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This file is devoted to presenting basic Timeline information for website readers. The items are often sketchy, and some have been extracted from other websites managed by Dan Byrnes. These Timelines will be added to intermittently, as new data and new e-mail arrives. Book titles will be entered according to the timeframes they treat. -Ed

For 1780++

To go to the next file in this Merchant Networks Timelines series of files, Timelines8

On February, 1780, a hurricane destroyed or damaged 40 vessels in Montego Bay alone. Reported shocks of an earthquake, and almost every building in Hanover Parish was demolished. Another hurricane struck in August 1781 and probably damaged Duncan Campbell's ship Orange Bay by running her aground.

1780: Calcutta/Bengal merchant and cotton trader William Fairlie originally of Ayrshire, Scotland, is perhaps active as early as 1780. His parents and wife remain unknown, though he is frequently alluded to in many books on early Sydney-based trade.
(Bulley, Bombay Country Ships, 1790-1833, p. 184.)

One trading house linked here was Fairlie, Reid and Co. of Calcutta, which grew from John Reid of Reid and Gildart by the 1780s, and later there were Andrew and David Reid, linked to John Reid, so the elder Reid, (presumably John the senior), went with Fairlies and Fergussons to produce Fairlie, Reid and Co.
(See Parker's essay, pp. 199ff in R. A. Cage, (Ed.), The Scots Abroad: Labour, Capital, Enterprise, 1750-1914. London, Croom Helm, 1985.)

This William Fairlie left home in the early 1780s to set up as a free merchant in Bengal with his fellow Ayrshireman, John Fergusson. Fairlie accepted cash from East India Company (EICo) employees, invested in inland projects, handled work for other firms on a commission basis, and later in the UK traded on his own account.

1780: America. Delaware makes it illegal to enslave imported Africans. In 1780, Pennsylvania begins gradual emancipation of slaves. A freedom clause in the Massachusetts Constitution is interpreted as an abolishment of slavery. Massachusett's enfranchises all men regardless of race.

1780: Philip D. Curtin, The Atlantic Slave Trade. Madison, 1969.

1780: George F. Dow, Slave Ships and Slavery. Salem, 1927.*

1780s: Robert and James Adam, Architects, 27 Old Bond St. Built the Adelphi, Strand.

1780: Opium trader John Reid (of Beale, Reid and Gildart, a China house) arrives in Canton as Austrian consult. (Keswick, appendices.) Parents unknown. (John Reid has a brother David who is a "Danish military officer", seen as a major opium trader in Bulley, Bombay Ships, pp. 108ff.) He is a partner with John Henry Cox, also with David and Thomas Beale, who with Alexander Shank formed the China agency of Reid and Beale, which became Beale and Magniac which became in 1832, Jardine-Matheson. There were also Andrew and David Reid, possibly sons, who went into firm Fairlie, Reid and Co. of Calcutta. Little is known of the Reid partner, Gildart.
(W. E. Cheong, Mandarins and Merchants: Jardine Matheson, p. 10. Coates, Macao, p. 73. Keswick, Jardine-Matheson, pp. 50ff in an essay by Alan Reid, and appendices.) (A Reid descendant who finds links with Reid and the Gildart family of Liverpool is sceptical to date on his forebears having been engaging in opium trading here -Ed.)

1781: English East India Co. assumes responsibility for production of opium in India (for market in China).

1780s: Slavery on the African West Coast. SBS TV screen documentary entitled: As it Happened: Cahokia - African Trade. The upshot is that there was no African tribe on the West Coast which did not have its own form of participation in the trans-Atlantic slave trade. West Coast Africans admit this on guided tours through old slave trading forts. Today, Afro-Americans when they visit Mother Africa and this part of the coast, and go on such tours, are often tearfully devastated to find that it is not only Europeans who can be blamed for the horrific slave trade which took their ancestors to the Americas.
By the late eighteenth century, England-educated Africans might be writing on slaving business from the West African coast to people in Bristol or Liverpool. One-tenth of all slaves were provided by Wedah, which was managed by Africans. Goree was often managed by African women who liased with white merchants. One slave market of West Africa did not close till 1906. To the north of Africa, African boys were sold to Arabs for use as eunuchs; the death rate for eunuch candidates was 90 per cent.
(Screened 8 March 2000 in Australia)

Pre-colonial and then American/US merchants

Follows a somewhat complicated presentation (mostly alphabetical to start with) on noted American merchants worthy of fresh attention, for before-and-after the American Revolution. The names noted below arise from the compilers of this website (Dan Byrnes and Ken Cozens) via a wide range of reading, but also from Walter Barrett's classic of 1863 or so, Merchants of Old New York. The listings are divided roughly into pre-1783 (November 1783 being the official end of the American Revolutionary war), and post-1783, regarding the American future into the Nineteenth Century but are not comprehensive and do not include noted Southern planters. Regard the listings as merely suggestive for further delving.

Merchant Networks Timelines
From 1720 to the 1920s There are now 21 files in this series
Files are filled with data for ten-year periods (decadally) These data have been years in compilation. Their trend is to follow the changing shapes of the British Empire.

John Alsop (1724-1794), John Aspinwall (1673-1774), Fur trader, real estate owner John J. Astor, Importer Francis Atkinson, Linen importer and shipowner Robert Barclay (died 1779), Philadelphia merchant and US Diplomat to France, Thomas Barclay (1728-1793), John Bellows no dates of Boston importers Bellows and Corlis. Whaler Captain and American-London trader Henry Delano active 1780. Salem merchant and post-Revolutionary trader US-India Elias Haskett Derby (1739-1799 his father a merchant privateer). Boston Patriot merchant Thomas Dering (1720-1785). Contractor and operator during Revolution William Duer (c.1743-1799). New York shipping merchants Eddy family including Thomas Eddy (1758-1827). Fur trader Alexander Ellice (1743-1805) of the noted fur trading firm Phyn/Ellice with James Phyn (later to be regarded as Canadians, not Americans). Boston Merchant then newspaper operations, John Fenno (1751-1798). Merchant John B. Fleming no date. Captain merchant trader to Britain Barzillai Folger 1710-1790. Salem merchant Benjamin Gerrish (1714-1752). Captain merchant John Higginson (1673-1718). Boston merchant Stephen Higginson (1716-1761) married to Elizabeth Cabot. New York auctioneer Martin Hoffman (no dates). Philadelphia fur trader and frontiersman, later a Philadelphia merchant Adam Hoops (1708-1771). Merchant and whaler of Nantucket Sylvanus Hussey (1682-1767). US whaler Patrick Jaffrey (active 1792). Boston commission agent James Lamb Snr (died 1781) and son Thomas Lamb (1753-1813). Salem Merchant Thomas II Lee (1702-1747). Fur trader Thomas Handasyd Peck (1712-1777). Boston fur trader James Perkins (1733-1773) married to Elizabeth Peck. Matthew Ridley (1749-1789) minor diplomat and one-time commercial agent in Maryland before 1776 for London-based convict contractor Duncan Campbell (1726-1803). Nantucket whaler at time of Boston Tea Party (1773) Francis Rotch (no dates) who married Mary Wilkes. New York merchant Jacob Walton (1703-1749). Merchant and slaver Thomas Willing (1710-1754). Boston shipowner/merchant John Winslow (1597-1674). New York merchant Benjamin Woosley (1717-1771). So-called "financier of the American Revolution", merchant of Willing and Morris, Robert Morris (1734-1806) son of tobacco merchant from Liverpool England, Robert Morris, an agent for Liverpool slavers and tobacco merchants Foster Cunliffe and Sons.

Post-1783 American Merchants
Banker Congressman William Appleton (1786-1862), Wiliam Henry Aspinwall (1807-1875), President American Fur Co. William Backhouse Astor (1792-1875), William Vincent Astor (1891-1959), US Consul to Britain Anthony Barclay (1792-1877), Thomas Henry Barclay (1753-1830), Alexander Baring of London's Barings bankers (1774-1848), Francis J. Baretto (married to Coster family, 1794-1871), Joshua Bates (financier with Barings bankers London 1788-1864), William Bayard (died 1826) of LeRoy Bayard and Co. of New York, William Belcher (of Sackett Belcher and Co.), William Bingham (1753-1804) once agent for Robert Morris in Martinique, merchant, speculator and Senator Philadelphia, married Ann Willing a daughter of Morris' partner Thomas Willing. New York iron merchant John Blackwell (died 1827 from a family of merchant names), New York broker John B. Borst no dates, gunsmith and Patriot Colonel Abraham Brasher a New York Liberty Boy (1734-1782), New York merchant and lt-governor John Broome (1738-1810), Nicholas II Brown (1769-1841) a partner of Thomas Poynton Ives of merchant firm Brown and Ives of Providence Rhode Island (which traded to Sydney Australia from about 1795 for some years). James Bruce (died 1837 and attracting surprisingly little comment) the USA's first agricultural millionaire and at death America's third wealthiest man, (after Stephen Girard and JJ Astor) Bruce died worth an estimated $3 million. New York tobacco merchant Thomas Buchanan (1744-1815). Fur trader Captain S. Bumstead no date but active 1800. Bunker, a whaler name generally from Nantucket Island (Capt. Eber Bunker of the family settled in Sydney Australia, Zacariah Bunker died 1757 emigrated to Nova Scotia). Financier Prescott Sheldon Bush (1895-1972) and US Senator (of family of the US presidents Bush). US-India shipping merchant Andrew III Cabot active 1807, and Charles G. Cabot (1777-1811) who sailed for Boston merchant Thomas Handasyd Perkins and Edward IV Cabot (born 1797)and the Cabot family generally as Boston Brahmins. Furniture sales and ironmonger Nicholas Carmer (no date). Shipping industry figure Charles Carow (born 1834). East Indies trader Edward Carrington no dates. New York grocer Isaac Clason active 1795. Supercargo to Calcutta India William C. Codman. New York flour merchant Thomas B. Coles no dates. New York-based US-Dutch traders Coster including brothers Henry Arnold Coster (died 1821) and John Gerard Coster died c.1846,and Wall Street banker Washington Coster. Trader to Asia/The East and opium trader John Perkins Cushing (1787-1862) and captain Robert Cushing (born 1755) who sailed for Thomas Handasyd Perkins. Merchant of California, Hawaii and to China, William Goodwin Dana (1797-1858) (Probably of the Boston family Dana but not able to be definitively linked to them.) Writer and Pacific Islands trader William Heath Davis Jnr 1822-1909 and his father the Boston importer from China and India, William Heath Davis Snr (died 1822). Warren Delano Jnr 1809-1898. Dupont family gunpowder makers including Pierre Samuel Du Pont (1739-1817). US merchant and Consul at Manila Philippines Alfred H. P. Edwards (married to Griswold family). Captain mariner Mayhew Folger who rediscovered Pitcairn Island in 1808. Merchant shipowner Walter Folger (c.1734-1826)a son of Brzillai Folger noted above. Opium trader to China John Murray Forbes 1813-1898. Partner in Russell and Co. and railroads investor Ralph Emerson Forbes 1866-1937). US Governor-General of Philippines William Cameron Forbes (1870-1959). Telephone systems investor William Hathaway Forbes (1840-1897). Peter P. Goelet (1764-1828) married Almy Buchanan daughter of Thomas Buchanan (1744-1815). Real estate developer Robert II Goelet (1800-1879). Panama Canal engineer George Washington Goethals (1858-1928). New York merchant Archibald Gracie (1755-1829). Opium trader John Cleve Green (1800-1875) married Sarah Griswold. New York shipping merchant Charles C. Griswold (no dates) son of colonial Governor Matthew Griswold. New York merchant John N. Alsop Griswold died 1909. New York merchant Nathaniel L. Griswold (died 1847) and Nathaniel L. Jnr Griswold no dates. New York linen trade merchant David Hadden (no dates). Boston shipowner Crowell Hatch (died 1814). New York merchant of Haven and Co., Broad Street, J. W. Haven. Captain opium trader in US-China trade Augustine Heard (1785-1868). US merchant Daniel Heard (1778-1801). US-China merchant John Heard (no dates) son of George Washington Heard. US politician and opium trader Samuel Hooper (1808-1875). US mercahnt to Florida and South America Edwin T. Jenckes (1797-1847). US shipowner Robert Kermit (active 1834). New York Mayor and sperm oil merchant Ambrose C. Kingsland (1804-1878). Cotton dealer of Bogart and Kneeland, Henry Kneeland (no dates but suicided at age 54). New Yorker President Eagle Insurance Co. Henry Laight (no dates). General and banker, with American Express in Paris, H. S. Lansing (1823-1882). New York merchant and President Bank US in New York, Isaac Lawrence (1768-1841). Boston banker of Higginson and Lee, Henry IV Lee (1817-1898). Banker with Lee Higginson and Lee John C. Lee (1804-1877). Captain mariner Joseph Lee (1744-1831). Boston merchant Nathaniel Cabot Lee (1772-1806). Long Island merchant James Lent (died 1833). New York merchant, Signer of Declaration of Independence Philip Livingston (1716-1778). Indian trader Robert Livingston (1654-1725). Boston-China trader and New Orleans cotton factor John E. Lodge (1807-1862). US opium trader AbielAbbot Low (1811-1893). Merchant-financier John Amory Low (1798-1881). Merchant Daniel Ludlow (no dates). New York land dealer Daniel McCormick (c.1744-1834). New York importer John McVickar (1759-1812). US-China trader via Sydney Australia, William Fairchild Megee/Magee (1765-1820). New York ironmonger John A. Moore (no dates). Railways stocks and shares investor Edwin Denison Snr (no dates). Banker, financier and shipowner John Pierpont Morgan (1837-1912/1913). Dinancier and diplomat Gouveneur Morris (1752-1816). Failed land dealer James Mowatt (1805-1849). Fur trader Patrick Munn (no dates). New York area speculation builder Stephen B.Munn (1766-1856). Edward H. Nicoll of Smith and Nicoll (no dates). New York merchant Daniel Oakey (no dates). New Jersey merchant Samuel Gouverneur Ogden (1779-1860). New York dry goods merchant Francis Olmstead (1791-1846). US-China merchant (but not dealing in opium) D. W. C. Olyphant. (No dates). US opium dealer for T. H. Perkins of Boston, Frederick W. Paine (active 1817). New York wine trader Nathaniel Paulding (no dates). Salem shipowner Joseph Peabody 1757-1844). US-China merchant and fur trader James Perkins (1761-1822). Banker John Forbes Perkins (born 1878) married to Mary Coolidge. Boston-China trader and opium dealer Thomas Handasyd Perkins (1764-1854). London and East Indies trader John Pintard (no dates). US-India trader Lewis Pintard (1723-1818). US financier Nathaniel Prime (1768-1840). New York vintner William Roberts (died 1863). US whaler Samuel Rodman (1753-1835). Railways executive James Roosevelt (1828-1900) married to Sara Ann Delano. Nantucker whaler Benjamin Rotch (1764-1839). Whaler William Rotch(1734-1828). New York merchant Amos Mead Sackett (no dates) of Sackett, Belcher and Co. New York merchant Thomas L. Servoss (no dates). Merchant Alexander Slidell (no dates). Banker John Slidell Jnr. (born 1768 in New York). Junior partner of Russell and Co., Edward Winslow Stevens (born 1844) married to Sarah Russell Cabot. US merchant at Manila Henry Sturgis (1806-1869). Sometime chairman of Barings bankers, London, Russell Sturgis(1805-1887). US-China trader Russell Sturgis (1750-1826) married to Elizabeth Perkins. Boston fur trader William Sturgis (1782-1863) son of a shipmaster. Related to the aforementioned names Sturgis, William III Sturgis (died 1827) of Bryant and Sturgis aPacific Coast to China trader. Tobacco merchant George Suffern. Merchant Ferdinand Suydam (born 1786). New York agent of French East India Company Joseph Thebaud (no dates). Boston mariner and merchant Israel Thorndike (1755-1832). Merchant Anthony Lispenard Underhill (no dates). Upstate New York merchant Gulian Verplanck. Financier George Herbert Walker (1875-1933) part of the family of the presidents Bush). New York merchant Abraham Walton (no dates). New York merchant Chauncey Wetmore (no dates). Samuel Wetmore (no dates). US-China merchant William S. Wetmore (1801-1862). President Bank of New York Charles Wilkes (1764-1832). Whaling investor Mary Wilkes (married to Rotch named elsewhere here). Banker, merchant and slaver Thomas Willing (1731-1821), married to Anne McCall. Shipping merchant George M. Woosley (1772-1850). New York Groceries merchant Henry J. Wyckoff (born 1768) married to Phebe Suydam. New York importer-exporter John Wyckoff (no dates).
NB: Additions to the list for future use - Shubrick in South Carolina. Brown Bros in New Emgland from Liverpool. Robert Kermit. Dent. Rheinhard. Kendrick Brown/Shipley. Colbert. Allport. Andre. Angus. Backhouse. Badger. Bancroft. Clarke (tea). Coolidge. Cope. Davison. De Gotyer. Drexel. Alexr Forbes. Thomas Tunno Forbes. Wm F Buckley. Andrew Cabot. Stephen Girard. Gossler. Griscom. Guggenheim. Harriman. Holgate. Hoyt. Hutchinson. Ismay. Abiel A. Low. Cyrus McCormick. AndrewMellon.Junius Spencer Morgan. Robert Ralston. Rockefeller. Philip Rose. Samuel Wadsworth Russell. Russell and Co. Robert Sayre. Shipley. Joshua Bates of Barings. George Herbert Walker. US financier Samuel Gray Ward. Rd Star line co-owner,Thomas S.Byrnes. Shipping merchants and Black Ball Line co-owners, Jeremiah and Francis Thomspon.

Notes on a mistake in Chaitkin's book Treason in America

This story on a mistake by Anton Chaitkin is meant for netsurfing by readers. It appears, so says Dan Byrnes, of this website, that Chaitkin has made a least one mistake in his book, Treason in America.

Firstly, the Wikipedia page on Anton Chaitkin begins - “Anton ‘Tony’ Chaitkin (born 1943) is an author, historian, and political activist with the LaRouche movement. [of the USA] He serves as History Editor for Executive Intelligence Review, [a magazine issued by the LaRouche propaganda machine]. Chaitkin's father was Jacob Chaitkin, who was the legal counsel and strategist for the boycott against Nazi Germany carried on by the American Jewish Congress in the 1930s. His late sister, Marianna Wertz, and his brother-in-law, William F. Wertz Jr., have also been active in the LaRouche movement.”

Chaitkin once wrote a book, Treason in America: From Aaron Burr to Averel Harriman. (Executive Intelligence Review, 1999), which Chaitkn himself has described as a 600-page “history of the struggle between American rationalists and a tory-British-racist-Imperialist faction of the US Government”, of which Chaitkin disapproves. The rhetoric and the abysmally low level of historical analysis used by Chaitkin notwithstanding, it seems that apart from their two wars, the American War of Independence (1775-1783), followed by the the War of 1812 (1812-1815), Britain and the USA are not allowed to become friends or to have interests in common, else Chaitkin disapproves.

Treason in America remains in entirety on the Net, a book of fulmination against Chaitkin’s kind of treason, against pro-Britishness, and naturally Chaitkin trades on the infamous reputation of Benedict Arnold (on which American traitor, of Revolutionary times, go Google).

Arnold (according to webpages various) one night spent time at Belmont House, (also known as Treason House), now demolished in the 1920s, but once the home of a dupe of Arnold named Joshua Hett Smith in West Haverstraw, New York City. (Haverstraw is otherwise famed for brickmaking.) And it seems that not regarding the Smiths (who leant to the British side, not to "patriotism"), but the Livingstons, that Chaitkin makes an error in genealogy.

Here, American General Benedict Arnold, who had earlier been treasonously corresponding with the British General Henry Clinton. secretly met, on 21 September 1780, British Major John Andre (on whom go Google) and plotted to surrender the fort at West Point to the British for a sum of $20,009, which would have helped the British better control the Hudson River area. Belmont House has been built on land inherited from William Smith (died 1769), a judge in New York for the colonial British by one of the sons of William Smith, Thomas, (died 1795), a doctor of Laws who once taught politician Aaron Burr (who in 1804 killed politician Alexander Hamilton in a duel) and also Robert Troup. (I have remained unable to name Thomas’ wife. Belmont House was demolished in 1921.)

Temporarily at the time of Arnold’s treason, Belmont House was resided-in by Thomas’ brother, Joshua Hett Smith (1749-1813), who had spied for both sides during the Revolution, it is said. Joshua Hett Smith ended leaving America and going to England where by 1808 he wrote a book regarded as unreliable, An Authentic Narrative of the Causes which led to the death of Major Andre. And even here is a genealogical problem, as Joshua is usually given as Joshua Hett Smith and his mother is usually given as Mary Het (one T) and so where Joshua’s two Ts for Het come from, remains a mystery. (Mary Het (1770) had a French Huguenot background and was first wife of William Smith died 1769; she was the daughter of Rene Het and Blanche DuBois.)

For the record, the Net reveals from a variety of sources that a more accurate genealogy than what is given by Chaitkin can be developed. Chaitkin in Treason in America has a confident-looking graph outlining the connections of the Smith family – which is correct enough, although Chaitkin’s conclusions may not be as correct. Chaitkin gives information on William Smith Jnr (1728-1793) (a former Chief Justice for British New York and a later Chief Justice for Quebec in Canada) and his brothers Thomas and Joshua Hett Smith, where Thomas is the onetime law teacher of Aaron Burr. All three men were brothers and sons of William Smith Snr died 1869 and husband of Mary Het.

William Smith Jnr. married Janet/Jennet Livingstone (1730-1819), a daughter of Jacobus James Livingstone (born 1701) and Maria Kiersted - and a sister (so Chaitkin’s diagram proclaims) of Governor of (American) New Jersey, William Livingstone (1723-1790), both children of ….

but William did NOT have a sister Janet/Jennet who married William Smith Snr. Janet was daughter of Jacobus James above. William Livingston (1723-1790), once Governor of New Jersey, was married to Susannah French. William was son of Philip Livingston (1686-1749) and Catherine van Brugh This Susannah French and Livingston had a daughter Catherine (1751-1813) who once married Matthew Ridley (1749-1849), who during the American Revolution was a minor American diplomat, formerly agent in Maryland of Duncan Campbell (1726-1803) of London, pre-1775 the largest exporter in England of convict labour to Virginia and Maryland, and since 1775 the Overseer of the Thames River prison hulks. Susannah also had another daughter, Sarah van Brugh Livingston, who married the US politician and the often-excoriated author (as commercially giving too much away to the British) of the Jay Treaty of 1794, John Jay (1745-1829).

And so, it would appear that Chaitkin, who affects to despise the Livingstons of New York as they were often pro-British, is wrong here about the Livingstons, and has avoided noting the careers as well of Matthew Ridley and Duncan Campbell. These sorts of errors can be the price of admiring ideology over the veracity of facts. -Ed.

1781: British opium and fur trader John Henry Cox (1758-1791), often noted in the context of the earliest Australian maritime history, due to his Nootka fur trading to Canton, arrives in Canton. Part of Cox and Beale. He is a younger son of London toy and automaton-maker James Cox of Shoe Lane, London. Chinese Mandarins liked to be given mechanical toys, in pidgin called singsongs. J. H. Cox about 1781 got to Asia/Canton to sell automatons and to collect debts due to his father. In 1785 Cox and John Reid had a brig to get sea-otter skins at Nootka/Vancouver Island. By 1786 or so J. H. Cox could draw bills for £35,000 in London. In 1787 he left his affairs with Daniel Beale (consul for Prussia by 1787 and new partner for Cox who was by then selling opium to Chinese for East India Company men and putting others out of business) and became a capt in Swedish Navy to outwit East India Company. He returned to China with his own ship. He died still in his thirties. J. H. Cox in 1787 becomes a partner with John Reid; Cox and Beale is founded in Canton in 1787.
Keswick, Jardine-Matheson, pp. 50ff in an essay by Alan Reid, and appendices. In 1787, J. H. Cox offered to take a lakh of rupees in Calcutta to Bombay and save govt money eg 14 per cent. S. B. Singh, Agency Houses, pp. 12-13. On Nootka Indians, West Coast of Vancouver Island, a confederacy of 20 tribes, see Pliny Goddard, Indians of the Northwest Coast. 1934. James R. Gibson, Otter Skins, Boston Ships, and China Goods: The Maritime Fur Trade of the Northwest Coast, 1785-1841. Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1992. Paperback edition of 1999., variously.

1781 - American Patriot Names and Robert Morris

See E. James Ferguson and John Catanzariti, The Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3, 1 October 1781-10 January 1782. University of Pittsburgh Press, 1977. These Robert Morris Papers are posted on the Internet in full

Meanwhile, names of interest who sent letters to or received letters from Robert Morris at his Office of Finance in 1781 included: Samuel Bean. Little-known. He was a pre-war correspondent of Willing and Morris at Jamaica. By March 1782 he described himself as deputy auditor and muster master of the [US] southern army. He wrote to RM at Office of Finance by 19 November 1781, just back from England, see p. 205 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

Lt-Colonel Ephraim Blaine (1741-1804). In 19 February 1778 he was appointed commissary-general of purchases, an office he held for three years. He had an estate, Middlesex. The Blaines were Scots-Irish Americans. He and first wife Rebecca Galbraith had eight children. He had a letter from Robert Morris of 4 October 1781 in p. 17 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3. See his own wikipedia page.

Joseph Borden Jnr (1719-1791). Of Bordertown, a wealthy man who became a Revolutionary Patriot. He had two sons and four drs. Bordern was son of Joseph Senior (1687-1765) and Susannah Grover and was married to Mary or Elizabeth Rogers. His daughter Ann married Francis Hopkinson (1737-1791), Judge and a Signer of the American Declaration of Independence. Ann's sister Mary married Thomas McKean (1734-1817) who is noted below. Borden was Continental loan officer of New Jersey and had a letter of 6 October 1781 from RM. See p. 27 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

An official at Boston for naval/marine affairs John Brown, nil information.

Stephen Ceronio at Jamaica, little information, he was an agent to assist with organizing American privateers to harrass the British. Was connected with Bernard Lavaud who had a similar role and was let down by Lavaud.

Pennsylvania lawyer, born in Northern Ireland, Stephen Chambers (1750-1789). Freemason from his days in Ireland. Arrived in Pennsylvania about 1775. Attorney in Sunbury, Northumberland County. He is Irish-born lawyer, later of Lancaster County Pennsylvania and a Freemason there. Some military experience. Owned several farms, had an interst in an ironworks. Voted to ratify the Constitution. An original member of Pennsylvania branch of Society of Cincinnati. Died in May 1789 after a pistol duel. Left a widow and several children notnamed. Had a letter from Robert Morris of 3 October 1781. See p. 12 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

Loyalist then Patriot Tench Coxe (1755-1824). An ex-Loyalist merchant of Philadelphia, future political economist and nationalist, and apparently a man with wide interests. See his own wikipedia page. By age 21 he was a partner of merchants Coxe and Furman. Early was a loyalist in the British army of General Howe. Was later arrested, paroled, became Patriot. By 11 September 1789 is assistant secretary of American Treasury. Became a Federalist then a Democrat-Republican, later regarded as a Tory rat and a turncoat but was rewarded by President Jefferson. He championed use of tariffs to protect US Manufactures. Can perhaps be credited as father of the US cotton industry and was first to import an Arkwright Machine. With Alexander Hamilton was an early promoter of industrialization, and with Hamilton co-wrote a 1791 Report on Manufactures. Tench was son of William Coxe and Mary Francis (1729-1800) daughter of lawyer Francis Tench Snr (1705-1758) and Elizabeth Turbutt. Mary's brother Francis Tench Jnr (1731-1821) married Anne McCall Willing, (1733-1781), daughter of merchant Charles Willing (1710-1790), and Anne Shippen, and her brother Thomas Willing (1731-1821) was the merchant-partner of Robert Morris. Francis Jnr's son Thomas William Francis (1767-1815) married a daughter of this Thomas Willing, Dorothy (1772-1842). William Coxe's daughter and sister of Tench Coxe, Sarah, married Pennsylvania Attorney-General and Loyalist, Andrew Allen (1740-1825) See http://www.groserfamilies.com/ Tench Coxe married Catherine McCall, daughter of Philadelphia merchant-industrialist Samuel MCall (1721-1762) and his first wife, Anne Searle (d.1757). Catherine's sister Anne married Thomas Willing, the partner of Robert Morris. Coxe seems to be the same man writing about an offer re Indiana Company's lands to RM at Office of Finance before 13 November 1781, when RM replied, (an offer RM did not take up) see p. 177 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

Philadelphia merchant/financier, Tench Francis Jnr (1731-1821). He was married to Anne McCall Willing (1733-1781) a product of the lineages of McCall and Thomas Willing the partner of Robert Morris. Tench's son Thomas Willing Francis married Dorothy Willing, , daughter of the said Thomas Willing. RM at Office of Finance has a contract with Tench Friancis Jnr, see RM on this on 28 December 1781, re contract with Tench Francis and Matthias Slough to supply army posts, a contract which was unsatisfactorily performed, RM had complaints about it in January and February 1782. See pp. 454ff of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.
General Horatio Gates (1728-1806). He wrote to RM at Office of Finance on 15 Sept 1781 and was replied to in November 1781, see p. 306 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.
Colonel Matthias Slough (1732-1812) was son of innkeeper Jacob Slough and lived mostly in Lancaster County. Matthias married Mary Gibson, daughter of George Gibson (1708-1761) an innkeeper and Martha his wife of Lancaster County, who were also parents of General John Gibson of the American Revolution brother of Colonel George Gibson of the Revolution. Matthias was colonel of a battallion. Matthias was partner in 1781 with Tench Francis Jnr with contracts to supply army posts, contracts complained of as unsatisfactory. Item at http://www.archive.org/stream/, text of Letters of Col. Matthias Slough to Robert Morris. Papers read before Lancaster County Bisirical, Friday 5 March 1920, Vol. XXIV, No. 3, by Hon. Chas. I. Landis. Slough in 1778 had written up to ten letters to Robert Morris, not so much business letters as reports of doings of personal favours. One letter was regarding hemp and indigo.

Brigadier John Glover (1732-1797) of Marblehead. Son of a house carpenter, became a fisherman, became a cordwainer and rum trader, then ship owner and merchant. Of Continental Army, latterly had a role guarding Hudson River against British, failed to get a job in Federal Govt, so served in local offices. Had perhaps the first privateer used in the American Revolution, schooner Hannah, which was authorized by Washington, and Washington esteemed Glover's services, Hannah perhaps became the first vessel of the US navy! He had letter from RM at Office of Finance of 22 October 1781. See p. 101 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3. Glover's own wikipedia page.

Mariner Captain John Green (1736-1796), at the time in Mill Prison in England with Morris trying to have him freed, later the captain of the first US ship to China, Empress of China. Born in England or Ireland. Regarded in the family as John Green Snr. Married Alice Kollock of Delaware, daughter of Jacob Kollock a shipping merchant of Delaware. Green had sailed before the Revolution for Willing and Morris, and then been Captain in Continental Navy. Later, Empress of China's two supercargoes, Samuel Shaw and Thomas Randall were former officers in US Continental Army. Green wrote to RM at Office of Finance on 20 November 1781, then imprisoned in Mill Prison in England. See p. 110 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

Major-General Nathanael Greene (1742-1786). Nathanael was son of Quaker merchant of Rhode Island Nathaniel Greene (1707-1768) of Rhode Island and his second wife Mary Mott, and married Catherine Littlefield daughter of member of Rhode Island Legislature, John Littlefield and Phoebe Ray. The Ray's were "a political family". Phoebe Ray's sister Anna married Colonial Governor of Rhode Island Samuel Ward and Ann'a sister Catharine married Rhode Island Governor William Green (1731-1809) on whom see below. Nathanael by 3 October 1781 had letter from Robert Morris re money for Greene's army and mentioning money from France which has just arrived via Colonel John Laurens, a matter in which la Luzerne was implicated. See p. 13 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3. Cf, the Papers of General Nathanael Greene, from University of North Carolina Press. He to the end of the war helped to pacify South Carolina.

Wiliam Greene (1731-1809) as second governor of Rhode Island. See his own wikipedia page. RM at Office of Finance wrote to him on 3 November 1781. See p. 110 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.
President of Congress John Hanson (1721-1783). Somewhat under-appreciated. A Maryland merchant. Sheriff of Charles County Maryland, then a delegate to Continental Congress. First of the Congress' presidents, so is he then to be seen as the first President of USA? (Which dubiously-identified role as "first president" is also given on one US website to Declaration Signer Samuel Huntington.) His own wikipedia page. RM at Office of Finance wrote to him as President of Congress on 9 November 1781, see p. 169 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3. Hanson helped establish US' first postal service, first consular postings, chartering of a national bank, progress to first census, uniform system of coinage. Signed a treaty with Holland re US debts to Holland. Died a year after retiring as Congress president. Hanson was son of farmer-planter Samuel Hanson and Elizabeth Story, parents also of Lt-Colonel of the Revolution, Samuel Hanson. John Hanson married Jane Contee.

Major-General William Heath (1737-1814). Member Society of Cincinnatti. He was in command of Continental Army in lower Hudson River region and had letter from Robert Morris of 4 October 1781. See p. 21 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3. See Heath's own wikipedia page. Heath was son of Samuel Heath and Elizabeth Payson and married Sarah Lockwood. Cf., online, William Heath, Memoirs of Major-General William Heath, by Himself, edited by William Abbatt, To which is added, The Accounts of The Battle of Bunker Hill, by Generals Dearborn, Lee and Wilkinson. New York, 1901.

John Holker Junior (1745-1822). Contractor, naval. By 1777, he and his father were involved with helping American commissioners in Paris to find supplies. He came to America with the first French Minister to US, Conrad Alexander Gearaud. Then became agent of the French navy in American ports and French consul at Philadelphia. Supplied arms and provisions to French fleet. By 1780 he was consul-general for Pennsylvania, Delawere, New Jersey and New York and became involved with Morris, Turnbull and Peter Marmie, which broke a French rule against officials engaging in private trade, so he resigned in 1781 and continued to supply Continental troops. He speculated in western lands, paper money, ironworks in Pittsburgh, distilleries, saw mills, salt works (all as a website relates). Was tangled with Robert Morris by late 1783. Holker had an associate John Barclay during 1807-1816. See as a Google Books Result, from New York Before Chinatown: Orientalism and the Shaping of American Culture, by John Kuo Wei Tehen. There formed the "American-India Company" (a privately-owned version of European East-Indies companies), where John Ledyard's visions inspired Robert Morris, Daniel Parker, John Holker, William Duer and others. Morris failed to include Ledyard in actual activities for the China trade. Ledyard (quite unwisely) later decided to walk across Russia across Siberia, to find a quick route to China. Holker two years before had tried to talk Morris into an "American-Indian" type company, Morris by 1783 was being criticised re his private dealings, so he moved on the Empress of China scheme in great secrecy. The American-India company planned for six ships, two for Europe, two for China, one for n/w America and the last for French Polynesia. Only two ships eventuated, Empress of China and Emporer of China. Morris put his last profits from war efforts into Empress of China. Duer was going to be supercargo but withdrew (possibly distrusting Daniel Parker.) Parker's claimed Boston associates did not appear, Holker's French merchant banker connections became wary, Morris possibly used US government funds in his hands, put into his private account, to cover his part of the Empress voyages. Parker hired Samuel Shaw without consulting anyone else, Shaw being secretary of the Society of Cincinatti, and then Shaw brought in fellow Society member Thomas Randall as second supercargo. Empress's ships surgeon was another Society member, Dr. Robert Johnston of Philadelphia, who knew a deal about ginseng handling. Parker ordered a great amount of ginseng from Turnbull, Marmie and Co. of Pa. At one point, by 1780, Deane was working on mast supplies, major partners being John Holker and Jonathan Williams (nephew of Benjamin Franklin). Jonathan Williams (nephew of Benjamin Franklin) was blamed for money-losing. In 1778, one Jean-Daniel Schweighauser took over as chief American commercial agent for Atlantic ports. Handling prize ships. Chaumont had earlier done some such work. See France and America in the Revolutionary Era: The Life of Jacques-Donatien Leray de Chaumont, by Thomas J. Schaeper. Holker reported to Chaumont, who owned or operated 17 ships during the Revolution. Chaumont got his money from Grand, the financier, up to 1.65 million livres and supplied saltpetre, arms, clothing, various other materials.

Bernard Lavaud on Jamaica (see Stephen Ceronio above). 1781 letter from RM.

Major-General Alexander McDougall (1732-1786). His family moved to America New York in 1738. Later a commander at West Point, and had letter from RM at Office of Finance 25 October 1781. See p. 110 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

Thomas McKean (1734-1817). Of Delaware. He was related to wife of Declaration Signer Francis Hopkinson (1737-1791) as follows. McKean married wife1 Mary Borden whose sister Ann married Hopkinson. Mary Borden's son Joseph Borden McKean (1764-1826) was attorney-general of Pennsylvania who married Hannah Miles daughter of Brig-General Samuel Miles and Catharine Wistar. Joseph Borden McKean's sister Ann became the second wife of Andrew Buchanan (1766-1811) whose second wife was Caroline Virginia Marylanda Johnson a daughter of the early US Consul to Britain, the well-known Joshua Johnson (1742-1802) and his wife a Londoner Catherine Nuth. McKean married wife2 Sarah Armitage. McKean was member of Society of the Cincinnati. Lawyer and politician, had studied under a lawyer cousin David Finney in Delaware. Presbyterian in religion. Signer of American Declaration of Independence. He had a daughter Letitia who married Buchanan. Went into business young and opened branches in Delaware, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Became President of Congress and by 1 October 1781 is dated letter to him as such from Robert Morris in Finance. See p. 5 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3. See his own wikipedia page.

James Milligan. (Little information so far.)

Clothier-General of the Continental Army John Moylan (1745-1799). He had four sons, none of whom later settled in America. Lived mostly in Cork after the Revolution. Shipping merchant to Cadiz before 1781. John was brother of Patriot Colonel Stephen Moylan (1737-1811). John wrote to RM at Office of Finance on 15 October 1781 and RM replied on 2 November 1781, to him as clothier-general of the Continental Army. See p. 110 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

Governor Virginia Thomas Nelson Jnr (1738-1789) a Signer of the American Declaration. Thomas Jnr was grandson of Tom "Scotch" Nelson and a first son of William Nelson (1711-1772) of Yorktown and Elizabeth Burwell, and this William's children married to the Virginian planter eliteas did the broader Nelson family in general. Thomas Jnr is seen as "General" in an item on www.archive.org/stream/ USA/Virginia http by John Marshall at http://homepages.rootsweb.com/%7Emarshall/esmd207.htm and in series, for Carter. Stella Hardy genealogy, p. 113. http://www.angelfire.com/realm3/ruvignyplus/ for Plantagenet Roll of the Blood Royal. Planter soldier and statesman from Yorktown Virginia. The son Thomas (born 1764) of Thomas Jnr married Frances Burwell Page daughter of Revolutioanry Patriot and governor of Virginia John Page (1743-1808). See his own wikipedia page. He is Governor of Virginia (succeeding Thomas Jefferson as such) and as such has letter from RM at Office of Finance of 16 October 1781. See p. 68 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

government offical Joseph Pennell. (Little information so far.)

army Quartermaster-General Charles Pettit (1736-1806). Iron merchant. See his own wikipedia page. Lawyer-merchant from New Jersey and Philadelphia. Former assistant quartermaster-general, was once a partner with Nathaniel Green and others in an iron works which supplied shell and shot to army, became interested in Bank of North America. RM at Office of Finance wrote to him on 12 December 1781. See p. 380 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

Timothy Pickering (Jnr.) (1745-1829). Son of Timothy Pickering Snr and Mary Wingate, also parents of Lucy Pickering who married distiller and foreign merchant using shipping, Captain Israel Dodge. Timothy Jnr married Rebecca White, daughter of Benjamin White and Elizabeth Miller. Timothy's family had been five generations in New England. Lawyer, patriot, soldier, pamphleteer. In 1783 was one of several planners for a north-west territory which would exclude slavery. He once presented ideas for what became West Point military academy. Friend/partner in 1783 of Samuel Hodgdon, a Philadelphia merchant. A noted Francophobe. Massachusetts Senator. Once had large land speculations re Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania. Linda Minor says he is member of Harvard "Essex Junto". Cf, Google Books Result, Junius P. Rodriquez, The Louisiana Purchase. Some regard him later as one of The Essex Junto composed of a Massachusetts associaiton of High Federalists uninterested in what Jeffersonsians did. They supported Alexander Hamitlon in 1798 re his nomination as a senior major-general, and worked against Adams' re-election in 1800, challenged Jefferson's embargo of 1807-1809 and in 1803 and 1814 advocated New England's secession. Similar Federalist groups were Charleston's Mutton Chop Club and New York's Friendly Club and Sub-Rosa Society. The acknowledged Essex Junto men were Timothy Pickering, Fisher Ames, George Cabot, Francis Dana, Nathan Dane, Benjamin Goodhue, Stephen Higginson, Jonathan Jackson,John Lowell, Theophilus Parsons, Israel Thorndike, Nathan Tracy. All were born 1745-1758 from prosperous NE families. The Essex Junto men wished to see a less individualistic, more organic social form, and a more deferential society with groups to defer to. Some of them feared a Republican-Jeffersonian conspiracy to install Jefferson as president for life. Believed the Louisiana Purchase was a step to add another slave state to the Union. Pickering preferred secession to a Jeffersonian ascendancy and had a vision of a new Federalist confederacy sponsored by Great Britain and composed of New England, New York, New Jersey and Canada. In 1804 then, Pickering and CT's Roger Griswold supported Aaron Burr for governor of New York. Hamilton disdained ideas of secession however and so supported Burr's rival, Morgan Lewis. In 1814 arose more suspicion of the Essex Junto involvement in secession re the Hartford Convention, so they were excoriated again just as many of them were retiring - and as the phrase entered the American political lexicon. Pickering was a Revolutionary Quartermaster-General. Re letter from RM of 16 October 1781. See p. 67 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

army Paymaster-General John Pierce (died 1788). He was from Connecticut. Revolutionary Paymaster-General of army. RM at Office of Finance wrote to him on 21 December 1781. See p. 420 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3 .
The partner of Matthew Ridley for flour purcahses for army Mark Pringle (died 1826) of Baltimore. (Surprisingly little-known.)

President of Pennsylvania Joseph Reed (1741-1785). See his own wikipedia page. Philadelphia merchant, lawyer and patriot. He is once President of Pennsylvania and as such has letter from RM of 10 October 1781. See p. 42 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3. Reed was married to Esther de Berdt, daughter of the colonial agent for Massachusetts, Dennis De Berdt of London (1693-1770) and Martha Symons.

New York merchant Comfort Sands (1747-1834) and his brothers Joshua and Richardson re the contract they had taken to supply the West Point military establishment. Comfort was son of John Sands and Elizabeth Cornell and married Sarah Dodge and their daughter Cornelia married New York financier Nathaniel Prime (1768-1840). Comfort Sands was a large shipowner. Cf, writings by Walter Barrett Clerk on Merchants of Old New York.) RM at Office of Finance wrote to him on 6 December 1781, re a contract for the supply of West Point. See p. 342 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3. Joshua Sands, Merchant, Collector of Port of New York. His own wikipedia page.
Richardson Sands (1754-1783) was married to Lucretia Ledyard, daughter of the Mauyor of Hartford CT, John Ledyard and Mary Austin. This Lucretia Ledyard also married merchant and major-general Ebenezer Stevens (1751-1823).
Joshua Sands (1772-1825), one-time Collector of Port of New York, married Ann Ascough, daughter of British army surgeon Richard Ascough. Joshua's children married well into the post-revolutionary eastern establishment.

New York delegate to Continental Congress Melancthon Smith (1744-1798). His wife1 Sarah died in 1770. Merchant-lawyer, adviser to George Clinton. Was rather savage on New York Loyalists. Anti-slavery. He later broke anti-Federalist ranks. New York delegate to Continental Congress. His own wikipedia page. He was associated with Andrew Craigie and William Duer. RM at Office of Finance wrote to him at New York re a contract (Smith plus Jonathan Lawrence) re army and supply of posts at Poughkeepsie and also supply of prisoners that Smith has taken with Joanthan Lawrence on 21 December 1781 (a contract later held by William Duer). See p. 110 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3. After the Revolution Smith returned to merchant life, bought Tory lands. Speculated in govt securities and bonds. See http://www.antonymaitland.com/hptext/hp028.txt
On Jonathan Lawrence. Probably the one who died 1816? Difficult to trace.

Governor of Connecticut Jonathan Trumbull Snr (1710-1785). He was married to Faith Robinson, daughter of a clergyman and had daughters Faith who married General Jedediah Huntington (1743-1818) and Mary who married Declaration Signer William Williams (1731-1811) plus son Jonathan Trumbull Jnr (1740-1809) who became second Speaker of US House of Reps and a governor of Connecticut. RM at Office of Finance wrote to him on 7 November 1781. See p. 161 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

General Anthony Wayne (1745-1796). Had early training as a surveyor and surveyed coast of Nova Scotia. Was at Valley Forge battle. Delegate to a state convention ratifying the US Constitution. In 1781 he suffered a mutiny re pay and conditions, perhaps the worst of the American Revolution and he had to dismiss half his men. His own wikipedia page. General "Mad Anthony" Wayne. Online item, Colonial Families [often Quakers]) of Philadelphia at www.archive.org.stream/ Is noted in 10,000 Famous Freemasons, said to be a Mason but no proof for this. He wrote to RM at Office of Finance about 26 October 1781 re surrender of Lord Cornwallis. See p. 110 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

Continental loan officer at New York Abraham Yates Jnr (1724-1796). Patriot. He has nephew Robert Yates and grandsons Chancellor John Lansing Jnr and Abraham G. Lansing. His own wikipedia page. Patriot leader. He was Continental loan officer at New York, and had letter from RM at Office of Finance on 30 November 1781. See p. 304 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, (Eds.), Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3. Cf., Stefan Bielinski, Abraham Yates Jnr, and the New Political Order in Revolutionary New York. Albany, New York State American Revolution Bicentennial Commission, 1975.

New York merchant Richard Yates (no dates yet). Confusingly, one needs to ask, is he a patriot or Loyalist? Perhaps was the son of Joseph Yates and Maria Dunbar? Did he import from Europe and East Indies? Is he of firm Yates and Pollock, that is with George Pollock (1762-1820) of Philadelphia related to Patriot Oliver Pollock? George Pollock married Yates' daughter Catherine, daughter of of "the formidable" Catherine Brass, re Mrs Yates' portrait by Gilbert Stuart c.1793/1794. Richard Yates was one of the list of RM's pre-war correspondents for New York, Loyalist but did some services for RM re prisoners, see p. 13 of Ferguson and Catanzariti, Papers of Robert Morris 1781-1784. Vol. 3.

October 1781: (See pp. 97-98 of E. James Ferguson and John Catanzariti, The Papers of Robert Morris 1781-184. Vol. 3, 1 October 1781-10 January 1782. University of Pittsburgh Press, 1977.)
Here, just before Matthew Ridley escorted Morris' two sons to France for their education, Morris wrote for Ridley a list of the pre-war correspondents of Willing, Morris and Co. It should be noted that before 1776, Matthew Ridley had been the Baltimore agent for the London-based convict contractors, John Stewart (died 1772) and Duncan Campbell (1726-1803), the Campbell who became the overseer of the Thames River prison hulks. The Willing and Morris pre-war-time correspondendents were:
London, John Motteux and Co.,
Messrs David Strachan and Co.,
Messrs Gregory and Turnbull "who could point to others", (these must have been partners of London alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay (1750-1803) before he joined them!),
Bristol is Richard Champion Esqr, Only the correspondence of RM with Richard Champion survives in archives. See G. H. Guttridge (Ed.), The American Correspondence of a Bristol Merchant, 1766-1776, Letters of Richard Champion. Berkeley, California, 1934.
Liverpool is Thomas Tarleton and also John Dobson (difficult to trace),
Falmouth is George Croker Fox and Sons,
New York is Andrew Elliot (1728-1797) and also Richard Yates. Elliot was a Loyalist, later an acting-governor of New York. Early he was a Scots emigrant-trader, with an advance of 700 pounds to Philadelphia, became receiver-general of New York. Returned to Scotland. He was an uncle of Gilbert Elliot a close associate of Bute (the advisor of George III) and a trusted servant of George III, and became collector of the port of New York in Namier, Eng Age Am Rev, p. 266. See Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Southesk, 1938 edn. pp. See his own wikipedia page. thepeerage.com.
Barbados is Charles Willing,
Antigua is Messrs Willock and Moorson,
Jamaica is Messrs Cuthberts,
St Kitts is Ulysses Lynch (sometimes mentioned on websites but too briefly),
Madeira is Scott, Pringle, Cheap and Co.,
Lisbon is Messrs Robert Paisley and Co (hard to trade),
Paulo Jorge and Messrs Edward Burn and Sons (somewhat traceable). This pre-war list is discussed in detail earlier in this Timelines series - Ed

Active Patriots during War of Independence

1781: Jonathan Hornblower patents an idea envisaged by Watt, for using the expansion of steam in a pair of cylinders for an engine.

1782, England, Alleged working of chemicals by Alchemy to produce gold, by chemist and Fellow of the Royal Society, James Price, who committed suicide rather than duplicate the exercise.

Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor of 1782-1783, Nathaniel Newnham
Descendants of Nathaniel NEWNHAM of Surrey, of Streatham (c.1699) and sp: Honoria KETT
2. MP Thomas NEWNHAM (c.1754) 2. London Lord Mayor, Freemason, Nathaniel NEWNHAM (b.1699) sp: Sarah ADAMS
3. Barrister, KC George Lewis NEWNHAM (b.1733;d.1800) sp: Mary Fields ASHTON of Lincolns Inn
3. Banker, alderman, Freemason, Nathaniel NEWNHAM (b.1741;d.26 Dec 1809) sp: Anne NOTKNOWN
4. Caroline NEWNHAM sp: Rev Calverley J. BEWICKE
2. Anne NEWNHAM sp: Kings Bench, MP Sir Dudley RYDER (c.1756) 3. Nathaniel RYDER Baron1 Harrowby (b.3 Jul 1735;d.20 Jun 1803) sp: Elizabeth TERRICK (d.24 Aug 1804)
4. Paymaster Forces, Dudley RYDER Baron2 Harrowby, Earl1 Harrowby (b.22 Dec 1762;d.26 Dec 1847) sp: Susan Leveson-Gower (b.1772;m.30 Jul 1795;d.26 May 1838)
5. Dudley RYDER Earl2 Harrowby, Baron3 Harrowby, FRS (b.23 May 1798;d.18 Nov 1882) sp: Frances COUTTS (b.6 Jun 1801;m.15 Sep 1823;d.20 Mar 1859)
6. Banker Henry Dudley RYDER Earl4 Harrowby (b.3 May 1836;d.11 Dec 1900) sp: Susan Juliana Maria DENT (m.17 May 1859;d.17 Mar 1913)
7. John Herbert RYDER Earl5 Harrowby (b.7 Aug 1864;d.1956) sp: Mabel Danvers SMITH, had issue (b.26 Feb 1867;m.16 Nov 1887)
6. Dudley Francis RYDER, Baron4 Harrowby, Earl3 Harrowby (b.16 Jan 1831;d.26 Mar 1900) sp: Mary Frances CECIL (b.6 Jan 1832;m.3 Oct 1861;d.27 Jul 1917) 5. MP Hon Granville Dudley RYDER (d.24 Nov 1879) sp: Georgiana Augusta Somerset (m.1825)
6. MP Granville Richard RYDER (b.1833;d.1880) sp: Sybilla Sophia GRANT (m.19 Mar 1864;d.15 Oct 1901) 5. Georgiana Elizabeth RYDER (b.23 Apr 1804;d.22 Aug 1884) sp: John STUART-WORTLEY Brn2 Wharncliffe (b.23 Apr 1801;m.12 Dec 1825;d.22 Oct 1855) 6. Edward Montagu STUART-WORTLEY (b.15 Dec 1827;d.13 May 1899) sp: Susan Charlotte LASCELLES (m.4 Jul 1855) 6. Cicely Susan STUART-WORTLEY (b.14 Oct 1835;d.2 May 1915) sp: Mr DOUGLAS-SCOTT (d.4 Nov 1905)
7. MP John Walter Edward DOUGLAS-SCOTT (b.10 Jun 1866;d.30 Mar 1929) sp: Cecil Victoria Constance KERR wife1 (b.14 Feb 1866;m.4 Jun 1889;d.13 Sep 1919) sp: Alice Pearl CRAKE wife2 (m.9 Aug 1920)
6. Mary Caroline STUART-WORTLEY sp: Henry Francis MOORE Earl8 Drogheda, Mqs3 Drogheda (m.25 Aug 1847)
5. Susan RYDER wife1 (b.20 Jun 1796;d.30 Jul 1827) sp: Earl2 Fortescue Hugh Baron4 Fortescue FORTESCUE (b.13 Feb 1783;m.4 Jul 1817;d.14 Sep 1861) 6. Hugh Baron5 Fortescue FORTESCUE (b.4 Apr 1818;d.10 Oct 1905) sp: Georgiana Augusta Charlotte DAWSON-DAMER (b.13 Jun 1826;m.11 Mar 1847;d.8 Dec 1866) 7. Hugh FORTESCUE Visc Errington (b.16 Apr 1854) sp: Emily ORMSBY-GORE (b.1860;m.15 Jul 1886)
4. MP Richard RYDER (b.5 Jul 1766;d.1832) sp: Miss SKYNNER-53007 (m.1 Aug 1799) 4. Right Rev. Henry RYDER (b.1777;d.31 Mar 1836) sp: Miss PHILLIPS (m.15 Dec 1802)
5. Rev. Henry Dudley RYDER (b.13 Oct 1803;d.19 Jan 1877) sp: Cornelia Sarah CORNISH (m.8 May 1828;d.16 Apr 1840)
6. Louisa Cornelia RYDER sp: John George Cope NEWNHAM (m.Dec 1859)
5. Anna Sophia RYDER (d.8 Jul 1893) sp: MP Rt Hon Sir George GREY, Bart2 (b.11 May 1799;m.14 Aug 1827;d.9 Sep 1882) 6. Equerry George Henry GREY (b.21 May 1835;d.11 Dec 1874) sp: Harriet Jane PEARSON (m.20 Nov 1860;d.1 Jun 1905) 7. Sir Edward GREY, Bart3, Visc1 Grey (b.25 Apr 1862;d.7 Sep 1933) sp: Dorothy WIDDRINGTON wife1 (m.20 Oct 1885;d.4 Feb 1906) sp: Frances Lady Glenconner WYNDHAM wife2 (m.4 Jun 1922;d.18 Nov 1928) 6. Constance Mary GREY (b.31 Jan 1872) sp: Edward Beaumont Cotton CURTIS (m.18 Jan 1905)

In 1783 the French become first to use balloons as a means of aerial reconnaissance for warfare.

1783: S. E. Morison, Maritime History of Massachusetts, 1783-1860. 1921. (Useful on US' China and East India trade, and a classic) *

1783: Montgolfiers makes balloon trip.

1783: The first US ship flying American flag to reach England is Bedford, from the devastated Nantucket fleet, by 6 February. British are glad to trade but absence of a trade treaty leaves her captain at mercy of British navigation acts, customs officials and buyers. The tobacco-growing states rapidly regain their trade. Virginia reaches her pre-war levels of exports by 1786. British shippers send consumer items to American states, taking up hard money and throwing whole American economy into near panic. In London, US Minister John Adams tries to make a commercial treaty but fails as US central government cannot control behaviour in the states.
See K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways.. University of South Carolina Press, 1988., p. 51.

1783: Daniel Beale arrives in Canton as Prussian consul-designate to China. (Keswick, appendices.)

Reference item: Donald D. Johnson, with Gary Dean Best, The United States in the Pacific: Private Interests and Public Policies, 1784-1899. Westport, Connecticut, 1995.

1784+ Charles Oscar Paullin, American Voyages to the Orient. Annapolis, 1971.*

1784: USA: Abolition effort in Congress narrowly defeats Thomas Jefferson's proposal to ban slavery in new territories after 1800.

1784: Sidney and Marjorie Greebie, Gold of Ophir. 1925. (On the US' old China trade) *

1784: Samuel Shaw, Journals of Major Samuel Shaw, with life of the author by Josiah Quincy. 1847. (Shaw was supercargo of Empress of China on her first trip New York to China and later first US consul at Canton.*

1784: Kenneth S. LaTourette, Voyages of American Ships to China, 1784-1844. New Haven, 1927.

1784: Robert Kingery Buell and Charlotte Northcote Skladal, Sea Otters and the China Trade. New York, 1968. (A popular history) *

1784: Clayton Barrow, America Spreads Her Sails. Annapolis, 1973.*

1784 and previous: "The first US ship sent into the China Trade is the Boston sloop Harriet; it trades American ginseng for Chinese tea. It didn't even get all they way to China, it traded its goods off the Cape of Good Hope. The Empress of China was especially built for the trade by Philadelphia's Robert Morris and first set sail towards China on Washington's birthday, 22 February, 1784. It took ginseng and brought back teas, spices, silks, porcelains and other general household goods. There was interest in the products, a good profit was made and the China trade was off and running. Ginseng, seal and sea otter furs, and sandalwood were used to trade with the Chinese. Soon these resources were depleted and a new barter item was needed in lieu of silver; which the fledgling US had little of. In the late 1790's Smyrna (Izmer, today), Turkey a major source for opium began to become port of call for Americans."
The Boodle Boys - by R. A. Kris Millegan 2000. his mailto:roadsend@aol.com
See website: http://www.ctrl.org/boodleboys/boddlesboys2.html

1784: Salem merchant Elias Hasket Derby and George Cabot of Beverley, Massachusetts, begin to trade with Baltic ports, although a major trade never develops. Russia becomes major supplier of hemp to America.

1784: London Lord Mayor of 1784 - Richard Clark.

1784: Opium trader and agency house figure John Fergusson, active by 1784, from Ayrshire, deals in cotton and opium. Firm known successively as Fairlie, Fergusson and Co.; Fairlie, Reid and Co.; Fairlie, Gilmore and Co.; finally Fergusson, Clarke and Co. (S. B. Singh, Agency Houses, p. 9, p. 138.) 1784: Bengal government contracts with John Fergusson and Capt. Dixon for delivery of $40,000 and $10,000 to Penang in exchange for Patna opium of equal value.
(W. E. Cheong, Mandarins and Merchants: Jardine Matheson, p. 10. Parker's essay on Scots in India, pp. 199ff in R. A. Cage, Scots Abroad.)

1783-1793: Daniel Beale and Co., opium traders, a China house. Or, Magniac and Co. Active by 1783. Parents notknown. (See Bulley, Bombay Ships, p. 63, pp. 108ff. Coates, Macao and the British, p. 140.) Daniel Beale arrives in China as Prussian Consul. He may have a son Daniel who was taken into the family of Alexander Matheson in Glasgow. This man head of the firm and by 1815 had speculated himself into bankruptcy. (See W. E. Cheong, Mandarins and Merchants: Jardine Matheson, p. 269.) This man leaves China in 1797 to join Magniacs in London. His brother Thomas in 1815 got caught in an opium scare and owed the East India Company some $800,000, and bankrupted, "most sensational bankruptcy of the period", says Coates, Macao and the British, p. 140. His firm however survived as Shank and Magniac, then Magniac and Company. (See Helen Augur, Tall Ships to Cathay. nd?). Thomas Beale lived on borrowed money till 1841 when he suicided. (Coates, Macao and the British, p. 141); in 1825 Charles and Holingworth Magniac wished to retire to England and wanted partner, there was also Daniel Magniac who remained in China. They invited in a Scot, William Jardine, an East India Company surgeon, who then worked in Canton for a Parsi firm of Bombay who dealt in Malawa opium. Jardine later joined Magniacs. When Charles Magniac departed as Prussian consul, and up went Danish colours. Daniel Magniac married his local woman and was ostracised. So, Jardine and Matheson has a sleeping partner in London, Hollingworth Magniac. In 1793, firm of Cox and Beale (founded in Canton in 1787) is renamed Beale and Reid. (Keswick, Thistle and the Jade, on Jardine, appendices.)

1784-1799: Opium trader Thomas Beale of Beale and Co., active by 1784. Parents unknown. By 1799-1803 he is with major partnerships organised by David Scott re opium to China. Beale and Co. named by 1805 as interested in ships to China, in Bulley, Bombay ships, p. 63. By 1797, Beale and Co. are the biggest of the country traders, dealing with clients in Bombay, Calcutta, London, in Indian cotton, sandalwood, tin, pepper Chinese tea and silk, plus opium. (See Coates, Macao and the British, p. 73, pp. 128ff.) By 1797 Thomas succeeds his brother Daniel Beale as Prussian consul at Macao. (Keswick, Jardine-Matheson, appendices.) Thomas Beale arrives in Canton in 1791 as secretary to Prussian Consul.
(See W. E. Cheong, Mandarins and Merchants: Jardine Matheson, p. 10.) Thomas also has brother, David. who with Alexander Shanks (the nephew of David Scott Snr?) form China agency of Beale and Reid. W. E. Cheong, An Anglo-Spanish-Portuguese, p. 98, Note 5. Thomas Beale is 20 years the Prussian consul at Canton. By 1814 some of his partners are Charles Magniac and Alexander Shank(s). Magniac later started Jardine and Matheson. See also, W. E. Cheong, Opium Trade and Agencies in China, variously. S. B. Singh, Agency Houses, p. 13.)

1784++: Donald D. Johnson (with Gary Dean Best), The United States in the Pacific: Private Interests and Public Policies, 1784-1899. Westport, Connecticut, 1995.

1784: [When] James Russell's wife Anne died, aged 89. she left over £17,000, the executors were Sir Hugh Inglis, Bart and Edmund Antrobus, a partner in Coutts Bank. (Jacob Price, pp. 215-217.). Various info: the young Hugh Inglis (1744-1820) aged 18 went to India as a midshipman on an EICo ship, left his ship in India and went to Dacca where he assisted his cousin, Francis Russell, surgeon to the EICo factory there. He became private secretary to John Cartier, head of the factory, and later governor of Bengal. Cartier returned to London in 1774 with Hugh Inglis following in 1775. Inglis had enough fortune to last him the rest of his life. He retired to the country until 1784 when he was elected a director of EICo, and he served as a director until 1813, becoming deputy chairman and chairman three times.
Inglis became an MP in 1802. His only son and heir was Sir Robert Harry Inglis 2nd Bart, (1786-1855) a prominent arch-Tory MP, and active evangelist, a close friend of Henry Thornton (1760-1815), MP, governor of the Bank of England, wealthy London merchant and Clapham sect saint.. Meanwhile, another of Jacob Price's people (p. 219), Robert Clerk became a director of EICo 1812-1815 and evidently got on well with Sir David Scott, as Scott once favoured one of Clerk's sons. Sir Hugh Inglis is a director of EICo from 1784. (Price, One Family's Empire, pp. 215-217.)

1784++: Much information on American (US) whalers operating in the Pacific given in this and following files will come from: Nigel Wace and Bessie Lovett, Yankee Maritime Activities and the Early History of Australia. Research School of Pacific Studies Aids to Research Series, No. A/2. Australian National University, Canberra, 1973. (Library of Congress card number, 72.95175; hereafter cited as Wace and Lovett, 1973, page number.)

1784: Adele Ogden, The California Sea Otter Trade, 1784-1848. Berkeley, 1941.*

Robert S. Allen, Loyalist Literature: An annotated bibliographic guide to the writings on the Loyalists of the American Revolution. Toronto, Canada, Dundurn Canadian Historical Document Series, Publication No. 2, Dundurn Press Ltd., 1982.

1785: B. B. Goode, The Fisheries and Fishing Industry of the United States. (Seven Vols) Washington, 1884-1887. *

1785+ Alexander Starbuck, A History of American Whale Fishing. (Two Vols), Waltham, Mass., 1876.*

1785+ Edouard A. Stackpole, The Sea Hunters. Philadelphia, 1953. (US whaling history) *

1785+ Frances Downes Ommanney, Lost Leviathan. New York, 1971. (US whaling history)*

1785+ Frances Diane Robotti, Whaling and Old Salem. New York, 1962.*

1785+ Elmo Paul Hohman, American Whalemen. New York, 1928.*

1785+: R. Langdon, (Ed.), American Whalers and Traders in the Pacific: A Guide to Records on Microfilm. Canberra, Pacific Manuscripts Bureau, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1978.

1785: Marilyn E. Weigold, The American Mediterranean. Port Washington, 1974*

1786: British Merchant Navy, ships' details, Series I BT 107/1 listing ships whose home port was London, 1786-1854. Details included are port of registry number, ship name and home port, date and place of registration, names, addresses and occupations of owners, names of ships masters, place and date of construction or place and date of capture as a prize, name and employment of surveying officer, nationality of ship's building whether British, plantation or foreign, number of masts and decks, depth of hold and tons burden, type of vessel. Series II BT 108/1-386 proceeds from 1855 to 1889.
Cf. David T. Hawkings, Bound For Australia, p. 247.

1786: Jackson, Whalers, p. 95, the 1786 Shipping Registration Act is made to distinguish between British vs American ships, part of the reason Rotch England left for Dunkirk.

1786 and later, Mary Hayley's activities sealing detailed by A Dickinson, Falklands sealing, dealing with American mariners, p. 56-57. //After 1786, British vessels also visiting the Falklands in increasing numbers, as their SWF expanded. See A Dickinson, Falklands sealing, p. 58 citing AGE Jones, Whale Fishing Around The Falklands, The Southern Whale Fishery, Falklands Islands Journal, 1969, pp. 69-71. Dickinson reports in 1788-90, were seven British vessels at Port Egmont, the Falklands. One ship the Audax. British sealers dominated the Falkland Islands Canton fur trade till about 1794, and were then eclipsed at Canton by the Americans, who had no constraints from the East India Company with its rights at Canton. Many British sealers therefore took their skins back to London and fetched only low prices.

1785: US schooner Maria from Boston is first US ship in Mediterranean to be seized by pirates of Algiers. (Barbary pirates gave US shipping trouble till after the 1812 war with Britain.)
K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways.. University of South Carolina Press, 1988.

1785: Philadelphia in US sends its first trading ship to China.

1785: London Lord Mayor of 1785 - Thomas Wright

Reference item: David Hancock, Citizens of the World: London Merchants and the British Atlantic Community, 1735-1785. New York, Cambridge University Press, 1995. (Re slavery)

1786: Galvani makes frog leg twitch with electricity.

Update: March 2002: For more information on Blackheath in London, visit a site managed by the noted local historian there, Neil Rhind, now preparing his third book on the history of his area: http://www.blackheath.org

Lloyd's Register 1787 - Underwriters. 1787 List of Society members included: Geo Abel, Angerstein Lewis and Warren, Richd Buller and Co, John Campbell, A&B Champions, Champion and Dickasons, Geo Curling, Mark Gregory, Rt Hon Thos Harley, Paul Le Mesurier and Co, GM Macaulay, James Mather, Nath Modigliani, John Motteux, Nath Newnham, St Barbe and Green, Smith and St Barbe. No man named Joseph Nutt yet. Donaldson, Thornton and Donaldson. EI Co list incl Mitford, D. Cameron, G Macaulay with Pitt, W. Chapman, T Curtis, T. Larkins. EI CO ships sailed Mar 28, 1786, Pitt Capt. G Couper for coast and bay GM Macaulay 755 tons. Sailed Feb 21, 1787, ship Adm Barrington 527 tons, Capt C. Lindgreen, for China, french built 1781, husband is G Thornton. Lloyd's Register 1786, No list of members, EICo list, the usual, not including GM Macaulay. Sailed March 13, 1786, EICo ship Hillsborough, 758 tons Capt W. Hardcastle, for coast and Bay, husband R Preston. Sailed Jan 20, 1786 ship Royal Admiral 914 tons Capt J. Huddart for coast and China, built 1777, husband is Sir R Hotham.

1786-1788, Founding of a British convict colony at Sydney, Australia (Botany Bay, or, New South Wales, or, New Holland).

1786: Salem merchant Elias Hasket Derby sends his first trading ship to China, Grand Turk. Some 15 US ships reached Canton in 1789, five of them from Salem.
K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways.. University of South Carolina Press, 1988., p. 55.

1786: To 1786, (Lane senior had died in 1784) John Lane of Lane, Son and Fraser made a hasty decision to visit US, as he had a rumour that one of his creditors, Nathaniel Tracy who'd contracted an advance in 1785, was on the verge of bankruptcy. Lane stayed five years till 1790 and he dealt with legal advice of John Lowell and Boston's leading banker Thomas Russell till he acquired property which he then exchanged for silver. (Kellock's article, p. 114.)

1786: James Horsburgh arrives in Bombay a young mariner, and is on ships carrying cotton to China for Surat Muslim merchant Chelliaby. By 1791 he works for Bruce, Fawcett and Co. He becomes a noted EICo hydrographer by 1806.
(Bulley, Bombay Ships, p. 213.)

1786: The Indian Government in 1786 permitted Capt. Light to take Penang, which had produce "fit for the China market". At first Penang was used as a penal settlement for Bengal convicts, (who were/had been also sent to Bencoolen) but in 1797 the governor-general assured the superintendent of the settlement he would be regularly supplied with convicts according to necessity. Food from Bengal had to be taken to Penang, using country ships owned by such as Fairlie, Gilmore and Co. (and the government of Penang once appointed Messrs Palmer and Co. as their Calcutta agents).
(Frost, Convicts and Empire, pp. 143-148; Singh, Agency Houses, p. 133.)

1786: From late September: Organisation of The First Fleet of convict ships for New South Wales by contractor, William Richards Jnr of Southwark. It had until 2011 been thought that some of his descendants had ended up at Walcha, Northern New South Wales, near Tamworth and Armidale, but this is now assessed as incorrect information, due chiefly to a plethora of London shipping operators of the time named William Richards, but from different families.

East India merchant, David Scott Snr
Merchant David Scott Snr
Thought to be a portrait of merchant David Scott Snr.

1786++: David Scott Snr. has been in Bombay, in 1786 returns to London as a free trader wanting less monopoly on shipping. At Leadenhall Street, he becomes director of EICo partly by influence of Dundas (Lord Melville) who relies heavily on Scott's knowledge of affairs in India (Scott in turn relies on the advice of his partner Adamson in Bombay). Scott a zealous follower of Dundas till ill-health in 1802 forces him into retirement. (See Parker's essay on Scots in India in R. A. Cage, Scots Abroad, pp. 200ff). Scott's firm is seen as one of three firms having a "stranglehold" on the Bombay economy.
(Christie, non-elite MPs, p. 71.)

1786: David Scott Senior (born 1746, Fife, Scotland, son of MP Robert Scott) after he returned home in 1785 from Bombay twice became a director of the EICo. He dealt in London with the wealthy and eccentric John Farquhar. As a returnee from Bombay, from 1786 he continued to act for his firm, as a free trader wanting less monopoly on shipping. He became an EICo director partly by influence of Dundas, who relied heavily on Scott's knowledge of affairs in India as new trade outlets were sought (Scott in turn relied in his partner Adamson's advice). Scott, something of a workaholic, was a zealous follower of Dundas till ill health in 1802 forced him into retirement.
(See Parker's essay, pp. 200ff, in R. A. Cage, (Ed.), The Scots Abroad: Labour, Capital, Enterprise, 1750-1914.)
Scott Senior had a son David, a wife unknown, and a trader-nephew named Shank. David Scott and Co. was one of three firms with a "stranglehold" on the Bombay economy.
S. B. Singh (index, p. 13), has it that in 1795 Scott tried to get a Genoese commission for Mr Hamilton [is this Hamilton any link to anyone interesting?] to stay in China as consul to establish a house of agency there with Mr Shank as a partner. He wrote to Wm Fairlie about it, competing with Magniac etc, presumably), Mr Shank was Mr Scott's nephew and chief mate on one of Mr Tate's ships, re links to Madras and Bengal.
(Bulley, Bombay Country Ships, 1790-1833, p. 180.)

Follows here a list of English ship managers operating 1717-1775, shipping convicts to America: With a list of merchants shipping convicts to Australia from 1786-1788, to 1867: The two lists will enable completion of any research on the English use of convict transportation in the period covered...
Please note: This collected list has never appeared in any printed book to date, and did not appear on the Internet before 16-6-2002 - Dan Byrnes.
1717: Francis March, London:
1718 Jonathan Forward, London;
1720 members of the Lux family, Darby, John, and Francis (probably London before becoming colonials, (later linked to Jonathan Forward's operations) and in 1750, William Lux;
1721-1722, Jonathan Forward Sydenham of London;
1722, ? Cheston;
1731, various men named Reed, to 1771;
1737, Joseph Weld in Dublin;
1739, Andrew Reid, London, with James and Andrew Armour, London, and John Stewart of London;
1740++, Moses Israel Fonseca, London;
1740, Samuel Sedgley, Bristol;
1740, James Gildart, Liverpool;
1744, John Langley, Ireland;
1745, Reid and Armour, London;
1745, Sydenham and Hodgson, London;
1747, William Cookson of Hull;
1749, Jonathan Forward Sydenham a nephew of Jonathan Forward above;
1749, Stewart and Armour, London;
1750, Andrew Reid, London;
1750, Samuel Sedgely and Co of Bristol; John Stewart and (Duncan) Campbell, London (JS&C);
1758, Sedgely and Co (Hillhouse and Randolph), Bristol;
1759, Stewart and Armour, London;
1760, Sedgely and Hillhouse of Bristol;
1763, Andrew Reid retired;
1764, John Stewart and Duncan Campbell, London;
1766, Patrick Colquhuon, Glasgow; 1766, Sedgely and Co. at Bristol replaced by William Randolph, William Stevenson and James Cheston, Bristol;
1767, Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston, Bristol? with a colonial agent Cheston;
1768, Jonathan Forward Sydenham, London or nearby counties;
1769, Dixon and Littledale, Whitehaven;
1769, Sedgely, Bristol; 1769, any ships captain providing necessary securities could transport felons;
1770, James Baird, Glasgow;
1772, John Stewart died, Duncan Campbell carried on alone in London until 1775.

At Bristol, Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston (SRC) were active till 1776; they made ill-advised and vain attempts to transport felons to North America at the end of the American Revolution. Wisely, Duncan Campbell (1726-1803) did not attempt to resume convict transportation to America.
(The above list does not include names transporting convicts from Ireland.)
(See here, Abbot Emerson Smith, Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labour in America, 1607-1776. Gloucester, Massachusetts, University of Carolina Press, 1947. [Peter Smith, 1965]
As a matter of silence-in-history, US historian Bernard Bailyn once wrote - about American reception of English emigrants generally before 1775, (p. 4) there are... "extraordinary facts, key facts, somehow obscured by historians of the empire concentrating on institutions, power rivalries, mercantilism and trade"... "...
(See Bernard Bailyn, 'The Peopling of the British Peripheries in the Eighteenth Century', Esso Lecture, 1988. Canberra, Australian Academy of the Humanities, Occasional Paper No. 5, 1988.
Oddly, Bailyn then wrote, (page 19), "I have never found a single reference to a convict in any genealogy or history of an American family, nor, in any other way, does a single one of the 50,000 convicts sent to America appear as such in American history."
In terms of American colonial society (Virginia and Maryland to 1775), the following list of names is interesting: The American correspondents of London based Duncan Campbell were mostly were users of slave labour.
Here is a list of them: Duncan Campbell's correspondents from the index to his business letterbook 1772-1776: including, Allison and Campbell, William Adam, Samuel Athawes, Colonel William Brockenbrough and Austin Brockenbrough, Dr John Brockenbrough, Adam Barnes and Johnson, James Bain, Rev. Mr Beauvoir, James and Robert Buchanan, George Buchanan, Robert Cockerell, Messrs Campbell and Dickson, Colin Currie, Stewart Carmichael, William Dickson, Charles Eyles, Fitzhugh, Fauntleroy, Richard Glascock/Glascook, Benj and Charles Grimes, Henderson and Glassford, Rhodam Kenner, Abraham Lopez and Son, James Millar Jamaica, Daniel Muse, Hudson Muse, Hugh McLean, Joshua Newall, George Noble, Francis Randall, Major Henry Ridgely, Adam Shipley, William Snydebottom, Richard Stringer, Alexr Spiers and Co., Spiers, Finch and Co., Dr. Sherwin, William and Edward Telfair, Tayloe and Thornton, Charles Worthington, Cooper and Telfair.

From 1786, Duncan Campbell, the overseer of the Thames prison hulks, never sent a convict ship to Australia, though he had every opportunity to do so if he wished.
(Below names asterisked are merchant names which are still resistant to genealogical or other forms of research.)
Merchants shipping convicts to Australia from 1786-1788 include: for the First Fleet: William Richards Junior, London alderman William (later Sir) Curtis, London alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay, Leightons, James Mather. For the Second Fleet to Sydney, London-based slavers supplying slaves to Jamaica at the time, Camden*, Calvert* and King. The Third Fleet, the Enderby whalers together with Calvert's firm. Later, a London whaling investor, John St Barbe.
By 1800 or so, John Wilsone, Gabriel Gillett with William Wilson, (who had links with the London Missionary Society, as did James Duncan*; William Hingston*, Edward Redman*, Thomas Patrickson*, John Prinsep (pioneer of the indigo industry in India); the London whaler Daniel Bennet. London dockowner names Money and Wigram, who from 1810 were also investor-names in the firm Forbes and Co. at Bombay (a firm which still survives with that name!). Alexander Towers*; Joseph Lachlan* (who as an agent took more than 84 contracts - "in bulk" - and so camouflaged the names of the shipowners actually involved); Buckle, Buckle, Bagster* and Buchanan*; J. Atty* and Co., Hovelds*, Lyalls*, Birch* and Ward*, Thomas Ward, Abel Chapman, J. Blacket*, Johnsons*, John Barry*, Robert Brooks, Joseph Somes*, Duncan Dunbar*.
The two lists above of convict-transporting ship managers given for North America, then Australia, are the mainstay-names for England's long-use of convict transportation from 1718 to 1867.
For more detailed information on these merchant names as chapters arise, see Dan Byrnes' website on convict transportation from England, 1718-1810: The Blackheath Connection at: http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/blackheath/

1787: The famous Newgate Prison in London shipped out felons from St. Katherine's Dock, a place which regularly exported felons and slaves to the colonies. As a result, transporting convicts became a business. From 1715 to 1742 the Contractor for Transports (London, Middlesex) was Jonathan Forward, a prosperous tobacco merchant. Later, Andrew Reid succeeded him. Reid, hounded by complaints of almost every nature, was replaced by John Stewart (died 1772), who was replaced by his former junior partner, Duncan Campbell. After that, various merchants competed for contracts to transport felons at their own expense. During the American Revolutionary War convict cargo trade stopped and did not resume again until 1787.
This is from website: (now a broken link?)

1787: Captain Francis Walton (1758-1829) was Master of ship Friendship of First Fleet, (see Gillen, Founders, p. 370.) Later he was Dockmaster of London Docks, at 284 Wapping St. Walton was son of Ratcliffe mariner Francis Walton and Amy Stagg. Walton married Kitty Cock (1771-1852) daughter of William Cock and Rebecca, who had about six children including William Walton (1805-1884) who died at Blackheath.

1787: London Lord Mayor of 1787- John Burnell.

1787: London Lord Mayor of 1787 - James Townsend.

1787: US merchants enter the sea otter trade of Pacific Northwest for the Canton market. John Ledyard, an American who had been on Cook's last voyage, had failed to interest American in the trade, but in 1787, Boston merchants fit out ship Columbia Capt. Robert Gray and sloop Lady Washington to trade for sea otter fur with Northwest Indians. Columbia returns home in 1790 after first American circumnavigation of the globe. Five more vessels left to go into the Northwest fur trade.

1787-1790: Bengal: Managing agency houses set up in Calcutta.

1787: Firm of (J. H.) Cox and Beale is founded in Canton. (Keswick, appendices.)

1787 and later: US-China trader via Sydney Australia, William Fairchild Megee (1765-1820). Or, Magee. Of Providence RI, sometime via Sydney, Australia. Information given here has been derived from a variety of websites, some of them from archivists of his Papers. Magee was a supercargo on John Brown's ship George Washington on its first trading voyage from Rhode Island to China and East Indies in 1787 (see also re Samuel Ward on that ship). Magee went again to China in 1789. Magee also became involved in the slave trade to South America using ship Resource by 1806. At times magee co-owned various ships with William Clarke, Joseph Nightingale, John Innes Clarke, John Corlis, Amos T. Jenckes. Magee married Susan Nightingale (1771-1841), daughter of Samuel II Nightingale, 1741-1814, and Susanna Crawford (1741-1790). Nightingales were a prominent Providence Rhode Island family earlier married to the name Belcher, and later to Jenckes. Samuel III Nightingale was first involved in shipping and later in textiles. John Corlis and W. F. Magee/Megee once had the ship Hazard with Samuel III Nightingale a supercargo. (See www.lexisnexis.com.academic/guides/ and www.rihs.org/ from Rhode Island Historical Society Manuscripts Division which presents William F. Megree Papers (1791-1811) as part of the Nightingale-Jenckes Papers.) Magee had links with Edwin T. Jenckes, a protege of his uncle, Samuel Nightingale III.
Precis: Magee died at Canton in 1820. He is spelled Megee on a university archive-type website. It is difficult however to find where he gained the name Fairchild. There was one James Mageee who died 1801, and an American Privateer named James Magee of ship General Arnold who died in 1778, it is not known if they are relatives. There is a James Magee a brother-in-law of Thomas Handasynd Perkins. (See Henry Lee, The Magee Family and the Origins of the China Trade, The Proceedings, Massachusetts Historical Society, Vol. LXXXI, 1969., pp. 104-119. See Jacques M. Downs, ´The Merchant as Gambler, Major William Fairchild Magee, 1765-1820´, Rhode Island History, Vol. XXVII, No. 4, Nov 1969. Magee visited Sydney on Grand Turk in the mid-1790s (see Cumpston's Register. Magee owned or co-owned the following ships registered in Providence, Rhode Island, in 1795 Susan with William Clarke and Joseph Nightingale, in 1798 the Palmyra with John Innes, Clark, in 1798-1808 with Resource (Resource on a slaving voyage to South America in 1806, was possibly in partnership with Edward Carrington) with John Corlis and later with Amos. T. Jenckes. In 1801 with Hazard with John Corlis; in 1801 with ship John and Charles with John Corlis, plus a few others.
NB - Ed. The Fairchild family is extremely large, and very hard to monitor. The Fairchild family became grouped with the Avery and Park families of Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island. If today´s websites can be believed, WFM was son of John Magee and Phebe Fairchild. John Magee was probably from ireland, either a first-time immigrant or son of a first-time immigrant. (The name Magee is found also in New Jersey but those Magee names seem to pre-date the man who married Phebe Fairchild.)
THis Phebe Fairchild seems to have had a brother Major Fairchild (probably son and grandson of a succession of men so-named), who died in 1795 and was married to Bathsheba Palmer, born 1709 in Rhode Island but with parents so far unidentified. Bathsheba Palmer had children, Ann Fairchild (1730-1803 married Bowler Metcalf (1726-1789)), and Phoebe Fairchild (married John Meyer).
WFM had a sister Mary Magee born 1759, this is all that is known. WFM married Susan Nightingale (1771-1841) daughter of Samuel II Nightingale (1741-1814) and Susanna Crawford (1741-1790). The Nightingales were well-connected on Rhode Island both politically and commercially. WFM can be regarded as something of a Rhode Island pioneer of American-Australian trade of the 1790s, and hence a pioneer of Australian-American relations.
The William F. Megee Papers - Item online as Rhode Island Historical Society Manuscripts Division.
(part of the Nightingale-Jenckes Papers) Merchant of Providence, R.I. and Canton, China Papers, 1791-1811. Catalog number: MSS 588, sg 4. ©Rhode Island Historical Society, Manuscripts Division
Historical note: William Fairchild Megee (1765-1820) of Providence Rhode Island served as supercargo on board John Brown's ship George Washington on the first trading voyage from Rhode Island to China and the East Indies in 1787. He sailed again to China in 1789, and later owned or co-owned several ships active in the trade. He also engaged in the slave trade in South America from his sloop Resource as late as 1806, and may have been a partner with merchant Edward Carrington on some ventures. Megee died in Canton in 1820, where he was operating as a factor. He owned the following ships registered in Providence, and possibly others:
1795, ship Susan with William Clarke and Joseph Nightingale. 1798, ship Palmyra with John Innes Clark. 1798-1808, ship Resource with John Corlis and later with Amos T. Jenckes. 1801, ship Hazard with John Corlis. 1801, ship John and Charles with John Corlis. 1801, ship Susan with John Corlis. 1803, ship Abby and Sally (sole owner). 1803-1804, schooner Silvia (sole owner - condemned as unseaworthy). 1803-1804, brigantine Industry (sole owner)
WF Magee married Susan Nightingale (1771-1841), daughter of Samuel Nightingale II (1741-1814). They had one son, William F. Jr. (1795?-1826), a sea captain who died on the coast of Africa. William F. Megee Jr. also owned a share of the ship Two Catherines from 1822 until his death. Mageeś son William F. Jnr. left a son of his own, William C. Megee.
Bibliography: Chapin, William Waterman. Genealogy of the Nightingale Family (typescript at the R.I.H.S., compiled 1912).
Coughtry, Jay. The Notorious Triangle: Rhode Island and the African Slave Trade 1700-1807. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1981. See note on page 323.
Hedges, James B. The Browns of Providence Plantations: The Nineteenth Century. Providence : Brown University Press, 1968.
Works Projects Administration. Ship Registers and Enrollments of Providence, R.I. 1773-1939. Providence, R.I. 1941.
Scope and content: This collection includes correspondence files and accounts from 1791 to 1808, the bulk covering 1800 to 1805. There are also family deeds from 1791 to 1811. There is very little relating to Megee's early service with the Brown family (of the firm Brown and Ives of Rhode Island). There are extensive accounts relating to Megee's ship Resource. For the most part, the papers are organized only by year, and may not be in chronological order within the folders. Accounts, receipts and invoices can be found interfiled with the correspondence. Magee had some accounts kept by one John Lippitt about 1803-1805.

1788: Loss in the Pacific Ocean of the French exploration expedition led by La Perouse. Napoleon Bonaparte had attempted to join this expedition. Bonaparte remained interested in Australia, and in 1800 sent French exploration ships (corvettes), Le Naturaliste and Le Geographe, under Captain Nicholas Baudin, accompanied by scientist Francois Peron.

1788: January, Settling of Sydney, New South Wales as a British convict colony.

1788+: John Bach, A Maritime History of Australia. Melbourne, Nelson, 1976.

January 1788: French ships Astrolabe and Boussole under command of Jean Francois de La Perouse enter Botany Bay, Australia. Startling the British who had only just arrived.

1788++: Reference item: Hon Herbert F. Hardacre, The Dawn of Settlement in Australia; its conditions and general development to the end of the First Quarter of a Century: 1788-1813. Nil info on publisher, 1926.

1788: First US consul to Canton, Major Samuel Shaw, observes Bengal-based ships engaged in opium smuggling.

1788-1810: Opium trader Robert Saunders (1754-1825), of whom little is known. (Was he the Saunders later by 1800 in London the partner of John Prinsep?). Son of David Saunders. Robert married Margaret Keble. In 1788 he is involved at Boglepore in opium trade; evidence is a letter he wrote to collector at Dinajpur. He later lived at Lewisham, Kent. A website exists on the Saunders line at: http://www.mit.edu/~dfm/genealogy/saunders.html

Follows an edited impression of some Saunders family history, conjecturing that some of the Saunders listed may have been partners with John Prinsep the pioneer indigo planter of India for the East India Company:
Descendants of Apothecary, Banff David SAUNDERS David
1. Apothecary, Banff SAUNDERS David-58344 (b.1689;d.1719) sp: Anne Anna COCKBURN-123617 2. Dr James Kenneth SAUNDERS (b.1717;d.1878) sp: Bathia Bethia LESLIE;
3. Dr, FRS, William SAUNDERS (b.1743;d.1817) sp: Charity Cherry WARD wife2
(b.1787;m.1781;d.1817) 4. Major William SAUNDERS (b.1789;d.1839) sp: Eliza Louisa BOYD (m.1823)
5. Major-General William Boyd SAUNDERS (b.1827) sp: Matilda KNOX-GORE
6. John James SAUNDERS (b.1794;d.1876) sp: Isabella Susanna BOYD of Blackheath (d.1876);
5. Frances Isabella Maria SAUNDERS-32978 sp: Rev Fitzwilliam John TAYLOR; 5. Capt. George Robert SAUNDERS (b.1836;d.1868); sp: Laura Mary JOHNSTONE (m.1862);
4. Mary SAUNDERS (b.1773;d.1838) sp: George Henry WARD (b.1785;m.1817;d.1849); 4. Bengal Civil Service staffer George SAUNDERS (b.1782;d.1836) sp: Anne RUSSELL (m.1808;d.1849); 4. Bengal Civil Service staffer Robert SAUNDERS (b.1792;d.1856) sp: Eliza Wallace BARNETT widow (c.1810;m.1824)
5. Marianne Charity SAUNDERS sp: Dr George David POLLOCK (b.1818);
6. Hugh POLLOCK (b.1859;d.1945) sp: Alice WYKEHAM-MARTIN (m.1898) sp: Margaret PETRIE wife1 (m.1769;d.1777);
2. Indigo mart, Calcutta, Robert SAUNDERS (b.1754;d.1825) sp: Margaret KEBLE (m.1786;d.1828); 3. Harriet SAUNDERS Unm (b.1787;d.1829); 3. EICo Merchant George William SAUNDERS (b.1789;d.1830) sp: Angel Margaret MARSHALL (m.1817;d.1834) 3. Indigo dealer Robert John SAUNDERS (b.1792;d.1852) sp: Isabella NICHOLSON-16415 3. James Fergusson SAUNDERS (b.1790) sp: Wife2 MUSKETT Lucy Louisa.

1788: Opium trader little-known to history, Capt. Thomas Charles Pattle (1773-1815). (Pattle genealogy) A merchant resident by 1773 about Canton, also known at Beauleah, India. Died 1815 at Macao. Son of EICo director Thomas Pattle and widow Sarah Hasleby. Married to wife1 Eliza Anne Frances Middleton. He is member of Canton Civil Service in 1788 and second member of Select Committee 1805-1801. Later also 1812-1813-1814-185. He is appointed a supercargo in 1794. Provers of his will in 1815 are Sir William Fraser (hard to trace) and Charles Magniac (see below).
The residue of his estate was invested in 1865. (Data per email from descendant Mary Pattle Hover.). This Capt. Thomas Charles also in Hover data becomes a director of East India Company. He ended with an estate of not £90,000 as he thought but £163,769. He is a link in Pattle genealogy re wife1 of Edward Gibbon Wakefield? (Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Brooke of Sarawak.)
A witness to his second marriage is Thomas Hillman. He has brothers James (Jim "Blazes") Pattle and William Pattle of Bengal Light Cavalry.
(Paul Bloomfield, Edward Gibbon Wakefield: Builder of the British Commonwealth. London, Longmans Green and Co., 1961., p. 35. (With genealogical table on E. G. Wakefield.)
Thomas Charles is brother of Jim "Blazes" Pattle who has seven daughters. Pattle is of Bengal Civil Service and is half-cousin of the father of (the first?) Rajah Brooke of Sarawak. Family data suggests he has brothers James and William, sisters Sara Rocke, Eliza Mitford and Sophia Lay (?) who marries James Gardiner (?).

1788: Circa: Alexander Adamson in Bombay is partner with free merchants David Scott Snr, James Tates and the Parsi, Dady Nusserwanjee. For the British, the successful 1784 outcome of wars with the Marathas meant that free merchants could shelter under the protection of the EICo. This was offset by the EICo's reliance on their funds for "official" purposes from time to time.
(Bulley, Bombay Ships, p. 178.)

1789: Whaling history: Due to the American Revolution, US whaling was slow to recover after 1783, but in 1789, Nantucket captains learned of the sperm whales of the Indian Ocean, and by 1791 were six Nantucket whalers rounding Cape Horn to try to Pacific whaling grounds which has been ascertained (after early British reports) by the Hudson, New York whaler, American Hero. One of these six was Beaver, which cost $10,212 to fit out, with a crew of 17 and three whaleboats. Later use whalers might cost $20,000 to fit for a single voyage, though profits might be 350 per cent.
K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways.. University of South Carolina Press, 1988., p. 234.

1789: See John G. B. Hutchins, The American Maritime Industry and Public Policy, 1789-1939. Cambridge, Mass., 1941.*

1789: London Lord Mayor of 1789- William Gill

1789: In 1789 Alexander Adamson at Bombay tenders his first East India Company ship, is still supplying later and by 1798-1807 Adamson owns/manages eleven ships, let to government for trips to Cape of Good Hope. David Scott Snr and Adamson are partners before 1800.

14 July 1789, Paris, France, Day of the Storming of the Bastille. French Revolution.

1789: George Washington elected first president of the United States.

1789: In 1789 Adamson tendered his first EICo ship, and he continued to supply, as to the Cape of Good Hope, to 1798-1807. Adamson owned /managed eleven ships.
(Bulley, Bombay Country Ships, 1790-1833, pp. 178ff.)

1789: Origins of Bombay EICo firm Bruce Fawcett and Co., quite active by 1795. This firm operated in Bombay 1789-1816, probably with partners, Patrick Crawford Bruce and maybe Thomas Bruce (an EICo General-Accountant?) and also with Indian merchant Pestonjee Bomanee. Partners of the Fawcett firm included: William Crawford. Fawcett's firm were large Bombay traders, by 1798 sending cotton to China.
(Bulley, Bombay Country Ships, 1790-1833, pp. 178ff.)

1789-1800: Circa: Opium trader Mr Graham, of an India agency house. Parents unknown. (S. B. Singh, Agency Houses, p. 10, p. 39, notes Graham and Moubray, in 1789 like some others wanting to supply the Canton trade with funds; dealing in opium and cotton.

1789: In 1789 Alexander Adamson tendered his first EICo ship, and he continued to supply, as to the Cape of Good Hope, to 1798-1807. Adamson owned /managed eleven ships.
(Bulley, Bombay Country Ships, 1790-1833, pp. 178ff.)

1789: Note: In a chapter, Captains Ashore , (Joseph Cotton)..."A contemporary of his, William Money, who was a Director (EICo) from 1789 to 1797 had been captain of the "Gatton" in a voyage to Bombay and back (c.1757). (From "East Indiamen" by Sir Evan Cotton and edited by Sir Charles Fawcett.)

1789: Origins of Bombay EICo firm Bruce Fawcett and Co., quite active by 1795. This firm operated in Bombay 1789-1816, probably with partners, Patrick Crawford Bruce and maybe Thomas Bruce (an EICo General-Accountant?) and also with Indian merchant Pestonjee Bomanee. Partners of the Fawcett firm included: William Crawford. Fawcett's firm were large Bombay traders, by 1798 sending cotton to China.
(Bulley, Bombay Country Ships, 1790-1833, pp. 178ff.)

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