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Shipping Timelines Five 1760-1780 (work-in-progress)

This file is devoted to presenting basic Shipping Timeline information in a global perspective for website readers. The items are often sketchy, and some have been extracted from other websites managed by Dan Byrnes. Where possible, ships will have their date-of-departure noted as the compilers believe that a ship's departure date gives some indications of the business plan of the owners, whatever the outcome of the voyage. These Timelines will be added-to intermittently, as new data and new e-mail arrives. Book titles will be entered according to the timeframes they treat.

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This is file Shipping Timeline5 - To go to the next file in this Merchant Networks timeline series, click to Ships Timeline 6

Year 1760

Reference item 1760: George Blake, Lloyd's Register of Shipping, 1760-1966. London, Printed by Lloyd's Register of Shipping, nd? [1960?]

1760: Lloyd's: The customers of Edward Lloyd`s coffee house, who were used to doing business in its sociable atmosphere, formed the Register Society. This later became Lloyd`s Register. (This item is from a UK website detailing a Lloyd`s Register timeline from 1760)

Year 1761

More to come

Year 1762

1762: Reference item: A relevant title here is: Alice Keith, 'Relaxations in British restrictions on American Trade with the British West Indies, 1783-1802', Journal of Modern History, Vol. XX, March, 1948. Cf., Ruwell on US ship insurance, pp. 75ff, there were Philadelphia underwriters who insured the slave trade, as the books of Kidd and Bradford show, Philadelphia ships traded with African ports in 1762, as did those of Willing, Morris and Co. of April 29, 1762, Willing and Morris insured at 16 per cent the master of the brigantine Nancy, Captain/master William Rodman, from coast of Africa to Maryland. A Negro was valued then at 25 pounds sterling per head.

Year 1763

More to come

Year 1764

1764: Reference item: A. M. Schlesinger, Prelude To Independence: The Newspaper War on Britain, 1764-1776. New York. 1957.

1764: Contractor, Gedney Clark (1711-1764), with a Lascelles firm (Wilkinson and Gaviller). (From MNP's specialist sub-lists on merchants who are contractors to goverment)

1764: Contractor, packet boat operations to West Indies 1764-1782, Edward Lewis (nd). (From MNP's specialist sub-lists on merchants who are contractors to goverment)

1764: Lloyd's: First Register of Ships published, to inform underwriters and merchants about the condition of vessels they insured or chartered. An important feature has been the classification of the hull and equipment of vessels. Following a survey, Lloyd`s Register assigned to it a "class", depending on how well it had been built and its current condition. If it was to remain "in class", the ship had to have regular surveys. 1768, Second edition published. (This item is from a UK website detailing a Lloyd`s Register timeline from 1760)

Year 1765

More to come

Year 1766

More to come

Year 1767

More to come

Year 1768

1768: La Boudese. French Navy. Captain Louis-Antoine de Bougainville. West Pacific Exploration.

1768: Etoile. French Navy. Captain Louis-Antoine de Bougainville. 1768. Exploration.

1768-1770: HM Endeavour. The ship used for Capt. James Cook's first voyage of exploration.

Year 1769

8 October 1769: New Zealand. Capt James Cooks lands on New Zealand together with Daniel Solander and Joseph Banks.

1769: Englishman Samuel Hearne makes some search for any North-West Passage from Europe by America to China or the Indies, or a passage from the Atlantic to the North Pacific. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 26.

Year 1770

1770s: Contractor military in India, George Clive (died 1779), later a banker.

1770s: Zong, slave ship, British, Notknown, Famous Mansfield legal case re ship insurance and the legality of slavery.

1770: Endeavour. RN. Captain James Cook. 1767-1770. Pacific Exploration,and re Transit of Venus as seen from Tahiti. She was later bought by James Mather. A notable American sailing with Cook was "the traveller" John Ledyard, America's first travel writer.

1770: Reference item: Richard S. Dunn, 'Masters, Servants and Slaves In The Colonial Chesapeake And The Caribbean', in David B. Quinn, Ed.), Early Maryland In A Wider World. Detroit. 1982.

1770: Reference item: I. Turner, The Australian Dream: A Collection of Anticipations About Australia From Captain Cook to the Present Day. Sun Books, Melbourne, 1968.

1770: Endeavour HM. RN. Captain James Cook. 1767-1770. Exploration. British Whaling investor James Mather bought her after she was decommissioned as a naval vessel after Cook's return. She then re-entered the Navy and was lost to the Americans, ending in the harbour at Newport, Rhode Island.

Estimated 1770: Canada, contractor, William Grant, related to Robert Grant of London who had naval supplies contracts. (From MNP's specialist sub-lists on merchants who are contractors to goverment)

1770s

After the British take Quebec, Colin Drummond (died 1776) became an agent for London firm, of Fludyer and Drummond, also a partner with Jacob Jordon. Is deputy-paymaster of British forces in Quebec Province.

Contractor, for British military during Am Rev, an American, Loyalist John Watts (nd)

Contractor, military financing, Sir Bart1, Joshua Vanneck (1702-1777). Associated with banker Thomas Walpole (1727-1803).

Pre-1775, Contractor for mail to America, John Sargent (1714-1791) a director Bank of England. He also supplied to Africa. In business with Richard Oswald, John Mill, Augustus and John Boyd, Alexander Grant. Also with firm with George Aufrere as Sargent, Aufrere and Co. Also linked to Richard Strattion (1704-1759).

Contractor, American military, Robert Morris (1734-1806). See also his links to Daniel Parker contractor to American military (). And to Carter Braxton in Virginia.

Contractor, army clothier, Galfridus Mann (active 1770).

Contractor, victuals to Nova Scotia, loans to government, Robert Jones from 1770 till his death. (1704-1774). Partner with Peregrine Cust qv.

Contractor, American naval operations, John Holker Junior (1745-1822) and his textiler father Jean (1719-1785).

Contractor, military Victuals and John Baron1 Hennicker (1724-1803). His father was a mast importer.

Contractor, army, London Lord Mayor James Esdaile (circa 1715-1799).

Contractor, American Revolutionary War, military, William Duer (circa 1745-1799).

Contractor, British army clothier, James Duberley (nd).

Contractor, military, William Devaynes (1730-1809).

Victuals contractor, Cope. More to come.

Contractor, military, re supplying British in Am Rev, MP banker Abel II Smith (1717-1788) of Smiths Payne and Smiths bankers.

Army agents, Richard Cox (1718-1803) of army agents Cox Cox and Greenwood. See also, Richard Henry Cox. See also re Charles Greenwood (active 1782), a brother-in-law of Thomas Hammersley. Also, Charles Hammersley (1748-1832) related to the Greenwood family.


Year 1771

1773: Contractor, military re horses, victuals and ordnance, Nicholas Linwood (died 1773). Business partner with Brice Fisher and Sir William Baker qv. (From MNP's specialist sub-lists on merchants who are contractors to goverment)

1771: Contractor (various to America?), Christopher Kilby (1705-1771) a partner with Sir William Baker qv.

1771: 10 April: Breton noble and French naval officer Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen de Tremarec (senior) and his companion also from Breton Louis Francois Marie Aleno de Saint Alouarn (second-in-command) are given permission by Louis XV of France to make a voyage of exploration south to the islands of Saint Paul and Amsterdam with an aim of discovering Terres Australes. The two do try to discover what the French called Gonneville Land. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 2, pp. 26-27.

Year 1772

1772: Le Mascarin. French. Capt Marc-Joseph Marion Dufresne. Exploration of Tasmania, later to New Zealand.

1772: Gros Ventre. French. Captain Louis-Francois Alleno de Saint-Allourn. 1771-1772. Exploration of north West Australian coast. Claimed possession for France, see notes. He in Len Zell's second eco-tourism book on the n/w Australiancoast is Francois de St Allouam at Cape Inscription, a northernmost point of Dirk Hartog Island.

1772: Contractor, army agent, John Calcraft (1726-1772). (From MNP's specialist sub-lists on merchants who are contractors to goverment)

Year 1773

1773: John Blackburn of London (died 1798), contractor, tea merchant to New York, is involved in Boston Tea Party tea deal.

1773: The Boston Tea Party

A variety of today's US websites unfortunately seem rather confused about the ships of the Boston Tea Party political protest. Some websites are confused about which captain was aboard which ship. Much confusion reigns about the ownerships of the ships involved, and/or the ownership of the tea cargoes. Confusion also reigns as to whether the tea was from China (Bohea tea) or from Darjeeling in India. India did not produce tea for the EICo by 1773. Today's US patriots on the Internet also tend to ignore the extent to which Americans by 1773 enjoyed smuggled (and cheaper) Dutch tea, a habit which had been concerning British merchants in Britain for some years, and presumably concerned their agents in America. Merchant Networks Project here tries to sort it out somewhat. The four ships intended to land tea at Boston were American-owned. The tea cargoes were British-owned, consigned to American merchants who never took delivery.

Two of the three ships were whalers owned (mostly) by Nantucket Island whaling merchant William Rotch (brother of the 23-year-old Francis noted below. You can find a treatment of Rotch genealogy here)

Two of the three ships had carried cargoes of whale oil to London earlier in 1773. The three ships of the Boston Tea Party (by date of arrival to Boston before the Tea Party) were: Dartmouth Captain James Hall arriving Sunday 28 November, 1773, Eleanor Captain James Bruce (a Tory), arriving 1 or 2 December 1773 (reports differ) and Beaver Captain Hezekiah Coffin arriving Wednesday 15 December, 1773. Boston's patriots called a public protest meeting on 16 December.
A fourth tea-carrying ship intended to reach Boston, William, (treated below) was diverted by a storm and ended destroyed.

Dartmouth Captain James Hall was built as a whaler. Mate was Alexander Hodgon (as named in Drake, Tea Leaves). Had 114 tea chests, eight weeks from London, arrived Boston/Griffin's Wharf on Sunday 28 November. Online, a Boston Tea Party Gazette says Dartmouth was allowed to unload all her cargo except the tea. Dartmouth was then moved to Griffin's Wharf. Francis Rotch (aged 23) represented the Dartmouth's owners, being a brother of the said owner, William Rotch, they being sons of Joseph Rotch (1704-1784) and Love Macy. (See also, Drake, Tea Leaves.) James Hall does not seem to appear for any Google query re Hall genealogy of Nantucket, his genealogy seems entirely unavailable. Dartmouth was built at Darmouth about 1767, and in April 1774 was loaded with oil at Nantucket and sailed for London; she foundered on her way back in November and her crew was picked up by Shubael Coffin of Nantucket.
Cf online at www.archive.org/stream, L. Vernon Briggs, (1889), History of shipbuilding on the North River, Plymouth county, Massachusetts, with genealogies of the shipbuilders, and accounts of the industries upon its tributaries, 1640 to 1872.

Eleanor, Captain James Bruce. (Bruce has been termed, "a hot Tory". Bruce's genealogy/family history also seems to be entirely absent on US websites. Presumably with a surname like Bruce his background was Scottish.) Eleanor when it arrived was told to moor by Dartmouth at Griffin's Wharf with a sentinel guard (with Captain Ezekiel Cheever) of Patriots. (See online, Benjamin Bussey Thatcher, Traits of the Tea Party: Being a Memoir of George R. T. Hewes, as a Google Books Result.)
One item online from Drake, Tea Leaves says Eleanor, Captain James Bruce, was "a constant trader", a term hard to interpret unless it means she worked a regular run between England-New England. This is in regards to a letter from John Dorrien Esq one of the EICo directors, at Nicholas Lane, 6 August 1773, recommending for the Beaver Capt Coffin (and Beaver was associated somehow with a tea factor, Mr Timmins), that John Rowe was a part-owner of Capt. Bruce's ship, Eleanor. Drake, Tea Leaves, has an item re Questions Proposed by James Bruce, master of Eleanor, 250 tons, his tea was consigned to Richard Clarke and Sons, Thomas and Elisha Hutchinson, Benjamin Faneuil, and Joshua Winslow.

Beaver, Captain Hezekiah Coffin, with mate Jethro Coffin and part-owner Rotch. (You can find a treatment of Coffin genealogy here)

A note on a Davies Family website which has extensive family history here says that Hezekiah is said to have been the first to heave tea overboard (?) at Boston Tea Party (BTP) which does not seem plausible. Hezekiah married Lydia Folger, daughter of Jethro Folger and Mary Srarbuck. Hezekiah had a son Owen once on the Essex, a US whaler circa 1820 about the Marquesa Islands, and a story is told about a white whale named Mocha Dick - a story which evidently later came to the attention of novelist Herman Melville and used for Moby Dick.
Hezekiah (1741-1779) was son of Zacheus Coffin and Mary Pinkham, and he married Abigail Coleman daughter of Daniel Coleman and Elizabeth Mooers.

One US website on Coffin family history says the Coffins of Boston tended to Loyalism, as a group, but presumably fails to mention that many Nantucketeers were Quakers whose religion tended to pacifism, hence Quakers, whatever their political opinions, tried to avoid participation in war.
Hezekiah was also once captain of an early American ship around Cape Horn.

Beaver as a Nantucket ship had earlier in 1773 taken whale oil to London and then returned with tea. (Per items from Keith Dawson of Toowoomba Australia. See http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/m/c/k/William-B-Mcknight/WEBSITE-0001/UHP-0592.html).

Beaver was built by Ichabod Thomas (see below). One report is that Beaver was about England in spring 1774 and her captain (whether Bruce or not at the time) died there in 1774, and that Beaver was sold. Beaver in one account by FC Sanford had gone to London by December 1772 with sperm whale oil consigned to Samuel Enderby who did "immense business" with Nantucket Island's whaling industry. (You can find a treatment of Enderby genealogy here)
Beaver had with 112 chests of tea, and docked at Boston Wednesday 15 Dec 1773. After Beaver's tea was thrown overboard, she went whaling on Brazil Banks in company with Bedford Captain Robert Meader (Bedford being owned by William Rotch aforementioned).
See online at www.archive.org/stream, L. Vernon Briggs, (1889), History of shipbuilding on the North River, Plymouth county, Massachusetts, with genealogies of the shipbuilders, and accounts of the industries upon its tributaries, 1640 to 1872., which says Beaver was built by Captain Ichabod Thomas Senior (who built ships at the Brick-Kilns, North River, till 1787-1788). Ichabod Thomas Snr married Euth (?) Turner, daughter of his shipbuilding teacher, Capt Benjamin Turner.

William Captain Joseph Loring met storm trouble about Cape Cod and came ashore. Her cargo, consigned to Jonathan Clarke, a son of Richard Clarke, was salvable but she was lost. The Clarke family owned William. The town of Truro became involved in the fracas about her tea cargo. This Captain Joseph Loring's family history is not visible on the Internet but he was probably related to Hannah Loring, the wife of one of the Boston consignees of EICo tea (and Loyalist), Joshua Winslow.

Other tea ships

By late 1773, other tea ships for America to be named include: Nancy for New York. A British ship Polly Captain Samuel Ayres for Philadelphia, would have arrived there 25 December 1773; he was threatened with being tarred and feathered. London Captain Alexander Curling for Charlestown South Carolina. In early March 1774, the brig Fortune (Captain Gorham, owned by Thomas Walley), arrived in Boston with tea consigned to Henry Lloyd connected with the London firm Davison and Newman. On 18 April, 1774, ship Nancy Captain Benjamin Lockyer came to Sandy Hook, New York, only to be detained by Sons of Liberty, and to agree to take the tea back to London. By 22 April 1774, the ship London Captain Chambers, met trouble again when it was claimed he was trying to smuggle in English tea for his own personal profit. About 23 May 1774, at Chestertown Maryland, Sons of LIberty protested a ship Geddes, (possibly owned by a local customs inspector and merchant, William Geddes), and dumped its tea. In late June 1774, Captain Richard Maitland on a British ship, Magna Carta, brought tea into Charlestown South Carolina, to fnd that a mob would ruin his cargo. (There is also note for late June 1774 of a ship Grosvenor, owned by one Edward Parry in London, bound for an unnamed American port)

At Annapolis Maryland, by 14 October 1774, trouble arose for the ship Peggy Stewart, Captain Richard Jackson, carrying 53 indentured servants and up to a ton of tea in 17 packages labelled as linen. This ship had a connection to Thomas Charles Williams, the London representative of an Annapolis firm whose members happened to repudiate the tea cargo, and who offered to see the ship burned, which it was on 19 October. This incident became known as the Annapolis Tea Party. (Some material in this section is from a helpful online article by Prof. John Buescher (USA), 'Are There Instances of Raids Similar to the Boston Tea Party?') At Yorke, Maine, 15 September 1774, a sloop Cynthia sailed in, with a mere 150 pounds of tea for a local judge and Tory, Jonathan Sayward. Her captain was Sayward's nephew, James Donnell. At Greenwich, New Jersey, summer of 1774, the captain of a small ship, Greyhound, avoided Philadelphia and tried to get his tea cargo into Greenwich, to be handled by a Loyalist, Daniel Bowen, who would try to see it sold in Philadelphia. Local men dressed as Indians on 22 December 1774 broke into Bowen's house and later set fire to the tea.

Consigneeships of the tea chests. The 342 or so tea chests handled at the Boston Tea Party, if delivered, would have been delivered to Richard Clarke and Sons, Thomas and Elisha Hutchinson, Benjamin Faneuil, and Joshua Winslow all of Boston. Some small delivery (about 480 pounds worth) might also have been taken by clients of Davison, Newman and Co. of London, perhaps the single largest grocers in Britain.

The of the role East India Co. At the time, the East India Co. (EICo) was in debt to the British government. Simultaneously, the EICo in its warehouses had a huge inventory of unsold tea. Plans arose to sell the excess stock to the American market, derive revenue and reduce the EICo debt. Although, it was known that the major competitor in America for British-sold tea was smuggled Dutch tea. Perhaps, we might say today that the EICo decided to dump its tea into a captive market, except that the American colonies no longer provided a docile or compliant market.
By about September 1772, a major London-based buyer of American tobacco and a creative financial operator, Robert Herries (later Sir) inspected the issues and decided that the best tactic would be for the EICo to reduce its tea price and dump it on the Continental market, where it would presumably compete with Dutch tea. American was not mentioned in Herries' original plan. Herries met with EICo directors and found they liked his plan. So much that they grasped the nettle. A major supplier of smuggled Dutch tea to American colonies was the major firm in Amsterdam, Hope and Co (then run by Thomas and Adrian Hope). This time, the EICo suggested to Hopes that they co-operate with dumping cheap, British-sold tea in the markets of Europe. Hopes however were reluctant to become involved in a price war, and predicted that the plan might backfire, increasing the price of tea in England itself. Hopes' reluctance more or less ignited an alternative plan, to dump the tea on the American market (perhaps with, or perhaps without, a duty-free or a duty-reduced price). And in London, one tea dealer named William Palmer disagreed with the plan outlined by EICo/Hopes, and recommended the tea be dumped in America. (Palmer was in regular touch with Thomas Hutchinson, colonial governor of Massachusetts, who with his sons was himself a secretive tea dealer, as the Patriot Boston merchant John Hancock probably knew. Hancock sometimes dealt with Hayley and Hopkins mentioned below.)

Meanwhile, as news of the EICo's excess tea inventory spread, Philadelphia merchants Gilbert Barkly and John Inglis recommended that the EICo use warehouses in American colonies and hold regular auctions to dispose of tea to bulk buyers. London merchant banker Thomas Walpole thought much the same and that EICo tea dealing of this kind could be centred in Philadelphia. By mid-1773, a variety of British firms had been nominated by merchants in America as names with whom they'd prefer to deal with for tea. (EICO chairman at the time was Crabb Bolton.) The field of American merchants became dominated by a Boston-based group, being Thomas and Elisha Hutchinson, Richard Clarke and Sons, Benjamin Faneuil and Edward Winslow (who were connected with Joshua Winslow (1736-1775) presumably a relative of Edward).
Jonathan Clarke offered the use of the Clarke-owned ship William. Geroge Hayley of Hayley and Hopkins were in a position to offer the use of the Rotch-owned ship, Dartmouth, which was carrying whale oil to London. Hayley also offered London which would go to Charlestown South Carolina. The Eleanor Captain Bruce was owned by merchant John Rowe. Beaver was also offered, and as she was a Nantucket oil-carrying ship it is presumed here she was owned by Rotches. (It is not impossible that behind Rotches was a ship-owner interest from Samuel Enderby Senior of London.)

Opinion on such deals began to circulate in America and it was predicted that Americans would be unhappy with the terms of trade. There are some views extant are that these new tea deals would have offered American consumers a dramtically-reduced tea price, up to 50 per cent less. Americans nevertheless objected.
Opinions travelled. Boston merchant Jonathan Williams Jnr wrote his uncle, Benjamin Franklin. Thomas Bromfield in London wrote to his Boston-merchant brother, Henry Bromfield. In London, EICo director Frederick Pigou Jnr, who was connected with a New York branch of Pigou and Booth, wrote to Philadelphia merchants, James and Drinker. Samuel Wharton in London wrote to his brothers in Philadelphia. One matter now at stake was the choice of "the tea-dealing capital of America" -- would be it be New York, Philadelphia or Boston? Philadelphia merchant names interested included: Abel James and Henry Drinker, Thomas and Isaac Wharton, and their brother Samuel in London. Perhaps too, some of the Philadelphia names were connected with Lane, Son and Fraser of London?

Importantly, the tea deals made in London were complicated as well as being novel in scope, and ultimately had British government backing. East India Co. chairman at the time was Henry Crabbe Bolton/Boulton, who died 8 October 1773, who has been little-researched (there is almost nothing on him on the Internet). It is interesting to ask if intermarriages, or, family linkages, had any role in any of the arguments. Boston tea dealer Richard Clarke (1711-1795) was married to Elizabeth Winslow, daughter of an Edward Winslow (1663-1753) and Elizabeth Dixey. Richard had a daughter married to tea dealer Thomas Hutchinson Jnr, son of the colonial governor of Massachusetts, Thomas. Her sister Susannah Farnum Clarke once married the noted American artist, John Singleton Copley, who in 1763 painted a portrait of Hannah Loring, who married Joshua Winslow in 1763. Hannah Clark was married to Henry Bromfield named above.

Linkages other

Gilbert Barkly (died 1799 at Bath, England)was a partner of Philadelphia merchant John Inglis and married John's daughter Anne. Barkly had earlier (May 1773) been worried about the extent of the smuggling of tea into America from France, Holland and Sweden. Barkly sailed back to America are making a tea deal on ship Polly. Barkley was worried by the tea deals and discussed "revolutionary" issues with Lord Dartmouth. He had been in Quebec 1765-1773, and was actually in Scotland when the American war broke out. In London, Barkly had a relqative, Aeneas Barkly. (See Walter Scott Dunn, Opening New Markets: The British Army and the Old Northwest as a Google Books Result and Walter Scott Dunn, People of the American Frontier: the coming of the American Revolution.)

Alexander Champion (died c.1795), a London merchant, is noted also as a co-founder from 1770 of what the British called the South Whaling operation, headed by Samuel Enderby Senior who resided at Blackheath, London. This South Whaling operation would have seen much co-operation between British interests (mostly London-based) and American whalers from Nantucket, and involved whalers working the southern Atlantic, the Brazils Grounds, and as far south as the Falklands Islands. In 1776, Samuel Enderby with Alexander Champion and John St Barbe (who lived almost next door to Enderby at Blackheath) used American vessels and crews to send 12 whaleships into the southern fishery. More were sent in 1777 and 1778. Alexander and Benjamin Champion in 1786 sent the first British whaler east of Cape of Good Hope, the Triumph, Daniel Coffin the master, an American.

American Jonathan Clarke, tea consignee, owner of the ill-fated tea ship, William, seems to have sailed back to America on the ship Hayley, which was probably owned by Hayley and Hopkins of London, who had some interest in the tea deals.

London grocers Davison and Newman of 44 Fenchurch Stereet London had long sold tea to Boston had made some small tea deals in 1773, later claiming 480 pounds in compensation for their losses by the Boston Tea Party. These grocers were partners Thomas Rawlinson, Monkhouse Davison, Abram/Abraham Newman and William Thwaytes. Very influential, they catered for the luxury end of the market and sold see lists fix. From about 1747 they are mentioned in the papers of Henry Laurens, who had extensive dealings with British merchants.

Henry Drinker was an ironmaster (dealing with Neate and Pigou) and a sometime land speculator in America, 1783-1809, and for some of the latter part of that period, Frederick Pigou also invested in American land.

Boston tea consignee, Benjamin Faneuil (died 1785). A Loyalist, he was spoken for commercially in London to the East India Company by RObert Rasheligh (partner with London alderman, Brook Watson, who had interests in Canada) and Benjamin Hallowell. Faneuil made a Loyalist's claim for compensation dated 19 October 1784. He was son of Benjamin Faneuil and Anne Bureau, and married Mary Cutler, fix blut

On John Rowe. Rowe's diary 1764-1779, is on the net at www.archive.org/stream/ -- A first child of his family, Rowe arrived in Boston by 1736 when aged about 21 and became a merchant-importer. He was a Boston Provincial Grand Master Freemason for many years. There was a Rowe Wharf in Boston. See note in p. 620 of AM. Schlesinger on Colonial Merchants, re Letters and Diary of John Rowe, Boston Merchant, 1759-1762, 1764-1779. (Ed. by A. E. Cunningham. Boston. 1903.) Rowe dealt sometimes with Lane, Son and Fraser of London. Rowe was owner of the ship Eleanor Capt Bruce of the Boston Tea Party, according to H. Allan's treatment on John Hancock, and unknowingly, according to Rowe's own diary. But another view is that Eleanor was owned or part-owned by John Lane and Lane, Son and Fraser in London. Rowe was friends with Rev. Samuel Parker and his son John Rowe Parker. Rowe's Will indicates that some of his estate details would come to the attention of Lane, Son and Fraser. Rowe as a Whig was known as lukewarm, and he had a conflicted family-loyalty situation since he was related to the Linzee family who largely remained Loyalists.
See an item on Rowe's letters and diary (1764-1779) at www.archive.org/stream/
Since Rowe had family links to the Loyalists named Linzee, see http://www.archive.org/stream/linzeefamilyofgr02linz/linzlinzeefamilyofgr02linz_djvu.txt - Also, Rowe's own Wikipedia page. (For more, see a treatment of Boston Tea Party issues by Dan Byrnes)

The variety of tea-dealer names in London of interenst ... (More to come here)

Other American consignees of tea in 1773-1774. (More to come here)

References used above regarding the Boston Tea Party include:
Briggs, See online at www.archive.org/stream, L. Vernon Briggs, (1889), History of shipbuilding on the North River, Plymouth county, Massachusetts, with genealogies of the shipbuilders, and accounts of the industries upon its tributaries, 1640 to 1872..
Material from an Enderby descendant in Australia, Keith Dawson of Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia.
Francis S. Drake (online version), Tea Leaves. Boston, Smith and Porter Printers, 1884. (As edited by A. O. Crane.)
Walter Scott Dunn, Opening New Markets: The British Army and the Old Northwest as a Google Books Result, and Walter Scott Dunn, People of the American Frontier: the coming of the American Revolution.
George Hewes, his eyewitness account of the Boston Tea Party as a participant, online versions,
Benjamin W. Labaree, The Boston Tea Party. New York, Oxford University Press, 1968.
Benjamin Bussey Thatcher, Traits of the Tea Party: Being a Memoir of George R. T. Hewes, as a Google Books Result.
Eduoard A. Stackpole, Whales and Destiny, The Rivalry between America, France, and Britain for Control of the Southern Whale Fishery, 1785-1825. University of Massachusetts Press, 1972.
And a great many websites (including those for genealogy) such as:
A webpage titled Boston Tea Party Gazette,
Davies Family Website, mentioning the Essex's whaling voyage of 1820.
http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/m/c/k/William-B-Mcknight/WEBSITE-0001/UHP-0592.html
Wikipedia page on the Boston Tea Party which has useful citations not used here including online items from Boston Tea Party Historical Society.

And all round it seems to a non-American that the Boston Tea Party, said to have ignited the American Revolution, was a significant action in that it legitimised punitive action by Patriots against Loyalists. This was part of the civil-war aspect of the American Revolution - Patriots after the Tea Party felt more comfortable about moving in a concerted way to dislodge Loyalists from their positions of power and influence. And there were many Loyalists indeed who benefited from a role reinforcing the rule of the British crown in America.




1773: HM Adventure. RN. Capt Tobias Furneaux. Exploration. Part of Cook's second voyage.

1773: Hayley. Owner, John Hancock of Boston. Captain James Scott. Nov 1773 to Boston. Trader, US. Aboard as passenger is Jonathan Clarke. Prior to the Boston Tea Party.

1773: Contractor, financial services to government, Samuel Touchet/Tuchet (1705-1773). (From MNP's specialist sub-lists on merchants who are contractors to goverment)

Year 1774

1774: Reference item:: James Pagan, Sketches Of The History Of Glasgow. Glasgow. 1847. cited in T. Thompson note 14, and Pagan notes that at least 46 different Glasgow firms alone were dealing in the tobacco trade in 1774.

1774: Richard Maitland’s Tea Party - (See The American Revolution in the Southern Colonies by David Lee Russell, p. 46): When tea arrived in Charles Town harbour aboard the British ship Magna Carta in late June (1774?), Captain Richard Maitland told local officials that he would return the tea to England. But on rumours that Maitland planned to sell the tea anyway, angry and unemployed men in the port boarded the ship as Captain Maitland quickly exited to take refuge aboard the British man-of-war Britannia. In November the Britannia, which carried consigned tea, landed. The Charles Town General Committee ordered the merchants to dump the tea in the Cooper River to avoid mob violence, which they accomplished. Henry Laurens of Charles Town said these new acts were simply the first of perhaps many laws to “mandate which Ministers Shall think proper for keeping us in Subjection to the task master who Shall be put over is.”
See Laboratory for Liberty: The South Carolina Legislative Committee System, 1719-1776, a book by George Edward Frakes; University Press of Kentucky, 1970. 201 pgs. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98510546
CHAPTER VIII
Revolutionary Committee Activity, 1774-1776 Extract from p118 (119 not available)
In December, 1773, South Carolinians' concern over British policy shifted from New England to Charles Town Harbor. The problem was the arrival of the ship London carrying a load of East Indian tea. The tea ship docked at Charles Town at a time when South Carolinians and their fellow colonists were protesting against the Tea Act taxes. (4) The radicals in South Carolina politics, led by Christopher Gadsden, took advantage of the hostile climate of public opinion toward royal officials. Four days after the London arrived, the South Carolina radical leaders called a general meeting of all citizens at the Great Hall of the Exchange Building to discuss the constitutional issues A meeting at the Exchange Building was called on 3 December because 257 chests of East India Company tea had arrived in Charles Town two days before in Captain Alexander Curling’s ship, the London. George Gabriel Powell was elected chairman of the meeting, and it became apparent in the ensuing debate that most of the citizens present favored absolute non-importation of teas subject to tax. The East India Company consignees, who were present at the meeting, received the thanks and applause of the assembly when they promised not to accept the tea. (Lifted from www.antonymaitland.com/)

10 July 1775: Capture of the Philippa


(From www.antonymaitland.com/)

In early June 1775 the South Carolina Council of Safety learned of a shipment of gunpowder due to arrive in Savannah, Georgia. The information was that this was the annual present of gunpowder for the Indians. Since gunpowder and ammunition were in critically short supply in all the colonies, the Council of Safety determined to intercept the shipment.1
Two barges were sent from South Carolina, commanded by Captains John Joyner and John Barnwell of the 1st South Carolina regiment,2 with a total of about forty men each. These proceeded to Bloody Point to intercept the powder.3 Bloody Point, on Daufaskie Island, was the landfall for all vessels entering the Savannah River. From Bloody Point new arrivals were visible, as was the town of Savannah. (4)
Georgia Royal Governor Sir James Wright had anticipated trouble with the shipping in the river. Governor Wright had no military forces available in the colony and had written to General Gage and Admiral Graves for help. (5) Help was coming, although not in response to Wright’s letter. On 27 June HM Schooner St. John (Lieutenant William Grant) sailed from St. Augustine, East Florida with dispatches for Wright, from Governor Patrick Tonyn. (6)
St. John arrived off Tybee Island lighthouse on 29 June. At 1400 she was nine to twelve miles south southeast of the lighthouse. Here she stopped a sloop from New Providence and searched her, and apparently kept her for the time being. At 1730 she anchored off the lighthouse, observing a tent on the beach and many men ashore and in boats, and the “liberty flag” flying from the top of the lighthouse. Grant sent a letter to Sir James Wright in the sloop, and went to quarters, where the crew stayed all night. 7 The men ashore were the South Carolinians and, probably, some assorted Georgia “Liberty Boys.”
The next day Grant observed boats passing and re-passing to Tybee Island. He sent his master and a boat to find a conveyance for a letter to Sir James Wright at St. Augustine. In the afternoon St. John fired a few shots at a Carolina pilot boat, which refused to stop. St. John stopped another schooner from South Carolina and searched her, but she only had passengers for Georgia aboard. Grant’s men then boarded and searched a schooner from St. Vincent. Finally, Grant sent a boat and officer to town with a letter for the governor.8
On 4 July 1775 the Second Georgia Provincial Congress convened, and joined the Continental Association on 6 July. This brought the colony squarely into the rebellion.9 The Georgians had been aware of the presence of the South Carolinians and now blessed the enterprise by co-operating. The Georgians informed Barnwell and Joyner of the presence of the St. John. The schooner Elizabeth, owned by Samuel Price and Richard Wright of Savannah, was taken up and commissioned as the Liberty. Price cooperated with the Provincial Congress acting as schooner’s pilot.10 The Provincial Congress authorized Captain Oliver Bowen and Captain Joseph Habersham as commanders of the newly-outfitted ten-gun schooner. They were ordered to assist Captains Joyner and Barnwell of South Carolina (whose troops were on Tybee Island) in the capture of the incoming powder vessel. A secondary purpose was to nullify the St. John.11 Other reports list this vessel as having eight to ten guns, swivels, and a fifty-man crew.12 The cannon were 6-pounders. [cite]
The merchant ship in question was the 270-ton Phillipa [Philipa, Philippa, formerly the Magna Carta] (Richard Maitland),13 which had sailed from London, England on 2 May 1775 with a cargo of 13000 pounds of gunpowder, as well as small arms, and casks of musket balls. The cargo was intended for the Indian trade and for British troops and loyalists in Georgia and eastern Florida.14
Grant was making every effort to find the powder vessel first. On 3 July he ran down a ship outside the bar, but she was from Barbados in ballast and was released.15 The presence of the Liberty and the two barges may have influenced Grant, and he moved further out to sea. On 9 July two more ships were stopped and searched for powder, but were released.16 Unknown to Grant, he had already missed his chance.
On 7 July the Phillipa anchored nine miles from Tybee Point, to await a pilot to take her up to Savannah. The Liberty was anchored out of sight from Tybee, but Bowen and Habersham were no doubt informed of the arrival of a large ship. On 8 July Liberty moved up and anchored in the ship channel about three or four miles from the Phillipa. If the powder ship moved up river it would have to pass the schooner.18 At 1400 a pilot went aboard the Phillippa and she got underway.19
A change in the wind and an ebb tide forced both vessels to anchor. They remained at anchor until the following morning. Then Maitland was ordered to sail up the Savannah to Cockspur Island, with Liberty following. About three hundred men were camped there. Maitland was ordered to anchor, and the two South Carolina barges came out and joined the schooner. Bowen, Joyner, and Seth Cuthbert of Savannah led a boarding party to the Phillipa. Maitland was forced to hand over his papers. Next Captain Joseph Habersham came aboard. He had a written order from the Provincial Congress which authorized him to seize the arms, gunpowder, and whatever else was included in the cargo.26 Maitland was informed that the Americans would “take all the gunpowder, shot, lead, and Indian trading arms.”27 When the unloading had begun, Maitland was allowed to depart for Savannah in order to inform Governor Wright of what had happened.28
The Americans were able to take off 16,000 pounds of powder and “seven hundredweight of leaden bullets.” They also “took away all the bar-lead, sheet-lead, Indian trading arms, and shot, that were on board.” The Carolinians and the Georgians divided the cargo between them.29
All the gunpowder, along with a few kegs of musket balls, was transferred to the Liberty. There was no room aboard the Liberty for many of the kegs of powder and the small arms, so the Phillipa’s crew was instructed to keep her at anchor near Cockspur Island. A “prize crew” was put aboard to insure that she stayed put. On 12 July the Phillipa received instructions from the Georgia Committee of Safety to proceed to Savannah.30 There a second boarding party, led by William Platt, a Savannah merchant, and under the overall direction of the Committee, unloaded the rest of the cargo into boats and transported it to the city magazine for storage.31
Maitland met his ship at Savannah and was aboard by 12 July. Governor Wright urged Maitland to file a protest or affidavit with Anthony Stokes, the chief justice of the province. This would have had no effect but to draw more attention to Maitland. The necessity of having the cargo’s bonds cancelled finally forced Maitland to file an affidavit on 21 September 1775.32
The very real risk these early rebels ran was exemplified by the case of Ebenezer Smith Platt. Platt moved to Savannah from New York in March 1775. At Savannah, Platt was in the mercantile business. (33) Platt became a member of the committee of Savannah, and was among those that boarded the Philippa at Savannah. (34) In January 1776 Platt was en route to Saint-Domingue to purchase arms for the Provincial Congress. The prize was taken in to Jamaica. Because the vessel was registered as English, Platt was ordered to sell his cargo, but escaped prison. On his return voyage, in another vessel, Platt was again captured. (35) This time he was recognized as a leader in the Philippa affair. Platt was confined aboard a ship of war from March 1776 to January 1777. He was then taken to England, where he was heavily ironed and imprisoned in Newgate, and charged with high treason. (36) An unofficial British committee working for relief of American prisoners petitioned, in mid-March 1778, (37) that he be tried or admitted to bail. (38) Platt was released by 3 April 1778 and planned to go to France to return to America. (39)
Notes __________
1 Patrick O’Kelley, “Nothing but Blood and Slaughter:” Military Operations and Order of Battle of the Revolutionary War in the Carolinas, Volume One 1771-1779, Booklocker.com: 2004, p. 32
2 O’Kelley, NBBAS, 1:32
3 O’Kelley, NBBAS, 1:32
4 Hufford, Jon R., “Enough Gunpowder to Start a Revolution,” paper. Texas Tech University. 2007, 315. http://esr.lib.ttu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1033&context=lib_fac_research Accessed 1/28/08
5 Hufford, 315
6 NDAR, “Journal of His Majesty’s Schooner St. John, Lieut. William Grant, Commanding,” I, 766-767
7 NDAR, “Journal of His Majesty’s Schooner St. John, Lieutenant William Grant, Commanding,” I, 783
8 NDAR, “Journal of His Majesty’s Schooner St. John, Lieut. William Grant, Commanding,” I, 794
9 http://ourgeorgiahistory.com/wars/Revolution/revolution06.html. 1/24/08
10 Hufford, 316n8. This is from Allen D. Candler and Lucian Lamar Knight, comps.. The Colonial Records of the State of Georgia, 26 vols., vols. 27-39, Manuscripts, 38, pt. I: 614, 615.
11Paullin, Charles Oscar, The Navy of the American Revolution, The Burrows Brothers Company: Cleveland, 1906, 459; NDAR, “Sir James Wright, Governor of Georgia, to Lord Dartmouth,” I, 845
12Paullin, Navy of the American Revolution, 459; NDAR, “Sir James Wright, Governor of Georgia, to Lord Dartmouth,” I, 845
13Coleman, Georgia, 53; Paullin, Navy of the American Revolution, 460; NDAR, “Sir James Wright, Governor of Georgia, to Lord Dartmouth,” I, 856; “Henry Laurens to John Laurens, London,” I, 885
14 Hufford, 315
15NDAR, “Journal of His Majesty’s Schooner St. John, Leut. William Grant, Commanding,” I, 812
16NDAR, “Journal of His Majesty’s Schooner St. John, Leut. William Grant, Commanding,” I, 848
17 Hufford, 317
18 Hufford, 317. Hufford cites the Affidavit of Richard Maitland, 21 September 1775, from Allen D. Candler and Lucian Lamar Knight, comps., The Colonial Records of the Stale of Georgia. 26 vols., vol. 2 manuscript, 38, pt. 1; 606-614
19 O’Kelley, NBBAS, 1:33. Not on 9 July, as stated, however.
20 O’Kelley, NBBAS, 1:33. Quotations from Maitland’s affidavit.
21 O’Kelley, NBBAS, 1:33
22 Hufford, 317. Affidavit of Richard Maitland, 21 September 1775.
23 O’Kelley, NBBAS, 1:33
24 Hufford, 317. Affidavit of Richard Maitland, 21 September 1775.
25 O’Kelley, NBBAS, 1:33. Quotations from Maitland’s affidavit.
26 Hufford, 317. Affidavit of Richard Maitland, 21 September 1775. 27 O’Kelley, NBBAS, 1:33. Quotations from Maitland’s affidavit.
28 Hufford, 317. Affidavit of Richard Maitland, 21 September 1775.
29 O’Kelley, NBBAS, 1:33. Quotations from Maitland’s affidavit.
30 Hufford, 318 and 318n13. Citing the Affidavits of First Mate Samuel Burnett and Steward Richard Scriven, on 10 January 1777. Old Baily Sessions Papers, Greater London Record Office, Middlesex Records. London, England.
31 Ibid.
32 Hufford, 318
33 Laurens, Henry. The Papers of Henry Laurens. University of South Carolina Press: Columbia, 1999, 413n18
34 Andrews, Charles MacLean. Guide to the Materials for American History to 1783 in the Public Record Office of Great Britain, Volume II: Departmental and Miscellaneous Papers . Carnegie Institute of Washington: Washington. 1914, 268
35 Laurens, Henry. The Papers of Henry Laurens. University of South Carolina Press: Columbia, 1999, 413n18
36 Andrews, Charles MacLean. Guide to the Materials for American History to 1783 in the Public Record Office of Great Britain, Volume II: Departmental and Miscellaneous Papers . Carnegie Institute of Washington: Washington. 1914, 268
37 Laurens, Henry. The Papers of Henry Laurens. University of South Carolina Press: Columbia, 1999, 413n18
38 Andrews, Charles MacLean. Guide to the Materials for American History to 1783 in the Public Record Office of Great Britain, Volume II: Departmental and Miscellaneous Papers . Carnegie Institute of Washington: Washington. 1914, 268
39 The Record of the Celebration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of Benjamin Franklin Under the Auspices of the American Philosophical Society Held at Philadelphia for Promoting Useful Knowledge April the Seventeenth to April the Twentieth A.D. Nineteen Hundred and Six. The American Philosophical Society: Philadelphia, 1908. Vol II, 388. (Lifted from pages at www.antonymaitland.com/)


1774: MP EICo director Robert Jones (1704-1774). (A name difficult to research)

Year 1775

1775: Reference item: mentioning London Alderman George Hayley) Petition Of London Merchants For Reconciliation With America, January 23, 1775, from Parliamentary History of England, Vol. XVIII, 1774-1777, cited pp. 168ff in Henry Steele Commager, Documents Of American History, 9th Edn, Prentice Hall Inc. NJ. 1973.

1775: Reference item:: Oliver M. Dickerson, The Navigation Acts And The American Revolution. Philadelphia, 1951. cited in Langguth.

1775:Reference item: G. Palmer, Biographical Sketches of Loyalists of the American Revolution. Meckler Pub. Westport. London. 1984. One page of entries on Delanceys, p. 214. Also entry on a relative of Duncan Campbell (1726-1803), Henrietta Colden, p. 165, citing AO12/101/186, she was in England in 1784 and 1785, and estimated the value of her husband's estate (in New York) at 21,790 pounds sterling [We know that DC helped her get a stipend for her sons' education at Edinburgh].

1775: Reference item:: J. G. Palmer, Bibliography of Loyalist Source Material. Meckler Books. 1984.

1775: Annual publication Of Lloyd's began. Subscribers in London could have their registers `posted` with alterations each week. They actually had two copies, and each week one was collected for amendment whilst the other was returned for use. `Posting` continued until 1966. (This item is from a UK website detailing a Lloyd`s Register timeline from 1760)

10 Sep, 1775: Capt, Oliver Bowen and Major Joseph Habersham (Americans) are ordered to Tybee Island to watch for a ship bringing gunpowder for Royalists. 17 Sep, 1775, Capt. Bowen, Capt. Barnwell (SC) Capt. Joyner (SC) and Major Joseph Habersham seize an armed British schooner off Tybee Island. (Re South Carolina and Georgia from www.antonymaitland.com/)

Reference item 1775++: David Syrett, 'The Victualling Board charters shipping, 1775-1782', Bulletin of Historical Research, The Institute of Historical Research (UK), Vol. 68, 1995., pp. 212-224.

Reference item 1775: A. G. E. Jones, Ships Employed in the South Seas Trade, 1775-1861 [Parts 1 and 2]: plus A Registrar General of Shipping and Seamen, transcripts of Registers of Shipping, 1787-1862 [Part 3] Canberra, Roebuck, 1986.

1775::++ List of Britain's South Whalers, 1775-1790. Enderby; A and B Champion; Mather and Co, Mr Mather's wharf at Blackwall- Thomas and John Mather, Rotherhithe in 1805; Montgomery (See re Capt.J. Piper, notes); Joseph Lucas (Oct. 1805); Bennett; Smith at Hull; Sanders at Southampton; Parr(?) Southampton; Wrangham (Canton 1792 brig Hope); Curtino(?); Mellish; Dudman; King; Bill; with Enderbys 1775, March 1790, St Barbe, London, Southampton; Curling; Yorke; Metcalfe; Paul, Simon of Tottenham Court Rd and his own wharf: Le Mesurier (Guernsey); Teast, Saml and Son, Bristol; Hurry and Co, Yarmouth; Ogle; Oliver; Mount; Hall (or Hull); Hattersley; Wardell; Thornton (See Oct. 28, 1786); Mills; Bell; Calvert; Mangles; Stainforth; Hayley, very early in fishery history; De Bond; Harrison; Harford; George Heyley; Daniel Coffin; Benjamin Rotch; Barclay; Powell; Brantingham; Williams; Price; Meader; .Peter Evet Mestairs,also owned a dock on Thames opposite Shadwells. (Another list of South Whalers is available as, Merchants of the Southern Whale Fishery, Enderby Papers, Australian Nat. Lib. Pethryk: MS 1701: worthy of much attention and analysis:

Year 1776

From 1776: Partner of JJ Angerstein at the early Lloyd's of London, Alexander Dick (active 1758). Also Angerstein's later partner, Vincent F. Rivaz. Also, an Angerstein connection of the American War of Independence period, shipping contractor Thomas Lewis. Angerstein partner Peter Warren. (Names difficult to research)

1776 Some further items begin here on American privateers of American War of Independence and related activity -Ed

PRO: Item details SP 89/82: Affidavit of Thos. Boog and others of the British ship Atlantic, relative to death of Robert Jackson after a scuffle with the mate, Alexander Kidd. 1776 Mar. 2 Lisbon. No5 Lisbon the 23 May 1776
My Lord,
I acknowledged by the last packet the honour of your Lordships letters of the 23 & 26th past.
We since learn by the Clementine Cat Brown from Philadelphia, that they left in Delaware bay two French armed ships frigate built and three merchant ships of the same nation, all laden with military stores: As this vessel has had a long passage and is several days arrived here, the news she brings will probably have been received in London before this reaches your Lordship; I mention it however, because the armed ships are talked of here as frigates, but thought they are indeed said to be very stout vessels, I am assured they are absolutely private property: I know not with what propriety I signify to your Lordship, that having Lord Viscount Weymouth
P2: in private conversation on this news, with the French ambassador at this court, hinted my wonder at the impolicy of his masters furnishing succours to the Americas, he assured me very solemnly, that though he would not answer for the boldness of private adventurers, tempted by most advantageous offers of barter, yet he was perfectly persuaded that the present French administration were honestly and thoroughly sensible, that France was interested against the success of the Rebels, and would neither directly nor indirectly give them any assistance.
Within these two days I have seen two English gentlemen just arrived after a short passage from Philadelphia. They ventured to assert, that the Southern colonies as far as New York inclusively, are generally disposed to return to their duty, on what the stile reasonable terms: that the Northern settlements are generally enough understood to mean independence: but would assuredly be abandoned by the others, if equitable conditions were held out by Great Britain; Entering into particulars, these gentlemen said they had been over the greater part of Pennsylvania and discoursed repeatedly and freely with eight of ten particular members of the congress, whose uniform capital article was redress in the matter of taxation, but on my inquiry whether these particular member had annexed any explicit sense to their idea of redress, on that head: the answer was, what your Lordship has doubtless heard a thousand times, that they agreed on the fitness of their contributions to the supplies of the state, but tat unless each colony were permitted to ascertain its own quota, they were not constitutionally Englishmen: In the mean time they say that hardly a boy of sixteen years old is unarmed, through all that province.
Having signified to Mr Walpole your Lordships mention to one of the dispositions in the affair of Alexander Kidd; he has put into my hands and I have the honour of forwarding them to your Lordship with this letter.
I also enclose and affidavit made before the British vice consul in this city, by William Darby and George Jay, two gentlemen on board the merchant ship Turkey frigate, George Jenkins master: these men, not as I understand any others of the crew, were ever upon by their captain to sign their contract for wages; this neglect has been the occasion of many vexatious contests both in the present occasion and in many other cases, I have therefore thought it necessary to lay before your Lordship, in order to prosecution for the panelaty of £5 per seaman; which by the Statute 2: George 2, C 36; is forfeited to the use of Greenwich hospital.
I have the honour to be
My Lord
your Lordships most humble
& obedient servant,
John Nort.
http://www.cas.sc.edu/SCIAA/mrd/documents/sc_shipbuilding.pdf - Occasional Maritime Research Papers Maritime Research Division, South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, USC Extract:- ......Ships and Schooners - This Port Royal may have been Hilton Head Island, South Carolina.
For evidence of ship design meeting environmental conditions and customer’s needs, we turn again to the available ship registers. They show that the Carolina-built, shiprigged vessel was, in general, of moderate size, yet larger than ships being built in the other shipbuilding colonies. South Carolina shipwrights were certainly able to build large ocean-going ships. The 280-ton ship Queen Charlotte, built in 1764 by John Emrie, (see Occasional Maritime Research Papers, Maritime Research Division, South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, USC) -- the 260-ton ship Atlantic, built at Port Royal in 1773, are two examples. However, shiprigged vessels built in South Carolina during this time averaged 180 tons ... (From www.antonymaitland.com/)

Year 1777

More to come soon

Circa 1774: Data on Jonathan Lucas, English millwright emigrating to Carolinas who invented the rice mill.

Year 1778

1778: Resolution - Captain James Cook, arrived 18 January, 1778, departed 2 Feb., 1778 (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819) - Second visit - arrived 26 Nov., 1778, departed 4 Feb., 1779; but a broken mast on the Resolution forced both vessels to return 11 Feb., 1779. Captain Cook was killed 14 Feb. Vessels finally left islands 13 March, 1779.(This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1778: Discovery - Captain Charles Clerke, accompanied Resolution, Captain James Cook. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

Year 1779

1779: Contractor military in India, George Clive (died 1779), later a banker. (From MNP's specialist sub-lists on merchants who are contractors to goverment)

Year 1780

London Banker Sir William Hart active 1780. Married Denise Gougeon. (A name difficult to research)

Uncertain entry, maybe only (in 1780s?), Sir Charles Buchanan, and see notes re wreck of HEICo ship Dodington in his entry for other uses.

Circa 1780: Contractor, military, clothier, once London Lord Mayor, Samuel Brudenell Fludyer (1704-1786). See also Thomas Fludyer (1711-1769). (From MNP's specialist sub-lists on merchants who are contractors to goverment)

Circa 1780: Contractor (finances?) to assist British colonial developments, merchant banker with Coutts Bank, MP Adam Drummond (1813-1786). See also John Drummond (1723-1774) and re banker Henry Drummond (1730-1795) (From MNP's specialist sub-lists on merchants who are contractors to goverment)

1780: Englishman John Barker Church, Commissary of French army in America from 1780, married Angelica Schuyler. (A name difficult to research)

Below are items still uncollected

1779: France engages in seizing of Grenada in Caribbean and the Savannah Expedition. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 71.

1742: Frenchman Lazare Picault is sent to survey a group of islands to north of Ile de France, The Seychelles. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 69.

1759: French ship Berryer is being built. Completed in March 1760. Began maiden voyage to Ile de France in March 1760. She sailed for Compagnie des Indes till 1770 when she was sold to the French navy when the King bought the harbour of Lorient from the Compagnie. Shortly by 1771 she would be sailed by Lt. Yves de Kerguelen. by 16 june 1771 berryer was in the atlantc, by 10 august in the indian ocean, to ile de france by 19 august 1771, . (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 56-57.

1530: Astronomer Regnier (Reinerus) Gemma Frisius (1508-1555) inspects the navigational problem of finding longitude, in his De Principius astronomiae et cosmaographiae published in 1530. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 22.

1749: British Admiral Lord George Anson seizes all charts on board a Spanish galleon, priceless works which aided Britain´s rise to naval supremacy. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 22.

1741: French naval authorities institute an advanced school for young shipwrights, founded on rather more socially democratic lines, giving artisans a better technical education than had been the case, in maths, physics, hydrodynamics, aerodynamics, new sciences such as hydrography, naval engineering. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 15.

1628: Sweden. Famous naval disaster. Swedish warship Vasa sinks on her maiden voyage on 10 August 1628. Her remains are now in Vasa Museum in Stockholm. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 13.

1641: (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 162.

1755: June. Britain undertakes the mass expulsion of French (Acadians), from Canada. France sends reinforcements to Canada not exactly in time to be useful. Followed naval warfare between France and Britain, France ending with 300 ships and 6000 seamen less. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 10.

1713: Re French naval developments. On 11 April 1713, King of France Louis XIV signs peace treaties at Utrecht with Britain, Netherlands, Savoy, Portugal, Prussia. France ceded Nova Scotia or Acadia, Newfoundland, Saint Pierre and some islands off Newfoundland. the Hudson Bay Territory, St Christophers Caribbean, (St Kitts), all to Britain. Separate treaties were signed by France and Spain. All this greatly assisted the rise of Britain´s naval and commercial sea power. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 8.

1772: 8 April: Gros Ventre leaves coast of West Australia and heads for Timor to arrive there 3 May 1772. Some crew were ill, island life was described. On 1 July these Frenchmen left Timor for Batavia and was there by 18 July, staying till 8 August, thence for home by 4 September. But having contracted illness in Batavia, Louis de Saint Alouarn died on 27 October 1772 at Port Louis, Ile de France. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 5, p. 199.

1772: 17 March. The French ship Gros Ventre (under de Saint Alouarn) had searched long for ship Fortune between Gap Bourbon and Gap Louis, but in vain. By 17 March Gros Ventre arrived off Flinders Bay to south of Cape Leeuwin. Corrections were made to older French charts, some 29 years before Mathew Flinders would be in the area. On 29 March Gros Ventre was off Turtle Bay, Dirk Hartog Island on Western Australian coast. Crew were sent on land to survey and claim possession. These Frenchman found little evidence of any human habitation. Some ceremony of possession by the French took placed on 30 March on the northern cliff of Dirk Hartog Island, overlooking Turtle Bay. This was an annexation, with a raising of a flag, firing of a volley of shots, and reading a document prepared for such circumstances. The document was then placed in a bottle buried at the foot of a shrub, and two ecus of six francs were left nearby. There was some other proof. Two anchors had been lost around Shark Bay. A gunner named Massicot had died and was buried at the foot of the cliff, the first Frenchman to be buried on Australian soil. Matters remained little-known till archaeology in 1998 verified French accounts. (No body of the gunner was found.) (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., pp. 4-6.

1772: 16 February, French mariner de Kerguelen decides to return to Ile de France where he arrives on 16 March. Then he went to France where he claimed (rather misleadingly) to have found a part of the terres australes which was situated advantageously in terms of other maritime holdings of France. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 4.

1738: Quote verbatim: France played little part in the continued search for the South Land until Bouvetr de Lozier set out in 1738 to explore the south Atlantic and south Indian Ocean for Compagnie des Indes. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 2.

1712: Dutch VOC ship Zuytdorp is lost with all hands. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 134.

1697: Three Dutch vessels reach Dirk Hartog Island off Western Australian coast. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 134.

1629: Splendid Dutch ship Batavia on her maiden voyage sank on Abrolhos Islands which had been discovered in 1619 by Frederik de Houtman. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 132.

1598: Discovery of Mauritius, later known as Ile de France. The Dutch were there by 1610, yet left it largely unsettled till 1710. From there they sailed to Straits of Sunda which separate Java from Sumatra, Indonesia. From 1602 Dutch ships would often be becalmed in the Indian Ocean till in 1610 the Roaring Forties were discovered by Hendrik Brouwer, later Dutch Gov-General of East India. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 71.

1619: Dutch VOC in Indonesia decides to locate its main eastern office in Batavia (today´s Jakarta) as overseen by Governor Jan Pieterszoon Coen. . (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 126.

1602: 20 March 1602, formation of the United Dutch East India Company, VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie) by the central government of the Dutch Republic. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 125.

1619: Dutch mariner Frederik de Houtman on ship Dodrecht sights extreme south western shoreline of Western Australia. She was followed up in 1622 when Dutch VOC ship Leeuwin (Lioness) discovered and named a south-western point of Australia at latitude 35 degrees south. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 111.

1738: Frenchman Bouvet de Lozier becomes commander of ships Aigle and Marie, two ships of the Compagnie des Indies, to discover the mythical land of Terra Australis Incognita. He took with him protocols for declarations of possession of lands. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 71.

1779: During Seven Years War, France engages in seizing of Grenada in Caribbean and the Savannah Expedition. (Item from Philippe Godard and Tugdual de Kerros, 1772: The French Annexation of New Holland. The Tale of Louis De Saint Alouarn. (Translated by Odette Margot, Myra Stanbury and Sue Baxter.) Perth, Museum of Western Australia, 2008., p. 71.




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