Helmsman graphicMonitor graphicHelmsman graphic The Cozens/Byrnes Merchants Networks Project - Updated 10 November 2014

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If you value the information posted here,
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It would be greatly appreciated.
Options include:
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Apologies to netsurfers: Temporarily ... This website is now having its navigation system redesigned. From 26 July, for any navigation question (depending on which page you landed on via a search engine if you did not arrive to this page via the index page), go first to the sitemap. The sitemap presents a complete and hyperlinked list of files comprising the website in alphabetical order - Editor

In brief, the website contents will consist of:
(1) Items on merchants grouped into timeframes of historical action (see Periods Directory);
(2) Items on merchants and/or other topics grouped alphabetically; and
Genealogy files, grouped alphabetically (see Genealogy Directory).

[This website was first launched on the Net by 20 May 2006 as a subset of a personal website. It was re-launched as a website on its domain at its present URL on 4 July 2006 - http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/ - Ed]

Some Contents Pages - Non-Genealogy

Merchant Networks website promo

This page will soon carry a link to a Guides section which will explain in-depth how to use this website.

More to come here soon - Ed

Contents - Genealogies

On this page you will find a growing list for genealogies intended to be placed on this website. The entire list of files becoming available is not yet fully hyperlinked.

Webmaster of the Merchant Networks Project, Dan Byrnes, is the author behind The Blackheath Connection, a major work on the history of the transportation of convicts from England to North America and then Australia, 1717-1810.

The compilation work for these genealogical listings has been ongoing since 1993. Particular attention has been given to operatives in commercial life/international trade for Australia (from 1788), UK, USA and British-India/China.

The information lodged can also be regarded as adjuncts for Dan Byrnes' website, The Blackheath Connection

The Blackheath Connection website logo

These genealogies concentrate attention on the period 1750-1850, which of course embraces the timeframe (from 1788) of the founding of European Australia as a British convict colony...

See also, the more genealogical side of researches in economic history at the URL below ...

Special Bibliography on specific merchant family networks, as seen incisively and apart from "general" economic history

Merchant Networks - Contents Pages - Genealogy

Genealogies, various, a growing series

Notes on a Genealogy Project

Genealogy lists

Follows a list of genealogies intended to be placed on this website but not yet uploaded - WARNING: Only some of the surnames given in blue are hyperlinked to date. Code will be updated as soon as possible.
For another view on the genealogies already uploaded, please click to the file (when it is hyperlinked): "gendiscuss.htm" Genealogy

Family Groups

Listings for Sydney/NSW

Antillof NSW

Arndell of NSW - aka Arundell (?)

Barton of NSW

Bayly of NSW

Bell of NSW

Bettington of NSW

Edmund Blackett of NSW (Architect)

Blaxland of NSW

Blomfield of NSW

Ben Boyd of NSW/The Pacific

Brooks of NSW

Robert Campbell, Sydney, "of The Wharf"

Chatfield of NSW.

Chisholm of NSW.

Cobcroft (a NSW line to noted poet David Campbell)

Cooper of NSW

Cowper of NSW

Cox of NSW

Dangar of NSW

Darling (Governor of NSW)

Darvall of NSW

W. S. Davidson once of NSW, opium trader

De Falbe of Britain/Australia

Dowling of New South Wales

Dumaresq of NSW (see files below for Dumaresq of Boston USA)

Everingham (lineage of a convict)

Flower (merchants in the Australia trade)

Godschall-Johnson of NSW and QLD

Gordon of NSW

E. S. Hall of NSW (crusading newspaper editor)

Hassall of NSW

Huxley of NSW (lineage of a convict)

Jenkins of NSW)

Kable (line of Henry Kable, convict and Sydney merchant)

Kemmis of NSW

Anthony Fenn Kemp of Van Diemen's Land

P. G. King (Governor of NSW)

Lamb of NSW

Laidley of NSW (also the name, Mort)

Lawson of NSW

Laycock (of NSW)

Leslie of NSW (and re W. S. Davidson see above)

Lethbridge of NSW

Simeon Lord, noted Sydney merchant.

Macansh of NSW

Macarthur of Parramatta, NSW

Mackenzie of NSW

Macleay of NSW

Marsden of NSW

Minchin of NSW

Molle of NSW

Mort of UK, NSW/QLD

Mowle of NSW

Norton of NSW

Onslow of NSW and England (Macarthur-Onslow)

Officer of NSW

Oxley of NSW

Palmer of NSW

Piper of NSW

Ranken of NSW

Riddell of NSW

Riley of NSW

Robertson of NSW

Rodd of NSW

Rose (free settler lineage of NSW)

Shadforth of NSW

Stephen (of UK/NSW)

James Stirling, Gov. Western Australia

Suttor of NSW

Throsby of NSW

Tooth of Kent, England and NSW (Lucas-Tooth)

Underwood of NSW

Wakefield of England/NZ

Waldron of NSW

Warner of Barbados/England plus Godschall-Johnson in Australia

Wentworth of NSW (and the name Towns)

White of NSW

Windle (Convict lineage, many descendants still in Sydney/NSW, the present compiler's own convict ancestor)

Listings for London/ England/ Scotland / Ireland

Abdy of England/London

Angerstein of Greenwich/Blackheath, London

Arkwright of England

Jane Austen, the novelist (a lineage which never seems to explain itself satisfactorily.)

Baillie, a partly-Scots slaver group with interesting links to America

Barne, (on London merchant Miles Barne).

Barings (British Bankers)

BenceRe London alderman John Bence of Royal Africa Company, for whom Bence Island Sierra Leone was named

Betham as related to Bligh (see below).

Bird (as in bankers Bird, Savage and Bird of England)

Blair (as in Hunter-Blair, bankers)

William Bligh (Of Bounty mutiny, governor of NSW, etc).

Bond (Mariners of England).

Booth, of Scotland/England. (This line seems to connect with the lineages of current US President G. W. Bush - Ed.)

Brand of England

Boswell of Scotland (Line of James Boswell the biographer of Dr. Johnson.)

Boyd of London and Scotland, part of the Richard Oswald merchant network outlined in masterly fashion by David Hancock in Citizens of the World.

Brownrigg of England and various other locations.

Buxton of England. (See also, Enderby.)

Duncan Campbell (1728-1803 - Thames hulks overseer) and Campbells of Jamaica. Updated 2-9-2010, now almost 500 individuals

Cattley of England and Bruxner of NSW Australia

Casement of Ireland

Chapman formerly of Whitby.

Chitty of England

Churchill, Winston (Spencer-Churchill, UK, only a few generations)

Christian of Isle of Man (Re: Fletcher Christian, Bounty mutineer, and remarkably, the early 1783 convict contractor George Moore is found within Fletcher's extended family!)

Cochrane (Of Scotland)

Crommelin (Networks formed by Huguenots)

Currie, (British bankers, various)

Sir William Curtis Bart1, Lord Mayor of London.

Davidson once of NSW - see existing entry above in lists for NSW/Australia

Richard Hart Davis

Davidson of Tulloch, via Scotland, London and the West Indies firm Davidson and Graham (a complicated lineage)

D'Oyly

Drax (planters on Barbados, plus Codrington, a large read-out)

Duncan Dunbar II, Dunbar of Scotland, shipping contractor.

Henry Dundas, (Lord Melville), Dundas of Scotland.

Ebsworth, wool traders

Eden, British political family, Baronets, a few early names in pre-revolutionary America, tobacco traders.

Enderby, (London whalers)

William Fairlie, banker of British India then London.

Farquhar of Scotland/London

Fitzhugh of Plas Power (some EICo directors of 1790s, some American southerners).

Fowke of British India, Nabob Francis Fowke, a compatriot of Clive of India in Bengal, with descendants in New Zealand and Sydney Australia.

Fuller of England

Lineage of William Garraway

Lord Mayor of London.

Garth (a name in England from 1500 which later connects with Mangles)

Gibbs, (UK Bankers)

Glyn (British bankers)

Gosling (British bankers)

Grant of London and Scotland, part of the Richard Oswald merchant network outlined in masterly fashion by David Hancock in Citizens of the World

Grenfell (British bankers)

Grey - more to come

Sir Robert Herries, British tobacco trader tempe American Revolution.

Re Hewett, London Lord Mayor of 1559, William Hewett (related to Osborne below)

Re Heywood, family of Isle of Man.

Hoare (British bankers)

Hope and Co of Amsterdam Firm international from before the American Revolution, originally from Scotland

Hurry, whalers of northern England.

Isham of England

Jamieson

Keswick, merchants with the later C19th Jardine-Matheson.

John Lane of the latter days of firm Lane Son and Fraser which failed in 1793

Larkins of Blackehath, London, East India Co. family of ships' husbands

Lake (governors, Hudson's Bay Company with connections to Americans)

Larpent (de Hochpied, East India Company name)

Lowis of England

Lygon of England

Thomas Potter Macqueen(Entrepreneur in Australia)

John Maberly, Britsh army contractor)

Mangles of London.

Marjoribanks (British bankers)

Metcalfe (once Gov-General India)

Milligan of London (Re Robert Milligan the late 1790s co-founder of London's West India Docks complex)

Monoux/Monnox, lineage of a Lord Mayor of London of 1514/1515

Mortlock (Bankers of Cambridge).

Nelson (On Admiral Lord Nelson of Britain).

Nepean of Saltash, Cornwall.

Norman (British bankers of Bromley area).

Re Edward Osborne, London Lord Mayor 1583. (Note: Certain Osbornes listed changed their name spelling to Osborn (sic) so as to not conflict with an aristocratic family of their time, spelled Osborne (sic))

Oswald of London and Scotland, part of the Richard Oswald merchant network outlined in masterly fashion by David Hancock in Citizens of the World.

John Parish, the mysteriously successful merchant of Hamburg, of a Scots background.

Lineage of Robert Peel, , Sir, the British prime minister.

Pelly of London.

Micajah Perry, a Lord Mayor of London, and merchant in Virginia tobacco.

Pigou (Gunpowder makers of England, Huguenot origins)

Ridley, Or, Whitet-Ridley, bankers of northern England

Robinson

Rolleston, part of the Richard Oswald merchant network outlined in masterly fashion by David Hancock in Citizens of the World.

Sandeman of Scotland (producing 100th Governor of Bank of England)

Sargent of London, part of the Richard Oswald merchant network outlined in masterly fashion by David Hancock in Citizens of the World.

Saxton of England and Canada (latterly with some Australians).

Sir Walter Scott, novelist of Scotland.

Selwyn of England (and NZ).

Smiths Payne Smiths (British bankers).

John St Barbe, whaling investor and convict contractor of Blackheath, London (needs re-running)

Stephen of UK/NSW.

Stone (British bankers).

Tennyson of England (re a governor of South Australia)

Thellusson of London (Huguenot financiers).

Townshend (Thomas, Lord Sydney)

Tucker of Bermuda (a difficult lineage to trace)

Trotter, bankers of Britain.

Warner of Barbados/England (Framlingham)

Wigram of London/England.

Wilberforce the anti-slavery activist.

http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/genealogy/web/wingfield/index.htm - Wingfield of England (a very long lineage here)

Listings for US eastern seaboard

Adams(president, USA)

John Alden (early Mayflower-sailing American colonist John Alden)

Antill (see Colden below re NSW, Australia)

Apthorp of Boston

Armistead of Virginia

Arnold (Benedict Arnold, the infamous traitor of the American Revolution)

Apthorp of n/e America

Appleton of n/e America

Aspinwall of n/e America

Alsop merchants of n/e America

John Jacob Astor of New York

Bayard of n/e America

Biddle of n/e America

Boardman of n/e America

Bolling of Virginia (See also the other file on descendants of Pocahontas)

Borden of Rhode Island

Boylston of n/e America

Bowen of Rhode Island, North America

Bradford of n/e America

Bradstreet of n/e America

Braxton of Virginia

Brockenbrough of Virginia

Brown of the firm Brown and Ives of Rhode Island

Brown (US private merchant bankers from Liverpool)

Bunker of Nantucket Island and of NSW

Burwell of Virginia

Bush (G. W. Bush, president, USA)

Pierce Butler of Southern USA

Byrd of Virginia

Cabot (of North America)

Cadwalader (of North America)

Calvert (Barons Baltimore, Maryland)

Carter of Virginia

Cazenove firstly of Virginia

Champlin of Rhode Island

Chandler of n/e America

Cheney of North America (Re Richard Cheney, former vice-president, USA)

Clapp of n/e America

Claiborne of Colonial America

Cleveland (president, USA)

Codman of n/e America

Coit of Connecticut, n/e America

Coffin (of Nantucket Island) [A larger than usual genealogy]

Colden of New York (and to NSW Australia)

Coolidge (president, USA)

Corbin of Virginia

Cornell of n/e America

Crowninshield of n/e America

Cryder of n/e America.

Cushing of n/e America

Dabney of n/e America

Dana of Boston

Dana of California

Dandridge ...

Deas of South Caroline and elsewhere.

De Lancey of New York

de Peyster of n/e America

Delano (North America)

Derby (re merchant Elias Haskett Derby of North America)

Dering (of Shelter Island)

DeWolf of Rhode Island

Dorr (North America)

Downing of early n/e Colonial America

Dudley (early American colonial governors)

Dumaresq of Boston USA

Dummer of Boston

Duer in n/e America (financier William Duer)

Du Pont in n/e America (Gunpowder manufacturers)

Dwight in n/e America. (All American Dwights have a common ancestor)

Eden (of England) in Colonial North America

Emerson in n/e America

Endicott in n/e America

Erving of n/e America

Eustis of n/e America (and Nathaniel Tracy)

Fairfax of England/colonial America

Faneuil of Boston

Fauntleroy in Virginia

Fendall of n/e America

Fillmore (president, USA)

Fitzhugh in Virginia

Folger (USA)(whaling family)

Forbes (USA)(as the name associated with Russell and Co.)

Fuller in North America

Gardiner of Manor of Gardiner's Island, New York

Gardner of n/e America

Grant (president, USA)

Gouverneurof n/e America.

Gracie, Merchants of New York

Greenleaf of n/e America

Griswold of n/e America

Benjamin Harrison (president, USA)

Hathaway of n/e America

Hazard of of n/e America

Patrick Henry, Patriot of South Carolina

Augustine Hermanof Bohemia Manor, n/e America

Higginson of Massachusetts

Houston (of Scotland, in Colonial America)

Howland (of the Mayflower pilgrim family, and a very large file indeed)

Hubbard (of n/e America

Hutchinson of Massachusetts, Colonial America (Governor)

Huntington

Ives of Rhode Island, USA (of firm Brown and Ives, see Brown above)

Izard of South Carolina

Jackson (Andrew J., president, USA)

Johnson baronets of New York (pre-American revolution)

Hussey (of North America)

Jay (of North America)

Jefferson (Thomas, as third president, USA)

Jenckes (of North America)

Jenkins (North America)

Kennedy (John F., president, USA)

Kerry, John Forbes Kerry, (US Senator, via his maternal lineage)

Kortright of n/e America

Rufus King, (early US statesman, genealogy)

Lansing of n/e America

Larouche of Canada and n/e America (re Lyndon Larouche Jnr., the USA's "perennial candidate", controversial co-author of "Dope Inc." in Ahnentafel format)

Laurens of South Carolina

Lathrop of n/e America

Ledyard of n/e America (John Ledyard "The Traveller")

Lee of Virginia (Gen. Robert E. Lee, etc)

Lee of Marblehead, Massachusetts

Lincoln (Abraham, president, USA)

Lippincott (of n/e America, this lineage produces presidents Richard M. Nixon and George W. Bush)

Livingston (New York)

Longfellow of n/e America

Lorillard of n/e America

Lux of Baltimore, Maryland, Convict contractors dealing with Jonathan and James Forward of London

Lyman of n/e America

McCall of n/e America

McKinley (president, USA)

Madison (president, USA)

Melville, Legend re novelist Herman Melville

Monroe (president, USA)

Mooers of n/e America

Morgan, J. P. Morgan (US bankers)

Robert Morris, "financier of the American Revolution".

Gouverneur Morris, financier

Nelson of Virginia

Ogle of Maryland

Otis of n/e America

Peabody of n/e America

http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/genealogy/web/peck/index.htm - Peck of n/e America

Pell of of n/e America

Pendleton of Virginia

Pepperell of New England (Sir William Pepperell)

Thomas Handasyd Perkins, Boston merchant, opium trader.

Pickering of n/e America

Pickman of n/e America

Pierce of n/e America (president, USA)

Pocahonta (descendants of, from Virginia)

Polk (president, USA)

Prime, merchants of of n/e America

Putnam of n/e America

Quincy of n/e America

Randolph of Virginia

Richards of n/e America

Rockefeller, in America since 1708

Rodman, earlier of Virginia

Rogers of n/e America

Roosevelt (presidents, USA, Theodore and then Franklin D.)

Rotch Whalers of Nantucket Island

Samuel Wadsworth Russell (family of the founder of noted US opium traders Russell and Co.)

Schuyler of New York

Seaman of n/e America

Sears of n/e America

Sewall/Sewell of n/e America

Sherman of North America

Shippen of n/e America

Shubrick of South Carolina

Sparhawk of n/e America

Staats of n/e America

Starbuck (USA)(whaling family)

Stillwell (NB: Stillwell of New York (listings do not include Susan Stillwell later of Sydney, NSW, who remains a mystery)

Stith of Colonial America

Sturgis of North America

Stuyvesant of New York

Taft (president, USA)

Taliaferro of Virginia

Tayloe of Virginia

Taylor (Zachary, president, USA)

Ten Broeck of n/e America

href="http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/genealogy/web/thorntonusa/index.htm">Thornton of Virginia

Truman (Harry S., president,

Nathaniel Tracy of Boston - new

Tyler (president, USA)

Trumbull of Connecticut

Tyng (an early American colonial name)

VanBrugh of n/e America

van Buren of n/e America

van Cortlandt of n/e America

Vanderbilt of n/e America

Vanrensselaer of n/e America/New York

Vassall (re names Colonial America and Jamaica)

Wadsworth (family of Revolutionary patriot Jeremiah Wadsworth)

Wanton of Rhode Island

Warburg (Merchant/investment bankers of Germany, Britain, USA)

Warder (Merchants, Philadelphia)

Washington - George as first president, USA

Weld - of n/e USA

Wendell in n/e America

Wentworth of North America.

Wetmore of n/e America.

Whipple of n/e America (Rhode Island)

Whiting in n/e America

Whitney in n/e America

Willing (On Thomas Willing, partner of Robert Morris)

Wilson (Woodrow, president, USA)

Winslow (of n/e America)

Winstons of Virginia and North Carolina (And very unreliable too, a good many US websites present plain nonsense on the Winston lineage. Very confusing, so use this particular information with exceeding great care -Ed)

Winthrop of New England

Yeamans of Bristol, England, Barbados, and then South Carolina.

Youngs of New England

Listings for British-India, s/e Asia and China

Brookesof Sarawak (S/E Asia)

Clive of India

Lineage of Lancelot Dent, opium trader about China and his trader relatives

Fendall of India

Sir Charles Forbes of Bombay. (Re Forbes and Co. of Bombay)

Inglis of Bombay

Jamieson of India

Latour of India/London

Money (of EICo/London, investor in Forbes and Co. of Bombay)

Pattle of India/London

Prinsep of India/London

David Scott Snr of India/Bombay and London

Shakespear of India

Thackeray of India

Willis of Forbes and Co., Bombay

Genealogies of Jamaica/Caribbean

Barrett of Jamaica (leads to English poet Elizabeth Barrett-Browning)

Brissett of Jamaica

The First Campbells on Jamaica See re Duncan Campbell in London above

Haughton of Jamaica

Irving of Jamaica

Povey of London, Jamaica,Barbados

Ricketts of Jamaica

Scarlett of Jamaica (Barons Abinger)

Tharp of Jamaica. (Still rather gapped)

Vassall of America and Jamaica, see above for North America

Wedderburn of Jamaica

More to come

Early Europe - Post Crusades

Montferrat (Saluzzo-Montferrat) from Northern Italy

Ends these lists

Dan Byrnes, Australia, is also/otherwise seen in large format on the Internet at: www.danbyrnes.com.au/ -

Listings of merchant networks

In roughly chronological order, begins here (from 19 July 2007) a list of members of networks well worth attention as they operated in the English-speaking world. Since the list dos not give special attention to inventors/inventions, economic thinkers who were not in ordinary trade, of government officials overseeing trade and commerce, the list can perhaps be viewed as treating merchants who are worthy of note at turning points in history of various sorts. Company histories are also mostly avoided in the listings given here. In general, information on any one merchant or network listed will point to other merchants, and to other networks. (The citations given below will be more specific than general.)

Early Tudor times: Gordon Connell Smith: Forerunners of Drake:

A useful listing will begin roughly from Tudor times, with the establishment of the English royal navy, which happened in conjunction with the rise of English involvement in slavery. Here, particular reference will be to the network(s) headed by the Hawkins family and the Winter family. A great many networks of that time have already been worked on, as seen in Dan Byrnes' "website book" which has been on the Internet for some years, The English Business of Slavery.

1560: James A. Williamson, Maritime Enterprise, 1485-1558. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1913.

English merchants 1575-1630: Expansionist English commercial history, later to updated (as it were) 1630: by Brenner, cited below. Theodore K. Rabb, Enterprise and Empire: Merchant and Gentry Investment in the Expansion of England, 1575-1630. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1967.

Pre-1600: Origins of Dutch trading in the East. (The Spice Islands.) See ... (more to come)

To 1600: Gwenyth Dyke, 'The Finance of a Sixteenth Century Navigator, Thomas Cavendish of Trimly in Suffolk'. The Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 44, 1958., pp. 108-115.

1600: James A. Williamson, The Age of Drake. London, Adam and Charles Black, 1938.

1600: Sir Percival Griffiths, A Licence To Trade: The History of the English Chartered Companies. London, Ernest Benn, 1974.

1600: B. E. Supple, Commercial Crisis and Change in England, 1600-1642: A Study in the instability of a Mercantile Economy. Cambridge, 1959.

1600: Richard P. Unger, Ships in the Medieval Economy 600-1600. London, Croom Helm, 1980.

1600: Bal Krishna, Commercial Relations between India and England, 1601-1757. 1924.

1600: P. W. Hasler, The History of Parliament. The House of Commons, 1558-1603. Nd? (Also re genealogy in general)

1600: Holden Furber, Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient, 1600-1800. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, c.1976.

1600: Kenneth R. Andrews, Trade, Plunder and Settlement: Maritime Enterprise and the Genesis of the British Empire, 1480-1630. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1984.

1600 plus: Brian Gardner, The East India Company. London, Rupert Hart Davis, 1971.

1600 plus: Nick Robins, The Corporation that Changed the World: How the East India Company Shaped the Modern Multinational. Pluto Press, 2006. (See www.plutobooks.com/, £15.99 paperback / 07453 25238 / 224pp.)

1600 plus: Frederick G. Spurling, Early West India Government: Showing the Progress of Government in Barbados, Jamaica and the Leeward Islands, 1600-1783. Palmerston, North New Zealand, self published, nd

1650: K. R. Andrews, N. P. Canny and P. E. H. Hair, (Eds.), The Westward Enterprise:  English Activities in Ireland, the Atlantic and America, 1480-1650. Liverpool University Press, 1978.

English merchants 1550-1653: As presented in Brenner's masterful exposition, an indispensable reading for economic historians. With particular attention to London and Virginia in North America, plus the Caribbean. Robert Brenner, Merchants and Revolution: Commercial Change, Political Conflict, and London’s Overseas Traders, 1550-1653. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1993.

1609: Marion V. Brewington, 'Maritime Philadelphia, 1609-1837', The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. LXIII, April 1939, pp. 110-111.

1625: Richard B. Sheridan, 'The Plantation Revolution and the Industrial Revolution, 1625-1775', pp. 45-100 in Volume Two of Stanley L. Engerman, Trade and the Industrial Revolution, 1700-1850. Cheltenham, UK, Elgar Reference Collection, 1996.

1630: Kenneth R. Andrews, The Spanish Caribbean.

1634: Robin Law, 'The First Scottish Guinea Company, 1634-1639', The Scottish Historical Review, Vol. LXXVI, No. 202, October 1997., pp. 185-202.

1640: N. Williams, 'England's Tobacco Trade in the Reign of Charles I', Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 65, 1957.

1640: H. D. Love, Vestiges of Old Madras, 1640-1800. London, 1913.

1650: J. Keith Horsefield, British Monetary Experiments, 1650-1710. London, The London School of Economics and Political Science, 1960.

1650: Richard Grassby, The Business Community of Seventeenth-Century England. nd?
1650: L. M. E. Shaw, Trade, Inquisition and the English Nation in Portugal, 1650-1690. Manchester, Carcanet, 1989.

1650: J. R. Ward, 'The profitability of sugar planting in the British West Indies, 1650-1834', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 31, No. 1, February 1978., pp. 197-213.

1650: Richard Grassby, 'The Personal Wealth of the Business Community in Seventeenth Century England', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. XXII, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 1970., pp. 220-234.

To 1653, see also,  Arthur Percival Newton, The Colonising Activities of the English Puritans: The Last Phase of the Elizabethan Struggle with Spain. New Haven, Connecticut, 1914. (Reissued, Port Washington, New York, 1966)

About 1660: Activities of French Huguenot merchants, as traced by French-Canadian academic Bosher. See Bosher.

1660: Ian Bruce Watson, Foundation for Empire: English Private Trade in India, 1659-1760. New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House, 1980.

1660: Ian B. Watson, 'The Establishment of English Commerce in North-Western India in the Early Seventeenth Century', Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1976., pp. 375-391.

1660: Ellis Archer Wasson, 'The House of Commons, 1660-1945: parliamentary families and the political elite', English Historical Review

1660: R. B. Westerfield, Middlemen in English Business: 1660-1760. Newhaven, Connecticut, 1915. [Reprinted, Newton Abbot, 1968].

1670: Richard Waterhouse, A New World Gentry: The Making of a Merchant and Planter Class in South Carolina, 1670-1770. New York, Garland Publishing Inc., 1989.

About the 1680s: English Slavery. Helpful here is K. G. Davies, The Royal African Company. [Orig. 1957] London, Longmans, 1960.

1688: J. T. Wertenbaker, Virginia Under The Stuarts, 1607-1688. 1914.

1688: Jonathan Israel, (Ed.), The Anglo-Dutch Moment: Essays on the Glorious Revolution and Its World Impact. London, Cambridge University Press, 1991. (Providing rare glimpses of the financiers of William III.)

1690s: Douglas Hamilton. 'Absent Kings in Kingston? Business Networks and Family Ties: The View from Eighteenth-Century Kingston, Jamaica', self-published, 2005-2006. (Per Ken Cozens in February 2006)

1690s: The failed Scottish Darien Company (although the titles cited here are all-too skimpy on noted investors and merchants names.) An ill-fated attempt to capture the Darien Peninsula (the area around today's Panama Canal) for English interests.

1690s: About Jamaica, with links to England the West African coast, the Lascelles family produces a network of merchants, earlier studded with the activities of contractors to English military forces.

1690s: The establishment, not without controversy, of the Bank of England.  Co-promoted by William Paterson (who was also connected with the Scottish Darien Company.) From this time, one helpful general book on English merchants is Fox-Bourne, see below.

1692: Edna Healey, Coutts and Co., 1692-1992: The Portrait of a Private Bank. London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1992.

1695: Lucy Stewart Sutherland, A London Merchant, 1695-1774: William Braund. London, Frank Cass, 1962.
1696: Elizabeth Hoon, The Organisation of the English Customs System, 1696-1786. New York, 1938.

1690s: Douglas Hamilton, 'Absent Kings in Kingston? Business Networks and Family Ties: The View from Eighteenth-Century Kingston, Jamaica

1700: David Eltis, Herbert S. Klein, David S., Richardson, and Stephen D. Behrendt, The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: A Database on CD-ROM. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

1700: T. T. Waterman, The Mansions of Virginia, 1707-1776. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1946.

1700: Julian Hoppit, Risk and Failure in English Business, 1700-1800. CUP, 1987.

1700: Clennel Wilkinson, William Dampier. London, John Lane, 1929.

1700: Alfred C. Wood, A History of the Levant Company. London, Frank Cass, 1964.

1700s: A. Jessopp, (Ed.), of Roger North, The Lives of the Norths. Vols. 1-3. London, Greg International Publishers Ltd., 1972.

1700: H. E. S. Fisher, The Portugal Trade: A Study of Anglo-Portuguese Commerce, 1700-1770. London, Methuen, 1971.

1700 plus: Eric Williams, From Columbus to Castro: The History of the Caribbean, 1492-1969. London, Andre Deutsch, 1970.

1700 plus: Ralph Davis, The Rise of the English Shipping Industry in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. London, Macmillan, 1962.

1700-1800: Shafaat Ahmad Khan, The East India Trade in the Seventeenth Century (in its Political and Economic Aspects). London, 1923.

1710: P. G. M. Dickson, The Sun Insurance Office, 1710-1960: The History of Two and a half Centuries of British Insurance. London, Oxford University Press, 1960.

English shipbuilding c. 1717: W. Sutherland, Britain's Glory, or Shipbuilding Unveiled. 1717.

1720: Curtis P. Nettels, Money Supply of American Colonies before 1720. Clifton, USA, A. M. Kelley, 1973.

1720: W. R. Scott, The Constitution and Finance of English, Scottish and Irish Joint-stock Companies to 1720. Three Vols. Cambridge, 1910-1912.

1720: Douglas Hamilton, 'Private Enterprise and Public Service: Naval Contracting in the Caribbean, 1720-1759', in self-published, 36pp, 2005.

1720: Douglas Hamilton. 'Private Enterprise and Public Service: Naval Contracting in the Caribbean, 1720-1759', National Maritime Museum, London, 36pp. Self-published in 2005.

1720: John G. Sperling, The South Sea Company: An Historical Essay and Bibliographical Finding List. Boston: Baker Library, Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration, 1962.

1720: Colin A. Palmer, Human Cargoes: The British Slave Trade to Spanish America, 1700-1739. Illinois University Press, 1981.

1720: Lewis Melville, The South Sea Bubble. New York, Burt Franklins, 1921.

1720: D. M. Joslin, 'London private bankers, 1720-1785', Economic History Review, Vol. 7, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 1954-1956., pp. 167-186.

1720 plus: Ivan T. Sanderson, Follow the Whale. London, Cassell and Co., 1956.

1720s: Bursting of the South Sea Bubble (speculative frenzy in England). Citing Carswell.

1720s: Bursting of The Mississippi Bubble (speculative frenzy in France.) 

1730 plus: Alison Olson, 'Coffee House Lobbying', History Today, Vol. 41, January 1991., pp. 35-41.

1730: Richard B. Sheridan, 'The rise of a Colonial Gentry: A Case Study of Antigua, 1730-1775', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 13, 1960-1961., pp. 342-357.

1733: English trade and Virginia: Citing John M. Hemphill.

1735: David Hancock, Citizens of the World: London Merchants and the British Atlantic Community, 1735-1785. New York, Cambridge University Press, 1995.

1735: David Alan Williams, 'Anglo-Virginia Politics, 1690-1735', in Alison Olson and Richard Maxwell Brown, (Eds.), Anglo-American Political Relations, 1675-1775. New Brunswick, NJ., 1970.

1740: Thomas M. Devine, The Tobacco Lords: A Study of the Tobacco Merchants of Glasgow and their Trading Activities, 1740-1790. Edinburgh, Donald, 1975.

1740 plus: On planter Landon Carter, Virginia: Jack P. Greene, (Ed.), The Diary of Colonel Landon Carter of Sabine Hall. Two Vols. Charlottesville, Virginia, Virginia Historical Society/University Press of Virginia, 1965.

1747: C. W. Mun, The Scottish Provincial Banking Companies, 1747-1864. Edinburgh, Donald, c.1981.

1740s: Lord Teignmouth and Charles G. Harper, The Smugglers. Vol. 1. [Orig. 1923] Yorkshire, England, EP Publishing, 1973.

1750: James H. Soltow, 'Scottish Traders in Virginia, 1750-1775', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 12, 1959-1960., pp. 83-98.

1750: Douglas Hamilton, 'Transatlantic Ties: Scottish Migration Networks in the Caribbean, 1750-1800', in A Global Clan, A. McCarthy (Ed.), pp. 48-66. New York, I. B. Tauris, 2006.

1750: James H. Soltow, 'Scottish Traders in Virginia, 1750-1775', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 12, 1959-1960., pp. 83-98.

1750: Richard B. Sheridan, 'The Commercial and Financial Organisation of the British Slave Trade, 1750-1807', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1958-1959., pp. 249-263.

1750: R. G. Lang, 'Social Origins and Social Aspirations of Jacobean London Merchants', Economic History Review, 2, V, 27, 1974., pp. 28-47.

1750: Roderick Platz, China's Seaborne Trade with South and Southeast Asia 1200-1750. nd?

1750: Bryant Lillywhite, London Coffee Houses. London, Allen and Unwin, 1963.

1750 plus: Arnold Walter Lawrence, Trade Castles and Forts of West Africa. London, Jonathan Cape, 1963.

1750: Richard Grassby, Kinship and Capitalism. nd?

1750: Richard Grassby, The Business Community of Seventeenth-Century England. nd?

1750: Jonathan Israel, European Jewry in the Age of Mercantilism, 1550-1750. nd?

1750: Asiya Siddiqi, (Ed.), Trade and Finance in Colonial India, 1750-1860. Oxford University Press, 1995. With Holden Furber, Chapter 2, Trade and Politics in Madras and Bombay; Narendra K. Sinha, Chapter 3, The Armenian Traders in Bengal; Ashin Das Gupta, Chapter 4, The Medieval Merchant; P. J. Marshall, Chapter 5, The Internal Trade of Bengal; Asiya Siddiqi, Chapter 6, 'The Business World of Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy'; C. A. Bayly, Chapter 7, The Age of Hiatus: The North Indian Economy and Society, 1830-1850; Thomas A. Timberg, Chapter 8, Hiatus and Incubator: Indigenous Trade and Traders, 1837-1857; Amales Trepathi, Chapter 9, Indo-British Trade between 1833 and 1847 and the Commercial Crisis of 1847-1848. K. N. Chaudhuri, Chapter 10, India's Foreign Trade and the Cessation of the East India Company's Trading Activities, 1828-1840; Jitendra G. Borpujaki, Chapter 11, 'The Impact of the Transit Duty System in British India'; Marika Vicziany, Chapter 12, 'Bombay Merchants and Structural Changes in the Export Community 1850-1880'.

1750: L. B. Namier, 'Brice Fisher, MP: a mid-Eighteenth Century Merchant and his connexions', English Historical Review, 42, 1927., pp. 514-532,

1750: Simon Ville, 'The Growth of Specialization in English Shipowning, 1750-1850', Economic History Review, Vol. 46, No. 41, 1993., pp. 702-722.

1750: H. R. Fox-Bourne, English Merchants: Memoirs in Illustration of the Progress of British Commerce. London, Chatto and Windus, 1886. [Kraus Reprint Co., New York, 1969 in Two Vols].

1750: H. V. Bowen, '"The Pest of Human Society": Stockbrokers, Jobbers and Speculators in Mid-Eighteenth Century Britain', History, 1993, 78 (282), pp. 38-53.

1750: Michelguglielmo Torri, 'Trapped inside the colonial order: the Hindu bankers of Surat and their business world during the second half of the eighteenth century', Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1991., pp. 367-401.

1750: Richard B. Sheridan, 'The Commercial and Financial Organisation of the British Slave Trade, 1750-1807', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1958-1959., pp. 249-263.

1750: Simon Ville, 'The Growth of Specialization in English Shipowning, 1750-1850', Economic History Review, Vol. 46, No. 41, 1993., pp. 702-722.

1750: H. R. Fox-Bourne, English Merchants: Memoirs in Illustration of the Progress of British Commerce. London, Chatto and Windus, 1886. [Kraus Reprint Co., New York, 1969 in Two Vols].

1750: H. V. Bowen, '"The Pest of Human Society": Stockbrokers, Jobbers and Speculators in Mid-Eighteenth Century Britain', History, 1993, 78 (282), pp. 38-53.

1753: Roger Fulford, Glyn's, 1753-1953: Six Generations in Lombard Street. London, Macmillan, 1953.

1760: A. M. Serajuddin, The Revenue Administration of the East India Company in Chittagong 1761-1785. Chittagong, 1971.

1760: Phillip Woodruff, The Men Who Ruled India: The Founders. London, Jonathan Cape, 1954.

1760: John Watney, Clive of India. Saxon House, UK, D. C. Heath Ltd., Hants, England, 1974.

1760: On Merchant Gentry of C18th London see N. Rogers, 'Money, Land and Lineage: The Big Bourgeoise of Hanoverian London', Social History, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1979.

1760: Chris Pickard. 'Eighteenth Century Manx Merchantmen and Privateers', Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society, Proceedings IX, Vol. 4. (Per Chris Pickard in Feb 2006. (Unknown).

1760: Dianne Lewis, 'The Growth of the Country Trade to the Straits of Malacca, 1760-1777', Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 43, Part 2, 1970., pp. 114-129.

1760: William I. Roberts III, 'Samuel Storke: An Eighteenth Century London Merchant Trading to the American Colonies', The Business History Review, Vol., 34, Summer 1965., pp. 147-170.

1760: J. M. Holzman, The Nabobs in England, 1760-1815: A Study of the Returned Anglo-Indian. New York. 1926.

1760: David J. Starkey, British Privateering Enterprise in the Eighteenth Century. University of Exeter Press, Exeter Maritime Studies, No. 4, 1990.

1760 plus: The English convict contractors operating before 1775, shipping felons to North American colonies.  (List to come - Citing Oldham, Ekirch, AE Smith).

1760: Phillip Woodruff, The Men Who Ruled India: The Founders. London, Jonathan Cape, 1954.

1760: John Watney, Clive of India. Saxon House, UK, D. C. Heath Ltd., Hants, England, 1974.

1762: John L. Bullion, 'Escaping Boston: Nathaniel Ware and the Beginning of Colonial Taxation, 1762-1763', Huntington Library Quarterly, 1982, 45, (1), pp. 36-49.

1760 to 1843: Anthony Chen, Kuo-tung, The Insolvency of the Chinese Hong Merchants, 1760-1843, UMI. 1990. Ph.D. thesis. Yale University, 1990.

1763: Schlesinger on Colonial Merchants. 1763-1776.

1763: Wilfrid Oldham, The Administration of the System of Transportation of British Convicts, 1763-1793. Ph.D. thesis. London University, 1933.

1763: Robert Selig, 'Emigration, fraud, humanitarianism and the founding of Londonderry, South Carolina, 1763-1765', Eighteenth Century Studies, Vol. 23, No. 1, Fall 1989., pp. 1-23.

1764: A leading set of merchants at Charlestown, Carolina, included Charles Crockat, James Crockat, John Nutt. Plus Alexander Watson and Richard Grubb.

1764: A leading set of merchants at Charlestown, Carolina, included Charles Crockat, James Crockat, John Nutt. Plus Alexander Watson and Richard Grubb.

1768: J. B. Bishop, A Chronicle of 150 Years: The Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York, 1768-1918. 1918.

1768: Samuel M. Rosenblatt, 'The Significance of Credit in the Tobacco Consignment Trade: A Study of John Norton and Sons, 1768-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 29, 1962., pp. 383-399.

1768: Kenneth Morgan, 'The Organisation of the Convict Trade to Maryland: Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston, 1768-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 42, No. 2, April 1985., pp. 201-227.

1768: J. B. Bishop, A Chronicle of 150 Years: The Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York, 1768-1918. 1918.

1760s: Lucy Stewart Sutherland, The East India Company in Eighteenth Century Politics. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1952.

1760s-1770s: British-India. Although books on Clive of India often treat merchants only as incidental characters, many merchants are listed. See also the latest title on Clive's noted enemy at the East India Company directorate in London, Laurence Sulivan. See McGilvary citation below. See also, Edward Thompson and G. T. Garratt,

1760s: George McGilvary, Guardian of the East India Company: The Life of Laurence Sulivan. Taurus Academic Studies, 2006.

1760s: Louis Morton, Robert Carter of Nomini Hall: A Virginia Tobacco Planter of the Eighteenth Century. Charlottesville, Virginia, University Press of Virginia/Dominion Books, 1945.

1760s: George McGilvary, Guardian of the East India Company: The Life of Laurence Sulivan. Taurus Academic Studies, 2006.

1770: G. M. Waller, Samuel Vetch: Colonial Enterpriser. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press for Institute of Early American History and Culture at Williamsburg, Virginia, 1960.

1770: Simon P. Ville, English Shipowning during the Industrial Revolution: Michael Henley and Son, London Shipowners, 1770-1830. Manchester University Press, 1987.

1770: Gordon Jackson, The British Whaling Trade. London, Adam and Charles Black, 1978.

1770: Thad W. Tate, 'The Coming of the Revolution in Virginia: Britain’s challenge to Virginia's ruling class, 1763-1776', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 19, July 1962., pp. 323-343.

1770 plus: H. B. Morse, The Chronicles of the East India Company trading to China. Oxford, 1929.

1770 plus: Horsea Ballon Morse, 'The Provision of Funds for the East India Company's Trade at Canton during the Eighteenth Century', Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1922, April Part 2., pp?

1770 and later: Anthony Dickinson, 'Some Aspects of the Origin and Implementation of the Eighteenth Century Falkland Islands Sealing Industry', International Journal of Maritime History, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1990., pp. 33-68.

1770: Gordon Jackson, The British Whaling Trade. London, Adam and Charles Black, 1978.

1770 (approx): Re James Watt and introduction of steam power, see lists of title in a growing chapter of manuscript ... (More to come).

1770: Jack M. Sosin, Agents and Merchants: British Colonial Policy and the Origins of the American Revolution, 1763-1775. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1965.

1771: Lucy Sutherland, 'Sir George Colebrooke's world corner in alum, 1771-1773', Economic History. iii, 1936, pp. 237-257, cited in J. Price on Joshua Johnson in London, p. 163, Note 39.

1771: Jacob M. Price, essay 'Joshua Johnson In London, 1771-1775', in Anne Whiteman et al, (Eds), Statesmen, Scholars and Merchants, Essays... presented to Dame Lucy Sutherland. OUP, 1973.

1771: Jacob M. Price, essay 'Joshua Johnson In London, 1771-1775', in Anne Whiteman et al, (Eds), Statesmen, Scholars and Merchants, Essays ... presented to Dame Lucy Sutherland. OUP, 1973.

1772: The Fordyce Crash:  Spectacular failure of banker/speculator Fordyce.

1773: On Anglo-American merchant networks associated pro-and-con with the Boston Tea Party, see Labaree, Langguth, Patriots, Bailyn, The Ordeal of Thomas Hutchinson.

1773: Benjamin W. Labaree, The Boston Tea Party. New York, Oxford University Press, 1968.

1773: Bankey Bihari Misra, The Central Administration of the East India Company, 1773-1834. Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1959.

1773: On Anglo-American merchant networks associated pro-and-con with the Boston Tea Party, see Labaree, Langguth, Patriots, Bailyn, The Ordeal of Thomas Hutchinson.

1775: America: Time of the American Revolution and later: On the financier of the American Revolution, Robert Morris, Ver Steeg, etc. And Sumner, Oberholtzer

To 1775: Olson, London Mercantile Lobby.

To 1775: A useful title on one British merchant heading a family-type network, is Lucy Sutherland, see on Braund, cited above.

To 1775, Kenneth M. Morgan on Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston. Also, Kenneth Morgan, 'The Organisation of the Convict Trade to Maryland: Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston, 1768-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 42, No. 2, April, 1985., pp. 201-227.

From 1775: Abernethy on Western Lands.

1775: Norman Baker, Government and Contractors: The British Treasury and War Supplies, 1775-1783. London, The Athlone Press, 1971.

1775: Alison Olson, 'The London Mercantile Lobby and the Coming of the American Revolution', Journal of American History, Vol. 69, No. 1, June 1982., pp. 21-41.

1775: Michael G. Kammen, A Rope and Sand: The Colonial Agents: British Politics and the American Revolution. Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press, 1968.

1775: Katharine A. Kellock, 'London Merchants and the pre-1776 American Debts', Guildhall Studies in London History, Vol. 1, No 3, October, 1974., pp. 109-149.

From 1775: Robert A. Kilmarx, America's Maritime Legacy: A History of the US Merchant Marine and Shipbuilding Industry since Colonial Times. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1979.

From 1775: Charles P. Kindleberger, A Financial History of Western Europe. London, George Allen and Unwin, 1984.

1775: Samuel F. Bernis, The Diplomacy of the American Revolution. Bloomington, Indiana, 1957.

1775: Alison Olson, Making the Empire Work: London and American Interest Groups, 1690-1790. London, Harvard University Press, 1992.

1775: Alison Olson, 'The Virginia Merchants of London: A Study in Eighteenth Century Interest Group Politics', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 40, July 1983., pp. 363-388.

1775: A. J. Langguth, Patriots: The Men Who Started The American Revolution. New York, 1988.

1775: John McCusker, Money and Exchange in Europe and America, 1600-1775: A Handbook. London, Macmillan, 1978.

1775: Ellis P. Oberholtzer, Robert Morris, Patriot and Financier. 1903.

1775: John McCusker, Rum and the American Revolution: The Rum Trade and the Balance of Payments of the Thirteen Continental Colonies. New York, Garland Publishing, 1989.

1775 A. E. Smith, Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labour in America, 1607-1776. University of Carolina Press, 1947. Gloucester, Mass. Peter Smith, 1965.

1775: Jack P. Green and J. R. Pole, The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Blackwell, 1991.

1775 plus: A. G. E. Jones, Ships employed in the South Seas Trade, 1775-1861 [Parts 1 and 2]: plus A Registrar General of Shipping and Seamen, transcripts of Registers of Shipping, 1787-1862 [Part 3] Canberra, Roebuck, 1986.

1775: Katharine A. Kellock, 'London Merchants and the pre-1776 American Debts', Guildhall Studies in London History, Vol. 1, No 3, October 1974., pp. 109-149.

1775: Alison Olson and Richard Maxwell Brown, (Eds.), Anglo-American Political Relations, 1675-1775. New Brunswick, NJ., 1970.

1775: Rosane Rocher and Michael E. Scorgie, 'A Family Empire: The Alexander Hamilton Cousins, 1750-1830', The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1994., pp. 189-210.

Old books graphic

1775: Alison Olson, Anglo-American Politics, 1660-1775. New York, 1973.

1775: Alison Olson, 'The Board of Trade and the London-American Interest Groups', Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth Studies, VIII, 1980.

1775: Fix name ? Marshall, The Bengal Commercial Society of 1775, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, xlii, 1969, pp. 181-187.

1775: Lawrence Henry Gipson, 'Virginia Planter Debts before the American Revolution', Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 69, 1961., pp. 259-177.

1775: William Hutchinson Rowe, Maritime History of Maine. New York, 1948.

1775 plus: St. John Robinson, 'Southern Loyalists in the Caribbean and Central America', South Carolina Historical Magazine, 1992, 93 (3-4), pp. 205-220.

1775: Arthur M. Schlesinger, 'The Aristocracy in Colonial America', pp. 528-535 in Paul Goodman, (Ed.), Essays in American Colonial History. New York, Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, 1967.

1775: Arthur M. Schlesinger, The Colonial Merchants and the American Revolution, 1763-1776. New York, F. Ungar Pub. Co., 1957.

1775: Jack P. Green and J. R. Pole, (Eds.), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Blackwell, 1991.

1775: America: Time of American Revolution and later: On the financier of the American Revolution, Robert Morris, Ver Steeg, etc. And Sumner, Oberholtzer

1775: Selwyn H. Carrington, 'The American Revolution and the British West Indies Economy', Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 1987, 17, (4) pp. 823-850.

1775: F. H. Schmidt, 'Sold and Driven: Assignment of Convicts in eighteenth-century Virginia', The Push From The Bush, No. 23, 1986., pp. 2-27.

1775: Samuel Eliot Morison, Maritime History of Massachusetts. Boston, 1921.

to 1775: Fix cite Peter Marshall and Glyn Williams, Eds.), 

1775: Adam Drummond, merchant banker of London, becomes a partner of Coutts Bank. Citing Edna Healey, 

1775: Tommy R. Thompson, 'Personal indebtedness and the American Revolution in Maryland', Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 73, 1978., pp. 13-29.

1775: Kenneth Morgan, Bristol and the Atlantic Trade in the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge University Press, 1993.

1775: Donald F. Swanson and Andrew P. Trout, 'Alexander Hamilton, "the celebrated Mr Neckar", and public credit', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 47, No. 1, July 1990., pp. 422-430.

1775: Howard Swiggett, The Forgotten Leaders of the Revolution. New York, Doubleday, 1955. (On the American Revolution)

1775: T. M. Devine, 'Glasgow Merchants and the Collapse of the Tobacco Trade, 1775-1783', Scottish Historical Review, Vol. 52, 1973., pp. 50-74.

1775: T. M. Devine, 'A Glasgow Tobacco Merchant During the American War of Independence: Alexander Speirs of Elderslie, 1775 to 1781', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 33, No. 3, July, 1976., pp. 501-513.

1775: Ian W. Toll, Six Frigates: How piracy, war and British supremacy at sea gave birth to the world's most powerful navy. Michael Joseph, 2007, 560pp. (On origins of the US navy)

1775: John A. Tilley, The British Navy and the American Revolution. University of South Carolina Press, part of a series on maritime history. nd?

1775: Simon Ville, 'The deployment of English merchant shipping: Michael and Joseph Henley of Wapping, ship owners, 1775-1830', Journal of Transport History , Vol. 5, No. 2, September 1984., pp. 16-33.

1775 and later: James Walvin, Black Ivory: A History of British Slavery. London, Harper Collins, 1992.

1775: William Graham Sumner, The Financier and the Finances of the American Revolution. Two Vols. 1891. Vol. 2. (On financier Robert Morris)

1775: David Syrett, 'The Victualling Board charters shipping, 1775-1782', Bulletin of Historical Research, The Institute of Historical Research, Vol. 68, 1995., pp. 212-224.

1775: Robert Polk Thomson, 'The Tobacco Export of the Upper James River Naval District, 1773-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 18, July 1961., pp 393-407.

1775: To 1775, on a variety of Anglo-American merchants, especially Joshua Johnson, see items by Jacob Price etc.

1775: With the outbreak of the American Revolution, aftermaths for a noted tobacco merchant and his family, Russell, a masterly treatment, Jacob Price, One Family's Empire.

1775: British merchants scattered by the outbreak of the American Revolution. A group of at least 204 British merchants discussed far-too-little by both UK and US historians. An all-too-rare article: by Katherine Kellock, cited above.

1775: Clarence L. Ver Steeg, Robert Morris: Revolutionary Financier (with an analysis of his earlier career). New York, Octagon, 1972.

1775 and later: T. Charles Edwards and B. Richardson, (Eds.), “They Saw It Happen”: Eyewitness Accounts. Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1958.

1775: A. Roger Ekirch, 'Bound for America: a profile of British convicts transported to the colonies, 1718-1775', William and Mary Quarterly

1775: A. Roger Ekirch, Bound for America: The Transportation of British Convicts to the Colonies, 1718-1775. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1987.

1776: E. James Ferguson, The Power of the Purse: A History of American Public Finance, 1776-1790. Williamsburg, Virginia, Institute of Early American History and Culture, Chapel Hill, 1961.

1776: James Walvin, English Urban Life, 1776-1851. London, Hutchinson, 1984.

1776: Orlando W. Stephenson, 'The supply of gunpowder in 1776', American Historical Review, 30, January 1925., pp. 271-281.

1776: Emory G. Evans, 'Private Indebtedness and the Revolution in Virginia, 1776 to 1796', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 38, July, 1971., pp. 349-374.

1775: Emory G. Evans, 'Planter Indebtedness and the Coming of the Revolution in Virginia', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3. Vol. 19, October 1962., pp. 511-533.

1775: Mark Mayo Boatner III, Encyclopaedia of the American Revolution. New York, Bicentennial edition, David Mackay Co., 1976.

1770s: H. B. Morse, 'The Provision of Funds for the East India Company's trade at Canton during the eighteenth century', Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Part 2, April 1922., pp. 227-254. [Microfilm 950.05, Dixson Library, UNE]

1770s: Alison Olson, 'The Board of Trade and London-American interest groups in the eighteenth century', Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth Studies, 8, January 1980., pp. 33-50.

1780: Raymond Flower and Michael Wynn Jones, Lloyd's of London: An Illustrated History. Newton Abbot, David and Charles, 1974.

1780: Ernest Marshall Howse, Saints in Politics: the Clapham sect and the Growth of Freedom. London, Allen and Unwin, 1973.

1780: Sally Jenkinson, Woodlands and John Julius Angerstein. Greenwich, London, Greenwich Local History Centre, 1986.

1780: Barry Gough, 'William Bolts and the Austrian attempt to establish an Eastern Empire', pp. 75-80 in John Hardy and Alan Frost, (Eds.), European Voyaging Towards Australia. Canberra, Australian Academy of the Humanities, Occasional Paper No. 8, 1990.

1780: Roger Fulford, Samuel Whitbread (1764-1815): A Study in Opposition. London, Macmillan, 1967.

1780: D. W. Thomas, 'The Mills Family: London sugar merchants of the Eighteenth Century', Business History, 11, 1969, pp. 3-10.

1780: S. B. Singh, European Agency Houses in Bengal, 1783-1883. Calcutta, Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay, 1966.

1780: Britain in the East: See Tarling, Anglo-Dutch Rivalry. Nicholas Tarling, Anglo-Dutch Rivalry in the Malay World, 1780-1824. St Lucia, Cambridge University Press/University of Queensland Press, 1962.

1780: Frances Wilkins, George Moore and His Friends: Letters from a Manx Merchant, 1775-1780. Wyre Forest Press, 1994.

1783 and later: Richard B. Tennant, The American Cigarette Industry. Yale University Press, 1950.

1782: Clive Trebilcock, Phoenix Assurance and the Development of British Insurance. Vol. 1, 1782-1870. London, Cambridge University Press, 1985.

1782: Herbert E. Klingelhofer, 'Matthew Ridley's Diary during the Peace Negotiations of 1782', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 20, January 1963., pp. 95-133. (Ridley had to1775 been an agentfor the London convict contractor Duncan Campbell noted elsewhere on thispage.)

1782: Herbert E. Klingelhofer, 'Matthew Ridley's Diary during the Peace Negotiations of 1782', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 20, January 1963., pp. 95-133.

1782: Dan Byrnes, 'Outlooks for the English South Whale Fishery, 1782-1800, and the "great Botany Bay debate"', The Great Circle, Vol. 10, No. 2, October 1988., pp. 79-102.

1782: On the British merchants who first had the official account of the US government, later to have it mysteriously taken from them, see Cope, Bird Savage and Bird, 

1783: Holden Furber, 'The United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies, 1783-1796', ECHR, 10, (2), November 1940., pp. 138-147.

1783: Arthur L. Jensen, Maritime Commerce of Colonial Philadelphia. Madison, Wisconsin, State Historical Society of Wisconsin for the Dept. of History, University of Wisconsin, 1963.

1783: Holden Furber, John Company at Work. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1948.

1783: Holden Furber, 'American Trade', New England Quarterly, June 1938, pp. 255-256.

1783: Foster Rhea Dulles, America in the Pacific: A Century of Expansion. Ed 2. New York, Houghton Mifflin Co, 1938. (Australia not noted in the index.)

1783: On American William Duer, Cf., Robert F. Jones, “The King of the Alley: William Duer: Politician, Entrepreneur, and Speculator, 1768-1799. Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, 1992.

1783: Margaret Steven, Trade, Tactics and Territory: Britain in the Pacific, 1783-1823. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press, 1983.

1783: Mary Elizabeth Ruwell, Eighteenth Century Capitalism: The Formation of American Marine Insurance Companies. New York, Garland Publishing Inc., 1993.

1783: Frances Wilkins, George Moore and His Friends: Letters from a Manx Merchant, 1775-1760: Wyre Forest Press, 1994. (Per Chris Pickard in Feb 2006. http://www.isle-of-man.com/)

1783: Roger A. Ekirch, 'Great Britain's Secret Convict Trade to America, 1783-1784', American Historical Review, Vol. 89, No. 5, December 1984., pp. 1285-1291.

1783 and later : K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways.. University of South Carolina Press, 1988.

1783 and later: Kevin Bone, (Ed.), The New York Waterfront. Monacelli Press, 1997.

1783: Re George Moore, see Ekirch and new material posted by Byrnes on this website at: Also Frances Wilkins -

The major British merchants chartering their ships to government to send convicts to Australia (to Sydney), William Richards Junior, Camden, Calvert and King, whalers of the English South Whale Fishery, are discussed in Dan Byrnes'  website book, The Blackheath Connection.

1784, Holden Furber on first US trade with India,

1784: Glenn S. Gordinier, 'Early American trade with India: taking an observation', The American Neptune, Vol. 45, No. 3, 1985., pp. 153-166.

1784: Ernest R. May and James C. Thomson Jr., (Eds.), American-East Asian Relations: A Survey. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1972.

1784: Alan Frost, Dreams of a Pacific Empire: Sir George Young's Proposal for a Colonization of NSW, 1784-85. Sydney, Resolution Press, 1980.

1784: Alan Valentine, The British Establishment, 1760-1784: An Eighteenth Century Biographical Dictionary. Two Vols. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1970.

1784: Chris Pickard. 'George Moore, HM Consul of Salonica'. Per Chris Pickard in Feb 2006. Manx Life (Notknown).

1784: Holden Furber, 'The Beginnings of American Trade with India, 1784-1812', The New England Quarterly, June, 1938., pp. 235-265.

1785: British and American whaling: Stackpole, with particular reference to the Pacific Ocean. Indispensable reading. Cite also AGE Jones here. Ships Employed. Also Steven, Trade, Tactics and Territory. (Also re the Pacific Ocean.) Byrnes, Outlooks.

1785: Eduoard A. Stackpole, Whales and Destiny: The Rivalry between America, France and Britain for Control of the Southern Whale Fishery, 1785-1825. University of Massachusetts Press, 1972.

1785: F. W Howay, A List of the Trading Vessels in the Maritime Fur Trade, 1785-1825. Kingston, Ontario, Limestone Press, 1973. (Excerpts available on the Internet)

1785: Dan Byrnes, `The Blackheath Connection: London Local History and the Settlement at New South Wales, 1786-1806', as published in The Push: A Journal of Early Australian Social History, No. 28, 1990., pp. 50-98. ISSN 0155 8633. ISBN 0 646 09384 3.

1785: Eduoard A. Stackpole, Whales and Destiny: The Rivalry between America, France and Britain for Control of the Southern Whale Fishery, 1785-1825. University of Massachusetts Press, 1972.

1785: Views on the efforts made by John Prinsep and his son James to modernise the minting and distribution of coinage in India from 1785, then 1835, are found in the section, James Prinsep and Indian money, in, pp. 109ff, Jonathan Williams, Joe Cribb and Elizabeth Errington, (Eds)., Money: A History. Published for the Trustees of the British Museum by British Museum Press, 1997.

1785: A notable network of merchants, many engaged in slavery/African business, see the David Hancock citation above.

1786: William Appleman Williams, Thomas McCormick, Lloyd Gardner, Walter LaFeber, (Eds. and Commentators), America in Vietnam: A Documentary History. New York, W. W. Norton and Co., 1989. [the introduction only]

1786: W. J. Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers in Southern Waters. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1977. [Angus and Robertson Non-Fiction Classics Edition]

1786: K. M. Dallas, Trading Posts or Penal Colonies: The Commercial Significance of Cook's New Holland Route to the Pacific. Hobart, Fuller's Bookshop, 1969.

1786: Dan Byrnes, 'A Bitter Pill: An assessment of the significance of the meeting between Thomas Jefferson and Duncan Campbell of the British Creditors in London, 23 April, 1786', Unpublished in print. Armidale, NSW, Australia, November 1994.

1786: A. G. E. Jones, 'Daniel Bennett and Company, South Whalers'. Unpublished paper, 1968. [Available at the Guildhall Library, London, unpublished]

1786: Roger J. B. Knight, 'The First Fleet, its state and preparation, 1786-1787', pp. 121-136 in John Hardy and Alan Frost, (Eds.), Studies from Terra Australis to Australia. Canberra, Australian Academy of the Humanities, Occasional Paper No. 6, 1988.

1786” Douglas Hall, A Brief History of the West India Committee. Caribbean University Press, 1971.

1786 Wilfrid Oldham, Britain’s Convicts to the Colonies. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1990. [This title is a slightly modified version of Wilfrid Oldham, The Administration of the System of Transportation of British Convicts, 1763-1793. Ph.D thesis. London University. 1933]

1786: Michael E. Scorgie and Peter Hudgson, 'Arthur Phillip's Familial and Political Networks', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 82, Part 1, June, 1996., pp. 23-39.

1786: Foster Rhea Dulles, The Old China Trade. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1930.

1786: Ernest R. May and James C. Thomson Jnr., (Eds.), American-East Asian Relations: A Survey. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1972

1786: Ernest R. May and John K. Fairbank, (Eds.), America's China Trade in Historical Perspective: The Chinese and American Performance. Published by The Committee on American-East Asian Relations of the Dept. of History, in collaboration with the Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, London, Harvard University Press, 1986.

1786: Herbert Heaton, 'The American Trade', [after 1786], pp. 194-226 in C. Northcote Parkinson, (Ed.), The Trade Winds: A Study of British Overseas Trade during the French Wars, 1793-1815. London, Allen and Unwin, 1948.

1786: Dan Byrnes, '"Emptying The Hulks": Duncan Campbell and the First Three Fleets to Australia', The Push From The Bush: A Bulletin of Social History, No. 24, April, 1987., pp. 2-23.

1786: William Appleman Williams, Thomas McCormick, Lloyd Gardner, Walter LaFeber, (Eds. and Commentators), America in Vietnam: A Documentary History. New York, W. W. Norton and Co., 1989. [the introduction only]

1786: W. J. Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers in Southern Waters. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1977. [Angus and Robertson Non-Fiction Classics Edition]

1786: K. M. Dallas, Trading Posts or Penal Colonies: The Commercial Significance of Cook's New Holland Route to the Pacific. Hobart, Fuller's Bookshop, 1969.

Old books graphic

1786: Clarence Ver Steeg, 'Financing and Outfitting the First United States Ship to China', Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 22, 1953., pp. 1-12.

1786: Merchants and Mandarins: New York and the Early China Trade, in New York and the China Trade. New York, New York Historical Society, 1984.

1786: William Appleman Williams, Thomas McCormick, Lloyd Gardner, Walter LaFeber, (Eds. and Commentators), America in Vietnam: A Documentary History. New York, W. W. Norton and Co., 1989. [introduction only] re the first-ever US-China ships.

1786: Philip Ziegler, The Sixth Great Power: Barings, 1762-1929. London, Collins, 1988.

1786: Charles C. Stelle, 'American Trade in Opium to China, prior to 1820', Pacific Historical Review, 9, 4, December 1940., pp. 425-444.

1786: Philip Chadwick Foster Smith, 'The Empress of China's Voyage, 1784-1785', The American Neptune, Vol. 46, No. 1, 1986., pp 25-33.

1786: Philip Chadwick Foster Smith, The Empress of China. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Maritime Museum, 1984.

1786 and later: Nirode K. Barooah, David Scott in North-East India: A Study in British Paternalism. New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlod, 1970. (This title could easily be preceded by more insightful work on the father of the subject of this book, David Scott Senior, who returned to London from India in 1786.)

1788: Gavin Sutherland, The Whaling Years: Peterhead, 1788-1893. University of Aberdeen, Centre for Scottish Studies. 1993.

1789: Eric Williams, (Ed.), The British West Indies at Westminster, Extracts from the Debates in the British Parliament, Part 1, 1789-1823. Historical Society of Trinidad and Tobago, Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1954.

1780s: On the London-based Henley coal shippers, see Ville,

1780s: A family of smaller-scale merchants beholden to the East India Company, the Larkins family of Blackheath London. Citing Bovill.

1780s: Rise of a group of merchants in London important to understanding of how Britain sent its first three fleets of convict ships to Australia, especially Camden, Calvert and King. See Cozens thesis.

1780s: Capt. Lionel J. Trotter, The Life of Warren Hastings. London, J. M. Dent, 1925.

1780s: D. E. W. Gibb, Lloyd's of London: A Study in Individualism. London, Macmillan, 1957.

1780s: Barry Gough, 'Pacific exploration in the 1780s and 1790s', pp. 99-107 in John Hardy and Alan Frost, (Eds.), Studies from Terra Australis to Australia. Canberra, Australian Academy of the Humanities, Occasional Paper No. 6, 1989.

1780s: Richard Straus, Lloyd's: A Historical Sketch. London, Hutchinson, 1937.

1780s: Frank Worsley, The Romance of Lloyd's. London, Hutchinson, 1932.

1780s: Henry M. Grey, Lloyd's Yesterday and Today. London, 1922.

1780s: Cyril Fry, 'The Angersteins of Woodlands', Transactions of the Greenwich and Lewisham Antiquarian Society, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1961-1963. London, The Society, 1964., pp. 86-105.

1780s: Adam Hothschild, Bury The Chains. Macmillan, 2005, 467pp. (On the rise from 1787 of the British anti-slavery movement. Hothschild makes the point that trying to stop slavery in the 18th century was as unimaginable as trying to ban cars today)

1780s: P. J. Marshall, 'The Personal Fortune of Warren Hastings', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. XVII, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 1965-1965., pp. 284-300.

1780s: Ralph W. Hidy, The House of Baring in American Trade and Finance: English Merchant Bankers at Work, 1763-1861. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1949.

1780s: A. S. Leighton-Boyce, Smiths the Bankers, 1658-1958. London, National Provincial Bank Ltd., 1958.

1780s and later: Walter H. Mayo, The Trinity House London: Past and Present. London, Smith Elder and Co., 1905. See also, Hilary P. Mead, Trinity House: Its Unique Record from the Days of Henry VIII. London, Sampson Lowe, Marston, nd.

1780s: Frederick Martin, The History of Lloyd’s and of Marine Insurance in Great Britain. London, Macmillan, 1876.

1780s: Charles Wright and Ernest Fayle, A History of Lloyd's. London, Macmillan, 1957.

1780s: A family of smaller-scale merchants beholden to the East India Company, the Larkins family of Blackheath London. Citing Bovill.

1780s: American (eastern seaboard) interest in fur-gathering from North-West America (Nootka Sound area), Howay. On John Jacob Astor, fur-traders, then New York real-estate operator, see .. (more to come)   

1780s: William Kent, An Encyclopedia of London. London, J. M. Dent, 1937.

1780s: On John Prinsep, regarded as the pioneer of the Indigo industry in British India, see website pages by Dan Byrnes such as - (More to come)

1780s-1790s: London bankers: Herries, see Booker.

1780s: Capt. Glyn Griffith, The Romance of Lloyd’s: From Coffee House to Palace. London, Hutchinson and Co., 1932.

1780s: William Bailey (Ed.), Liverpool Trade Directory. Liverpool, Printer for William Bailey. As cited in Hamilton, Absent Kings, see below.

1780s: Rise of the agency houses of India (with some attention to opium trading), S. B. Singh (More to come)

To 1790, Devine on tobacco lords of Scotland-America.

1790: Charles F. Hobson, 'The Recovery of British Debts in the Federal Circuit Court of Virginia, 1790-1797', Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 92, No. 2, 1984., pp. 176-200.

1790: A. K. Kavanagh, 'The return of the First Fleet ships', The Great Circle, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1989., pp. 1-16.

1790: Michael Flynn, The Second Fleet: Britain's Grim Convict Armada of 1790. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1993.

1790: Pamela Statham, (Ed.), A Colonial Regiment: New Sources Relating to the New South Wales Corps, 1789-1810. Canberra, Australian National University, 1992. [Including sections by John Booker, Sarah Jenkins, Pennie Pemberton]

1790: Pamela Statham, 'A new look at the New South Wales Corps, 1790-1810', Australian Economic History Review, Vol. 30, No. 1, March 1990., pp. 43-63.

1792: An article on Richard Cadman Etches is by: Richard H. Dillon, 'A Plan for Convict Colonies in Canada: R. Cadman Etches', The Americas, Vol. 13, No. 2, October 1956, (published by Academy of American Franciscan History), pp. 187-198. Via http://www.jstor.org/

1792: G. Greenwood, Early American-Australian Relations. 1944.; Werner Levi, American-Australian Relations. 1947.

1792: Trevor Sykes, In The Bulletin, Special Bicentennial Edition, 26 January, 1988., pp. 149ff - an article by Trevor Sykes, 'A rum lot, our first entrepreneurs', there is reference to Pitt’s voyage; a typical error refers to Raven as an East India Company man, which of course only distracts the reader’s or the historian’s attention from men who were associated with the East India Company.

1793: John M. Sherwig, Guineas and Gunpowder: British Foreign Aid in the Wars with France, 1793-1815. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1968.

1793: Arthur Behrend, Portrait of a Family Firm: Bahr, Behrend and Co., 1793-1945. Liverpool, Self-published, 1970.

1793: Amales Tripathi, Trade and Finance in the Bengal Presidency, 1793-1833. Bombay. 1956.

1795: John Williams, A Narrative of Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands. London, London Missionary Society, John Snow, Paternoster Row, 1838.

1795: Peter Philip, British Residents at the Cape 1795-1819 [Cape of Good Hope]. no details.

1796: (Ed.) John Gore, ed. Liverpool Trade Directory for 1796.: Printer for John Gore. Liverpool, 1796. (As cited in Hamilton, Absent Kings).

1796: Richard Lovett, The History of the London Missionary Society, 1796-1895. Two Vols. London, 1899.

1799: William Wilson, A Missionary Voyage To The South Pacific Ocean, 1799-98. (Rare, copy, Dixson Library, UNE). Printed for T. Chapman, No. 151 Fleet Street, by T. Gillette, Printer, Sainsbury Sq. London.

1799: On American merchant William Duer, see Robert F. Jones, King of the Alley.

1790s: On British whalers Daniel Bennet based in London, resident at Blackheath, see A. G. E. Jones. Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers.

1790s: Begining of Battle of the Red Book and the Green book at Lloyd's of London, re John St Barbe and Thomas King, citing various by Byrnes and citations thereto.

1790s: Walter M. Stern, 'The Isle of Dogs Canal: A Study in Early Public Investment', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1952., pp. 359-371.

1790s: Lists of some of the major whalers of England (the English South Whale Fishery) are given on a page of this website at: (More to come)

1790s, On the rise of Rothschild bankers, see Count Corti.

1790s: Nicholas Tarling, 'Pirates and convicts: British interest in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the mid-nineteenth century', Chapter 10 of Nicholas Tarling, Imperial Britain in South-East Asia. Kuala Lumpur, Oxford University Press, 1975. Chapter 3, 'The Prince of Merchants and the Lion City' [On John Palmer, "the Prince of Merchants"].

1790s: J. C. Garran, 'William Wright Bampton and the Australian Merino', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 58, Parts 1&2, March 1, 1972., pp. 1-12.

1790s: J. C. Garran, 'Indian Sheep in early New South Wales', Newsletter , Royal Australian Historical Society, April 1974.

1790s: J. C., Garran, 'Sheep and other livestock in New South Wales, 1788-1805', Canberra and District Historical Society Journal, March 1970., pp. 1-17.

1790s: J. C. Garran and Leslie White, Merinos, Myths and Macarthurs: Australian Graziers and their sheep, 1788-1900. Canberra, Australian National University Press, 1985.

1790s: C. Ernest Fayle, 'Shipowning and Marine Insurance', pp 25-48 in C. Northcote Parkinson, (Ed.), The Trade Winds: A Study of British Overseas Trade during the French Wars, 1793-1815. London, Allen and Unwin, 1948.

1790s: Edward Sargent, 'The planning and early buildings of the West India Docks', The Mariner’s Mirror, Vol. 77, 1991., pp. 119-141.

1790s: D. G. Hall, Henry Burney: A Political Biography. London, Oxford University Press, 1974.

1790s: John Morison, The Fathers and Founders of the London Missionary Society. Two Vols. London, Fisher Son and Co., nd.

1800: Growth of Mangles firm. See ... (more to come)

1800s: Margaret Steven, 'Robert Campbell: His Scottish Background', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 46, Part 3, 1960., pp. 172-180.

1800s: Margaret Steven, Merchant Campbell, 1769-1846. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1965.

1800: G. S. Street, The London Assurance. London. R. Clay and Sons. 1920.

1810: Bill Wannan, Early Colonial Scandals: The Turbulent Times of Samuel Marsden. Melbourne, Landsdowne, 1972.

1800: Albert James Howard Warner, 'The Coromandel', pp. 35-66 in Russell Mackenzie Warner (Ed.), Over-Halling the Colony: George Hall, Pioneer. Sydney, Australian Documents Library, 1990.

1800 and later: Joseph M. Walsh, Tea: Its History and Mystery. Philadelphia, Coates and Co., 1892.

1800: London Bankers generally: F. G. Hilton Price,  (more to come)

1800: Australia (Sydney, New South Wales). On the NSW Corps officers as traders, see Statham, A Colonial Regiment

1800: Sir Leslie Stephen and Sir Sidney Lee, The Dictionary of National Biography: From the Earliest Times to 1900. London, Milford/Oxford University Press, 1917ff.

1800: Walter H. Stern, 'London sugar refiners around 1800', Guildhall Miscellany, February, 1954.

1800: W. M. Torrens, Empire in Asia - How We Came By It: A Book of Confessions. London, Trubner and Co., 1872.

1760: 1800: Michelgugliembo Torri, 'In the deep blue sea: Surat and its merchant class during the dyarchic era (1759-1800)', Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 14, Nos. 3ff., pp. 267-299.

1800 or so: Re London merchants and notable names: Compilation, City Biography. London. (Second edition). London. [Copy, Guildhall Library, London] 

From 1800, Michael Roe on Charles Bishop as pioneer of Pacific Commerce.

1800: Michael Greenberg, British Trade and the Opening of China, 1800-1842. Cambridge University Press, 1951.

1800: W. E. Minchinton, 'The Merchants of England in the Nineteenth Century', in Explorations in Entrepreneurial History. (10 Vols.) Vol. 10, 1957.

1800 and earlier: Valerie Hope, My Lord Mayor: Eight Hundred Years of London's Mayoralty. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson in association with the Corporation of the City of London, 1989. 

1800: Philip Mason, The Men Who Ruled India. London, Guild Publishing, 1985.

1800: Ramkrishna Mukherjee, The Rise and Fall of the East India Company: A Sociological Appraisal. Bombay, Popular Prakashan, 1973. [Also, New York, 1974]

1800: P. J. Marshall, East India Fortunes: The British in Bengal in the Eighteenth Century. Oxford, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1974. 1976.

1800: P. J. Marshall, 'Private trade in the Indian Ocean before 1800', pp. 276-300, in Ashin Das Gupta and M. N. Pearson, India and the Indian Ocean, 1500-1800. Calcutta, Oxford University Press, 1987.

1800: London Business House Histories - A Handlist. Guildhall Library, London. [Call RMZ 016-38209421 at Australia National Library]

1800: Joel Mokyr, Why Ireland Starved: Quantitative and Analytical History of the Irish Economy, 1800-1850. London, Allen and Unwin, 1983.

1800 plus: A. G. E. Jones, 'The British southern whale and seal fisheries, Part 1', The Great Circle, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1981., pp. 20-29; Part 2, Vol 3, No. 2, October 1981., pp. 99-102.

1800 plus: Ernest Samhaber, Merchants Make History: How Trade has Influenced the Course of History Throughout the World. London, Harrap, 1963.

1800: A. G. E. Jones, 'British sealing on New South Shetland, Part 2', The Great Circle, Vol. 7, No. 2, October 1985., pp. 74-87.

1800: Ronald Hope, A New History of British Shipping. London, John Murray, 1990.

1800: Nance Irvine, Mary Reibey - Molly Incognita: A Biography of Mary Reibey, 1775 to 1855, and her world. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1982.

1800: Ben Weinreb and Christopher Hibbert, The London Encyclopedia. London, Macmillan, 1983.

1800 and later: Marjorie Barnard Eldershaw, The Life and Times of Captain John Piper. Sydney, Ure-Smith in association with the National Trust of Australia, 1973.

1800: Anthony R. Henderson and Sarah Palmer, 'The early nineteenth century port of London: management and labour in three dock companies, 1800-1825', Research in Maritime History, No. 6, June 1994., pp. 31-50.

1800: Rhys Richards, 'The Cruise of the Kingston and the Elligood in 1800, and the Wreck found on King Island in 1802', The Great Circle, Vol. 13, No 1, 1991., pp. 35-53.

1800: Commander D. J. Hastings, RINVR, The Royal Indian Navy, 1612-1950. London and Jefferson, North Carolina, McFarland and Co., 1988.

1800 (Australia): J. Henniker Heaton, Australian Dictionary of Dates and Men of the Time: Containing the History of Australasia from 1542 to May, 1879. By J.H. Heaton Sydney; George Robertson, 125, New Pitt Street, and at Melbourne and Adelaide, 1879.

1800: D. R. Hainsworth, 'The New South Wales shipping interest, 1800-1821: a study in colonial entrepreneurship', Australian Economic History Review, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1968., pp. 17-30.

1800: Ashin Das Gupta, Merchants of Maritime India, 1500-1800. nd?

1800: D. E. Mungello, The Great Encounter of China and the West, 1500-1800. nd?

1800: D. R. Hainsworth, 'Exploiting the Pacific frontier: the New South Wales sealing industry, 1800-1821', Journal of Pacific History, Vol. 2, 1967., pp. 59-75.

1800 plus: J. C. H. Gill, 'Notes on the Sealing Industry of Early Australia', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1967., pp. 218-245.

1800s: Frederic Morton, The Rothschilds: A Family Portrait. Ringwood, Victoria, Australia, Penguin, 1964.

1800: Robert G. Albion, The Rise of New York Port, 1800-1840. 1938.
See also, Compilation - Work Projects Administration, A Maritime History of New York. 1941.

From 1800: The rise of Duncan Dunbar I and Duncan Dunbar II, see items on this website at pages: (More to come)

Follows a list (for 1800-1867) of many names of British merchants chartering their ships to carry convicts to Australian colonies: (list to come from Shelton's list)

Old books graphic

1803: Jill Ker, 'The Macarthur family and the pastoral industry', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 47, Part 3,, 1961., pp. 131-155.

1803: Jill Ker, 'The wool industry in New South Wales, 1803-1830, Part 2', Business Archives and History, Vol. 2, No. 1, February 1962., pp. 18-54.

1803: H. M. Ellis, John Macarthur. [Orig., 1955] (Second edition). Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1967.

1804: D. R. Hainsworth, 'In search of a staple: the Sydney sandalwood trade, 1804-1809', Bulletin of the Business Archives Council of Australia, Vol. 5, No. 1, February, 1965., pp. 1-20.

1805: At time of Battle of Trafalgar, re Nelson's friend Alexander Davison see Martyn Downer, Nelson's Purse.

1805: John Gore, (Ed.), Liverpool Trade Directory for 1805. Printer for John Gore, Liverpoool, 1805. (Cited in Hamilton, Absent Kings, Gore also edited same from 1766 and 1766 as printed by W. Nevett and Co., 1805).

1808: H. V. Evatt, Rum Rebellion: A Study of the Overthrow of the Governor Bligh by John Macarthur and the New South Wales Corps. Sydney, Angus and Robertson Classics Edition, 1975.

1810: Margaret and Colin Kerr, Australia’s Early Whalemen. Sydney, Rigby, 1980.

1810: Margaret Steven, 'The Changing Pattern of Commerce in New South Wales, 1810-1821', Business Archives and History, Vol. 3, August 1963., pp. 139-155.

1810: John R. Fisher, The Economic Aspects of Spanish Imperialism in America, 1492-1810. nd?

1810: Leonard Harris, London General Shipowners Society, 1811-1961. London, The Society, 1961.

1810s: Gaylene Mansfield-Smith, Trade and Violence: Early European Contact in New Zealand and the Massacre of the Boyd. M. Litt thesis, UNE, 1997.

1810s and later: On Jardine and Matheson in the East, (opium traders), see W. E. Cheong, (more to come)

1810s: H. M. Ellis, Lachlan Macquarie: His Life, Adventures and Times. (Revised edition). Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1952.

1810: Murray C. Kemp, and Therese B. Kemp, 'Capt. Anthony Fenn Kemp', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 51, Part 1, March 1965., pp. 10-22.

1810s: Major V. C. P. Hodson, 'Some families with a long East India Connection', The Genealogists' Magazine, UK, issues March, June, September, December, 1932/December 1933.

1813: Anthony Webster, 'The Political Economy of Trade Liberalization: the East India Company Charter Act of 1813', Economic History Review, Series 2, XL, 3, 1990., pp. 404-419. (Valuable re unusual attitude of Barings (?) on India trade.)

1815: F. L. Benns, The American Struggle for the British West India Carrying Trade, 1815-1830. 1923.

To 1815: Noted British merchant-banker, Martin Daunton, on Walter Boyd. (More to come)

From the late C18th in London, Hankeys, family bankers. A website is available.

1815 plus: David Kynaston, The City of London: A World of Its Own, 1815-1890. Vol. 1. London, Chatto and Windus, 1994.

1815: R. F. Holder, Bank of New South Wales: A History. [Two Vols.] Vol. 1, 1817-1850. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1970.

1815: Simon Ville, 'Wages, prices and profitability in the shipping industry during the Napoleonic Wars: a case study', Journal of Transport History, Series 3, Vol. 2, No. 1, March 1981., pp. 39-52.

1816: Fritz W. Diehl, 'Revenue Farming and Colonial Finances in the Netherlands East Indies, 1816-1925', pp. 196-232 in John Butcher and Howard Bick, (Eds.), The Rise and Fall of Revenue Farming. Macmillan, 1993, [ISBN 0312 08993] (This article outlines much on the subtleties of later C19th opium trading in Indonesia) 

1817: A. C. Staples, 'Memoirs of William Prinsep; Calcutta years, 1817-1842', Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 26, No. 2, April-June 1989., pp. 61-79.

1821: Death of Sydney merchant Simeon Lord, see Hainsworth. cited  below.

1821: D. E. Fifer, 'The Sydney merchants and the wool trade, 1821-1851', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 78, Parts 1 and 2, 1992., pp. 92-112.

1821: D. R. Hainsworth, The Sydney Traders: Simeon Lord and his Contemporaries, 1788-1821. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1972.

1826: D. J. Moss, 'The Bank of England and the Establishment of a Branch System, 1826-1829', Canadian Journal of History, 1992, 27 (1), pp. 47-65.

1827: D. E. Fifer, 'The Sydney merchants and the economic downturn of 1827-1830', Australian Economic History Review, Vol. 32, Vol. 1, March, 1993., pp. 73-84.

1828: Helmut Kolsen, 'Company formation in NSW, 1828-1851: a preliminary report', Bulletin of the Business Archives Council of Australia, Vol. 1, No. 6, May 1956., pp. 11-21.

1820s: R. S. Fitton, The Arkwrights: Spinners of Fortune. Manchester, England, Manchester University Press, 1989.

1820s: N. Horwood, 'James Birnie', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 59, Part 2, June 1973., pp. 95-117.

1820s: Pennie A. Pemberton, The London Connection: The Formation and Early Years of the Australian Agricultural Company. Ph.D. thesis. Canberra, Australian National University, 1991.

1820s: John F. Atchison, Port Stephens and Goonoo Goonoo - A Review of the early period of the Australian Agricultural Company. Ph.D. Thesis, Australian National University, Canberra, 1973.

1820s: George Sugden Le Couteur, Colonial Investment Adventure, 1824-1855: a comparative study of the establishment and early investment experiences in New South Wales, Tasmania and Canada, of four British companies. Ph.D. thesis, Sydney University, 1978.

1820s: H. E. Maude, Of Islands and Men: Studies in Pacific History. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1968.

1820s: D. R. Hainsworth, Builders and Adventurers: The Traders and the Emergence of the Colony, 1788-1821. Melbourne, Cassell, 1968.

1820s: D. E. Fifer, 'Man of Two Worlds: The Early Career of William Charles Wentworth', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 70, Part 3, December 1984., pp. 147-170.

1820s: Asiya Siddiqi, 'The Business World of Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy', Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 19, Nos. 3 and 4, July-December 1982., pp. 301-324.

1820s and later: Merchant in the Australia trade, Robert Brooks, citing Broeze.

1820s and later, See Marion Diamond on Ben Boyd.

1820s: J. W. Turner, 'The entry of the Australian Agricultural Company into the New South Wales coal industry', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 58, Part 4, 1973., pp. 233-246.

1820s: Pennie Pemberton, The Duke of York, Nova Scotia and coal mining in New South Wales. (An unpublished seminar paper, Australian National University, 7 September, 1989).

1820s and later: Australian colonial merchants mostly based at Sydney, see Steven on Campbell,  Hainsworth's title, Builders and Adventurers

1826: The Mortlock bankers of Cambridge, basically a family bank. (See a website also.)

1829 and later, Pike re South Australia in Dissent.

1830: Pamela Statham, 'Swan River Colony, 1829-1850', pp. 181-210, in C. T. Stannage, (Ed.), A New History of Western Australia. Perth, University of Western Australia Press, 1981.

1830s: M. Uren, Land Looking West: The Story of James Stirling in Western Australia. London, Oxford University Press, 1964.

1830s plus: Michael Stenton, (Ed.), Who's Who of British Members of Parliament: A Biographical Dictionary of the House of Commons. Peterhouse, Cambridge, UK. Harvester Press. 1976-1978. (Four Vols.). Vol. 1, 1832-1885. Vol. 2, 1886-1918.

To 1833 from 1790, Bulley, Bombay Ships, re Wadia shipbuilders. 

1833: W. Allan Wood, Dawn In The Valley: The Story of Settlement in the Hunter Valley to 1833. Sydney, Wentworth Books, 1972.

1838: Kathleen Burk, Morgan Grenfell, 1838-1988: The Biography of a Merchant Bank. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1990.

1830s: C. T. Stannage, (Ed.), A New History of Western Australia. Perth, University of Western Australia Press, 1981.

1830s plus: Susanna de Vries-Evans, Pioneer Women, Pioneer Land: Yesterday' Tall Poppies. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1987.

1830s: John Healey, (Ed.), S. A.'s Greats: The Men and Women of the North Terrace Plaques. Kent Town, SA, Historical Society of South Australia Inc, 2003.

1830s: E. J. Tapp, Early New Zealand: a Dependency of New South Wales, 1788-1841. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press, 1958.

1830s: David Owen, British Opium Policy in China and India. New Haven, 1934.

1830s: J. Oppenheimer, 'Captain William Richards', Chapter 5 in G. Connah, M. Rowland, J. Oppenheimer, Captain Richards’ House at Winterbourne: A Study in Historical Archaeology. Armidale, Australia. Dept. Of Prehistory & Archaeology, University Of New England. 1978.

1830s: See I. Nish, 'An East India Merchant House in the China Trade in the 1830s', Business Archives Council of NSW, Vol. 1, No. 6, May 1956., pp. 1-10. (Nish cites a probably rare bicentenary company history of Finlays, James Finlay and Co. Ltd., manufacturers and East India merchants, 1750-1950. Glasgow, 1951.)

1830: Dorothy Shineberg, They Came For Sandalwood: A Study of the Sandalwood Trade in the South-West Pacific, 1830-1865. London, Melbourne University Press, 1967. See also, Dorothy Shineberg, 'The Sandalwood Trade: Melanesian economics, 1841-1865', Journal of Pacific History, Vol. 1, 1966., pp. 129-146.

1830: Margaret De Silas, Captain Thomas Raine: An Early Colonist. Self published, 1969.

1830s: Roy H. Goddard, The Life and Times of James Milson. Melbourne, Georgian House, 1955.

1840: Judy White, The White Family of Belltrees: 150 Years in the Hunter Valley. Sydney, The Seven Press, 1981.

1840: Jan Walker, Jondaryan Station: The Relationship between Pastoral Capital and Pastoral Labour, 1840-1890. St Lucia, University of Queensland Press, 1988.

1840: R. B. Walker, Old New England - A History of the Northern Tablelands of NSW 1818-1900. Sydney, Sydney University Press, 1966.

1840:  R. T. Appleyard and C. B. Schedvin, (Eds.), Australian Financiers: Biographical Essays. South Melbourne, Macmillan, 1988. 

1840: Brian Inglis, The Opium War. London, Coronet, 1976, 1979.

1840: Jules Ginswick, 'Early Australian Capital Formation, 1836-1850, a case study: The Australian Gaslight Company', Bulletin of the Business Archives Council of Australia, Vol. 1, No. 6, May 1956., pp. 22-49.

1760-1843: Anthony Chen, Kuo-tung, The Insolvency of the Chinese Hong Merchants, 1760-1843, UMI. 1990. Ph.D. thesis. Yale University, 1990.

1840s: E. J. Tapp, Early New Zealand. Melbourne. 1965.

1840s: The 1840s depression in eastern Australian colonies, see also Dyster, Rise of William Fanning, below.

1840: Gwendoline Wilson, Murray of Yarralumla. London, Oxford University Press, 1968.

1840s and later: Barnard on T. S. Mort.

1842: Marion Diamond, '"Most Injudicious... Most Injurious"; The Royal Bank of Australia's Loan to the New Zealand Government, 1842', New Zealand Journal of History, Vol. 20, No. 1, April, 1986, pp. 64-72.

1842: Marion Diamond, The Sea Horse and the Wanderer: Ben Boyd in Australia. Melbourne University Press. 1988.

To 1843, Anthony Chen etc, Insolvency of Hong Merchants.

1848: William Armstrong, The Aristocracy of New York: Who They Are, and What they Were: Being a Social and Business History of the City for Many Years. 1848. 

1840s: Jules Ginswick, 'Foundations of the Australian Gas Light Company', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 45, Part 5, 1960., pp. 226-265.

 1840s: R. S. Sayers, Lloyds Bank in the History of English Banking. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1957.

1840s: Barrie Dyster, 'The Rise of William Fanning and the Ruin of Richard Jones', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 67, Part 4, March 1982., pp. 366-374. (A very enigmatic paper – Ed)

1840s: Maxine Lorraine Darnell, The Chinese Labour Trade to New South Wales. 1783-1853: An Exposition of Motives and Outcomes. Ph.D thesis, University of New England, Armidale, Australia, January 1997.

1840s: Deryck Scarr, 'Recruits and Recruiters: A Portrait of the Pacific Islands Labour Trade', Journal of Pacific History, Vol. 2, 1967., pp. 5-24.

1840s: John. S. Galbraith and Samuel Clyde McCulloch, 'The early history of the Peel River Land and Mineral Company: the P. G. King era', Australian Economic History Review, Vol. 22, No. 1, March, 1982., pp. 28-48.

1840s: Christopher Lloyd, 'The 1840s Depression and the Transformation of Australian Capitalism: Foundations of a Peculiar Political Economy', Draft paper, not for citation without permission. Per Christopher Lloyd (2005).

1840s: Christopher Lloyd. "Economic Policy and Australian State Building: From Labourist-Protectionism to Globalisation," in Nation, State and the Economy in History, edited by Alice Teichova and Herbert Matis. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press. Copy per Christopher Lloyd, School of Economics, University of New England, 2003.

1840s: Christopher Lloyd, 'The 1840s Depression and the Origins of Australian Capitalism', Conference for the Indian Association of Australian Studies, New Delhi, January 2004, E-mail to: Chris.Lloyd@metz.une.edu.au - School of Economics, University of New England and Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University work-in-progress, not to be cited without permission (2004).

1847: J. Forbes-Munro, 'Clydeside, the Indian Ocean and the City: The Mackinnon investment group, 1847-1893', Institute of Commonwealth Studies, Collected Seminar Papers, Vol. 2. No. 36, [City and Empire], pp. 1-10.

1850: James Foreman-Peck, A History of the World Economy: International Economic Relations since 1850. New York/London, Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1995, Edn 2.

1850s: Gold rush periods: items are still being collected - Ed

1850s: W. J. Lyons, 'Prominent business figures of Sydney in the 1850s', (Part 2 of Notes on the history of the Royal Exchange), Bulletin of the Business Archives Council of Australia, Vol. 1, No. 3, May 1956 [or 1957?]., pp. 1-11.

1850s: D. Hollett, Fast Passage to Australia: The History of the Black Ball, Eagle and White Star lines of Australian Packets. London, Fairplay Publications, 1986.

1858: Linda Cooke Johnson, Shanghai: From Market Town to Treaty Port. To 1858. nd?

To 1860: Bank of the Manhattan Company, Ships and Shipping of Old New York. 1915. (Useful account of matters to 1860)

1862, George Blake on Gellatlys (More to come)

1860s: A. G. Lowndes, (Ed.), South Pacific Enterprise: The Colonial Sugar Refining Co. Ltd. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1956.

1867: D. M. Forrest, A Hundred Years of Ceylon Tea, 1867-1967. London, 1967.

1871: Stephen Salsbury and Kay Sweeney, Sydney Stockbrokers: Biographies of Members of the Sydney Stock Exchange, 1871-1987. Sydney, Hale and Iremonger, 1992.

Late C19th: Thorold, Life of Henry Labouchere. See also, Clay on Norman.

1870s: Priscilla Metcalf, '"The Park Town Estate and the Battersea Tangle": a Peculiar Piece of Victorian London Property Development and Its Background', London Topographical Society Publication, No. 121, 1978.

1880: Stephanie Jones, Two Centuries of Overseas Trading: The Origins and Growth of the Inchcape Group. London, Macmillan with the Business History Unit, University of London, 1986.

1880: J. Forbes Munro, '"The gilt of illusion": the Mackinnon group's entry into Queensland shipping, 1880-1895', International Journal of Maritime History, 3, No. 2, December 1991., pp. 1-37.

To the 1890s, helpful on C19th British Merchants, Kynaston, City of London, cited above.

To 1900 and earlier, F. L. M. Thompson, Life after Death. Cassis on bankers. (More to come)

1900: Gregory P. Nowell, Mercantile States and the World Oil Cartel, 1900-1939. London, Cornell University Press, 1994.

1900 plus: Kenneth Good, Papua New Guinea: A False Economy. London, Anti-Slavery Society, 1986.

Old books graphic

1900: Roger B. Beck, 'Bibles and Beads: Missionaries as Traders in Southern Africa in the Early Nineteenth Century', Journal of South African History, [Great Britain], 1989, 30, (2), pp. 211-225.

To 1902,  when acquired by Lloyds, the Pease bankers, also a Quaker network, of Newcastle-on-Tyne. See the website on them ...

1914: Frances Bostock, 'A Bank of Dual Nationality: The Origins and Strategy of the Ionian Bank before 1914', Bankhistoriches Archiv, [Germany], 1993, 19 (1), pp. 3-25.

1927: Vernon Briggs re Cabot and T. H. Perkins etc. Russell and Sturgis (more to come).

1945: Bjorn L. Basberg, 'Whaling or Shipping? Conflicts over the use of the Norwegian Whaling Fleet during World War Two', International Journal of Maritime History, 1991, 3 (1), pp. 165-176.

(The above listings will be expanded/improved as time permits – Ed)

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