 17 Dec 1794. Convict transport, to Bengal. Cumpston's Register.

1794: William. Owner Samuel Enderby Snr. Captain William Folger. 10 Mar 1794. Convict transport, whaling by Peru. Bateson. Cumpston's Register.

1794: Atlantic (1). Owner Unknown. Captain Archibald Armstrong. 20 Aug 1791

1794: Arthur (brig). Owner Unknown. Capt Barber. 10 Mar 1794. Food to Sydney, speculation, then to Bengal.

1794: Arthur (US-1794) snow or brig, Owners Brown and Ives (US), Capt Henry Barber, 1793-1794, 1794 at Sydney and Apr 1796. Trader from Providence, RI. Notes from a website say Barber is recorded on n/w American coast of 1794, as George Vancouver saw her moving, it left there on 23 July, she had originally come from Bengal via Port Jackson, was wrecked off Hawaii, From Wace and Lovett.

1794: Ruby of 1794. Owner Sydenham Teast. Capt Charles Bishop. 1794-1795. N/W America sealing. To arrive by April 1795. Roe, pp. 6-7. See chronology notes

1794: Experiment (snow). Owners British. Capt Edward M'Clellan. 24 Dec 1794-23 Mar 1795. Spec trader, to Bengal. Goes to Hawkesbury River for cedar and mahogany. Cumpston's Register.

1794: Mercury brig. Owners, Rhode Island. Capt William Barnet. 7-17 Oct 1794-7 Dec 1794. Refresh, supplies. Of Rhode Island. Cumpston's Register.

1794: Another convict ship for Australia - William:
Owned by Enderbys, a whaler. Departing ? - Arriving 10 March, 1794. Capt. William Folger.

1794: Treaty between Americans and English negotiated by John Jay allows resumption of Anglo-American trade but does not resolve impressment controversy. Newly-appointed naval architect, Joshua Humphreys, prepared the first models for "Humphrey's frigates" (the Constitution and Constellation among others); Congress is motivated by the threat of the Barbary corsairs - 1798 – 1800. (This item is from a US timeline website on maritime history.)

1794: Hope, for Brown and Francis, Capt. Martin Page (probably a relative of Benjamin Page above?) September, 1794. (8 December, 1794. English mariner Charles Bishop in Ruby sailing for Sydenham Teast of Bristol reached Berkely Sound in the Falkland Islands. See May 1795.) Note: Roe, pp. 6-7.

1794: At Sydney, 1794, Halcyon, from Providence, for Brown and Francis, Capt. Benjamin Page. “Laden with spirits [about 5000 gallons] and beef”. (To Sydney.) Another report is that her owners were B. Page, W. Megee and others, to Sydney thence Canton. Note: Lisle on Grose, cited above, p. 18.

1794: At Sydney, 1794, Hope, Capt. Page. (Lisle pp. 18-20 says Hope and Halcyon together reaped a total of £4857/10/- from Sydney customers.)

Copy of a 2002 press release

re 1790s: Follows on merchants Brown (Brown and Ives) of Rhode Island: the following is an indication of modern sensibilities about the legacies of slavery, the desire for compensation and threat of legal action.

FleetBoston: Traced to slave-trading merchant

2 February 2002 (from a press release)

What companies say today - Various documents link modern companies to antebellum slavery. Reporter James Cox takes a look at the evidence and the companies' responses.

FleetBoston Financial Group traces its beginnings to Providence Bank, chartered by a group led by Rhode Island merchant John Brown in 1791. Brown's bank is described as Fleet's "earliest predecessor" in a Fleet timeline.

Brown was a slave trader. A partial census of slave ships in the book The Notorious Triangle: Rhode Island and the African Slave Trade lists him as owner of several vessels that sailed to Africa and returned with human cargo. A typical entry names him as part owner of the Hope, a 208-ton ship that brought 229 slaves from Africa to Cuba in 1796. Another for the same year names him as part owner of the schooner Delight, which delivered 81 slaves to Savannah, Georgia.

It is unclear whether any of Brown's slaving enterprises had a business relationship with the bank he founded.

Fleet spokesman James Mahoney says Brown's Providence Bank was "one of hundreds" that created Fleet. The link between Fleet and Brown is "extremely remote," he says.

In the pre-Civil War cotton trade, the key financiers included Britain's Barings Bros., the Anglo-French Rothschild firm and Baltimore-based Alex. Brown & Sons. They took consignments of cotton from so-called commission merchants, insured them, shipped them to Europe and sold them. They also gave credit to cotton brokers and other middlemen.

Holland's ING Group bought Barings in 1995 and renamed its investment banking arm ING Barings. It says the original Barings Bros. went bust in 1891 and that it acquired a successor firm with no liabilities from the defunct Barings.

Deutsche Banc bought Alex. Brown in 1999 and changed its name to Deutsche Banc Alex. Brown. It declines comment.

Rothschild archivist Victor Gray says his firm bought and sold "bills of exchange" used as payment in various industries but was not active in the cotton trade itself.


(Ends this copy of a press release)

1794: To Sydney, 1794, From Rhode Island Arthur, owned by Brown and Ives, Capt. Henry Barber. (No other information arises on Barber.)

1794: At Sydney, 1794, Halcyon, owned William Fairchild Megee, and Benjamin Page, Capt. Benjamin Page. (Note 32: Precis: William Fairchild Megee/Magee (1765-1820, died at Canton). (He is spelled Megee on a university archive-type website, sometimes spelled Magee in shipping records.) On William Fairchild Magee (1765-1820). There is a James Magee a brother-in-law of Thomas Handasynd Perkins qv. See Henry Lee, 'The Magee Family and the Origins of the China Trade, The Proceedings, Massachusetts Historical Society, Vol. LXXXI, 1969., pp. 104-119. See Jacques M. Downs, ‘The Merchant as Gambler, Major William Fairchild Magee, 1765-1820’, Rhode Island History, Vol. XXVII, No. 4, Nov. 1969, and notes from Anthony Chen on Hong insolvencies. He visited Sydney on Grand Turk in the mid-1790s. See Cumpston's Register. WFM was married to Susan Nightingale (1771-1841); the Nightingale family was related in turn to the Jenckes.

1794: At Honolulu, Hawaii, came in two British ships the Jackal and Prince Lee Boo, (sic) plus the American ship Lady Washington, all three to find themselves viewing a civil war on the islands. (Note: See also on Coffin, Margaret and Colin Kerr, Australia’s Early Whalemen. Sydney, Rigby, 1980., p. 34. Glen Barclay, A History of the Pacific: From the Stone Age to the present day. London. Sidgwick and Jackson. 1978., p. 59.)
By 10 March, 1794, the brig (or snow? ) Arthur Captain Barber was to Bengal on speculation, then to the n/w coast of America. By 26 April, 1794, Captain Barber in Arthur was at Tahiti, and discovered the west of Fiji group of islands on his passage from Sydney to N/W America.

1794: June-July 1794, Capt. Benjamin Page is on trader Halcyon, from Providence, for owners B. page, W. Megee and others, to Sydney thence Canton. (Churchward 1948.)

By 10 March, 1794, the British brig Arthur Captain Barber was to Bengal on speculation, then to the n/w coast of America. By 26 April, 1794, Captain Barber in snow Arthur (?) was at Tahiti, and discovered the west of Fiji group on his passage from Sydney to N/W America.

By June 1794, there returned to Bristol, England, Charles Bishop who now won his employer Sydenham Teast's approbation and an appointment as master of Ruby (a small ship) for a voyage to n/w coast of America, Bishop to reach n/w coast by April 1795, to begin trading at about 45 degrees north, and he must take scrupulous care to observe the requirements of EICo, on which Teast had entered a £25,000 pounds bond. The South Sea Company had to grant approval also for this voyage - see 9 September, 1794. (103) (8 December, 1794. Charles Bishop in Ruby reached Berkely Sound in the Falkland Islands. See May 1795.)

At Sydney, 1794, Halcyon, for Brown and Francis, Capt. Benjamin Page, arriving Sydney, “Laden with spirits [about 5000 gallons] and beef”. A different report is: At Sydney, 1794, Halcyon, owned William Fairchild Megee, and Benjamin Page, Capt. Benjamin Page. 1794: and in June-July 1794, Capt. Benjamin Page is on trader Halcyon, from Providence, for owners B. Page, W. Megee and others, to Sydney thence Canton, see Churchward 1948.

7 December, 1794, Brig Mercury Capt Wm Barnet of Rhode Is. At Sydney.

To Sydney, 1794, American ship Arthur, owned by Brown and Ives, Capt. Henry Barber. (No other information arises on Barber.)

By 6 July 1794, from Providence, Rhode Island, Capt. Benjamin Page was revisiting Sydney on the trader Halcyon, for owners B. Page, W. Megee and others, to Sydney thence Canton. See Churchward 1948; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett). This was probably the same Megee/Magee as mentioned earlier. (In August-September 1796 from Boston or Salem, Capt. Francis Mallaby was on trader Grand Turk, supercargo being Meggee, to Sydney thence Canton. This may have been an opium ship?) A different reading again is that in August-September 1796, a Boston/Salem trader, Capt Francis Mallaby was on Grand Turk, supercargo being Meggee, to Sydney thence Canton.

1794: From Providence, in 6-7/1794, Capt. Benjamin Page is on trader Halcyon, for owners B. Page, W. Megee and others, to Sydney thence Canton.

At Sydney, 1794, Hope, Capt. Page. (Lisle pp. 18-20 says Hope and Halcyon together reaped a total of £4857/10/- from Sydney customers. See also, Foster Dulles, The Old China Trade. London. Macdonald and Jane's. 1974, pp. 82ff. Meantime, Yankee sealers were active circa 1790ff.

1794: Discovery - Capt. George Vancouver; accompanied by Chatham; arrived 9 Jan., 1794, departed 14 Mar., 1794. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Chatham - Lieut. Peter Puget; accompanied Discovery; arrived 9 January, 1794, departed 14 Mar., 1794. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Britannia - first vessel built in Hawaii; constructed under Vancouver's supervision in Feb, 1794 (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Jefferson - American registry; Capt. Roberts, master; arrived Oct 1794. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Phoenix - Capt. Moore, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Jackal - English registry, schooner, trader; William Brown, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Prince Lee Boo - English registry, Capt. Gordon, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Lady Washington - American registry; Capt. John Kendrick, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1790s

Contractor military in India, MP William Fairlie (died 1825), of Fairlie, Reid and Co. of Calcutta, and other firms.

1790s: Sir Francis Baring (1740-1810), career well-known.

Contractor, Canada: John Askin (1739-1815) Fur trader. contracts to supply British army outposts Canada. Blah

Convict contractor, military, Alexander Davison (1750-1829), personal friend of Lord Nelson.

Contractor, financial, loans to government, Benjamin Baruch Goldsmid (1755-1808)

Contractor, financial operations, banker of Amsterdam, Henry Hope (active 1790s) of Hope of Co., Amsterdam and related to Hopes banker John Williams-Hope.

Contractor, funds to government, Godschall II Johnson (died 1800). active also in 1780s. Business associate of J. J. Angerstein of Lloyd's.

Contractor to military, India, William Paxton (1744-1824) of Paxton, Cockerell and Traill.

Contractor, convict contractor, John St Barbe (died 1816), also a whaling investor.

NB: In the 1790s, as convict transportation took up to Australia, a variety of Lords Mayor of Dublin offered to the Irish government to contract for convict transportations, though mostly to Canada.

Contractor, army agent, Thomas Thompson (1747-1811).

Year 1795

1795: May. Eber Bunker had just gotten back from Fleet 3 to London. Went out whaling on Pomona for Alex. Benj. Champion. May 1795, see June 1794, same.

1795: Betsy of 1795. Owner, Edward Faning. Captain Edward Faning. 1795 to Canton, seal skins.

1795: Young William, British owned, Capt James Mortlock, 4 Oct 1795, 29 Oct 1795, Storeship to NSW, to Canton. Cumpston's Register.

1795: Despatch (US). Owner Notknown. Captain Elias Newbury. 1795. Capt killed in Alaska in 1795. Sealer from Boston. See Newbury or Newby? Howay's writings.

1795: John Jay of 1795. US Notknown. Captain Samuel Hill. 1795 to Canton. Little known.

1795: Fairy (of 1795) Owner Notknown. Captain Ebenezer Dorr. Sealer to n/w America. Evidence is a letter from T. H. Perkins of 1795 as seen in Cabot genealogy.

1795: Experiment of 1796. British. Captain Edward M'Clennan. 1795 - 24 Jan 1796 - April 1796. India goods. Cumpston's Register

1795: Endeavour. Owner (M/O) W. W. Bampton. Captain W. W. Bampton. 1795. 31 May 1795 - 18 Sep 1795. Trading to Sydney NSW from India. M/O? Cumpston's Register.

1795: Delight (US). Owner Notknown. Captain Sturgis. 1795. Notknown. She is captured and taken to Jamaica. Evidence is a letter of 1795 by T. H. Perkins found in Cabot genealogy.

1795: Ceres. Owners British. Captain Thomas Hedley. 1795 - 23 Jan 1796 - 3 Apr 1796. Trade, to Canton. Cumpston's Register.

1795: Arthur of 1796. Owners Notknown. Captain Barber. 1 Jan 1796 - 3 Apr 1796. To Calcutta, Bengal, Trade, speculation. Cumpston's Register.

1795: Tom Thumb. RN. Capt Matthew Flinders. With George Bass to circumnavigate Tasmania. Sails again in March 1796, Cumpston's Register as Tom Thumb IIb.

1795: Indispensable. Owner, Daniel Bennett. Capt William Wilkinson. 30 Apr 1795-8 June 1794. Convict transport, trade China, Bengal. Cumpston's Register seems to have her arrive April 1796.

1795: HM Providence of 1795. RN. Captain William Robert Boughton. 26 Aug 1795- 13 Oct 1795. Exploration, Nootka Sound. Cumpston's Register.

1795: Mercury (of 1795 US). Owners Unknown. Capt Bartlett. Sealer from Rhode Island. Howay's writings.

1795: Union (US sloop). Owners, Hatch/Gardiner. Capt John Boit. 1795-1796. Sealer, Newport, RI. Howay lists US ship Despatch 106 tons from Boston for Dorr and Sons in 1796, a different ship. Howay finds, Capt. John Boit is only 19 at the time, she is 98 tons, owned by Crowell Hatch and Caleb Gardiner.

1795: Another convict ship for Australia - Surprize 2:
Departing 2 May 1794 - Arriving Sydney 25 October, 1795. Capt. Patrick Campbell. Ship carried the "Scottish Martyrs".
Michael Flynn, Settlers and Seditionists: The People of the Convict Ship Surprize, 1794. Sydney, Angela Lind, 1994.

1795: There is American Ebenezer Dorr Jnr on Fairy to n/w American in 1795 re T. H. Perkins letter. In 1795, Capt Sturgis is on Delight for T. H. Perkins, was captured and taken to Jamaica.
1795: Fairy, owned by?, Capt. Ebenezer Dorr. This was probably Ebenezer III Dorr, (1739-d.1809 Boston). He has 12 children by wife Cunningham. “A devout Christian, he was one of the first Boston merchants to try for n/w American furs. He lived on the north side of Milk Street, Boston, near Devonshire Street.

At Canton 1795, American Edward Fanning, on 93-ton Betsy, with sealskins. And John Jay, Capt Samuel Hill, at Canton.

September 1795: Via India, Capt. W. W. Bampton's Endeavour from India ran aground at Dusky Bay, New Zealand South Island. He presumably was on sealing business there. Americans seemed to express no interest in the Dusky Bay area, which had first been mapped by Cook. (Note: See J. C. Garran, 'William Wright Bampton and the Australian Merino', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 58, Parts 1&2, March 1, 1972., pp. 1-12. J. C. Garran, 'Indian Sheep in early New South Wales’, Newsletter, Royal Australian Historical Society, April 1974. J. C., Garran, 'Sheep and other livestock in New South Wales, 1788-1805’, Canberra and District Historical Society Journal, March 1970., pp. 1-17. J. C. Garran and Leslie White, Merinos, Myths and Macarthurs: Australian Graziers and their sheep, 1788-1900. Canberra, Australian National University Press, 1985.

1795: Howay lists Boit's log of US ships for furs, Union in 1795. Howay in 1795 has Capt. Bartlett of Rhode island on US fur snow Mercury in 1795.

1795: Howay lists Dorr and Sons of Boston, fur ship Despatch Capt. Elias Newbury killed in Alaska in 1795.

At Canton 1795: American Edward Fanning, on 93-ton Betsy, with sealskins. And John Jay, Capt Samuel Hill, at Canton.

1795, Delight, owned by?, Capt. Sturgis.

22 May, 1795: Roe - Charles Bishop on Ruby reached north of Columbia River trading about North-West America, (see October).

1795: Despatch, Capt(?) Elias Newby – sealer.

1795: Union American sloop, for Hatch and Gardiner, Capt. John Boit.

1795: HM Reliance. RN. Owners Not given. 7 Sep 1795 - 21 Jan 1796. Govt, Norfolk Island. Cumpston's Register.

1795: Union - Boston registry; John Boit, jr., master; arrived 13 Oct., 1795, departed 16 Oct., 1795 (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1795: Jane - arrived 13 Oct., 1795, departed 12 Nov., 1795. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1795: Ruby - Charles Bishop, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1795: Mercury - Capt. Barnett, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

Year 1796

1796: Providence - Capt. William Robert Broughton; arrived 1 Jan., 1796, departed 20 Feb., 1796. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

January 1796: Re ship Providence. She was launched in January 1796 at Duskey Sound, New Zealand. Her building began 1792-1793 by a sealing vessel who found their own ship would be wrecked at Dusky Bay in 1795. (Aspects of NZ Maritime History)

1796: Arthur - Henry Barber, master (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1796: Otter - Boston registry; Ebenezer Dorr, master; sighted Hawaii 2 Dec., 1796, left Kauai 1 Jan., 1797. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1796: 21 June, London whaler Daniel Bennett had out whaler Lord Hawkesbury.

1796: Sally (Boston brig). US-owned. Captain Joseph Pierpont. 1796-1797. Sealer. Howay's writings.

1796: Lady Washington. Owner John Howel and Co. Captain Rbt/Roger Simpson. 1796-1797. Sealer. Howay's writings

1796: Prince of Wales (transport). British. Captain Unknown. 1 Nov 1796 - 23 Nov 1796. Transport/victualler. To China. Cumpston's Register.

1796: Grand Turk (of 1796). Owner W. F. Magee. Captain Francis Mallaby. Trader to Canton. From Wace and Lovett.

1796: Grand Turk. Supercargo Megee. Captain Unknown. Unknown. 23 Aug 1796. Food and supplies. Cumpston's Register. (Is she owned still by her original owner, Elias Haskett Derby?) To Manila and Canton

1796: Sovereign. British. Captain George Storey. 5 Nov 1796. Storeship, Convict transport. Cumpston's Register.

1796: Despatch (owned Dorr). Owner, Dorr and Sons. Captain Notknown. 1796. Sealer probably. She is only of 106 tons.

1796: Otter (of 1796). US. Owner Ebenezer Dorr. 1795 - 24 Jan 1796 - 18 Feb 1796. Sealer, China, Bengal. Boston. Cumpston's Register, re Mertho and Thos. Muir. From Wace and Lovett.

1796: Marquis Cornwallis. Owners Hogan and Co. Captain Michael Hogan. 9 Aug 1795 - 11 Feb 1796. 5 May 1796. Convict transport, then to India. Cumpston's Register

1796: L'Atrevida (Intrepid). Spanish Navy. Captain Jose de Bustamenta y Guerra. 1795. 12 March 1792 - 20 April 1792. Exploration about Australia. Cumpston's Register.

1796: Assistance. British. Not given. 17 Mar 1796 - 1796. To Dusky Sound, find castaways, whaling. Cumpston's Register.

1796: Atlantic (of 1796) Owners, S., C. and S. Enderby. Captain Henry Delano. 1796. Captured by Spain. Whaling. Enderby, Paul's Wharf. AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 196.

1796: Sylph. British owned. Captain Unknown. 17 Nov 1796 - 6 Dec 1796. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register.

1796: Susan (of 1796). Owners of Rhode Island. Capt Trotter. 1796. 19 April 1796. Trader speculative to Sydney, to Canton. From Providence, RI. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett.

1796: Washington. US Owners Notknown. Capt Roger Simpson. Exploration. At Sandwich Island meets Britisher Charles Bishop, the two captains become friends

1796: Indispensable (1) Owner Unknown. Capt Wilkinson. 30 Apr 1796. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1796: Another convict ship for Australia - Indispensable: Capt. Wilkinson.
Arriving Sydney 30 April, 1796. Carrying female prisoners.

1796: Campbell and Co. of Calcutta in 1796 are beginning to deal to Sydney, New South Wales. Campbells also wanted to ship saltpetre to Sydney for salting meat, which was allowed.
Singh, Agency Houses, p. 154-158.

1796: Another convict ship for Australia - Sovereign: Capt. George Storey.
Arriving Sydney 5 November, 1796.

1795: Another convict ship for Australia - Marquis Cornwallis: Capt. Michael Hogan, Master/owner.
Departing Cork, 9 August, 1795. Arriving Sydney 11 February, 1796. Had risk of mutiny by prisoners-guards (part of the NSW Corps).


The latest on Hogan is as per this e-mail to The Blackheath Connection of 14 January 2004 from Virginia, USA
Dear Dan, I was a frequent user of your Blackheath Connection when researching a non-fiction book now published as Captain Hogan: Sailor, Merchant, Diplomat on Six Continents.
It tells the true story of Michael Hogan (1766-1833) who traveled the world's oceans and lived in and traded with all six continents. Among other things, it tells the full story of his carriage of Irish convicts to New South Wales on his ship, the Marquis Cornwallis, in 1796. Full details are at: (now a broken link): http://SixContinents.home.att.net/
Kind regards, Michael H. Styles, 7004 Sylvan Glen Lane, Fairfax Station, VA 22039 USA
Follows some detail on the book: Captain Hogan: Sailor, Merchant, Diplomat on Six Continents, by Michael H. Styles - The true story of Michael Hogan, an adventurous "seaman, merchant and diplomat" who traveled the world's oceans and lived on six continents during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Set in the rich historical context of the times, the action takes place in Ireland, London, Bombay, Calcutta, Canton, New South Wales, Cape of Good Hope, New York, Havana, Valparaiso and Washington, D.C.
Critically acclaimed - ISBN 0-9744347-0-1 * 434 pages * Bibliography/Index Biography/18th & 19th Century History * Paper * US$22.95
Also by Michael H. Styles - Michael Hogan: A Family Addendum: A companion booklet with additional background about the book, Capt. Michael Hogan's children and grandchildren through about 1900, and a genealogical record of all his descendants. Of principal interest to Hogan family descendants. ISBN 0-9744347-2-8 * 71 pages * Second Edition * Paper * US$6.00 JUST PUBLISHED! (January 2004). Email to Six Continent Horizons, at: SixContinents@att.net

1795-1796, Howay lists sloop Union of Newport Rhode Island 98 tons owned Crowell Hatch and Caleb Gardiner, Capt John Boit (aged 19 ex-mate of Columbia).

1796++: A dark horse in trading matters was surgeon Augustus Beyer, on Capt. Dennot's Britannia 1796-1797. Rather mysteriously, Beyer became agent for the NSW Corps Officers at Calcutta until 1801. What Beyer actually did remains very hard to say.

1796, Despatch, owned Dorr and Sons. (See material earlier given on the Dorr family.

1796: Sally, from Boston, owned by ?, Capt. Joseph Pierpont. Note: Howay on n/w America, has in 1796-1797, ship Sally a Boston Brig Capt Joseph Pierpont who may be this same man. He was a partner with Lessingwell, dealing with Bird, Savage and Bird of London.

1796: Lady Washington, owned by John Howel and Co., Capt. Robert or Roger Simpson.

1796: Grand Turk, William Fairchild Magee owner or supercargo, Capt. Francis Mallaby. Another report is: 1796: From Boston/Salem: Capt Francis Mallaby in August-Sep 1796 is on trader Grand Turk, supercargo being Megee, to Sydney thence Canton.

1796: Otter, owned Ebenezer Dorr, sealer, to China. 18 February, 1796, Otter, Capt. Ebenezer Dorr, departed Sydney. 1796: From Boston, Capt. Ebenezer Dorr in Jan-Feb 1796 is on sealer Otter, to Sydney. (And in 1811, one Capt. Dorr for unnamed owners had the ship or brig Brutus from Boston to Launceston and Hobart.)

1796: Sails Swan, from Rhode Island, Capt. Trotter.

1796: Lady Washington, owned by John Howel and Co., Capt. Robert or Roger Simpson.

1796: Grand Turk, William Fairchild Magee, owner or supercargo, Capt. Francis Mallaby.

19 February, 1796: Charles Bishop in Ruby (damaged), reaches the Sandwich Islands, and there met the American snow Washington Capt Roger Simpson. And the two captains became close friends. Roe, p. 10, see June. Meanwhile, in 1796, the earliest US vessel to sail the Californian coast was the Otter, see below, visiting Monterey. Seven years later the Lelia Bird, (referred to by sailors as "Lily Bird") the first US otter-fur sealer, put into San Diego. Such US sealers had to compete with a growing Russian presence on that coast, as well as dealing with the Mexican government. (Note: K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways. University of South Carolina Press, 1988., p. 57.

1796: Christopher Thornton as master has Abigail trader from Rhode Island, Sydney-Manila-Canton in 2/96.

A little more mysteriously, between 1796-1798, an "unlikely" American trading depot developed at French-held Mauritius (Isle de France) in the Indian Ocean. Privateers preyed on British shipping. Between 1796-1798, an average of 40 US ships per year called for coffee, sugar, spices and tea. This depot reached its peak in 1806 and died in 1815 with the end of the Napoleonic Wars. (Note: K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways. University of South Carolina Press, 1988., p. 54.

1796: Howay has US ship 106 tons, Despatch, from Boston for Dorr and Sons.

1796: As the British take the Cape of Good Hope, EICo fears a rise of illicit trade, so that deputy-chairman David Scott discounted ideas that Botany Bay (convict) ships might engage in smuggling; he noted that such ships had a freight out with government, freights for EICo if any were regulated by the Court of Directors.
(See Alan Frost, Convicts and Empire: A Naval Question, 1776-1811. Oxford University Press, 1980., p. 192.)

1796-1802: Publication of a Report (1796) on Providing Accommodation for the Trade and Shipping of the Port of London: Capt. Thomas King (earlier of slaver firm Camden, Calvert and King and said to be of Blackheath, London, with a wife, Sarah Unknown), an Elder Brother of Trinity House, pp. 274-283; John St Barbe (of Blackheath), pp. 280ff. King, p. 283, deposing to a committee of inquiry, said he had been acquainted with the River Thames for more than 30 years, the last 12 of which he had been residing in London and concerned with shipping. St. Barbe deposed on 18 April, 1796, and was described as a ship broker. A ship owner, Mellish, also concerned with whaling, gave evidence on 18 April.
(In Reports From Committees of The House of Commons, Vol. XIV. 1793-1802. Reprinted by Order of the House in 1802., Port of London Authority Library, Poplar, Isle of Dogs, from p. 276.)

1796: Another convict ship for Australia - Britannia, 500 tons:
Capt. Thomas Dennott. Departing Cork 10 December 1796 - Arriving Sydney 27 May 1797. Dennot admonished for harsh treatment of convicts. Regarded as "a hell ship" with mutiny risks, a high death rate. Surgeon was Augustus Jacob Beyer, who by now has his third voyage on a convict ship to Australia, and his last.

Year 1797

Handcuffs graphic by Phillip Russell

1797: Barwell of 1798. British. Captain John Cameron. Arrived Sydney 18 May 1798 - 17 Sep 1798. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register. Risks of convict mutiny arose her voyage. Website material on her indicates she was usually in East India Company employ, owners still unknown. She embarked her convicts on the Thames on 15-18 October 1797 and left Portsmouth on 7 Nov 1797. She was thence China and apparently she took home 300 French prisoners from Madras. Follows material lifted from a wikipedia page on John Buyers - John Buyers was the first officer of the brig Barwell in 1799 on her voyage to China. John Turnbull was second officer. On their return to London, Buyers and Turbull contacted regrettably unnamed London mechants with an eye to scouting the Pacific in more detail in a ship they'd acquire. Later Buyers was the first officer of the brig Margaret as an investment he and John Turnbull made in Turnbull / Buyers and Co. John Turnbull being his second officer and historian.[Note 1] Margaret, of ten guns, sailed under Buyers with Turnbull as supercargo,The Margaret, after some delay, left England on 2 July, 1800, and sailing by way of the Cape of Good Hope, reached Sydney in February 1801. They reached the Society Islands in September 1802. After trading with various islands in the group, the ship sailed for the Hawaiian Islands, arriving at Oahu on 17 December. After trading for salt at Oahu, Kauai, Niihau, and Hawaii island, Margaret sailed south on 21 January, 1803. The ship sailed in among the Tuamotuan atolls and, on 6 March, 1803, Nukutepipi, one of the Duke of Gloucester Islands, was visited and named Margaret Island, after the ship, though previously discovered in 1767. On March 10, Makemo was discovered and named Phillips Island, after a late sheriff of London (Sheriff in 1807), Sir Richard Phillips (1767-1840 who was a colourful if not eccentric fellow who died at Brighton). On the same day, Taenga was discovered and named Holts Island. Some other islands were sighted but they had been previously discovered and were not landed on. Once in Tahiti, Turnbull set up an establishment ashore for buying pigs and salting them down with the salt obtained in the Hawaiian Islands. All round, Turnbull visited Sydney/Port Jackson twice in two years, during which Hobart had been established.
Margaret set out to trade for hogs with the neighboring islands, but she ran onto a reef in the Palliser Islands and was wrecked. Buyers and his crew, after considerable hardship, managed to reach Tahiti on a roughly constructed barge made of planks from the wreck. A ship which called at Tahiti afforded passage to Sydney for both Turnbull and Buyers. They left Sydney on 16 March, 1804, in Calcutta and reached England via Cape Horn. Though a financial failure, the voyage obtained interesting information about the Society and Hawaiian Islands and the discovery of the islands Margaret, Phillips, and Holt in the Tuamotu Archipelago.
Foonote 1. ^ John Turnbull (1805). A voyage round the world: in the years 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803, and 1804, in which the author visited the principal islands in the Pacific Ocean and the English settlements of Port Jackson and Norfolk Island. 1. R. Phillips by T. Gillet. http://books.google.com/books?id=Fqj_SJuA3_oC. Meanwhile, from the Internet, Barwell seems to have no owners and none of John Cameron, Sir Richard Phillips, Buyers or Turnbull seem to have any family at all. -Ed

1797: whaleboat, RN. With explorer George Bass. 1798. Discover Western Port Bay. See notes.

1797: Sydney Cove (of 1797). Owners, Campbell, Clarke and Co. Captain Guy Hamilton. 1796-8 Feb 1797. Wrecked Preservation Island. Commercial, shipwreck. Associated is Robert Campbell Snr. Cumpston's Register, See notes re career of Robert Campbell in Sydney.

1797: Abigail (US), from Rhode Island, Capt. Chris Thornton, Feb 1798, to Sydney, Manila, Canton. (From Wace and Lovett.)

1797: Ganges. Owner, Capt Thomas Patrickson. Capt Thomas Patrickson. 1796-1797. 2 June 1797-Aug 1797. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register.

1797: Mercury of 1797. Owners Not given (US). Capt Not given. 1796-11 Jan 1797. Feb 1797. Sealer at Dusky Bay, Manila, N/wAmerica, China. Cumpston's Register.

1796-1797: - Howay lists Sally a Boston brig Capt Joseph Pierpont. Howay lists Lady Washington in n/w trade, owned John Howel and Assocs, Capt Roger/Robert Simpson. Howay at some point has Otter of Boston Ebenezer Dorr for Dorr and Sons with aboard, Muir of the Scottish Martyrs.

1790s: Rhode Island: Cyprian Sterry, mainly of Providence Rhode Island, USA, slave trader of the 1790s with 15 voyages to Africa in 1794. Link to Captain Samuel Packard.

1797: Reference item: Michael Nash, Cargo for the Colony: The 1797 Wreck of the Merchant Ship Sydney Cove. Navarine Publishing Co., Woden, ACT, 2002, 199pp.

1797: Another convict ship for Australia - Lady Shore, Capt. James Willcocks.
Ship had mutiny and did not arrive Sydney in 1797. Carried the notorious swindler, Major Semple/Major Semple Lisle (who later ended in Australia as a convict). Departing May 1797. Had earlier been used as an East Indiaman. Owned or part-owned by her master, James Willcocks, who was killed by a Frenchman, Jean Baptist Prevot. Ship seized by military guard and sailed to South America (ended at Montevideo). Carried one male and 66 women convicts.

1797: Sailed Abigail, from Rhode Island, Capt. Chris Thornton. 15-23 February, 1796, at Sydney, ship Abigail, Capt Christopher Thornton, merchants on speculation, thence Manila and Canton. (Hao pp. 13ff in 1795, Samuel Shaw was a supercargo on Ann and Hope, by 1800 he had established as a resident commission agent in China on his own account, and in p. 19 of Hao, T. H. Perkins and Co of Boston opened a branch at Canton, with John P. Cushing in charge. Cushing in Hao, pp. 29ff came home with a fortune of $600,000, retired by 1828 and let William Sturgis manage the funds. Cushing withdrew from China trade and went into railroads, textiles and various “modern” investments). Then resident agents acted for B. C. Wilcocks of Philadelphia, and Daniel Stansbury of Baltimore.

19 February, 1796: Chas Bishop in Ruby (damaged), reaches the Sandwich Islands, and there met the American snow Washington Capt Roger Simpson. and the two captains became close friends. (Roe, p. 10, see June.)

In 1797, T. H. Perkins writes to Jas. Boland of Bengal. Cabot genealogy book, he is written to by T. H. Perkins firm on 10 May 1797 on general business.

1797: HAZARD.-See entry for 1797. On the coast in 1798; lost her chief officer and four men, who were drowned in attempting to sound the bar at the mouth of the Columbia River; was at Canton on her homeward voyage in November, 1798; sailed thence about January 8, 1799, and arrived in Boston, 21 June, 1799, 164 days from Canton. Though Lamb wrote in his MS. Notes on North West Trade, p. 35, "Swift has made the largest collection of skins ever made on the coast" the voyage does not seem to have been markedly successful, for the complete cost, not including the vessel was about $35,000 and the value of the return cargo in China $67,459.29.

In 1797, US Captain W. R. Stewart, and evidently as an American involvement in the international country trade of South-East Asia, took Eliza of New York to Nagasaki, Japan, with Dutch trade goods. To 1809, Dutch traders chartered other US vessels to sail Batavia to Nagasaki due to fear the British would seize their own ships. Stewart when he returned in 1803 found the Japanese would not deal with him, nor with Capt. John Derby of Salem, who had tried to open a new market there for opium. (Note: K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways. University of South Carolina Press, 1988., p. 57.

Handcuffs graphic by Phillip Russell

1797-1798: Another convict ship for Australia - Ganges, 700 tons: Capt. Thomas Patrickson.
Arriving Sydney 2 June 1798.

1797-1798: Another convict ship for Australia - Barwell, 796 tons: Capt. John Cameron.
An attempted mutiny. Departed Portsmouth 7 November, 1797 - Arriving Sydney 18 May 1798.

1797-1798: Another convict ship for Australia - Britannia, 301 tons:
Capt. Robert Turnbull. A whaler owned by Enderbys. Arriving Sydney 19 July 1798.

find date: United States enters into into an undeclared naval war with France; US effort consists of fifty-four vessels, capturing eighty-five from the French; Captain Thomas Truxtun distinguished himself. (This item is from a US timeline website on maritime history.)

1797: Britannia (2). Owners British. Captain Thomas Dennott. 1796- 27 May 1797- 2 Aug 1797. Convict transport. Owner Enderby maybe. Cumpston's Register.

1797: Deptford brig. British. Owner Not given. 1797- 20 Sep 1797. Dec 1797. Goods on speculation, Madras, Coromandel Coast. Cumpston's Register.

1797: HM Reliance (2). RN. Captain Henry Waterhouse RN. 26 June 1797. Storeship to Sydney via CGH. Cumpston's Register.

1797: Nautilus. Owner Sydenham Teast. Captain Charles Bishop. 14 May 1798 - 7 Oct 1798. To VDL, Tahiti, Missionaries, pork, sealing. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register

1797: Lady Shore. Owner James Willcocks (part or full). Captain James Willcocks. May 1797. Lost by mutiny. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1797: 1/2 July 1798 -- 20 Aug 1798. Whaler, South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

Year 1798

1798: Hunter (of 1798). Owners, Campbell, Clarke and Co of India. Captain Fern. 10 Jun 1798 - 20 Aug 1798. Speculative trade to NSW. Robert Campbell Snr. Cumpston's Register. (See James Broadbent, Suzanne Rickardand Maergaret Steven, India, China Australia: Trade and Society, 1788-1850. Sydney, Historic Houses Trust of NSW, 2003., p. 68.)

1798: Francis (Reed). Local NSW ship. Sailed by William Reed. 20 Jan 1798 - 20 Jan 1798. To Preservation Island. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Eliza of 1798. Whaler, British. Owner Unknown. 1797 -- 4 July 1798. Whaler. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Eliza of 1798 (US). Owner Brown and Ives. Captain E. Hill Correy. 1798 to Fiji. Trader. See chronology notes

1798: Diana. Whaler. Owner/Captain. John Lock. 1797 - 20 Aug 1798. Whaler via CGH to South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Cornwall. Whaler, British. Details not given.

1798: Semiramis (of 1798). Owners, Wm. Handy and Jacob Smith. Captain Jacob Smith. Trader, to China from Newport, Rhode Island. From Wace and Lovett.

1798: US ship, Unknown owners, Captain Jacob Smith. 7 Oct 1798 from Sydney - 1 Oct 1798 - 7 Oct 1798 and in 1799. Fishery, to China. From Rhode Island. Cumpston's Register

1798: Norfolk (of 1798).

1798: Pomona. Whaler, British. Owner Unknown. 1797 - 20 Aug 1798. Whaler. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Nautilus brig. Unknown. Unknown. 7 Oct 1798 from Sydney.

1798: Sally. Whaler, British. Owners Unknown. 1797 - 8 July 1798. Whaler via CGH. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Britannia (3). Owner unknown or Enderby probably. Whaler. Capain Robert Turnbull. 1797- 18 July 1798 - 7 Oct 1798. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Britannia of 1798. Whaler. Unknown. 7 Oct 1798 from Sydney.

1798: Ann and Hope. Owners Brown and Ives. Captain Benjamin Page. US trader to China. See chronology notes

1798: Argo schooner. Owner Unknown. Captain Unknown. 7 Oct 1798 from Sydney - 7 Jul 1798 - 7 Oct 1798. From Isle of France, speculative trade, liquor, China. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Alert (US), Owner Russell Sturgis, Captain William Bowles, 1798-1799, Sealer, Re J&T Lamb, Sturgis and Ebenezer Preble. She is of Boston. Howay's writings.

1798: -- 1 Oct 1798 - 23 Oct 1798. Trader, Sydney, China. From Providence, Rhode Island. Cumpston's Register, From Wace and Lovett

1798: Indispensable of 1798. British whaler. Capt William Wilkinson. 27 Oct 1798. Whaler. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register, it is Wilkinson's third visit to Sydney.

1798: Ulysses (US). Owners J. & T. Lamb et al. Capt David Lamb. 1798-1799. Sealing. Lamb and others. Howay's writings, ship from Boston, Capt David Lamb has a mutiny.

1798-1800: David Scott Snr, director of EICo, his son David Scott Jnr, traded 1800-1810 with Robert Campbell at Port Jackson/Sydney.

1798: American T. H. Perkins sends ship Thomas Russell with then-oldest apprentice Ephraim Bumstead as supercargo - he in 1803 becomes the Canton partner for Perkins and Co. while with the Peninsula war, Perkins ships move to Spain and Portugal - funds to Mr Williams in London, then to Mr Higginson, £50,000-£60,000, by him - who married Nancy Cushing.

1792-1798: see May and Thomson, pp. 26ff, Boston capitalists re Old China Trade, there was Thomas Handasyd Perkins of Boston who visited Canton in 1798 and with his brother James set up the Boston firm of J. and T. H. Perkins in 1792; they had three nephews, William Sturgis, John Perkins Cushing and John Murray Forbes. J. R. Cushing (1787-1862) lived and traded in Canton and Macao from 1803, to 1828, and developed a close relationship with leading Hong merchant Houqua II (or, Wu Ping-chien, 1769-1843) investing large funds in international trade; see re John Murray Forbes 1813-1898 who also lived in Canton.

1798: Alert, owned by Russell Sturgis, Capt. William Bowles. See re Russell Sturgis as an opium trader. (Note: See L. Vernon Briggs, History and Genealogy of the Cabot Family, 1475-1927. In Two Volumes. Boston, Privately printed, Charles E. Goodspeed and Co., 1927. This man married Elizabeth Perkins, daughter of James Perkins, US fur trader and China merchant, brother of T. H. Perkins qv. Russell Sturgis has a grandson seen by Chaitkin as becoming a chairman of Barings Bank. Nathaniel Russell Sturgis Snr. married Susan Parkman and had twelve children. His eldest son was the most prominent in his generation. Russell Sturgis (he dropped his first name Nathaniel) engaged as prominent in the China trade in 1834 when he joined Russell, Sturgis & Co., an off-spring of a Manila house; his brother Henry Parkman Sturgis and George Robert Russell had formed in 1832. The firm was later acquired by Russell & Co and Russell Sturgis became a partner from 1842-44. In 1851, as he was on his way to Canton again, Russell Sturgis missed a ship and was convinced by his uncle, Joshua Bates (then an American partner of Baring Bros.), to join Baring Brothers. 1798 - RA Swan, Botany Bay, p. 168, not until 1798 with the passing of another Act of Parliament, 38 Geo III c.57, that British whalers were permitted to exploit Australian waters. Finally, late in 1800 they were permitted to carry goods to Sydney under bond for sale to the settlers. (See also R. A. Swan, To Botany Bay: If Policy Warrants the Measure: A Re-Appraisal. Canberra, Roebuck Society, 1973. This last achievement destroyed the EICo's monopoly over the carriage and sale of goods to the NSW settlement, a monopoly that had been granted, together with one for the transport of convicts, by the government in 1792. See HRA Vol. ?, p. 354.

1798: Notably, in 1798, the discovery of Bass Strait between Tasmania (Van Diemens Land) and the Australian mainland allowed further development of sealing. In 1798, George Bass discovered Phillip Island. Early in the year 1798, in London, the whalers Cornwall, Eliza, Sally, Bligh etc., were got together to go to the whale fishery off Sydney. The flotilla was comprised of Sally, Bligh, Cornwall, Swain, Pomona, Clark, Diana, Lock, Britannia and Nautilus. On Nautilus there was probably Capt. Charles Bishop, sailing afresh for Sydenham Teast, South Whaler of Bristol. At that time, 1799, whalers apparently were working around the Pacific Fishery, New Zealand, past Tahiti, about the Philippines (being a source of conflict with Spain) and in South East Asian waters generally. (London whalers once suggested Formosa [Taiwan] be opened to them as a port.) This whaling flotilla was about Sydney during July, 1798.

1798: Early in the year 1798, in London, the whalers Cornwall, Eliza, Sally, Bligh etc., were got together to go to the whale fishery off Sydney. The flotilla was comprised of Sally, Bligh, Cornwall, Swain, Pomona, Clark, Diana, Lock, Britannia and Nautilus. On Nautilus there was probably Capt. Charles Bishop, sailing afresh for Sydenham Teast, South Whaler of Bristol. At that time, 1799, whalers apparently were working around the Pacific Fishery, New Zealand, past Tahiti, about the Philippines (being a source of conflict with Spain) and in South East Asian waters generally. (London whalers once suggested Formosa [Taiwan] be opened to them as a port.) The flotilla was about Sydney during July, 1798.

1798: Item: Between 1785-1798: The US inventor John Fitch began to perfect his design for a steamboat. Rumsey had been similarly experimenting on the Upper Potomac River, Virginia. Rumsey had the backing of such as George Washington, but failed to produce a useful result. Still, by 1790 Rumsey had two boats on regular service between Philadelphia and Trenton, which "must be considered the first commercial use of steamboats". (Note: See K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways. University of South Carolina Press, 1988., p. 68.)

1798, American ship Ulysses, owned J&T Lamb, Capt. David Lamb. (Note: Precis: When James Lamb Senior died 1781, his two sons James and Thomas formed a partnership, From 1779, Thomas Lamb had ships he owned in West India trade, mostly brigs, also had a ships chandler business; in 1806 they have the ship Derby in n/w America trade. J. & T. Lamb became are closely associated with James and T. H. Perkins, from 1791, and in 1791 they own the ship Margaret Capt James Magee which was owned by James Magee, T. H. Perkins and J. & T. Lamb. In 1792 they have ship Sea Otter owned by J. & T. Lamb, William Sturgis and James Magee on the n/w American coast; in 1798 they had the brig Hazard Capt Swift making the largest collection to date of furs on the coast. James and Thomas Lamb, like all n/w America bought their furs cheaply from Indians for mere trinkets and sold as dear as possible. A cargo of furs might fetch a profit of $50,000. Thomas Lamb Snr died 1813, his son Thomas named his ships he owned or part-owned in favour of international trade, as follows, using shipnames such as Cabot, Mosell, Korea, Versailles, Marmora, Switzerland, Napoleon, Sultana. (Note: When James Lamb Snr. died 1781, his two sons James and Thomas formed a partnership, From 1779, Thomas Lamb had ships he owned in West India trade, mostly brigs, also had a ships chandler business; in 1806 they have the ship Derby in n/w America trade.

1798: Providence: Benjamin Page is captain in October 1798, of trader Ann and Hope sail for Brown and Ives, to Sydney, then China. And in December 1807 and April 1808, Brown and Ives are owners for trader Eliza, from Providence, Capt. E. Hill Correy, to Fiji, wrecked.

1798: Capt Jacob Smith sails for owners William Handy and Jacob Smith in 10/1798 for trader Semiramis, from Newport, to China, (Churchward 1948.)

In 1798: US Capt. Joseph Ropes of Salem in Recovery became the first US merchant to visit Mocha on the Arabian coast for coffee. He tried again by 1800-1801, successfully. This coffee trade rose to 1805 but then declined due to competition from Brazilian coffee handled by Philadelphia and Baltimore.

1798: Hazard.-See entry for 1797. On the coast in 1798; lost her chief officer and four men, who were drowned in attempting to sound the bar at the mouth of the Columbia River; was at Canton on her homeward voyage in November, 1798; sailed thence about 8 January, 1799, and arrived in Boston, 21 June, 1799, 164 days from Canton. Though Lamb wrote in his MS. Notes on North West Trade, p. 35, "Swift has made the largest collection of skins ever made on the coast" the voyage does not seem to have been markedly successful, for the complete cost, not including the vessel was about $35,000 and the value of the return cargo in China $67,459.29.

1798: US shippers were becoming more interested in routes to China. In October 1798, US Capt. Jacob Smith for owners William Handy and Jacob Smith took the trader Semiramis, from Newport, to China. (Churchward, 1948.)

1798: At Sydney in October 1798 again appeared Benjamin Page as captain of the trader Ann and Hope from Providence for Brown and Ives, to Sydney, then China (as noted by Dunbabin 1950 and 1955 and Churchward in 1948.) (And about December 1807-April 1808, Brown and Ives owned the trader Eliza from Providence, Capt. E. Hill Correy, to Fiji, wrecked.)

1798: Perkins sends ship Thomas Russell with a then-oldest apprentice Ephraim Bumstead as supercargo. He in 1803 becomes the Canton partner for Perkins and Co. while with the Peninsula war, Perkins ships moved to Spain and Portugal - funds to Mr Williams in London, then to Mr Higginson, £50,000-£60,000, by him - who married Nancy Cushing.

December 1798: T. H. Perkins re ship Franklin writes to W. Burling and Capt Jas. Devereux to Batavia with $24,000 (hidden) for coffee.

In 1799: Howay lists Eliza a Boston-owned ship for J. and T. H. Perkins Capt James Rowan, with supercargo John Kendrick Jnr., son of Capt John Kendrick.

1798-1800, Howay lists William Sturgis writes on the log of ship Eliza.

1798-1799, Howay lists Alert a Boston ship owned by J&T Lamb, Russell Sturgis and Ebenezer Preble, Capt. William Bowles, to Canton, made a profit of $49,592/86 cents. 1798, Alert, owned by Russell Sturgis, Capt. William Bowles.

Between 1799-1801, from New Bedford; Capt. Andrew Gardner (in March 1799) was on whaler and trader Rebecca, owners not-named, for Sydney thence China. In 1800, Jared Gardner had the sealer Diana from New Bedford for Rodman and Co., to Sydney then China. And about mid-1801 Diana was a sealer/trader from New York, Capt. Jas. McCall - she "passed n./w point of New Holland", to Whampoa, China.

1797: Alert.-An American ship of Boston, owned by J. and T. Lamb, R. Sturgis and associates, commanded by William Bowles. She cleared from Boston in 1797 with a cargo of trading goods for the Northwest Coast, valued at $13,090. Nothing further has been found, regarding this voyage. She was doubtless on the coast in 1798. References: Bancroft's History of the North West Coast (1884), Vol. 1, p. 306; Solid Men of Boston, MS. p. 76.

December 1798: T. H. Perkins re ship Franklin writes to W. Burling and Capt. Jas. Devereux to Batavia with $24,000 (hidden) for coffee.

1798-1800: Howay has William Sturgis writing on log of ship Eliza.

1798: Providence: Benjamin Page is captain in October 1798, of trader Ann and Hope for Brown and Ives, to Sydney, then China. (And in December 1807 and April 1808, Brown and Ives are owners for trader Eliza, from Providence, Capt. E. Hill Correy, to Fiji, wrecked.)

1798: Newport: Capt Jacob Smith is for owners William Handy and Jacob Smith in October 1798 on the trader Semiramis, to China.

1798, Howay lists in US fur trade, Richard S. Cleveland.

In 1798 Capt Edmund Fanning, of the ship Betsey sold 100,000 fur skins in Canton, nearly all of which came from Mas-a-Fuera, the main island of the Juan Fernandez Group, in the Pacific Ocean.

1798: Lieutenant William Bainbridge's Retaliation becomes the first and only American naval vessel lost to the French in the Quasi-War - 1798 April 30 -- Congress votes to establish a Department of the Navy; Benjamin Stoddert is appointed as first secretary 1799. East India Marine Society organized by master mariners and supercargoes in Salem, Massachusetts; basis for subsequent Peabody-Essex Museum February 3 -- Captain John Barry leads his United States to victory over the L'Amour de La Patrie, a widely-known French privateer. (This item is from a US timeline website on maritime history.)

1798: Benjamin Page is captain in October 1798, of trader Ann and Hope from Providence, for Brown and Ives, to Sydney, then China, noted by Dunbabin 1950 and 1955 and Churchward in 1948a. And in 12/1807 and 4/1808, Brown and Ives are owners for trader Eliza, from Providence, Capt. E. Hill Correy, to Fiji, wrecked.

1798-1799: Another convict ship for Australia - Hillsborough, 764 tons:
Capt. William Hingston. "Fever ship". Departing after 17 November, 1798, on 23 December - Arriving Sydney 26 July 1799. Voyage organised by London Missionary Society (LMS). Noted convict aboard was William Noah.

1798: RN: Matthew Flinders. 1799. Circumnavigate Tasmania.

1798: Norfolk sloop. Local Sydney ship. Captain Unknown. 7 Oct 1798 from Sydney.

1798: Nostra Senora de Bethlehem. Captain William Hingston. Not given. Captured by Cornwall and Kingston whalers. 24 Apr 1799. Trader. Spain. Cumpston's Register

1798: Neptune - American registry; Daniel Greene, master; arrived 12 Aug., 1798, departed 31 Aug., 1798. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

Year 1799

1799: -- 8 June 1800- 29 June 1800. With Detachment NSW Corps. Major Foveaux. Cumpston's Register.

1799: Betsey whaler. Not given. Not given. 1799. 13 Feb 1800. Whaler. Cumpston's Register.

1799: Betsy (to San Diego). Owner Unknown. Captain Charles Winship. 1799-1800. Trader. First US ship ever to San Diego in Howay, by Sep-Oct 1800.

1799: Rebecca (of 1799). US whaler. Captain Andrew Gardner. 1798 - 5 Mar 1799. Whaler, trader, sealer, to Bengal. From New Bedford. Rebecca charters Bishop's Nautilus for sealing. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett.

1799: HM Reliance of 1799. RN. Cmdr Henry Waterhouse. 24 October 1799 - 3 Mar 1800. Detachment of NSW Corps, discover Penantipodes Island. Cumpston's Register.

1799: Resource. Owner, W. F. Magee et al. Captain Nathaniel Pearce. 6 Sep 1799 - 14 Sep 1799. Trader from Providence, RI.

Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett

1799: Martha schooner. Owners, Boston and Co. Captain William Reed. 14 Dec 1799. Whaler, sealer. Cumpston's Register.

1799: Hillsborough. British. Captain William Hingston. 17 Nov 1798 - 26 July 1799. October 1799. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register.

1799: Eliza (of 1799). 1799. Owner, Perkins and Co. Captain James Rowan. Trader, supercargo is Jn Kendrick Jr. J. &T. H. Perkins of Boston. Howay's writings, she has supercargo John Kendrick Jnr son of Capt John Kendrick.

1799: El Plumier prize

. Owner, Spanish. Captain, not given. 1799. 2 Dec 1799. Captured by British whalers. Cumpston's Register.

1799: Britannia of 1799. Owners, Saml Anderbury (Enderby?)) and Sons. Captain Robert Turnbull. 3 Nov 1799. Whaler of Bridport. Cumpston's Register

1799: Albion of 1799. Owners, Champions. Captain Eber Bunker. 1798 - 29 Jun 1799. Whaler, storeship for NSW. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

1799: Swallow packet. Owner, EICo. Captain John Suard. 8 Dec 1799 - 3 Jan, 3 Jun 1800. Speculative trader. Cumpston's Register.

1799: Walker. Owner, Robert Wigram of London. Capt John Nicol. By 3 Nov 1799. 2 Dec 1799. Storeship. Robert Wigram and Co of London. See Cumpston's Register, p. 9, p. 35.

1799: Thynne. Owner, George Tyler. Capt Owen Terral. 1799-11 Jan 1800. Trader from Calcutta to Sydney. Cumpston's Register.

In 1799: T. H. Perkins deals with D. Dickason of London, wants set of Vancouver's charts re n/w coast of America.

In 1799: Howay lists Eliza a Boston-owned ship for J and T. H. Perkins Capt James Rowan, with supercargo John Kendrick Jnr son of Capt John Kendrick.

1798-1799: Howay lists Alert a Boston ship owned by J. & T. Lamb, Russell Sturgis and Ebenzer Preble, Capt William Bowles, to Canton, profit of $49,592/86 cents.

1798-1799: Howay lists Boston-owned ship Ulysses owned Lamb and others, Capt. David Lamb. Ship suffers mutiny.

1799: Another convict ship for Australia - Minerva, 558 tons: Capt. Joseph Salkeld.
Usually an East Indiaman, owned by Robert Charnock, an associate of the LMS, also of the EICo., assisting the LMS arrange voyages to the Pacific. Departing Cork 24 August 1799 (delayed by outbreak of Irish rebellion) - Arriving Sydney 11 January 1800.

1799: China's emperor, Kia King, bans opium completely, making trade and poppy cultivation illegal - to no avail. (Note: From website based on book: Opium: A History, by Martin Booth. (Simon and Schuster, Ltd., 1996.)

1799, Eliza, owned Perkins and Co., Capt. James Rowan. 5 March, 1799. Rebecca, American whaler charters Bishop on Nautilus to take goods to Norfolk Island, 29 May, 1799, Re Chas Bishop on Nautilus, took her cargo to Norfolk Island, then via explore Gilbert and Marshall Islands to Canton, had tussle with EICO red tape and sell cargo and ship, to sell cargo and ship at Canton, then home to England. with Bass aboard, Roe, pp. 12-13. By August 17, was Bishop at Macao, see re Venus/Bass in Jan 1800. Article, Sydney Morning Herald 19 Nov, 1988, by Robert Osbiston, George Bass in about 1799 went home to England, he became partners with Charles Bishop, bought ship Venus, and planned to sail it to Sydney. Bass married, then sailed, on 1 January, 1801. His first trading voyage a disaster, and he later sailed from PJ on Feb 5, 1803 - to South America, and was never seen again. His fate still remains mysterious.)

(8-9 November, 1799, Saunders Newsletter, London, also re 15 whalers taken by Spanish cruisers off coast of S. America. HRNSW, Vol. 3, p. 741. Reported that early in 1799, the following vessels Sally, Bligh, Cornwall, Swain, Pomona, Clark, Diana, Lock, Britannia, Nautilus left Sydney to be employed in the NSW whale fishery. Arrived there after July. See July 1799. (Note: See Saunders Newsletter [London], 8-9 November, 1799, and HRNSW, Vol. 3, p. 741. NB: mention of Nautilus suggests that Teast had her listed with Lloyd's.)

1799: Dallas' writings, Enderbys proposed to PM Pitt for an expedition against Peru and Chile using Port Jackson, Sydney, as a main base and using convicts as recruits for a landing force. (Note: 1799, November: W. J. Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers in Southern Waters. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1977. [Angus and Robertson Non-Fiction Classics Edition], p. 17: London was informed that fifteen whalers off the Pacific Coast of South America had been captured by the Spaniards.

1799: American ship Resource, William Fairchild Magee (owner or supercargo?), Capt. Nathaniel Pearce. (Could that be, Pierce?) 1799: Capt Nathaniel Pearce in September 1799 is on trader Resource, from Providence, for owners J. Corlis, William. F. Megee and others, to Sydney then China. (Churchward 1948.)

(Nov.8-9, 1799, Saunders Newsletter, London, also re 15 whalers taken by Spanish cruisers off coast of S. America.  HRNSW Vol. 3, p. 741. reported that early in 1799, the following vessels Sally, Bligh, Cornwall, Swain, Pomona, Clark, Diana, Lock, Britannia, Nautilus left Port Jackson [Sydney] to be employed in NSW fishery. Arrived there after July. See July 1799.

In 1799: Dorr and Sons of Boston, had out ship Hancock, Capt Crocker.

In 1799: Howay lists Betsy a Boston brig Capt Charles Winship died 4 December 1800 aged 23, the first US ship to San Diego by Aug-Sept 1800. For 1798-1799, Howay also has Alert a Boston ship owned by J. & T. Lamb, Russell Sturgis and Ebenezer Preble, Capt. William Bowles, to Canton, made a profit of $49,592/86 cents.

Handcuffs graphic by Phillip Russell

1799-1800: Another convict ship for Australia - Speedy, 313 tons: Capt. George Quested. Whaler owned by Enderbys. Arriving Sydney 15 April 1800.


Convict and other ships 1800-1810 to Australia

1800: 7 March: Court of Directors of EICo consider ships to be taken up for EICo service, offered by Mr Mangles, Mr Wilkinson, Hamilton and Co, Mr Wigram, Lyatt and Co.
(Parkinson on the East, p. 142)

Reference item: L. G. Churchward, 'Notes on American whaling activities in Australian waters, 1800-1850', Australian Historical Studies, Vol. 4, No. 13, 1949., pp. 59-63. L. G. Churchward, Australia and America, 1788-1972: An Alternative History. Sydney, Alternative Publishing Co-Op Ltd., 1979.

1799: Caroline or Dragon - American registry, Richard J. Cleveland, master; arrived 19 July, 1799, departed 21 July, 1799. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1799: Register of Ships gave a higher class to ships built on the Thames. This caused dissatisfaction which led to the establishment of a rival register, the `Red Book`. Register of Ships was known to as the `Green Book`. (This item is from a UK website detailing a Lloyd`s Register timeline from 1760)

Below are items still uncollected



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