[Prevous page - Timelines From 1600-1700] [You are now on Merchants Networks Project Timelines page filed as: From 1700-1740 - timelines2.htm] [Next page Timelines 1740-1750]
For a page in Chinese
about this website,
click on the image of the junk
This file is devoted to presenting basic Timeline information for website readers. The items are often sketchy, and some have been extracted from other websites managed by Dan Byrnes. These Timelines will be added-to intermittently, as new data and new e-mail arrives. Book titles will be entered according to the timeframes they treat. -Ed
To go to the next file in this Merchant Networks Timelines series of files, Click here
Item: James Alexander, 'The Economic Structure of the City of London at the end of the Seventeenth Century', Urban History Yearbook, [Great Britain], 1989, pp. 47-62.
PayPal - safe and secure
If you value the information
Reference item: John L. McMullan, The Canting Crew: London's Criminal Underworld, 1550-1700. New Brunswick, 1984.
1689: British mail by sea: The British Government maintained a mail service from Falmouth to Corunna in Spain from 1689 . However, by early 1701 it saw a pressing need to provide a regular mail service to its colonial governors in the West Indies and the Americas. In August a proposal was made by Edmund Dummer, Surveyor-General of the (British) Navy and then operator of the line of packets between Falmouth, Corunna and Lisbon. His detailed subsequent plan, drawn up in May 1702, was put before the Commissioners for Trade and Plantations and proposed a monthly service between England and the West Indies by four ships calling at Barbados, Antigua, Montserrat, Nevis and Jamaica. The Lords of Trade offered some additions including a distinct service to the American colonies. Negotiations were concluded by June 1702 and the service commenced in October, with postal rates established by Royal Warrant dated 4th December 1702. Although Dummer's service ran into many difficulties and the service closed in July 1711, it proved that a regular mail service to the West Indies was good for trade and that Falmouth was a good base from which the Post Office could operate a packet service. The Post Office resumed the West India packet service from Falmouth in November 1745 and to the other colonies on the continent of North America via New York in October 1755. This service continued to grow with the addition of Pensacola, St Augustine and Charleston in 1764. However, relationships with colonial America brought a break between September 1775 and January 1777 (New York), and again between March 1813 and March 1815. (From website on Falmouth Packets, by Julian H Jones online).
Governors of the Hudson's Bay Company
(in London 1670-1874 from http://www.worldstatesmen.org/)2 May 1670 - 29 Sep 1682, Prince Rupert (b. 1619 - d. 1682)
1701: Capt Kidd is back in London, a furore on his activities
and queries on who were his backers? House of Commons listens to
argument and allegations. If Kidd claims, as he did, he is
innocent, then he also exonerates his backers.
29 Sept., 1701: inquiry into William Dampier's voyage, no verdict recorded. Sitting were president of court-martial Sir Clowdisley Shovell, and Vice Admiral Hopson, on HMS Royal Souveraine at Spithead on 8 June, 1702. Later it was reported, Dampier to go to depart to West Indies, kissed HM hand, introduced to her by Royal Highness the Lord High Admiral. The war of Spanish succession had broken out, privateers in vogue, and the owners of St George 120 men 26 guns wanted Dampier as commander, official approval forthcoming. Dampier to go out with privateer Fame Capt John Pulling, to war on French and Spanish. Dampier had a roving commission to do what he liked. (Clennell Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 183-189.)
1701: England: A London Customs commissioner, Godolphin, introduces a register of all trading vessels.
1701++: Reputation of Scots-English financier William Paterson's
recovers from earlier reverses, by 1701 he proposes a kind of
Scottish Council of Trade, William Paterson perhaps raises the
enterprise-aspiration of Scotland considerably. re Union with
England; one idea he had in 1706 was he was Edinburgh as a
Commissioner of the English Govt., and the last Scot Parliament of
all commended him to the English monarch. He died in 1720, January,
just as the South Sea Bubble was giving his Bank of England "a
severe baptism of fire". Daniel Defoe thought Paterson a worthy
patriot of his country.
H. R. Fox Bourne, English Merchants: Memoirs, p. 271.
1701: Dr James Wallace sails with a Scots "Darien Fleet" and later gives an almost-official record to the Royal Society, of Capt Pennycook's voyage. Royal Society prints it in 1700-1701 as part of its transactions. (G. Pratt on Darien, p. 77, p. 271)
1702: War of the Spanish Succession.
1702: Britain begins its regular Falmouth mail packet ship to Lisbon, Portugal. (From website on Falmouth Packets, by Julian H. Jones online).>
1702: New York passes an Act for regulating slaves, which amongst other prohibitions bans meetings of more than three slaves, trading by slaves and the giving of testimony in court by slaves.
By the 1700s, larger cities than European cities existed in China, northern India and Central America.
1703: Rhode Island makes it illegal for blacks and Indians to walk at night without passes.
1703: Connecticut assigns a punishment of whipping to any slaves who disturb the peace or assault whites.
1703 - Isaac Newton Elected FRS in 1672, and in 1703, Newton president of RS, and became friends with Jean Desaguliers (Holy Grail p. 456), of Sion, who helped spread Freemasonry throughout Europe, associated with Radclyffe, Ramsay, and in 1731 as Master of the Masonic lodge at the Hague, presided (it is said) over initiation of the first European prince to become a Freemason, Francois, Duke of Lorraine, who when he married to Maria Therese of Austria became Holy Roman Emperor.
|Merchant Networks Timelines|
|From before 1500 to 1930||There are now 21++ files in this series|
|Most files are filled with data for ten-year periods (decadally)||These data have been years in compilation. Their trend is to follow the changing shapes of the British Empire.|
1703: (Penson, Colonial Agents, p.84), Sir Bevil Grenville is gov. of Barbados; some disputes arise re agents.
1703: Earl of Morton in Dec 1703 wanting to send his ship Morton 100 tons Capt. John Brohode to East Indies. (G. Pratt on Darien p. 251.)
1703: 30 April: Dampier sails privateering to West Indies, joined there by Cinque Ports mate Alexander Selkirk, 16 guns 63 men 90 tons, Capt Charles Pickering and Lt Thos Stradling. Sailed to Madeira, St Iago Oct 7th, then Juan Fernandez, then Tobago, then Stradling on Cinque Ports put Selkirk (who later inspires Robinson Crusoe) ) on Juan Fernandez Island.
1703: 26 November: 11pm: One of the greatest storms known to England hits, The Great Storm, devastating London, estimated 6000 seamen lost, 300 merchantmen sank, blew down 19,000 trees in Kent, toppled 800 houses. (Rediker, p. 27.)
1703: England: Earl of Morton in December 1703 wants to send his ship Morton 100 tons Capt. John Brohode to East Indies trade areas. (G. Pratt, Darien, p. 251)
1704: English take Gibraltar.
1704+: Barbados agents include William Bridges MP in 1705, a law clerk for secretaries of state, Francis Eyles, Robert Heysham. In 1704 some relevant names were Sir John Stanley a commissioner of the Customs House, William Bridges, Melatia (sic) Holder, plus William Cleland.
1704+: Archibald Campbell, Third Duke of Argyll, (1628-1761), in 1705 the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, and commissioner of the Union in 1706 for 1707. He succeeded his brother John as duke of Argyll, and served as a Scottish peer in the United Parliament until his death. Unlike his brother he supported Robert Walpole. He held high offices and promoted trade, industry and schools in Scotland.
1704+: 1704-1732 is a long gap in the records of West India agencies, for Jamaica. An Act of 1693 re this had expired in 1704, and so the concerns of Jamaica were left in care of absentee planters and merchants as they chose voluntarily to fulfil some of the functions of an agent. Is this gap suspicious or not re the activities of those who had backed Cromwell's "western expedition" which took Jamaica from Spain?
By 1705: The role of French ambassador to Spain, Michael-Jean Amelot, Marquis de Gournay. (Lynch on Bourbon Spain)
1705: Massachusetts maks marriage and sexual relations between blacks and whites illegal.
1705: New York declares that punishment by execution shall be applied to certain runaway slaves.
1705: Slaves in Virginia are now regarded as property. Virginia lawmakers allow owners to bequeath their slaves and the same law allows masters to "kill and destroy" runaway slaves. In 1705 the Virginia Slave Code codifies slave status, declaring that all non-Christian servants entrering the colony will be slaves. It defines all slaves as real estate, acquits masters who kill slaves during any punishment, forbids slaves and free coloured people from physically assaulting white persons and denies slaves the right to bear arms or move abroad without written permission.
1705: French ships begin to enter the Pacific Ocean.
1705: Exploration of Australia: Voyage of Dutch ship and Van Delfft to Melville Island, Coburg Peninsula and Croker Island.
1705: Invention of Newcomen's steam-engine with condenser.
1705: Agency of Bermuda (Somers Islands), first agent late as 1705 is London merchant Charles Noden, till 1714, succeeded by Sir John Bennet and his brother Thomas, then in 1724 a new agreement and London agent Ralph Noden of the same family was appointed, till 1750, after disputes with the gov. No other names arise of interest. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 247)
1705: Barbados agents included William Bridges MP in 1705, a law clerk for secretaries of state, Francis Eyles, Robert Heysham. In 1704 some names were Sir John Stanley a commissioner of the Customs House, William Bridges, Melatia (sic) Holder, plus William Cleland.
1705: French ships begin to enter the Pacific Ocean.
See also: Bernard Smith, European Vision and the South Pacific. 1950.; Bernard Smith, Imagining The Pacific: In The Wake of the Cook Voyages. MUP, 1992.
1705: Dutch mariners make significant efforts to know more of the north and south coasts of New Guinea and north coast of Australia, eg, Port Essington. and in 1721, the Dutch West India Co sought to find unknown areas west of South America, three ships, went by the north coast of New Guinea. (Australian Encyclopedia, exploration by sea).
1705: Richard Cary as agent for Nevis, in Penson, Colonial Agents, p.126.) (Another Cary to be a noted merchant, see Kellock.)
1705: Agency of Bermuda (Somers Islands), first agent late as 1705 was London merchant Charles Noden, till 1714, succeeded by Sir John Bennet and his brother Thomas, then in 1724 a new agreement and London agent Ralph Noden of the same family was appointed, till 1750, after disputes with the Gov., no other names arise of interest. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p.247.)
1706: Hauksbee explores static glow in partial vacuum.
1706: Thomas Twining establishes Tom's Coffee House in Deveraux
Court near Temple Bar, London, and begins to specialize in tea. He
opens another house, The Golden Lyon, nearby for the sale of
dry tea and coffee.
(Sir Percival Griffiths, The History of the Indian Tea Industry. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1967., p. 17.)
1706: After 1670, the Bahamas were subject of a grant to certain of the proprietors to whom the province of Carolina was granted in 1670, [citing CSP iii, No. 311, pp. 132-133, of Nov 1, 1670]. The proprietors of Bahamas made little provision for defence, and in 1704 they had become depopulated due to war. About 150 families there. Salt the chief product. Bahamas had been a stronghold of pirates, situation not addressed again till 1715. By 1707, collector of customs for 20 years on Bahamas had been John Graves. For years the proprietors of the Bahamas had been resident of England, they had an agent to see to their interests re the Board of Trade, one Thornburgh. By 1706, Graves urges govt that Bahamas are decayed due to neglect of the proprietors. (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 99-103.)
April 1706: Some 31 commissioners meet in London to discuss the union of Scotland and England, for new negotiations; one commissioner was Sir John Clerk, although union detested by Jacobite Scots.
September 1706: A huge tobacco fleet leaves Virginia, heavy
weather and French privateers, and 30 ships with nearly 15,000
pounds (weight) of tobacco are lost. The English market is anyway
glutted and result was a financial crisis for Virginia.
John M. Hemphill, Virginia and the English Commercial System, 1689-1733. London. Garland. 1985. [facsimile of a 1964 Ph. D thesis, Princeton Univ. p. 27].
1706: New York declares blacks, Indians, and slaves who kill white people to be subject to the death penalty.
1706: Connecticut requires that Indians, mulattos and black servants gain permission from their masters to engage in trade.
1707: India: Death of Mogul emperor Aurangzeb followed by break-up of Mogul empire.
1707: One Robert Holden is proposed as governor of Bahamas, and John Graves resists this, in Penson, Colonial Agents, p.103. Graves said that after Holden had seen the [as usual, unnamed] proprietors he was only interested in "wrecks and whales".
1707: (H. R. Fox Bourne, English Merchants: Memoirs, p. 333), "The first English banker" is Sir Francis Child, and Coutts are the largest corn dealers in Scotland.
1707: Act of Union joins England and Scotland.
Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor
for 1708-1709 - Sir Charles Duncombe
(There are some confusions with this family, difficult to resolve)
Descendants of Duncombe Senior and Miss Notknown
2. Anthony Duncombe (Alexander?) Of Drayton, Bucks Duncombe, Wilts (c.1670) sp: Mary Paulye (m.15 May 1645;d.1716)
3. Ursula Duncombe of Herts sp: Excise rec-general, Thomas (Duncombe-Brown) Browne (m.1678)
4. MP Thomas Duncombe (Duncombe-Browne of Duncombe Park) (b.1683;d.1746) sp: Sarah Slingsby (m.1714) 4. Mary (Duncombe-Browne) Browne wife1 (d.15 Jan 1716) sp: John CAMPBELL Duke1 Greenwich Duke2 Argyll (b.10 Oct 1680;m.1702;d.4 Oct 1743) 3. London Lord Mayor Sir Charles Duncombe (c.1708/1709;d.9 Apr 1711) sp: Miss Notknown sp: Jane Cornwallis coheir 3. MP, Whig Anthony Duncombe, Baron Feversham (b.1695;d.18 Jun 1763) sp: Margaret Verney wife1 (d.9 Oct 1755) sp: Frances Bathurst wife2 (m.Nov 1756;d.21 Nov 1757) sp: Anne Hales (b.24 Jun 1736;m.10 Aug 1758;d.18 Jun 1795) 4. Anne Duncombe, coheir (d.14 Oct 1829) sp: Jacob Bouverie Earl2 Radnor (b.4 Mar 1750;m.1777;d.27 Jan 1828) sp: Margaret Verney wife1 (d.9 Oct 1755)
1708: Rhode Island now requires that slaves be accompanied by their masters when visiting the homes of free persons.
1708: Blacks now outnumber whites in South Carolina.
1708: The southern American colonies require militia captains to enlist and train one slave for every white soldier.
1708: Inventor Darby casts iron in sand.
1708: Merging of the Old and New East India Companies, new charter in 1711 extended to Co's trading rights till 1733, a 1730 attempt by other merchants to share in its trade in vain, monopoly continued till 1769.
1708: 2 August: Leaves Bristol privateer Woodes Rogers backed by
Bristol merchants and later Rogers is friends with Sir Robert
Southwell and Sir Hans Sloane and he is later made governor of the
Bahamas, died there 1732. He is on Duke, 320 tons 30 guns
117 men; and Capt Stephen Courtney on Duchess 260 tons 26
guns 108 men, and on Duke's crew are included Carleton Vanbrugh
merchant and owner's agent; Dampier pilot, John Finch steward, late
wholesale oilman of London; see re later rescue of Selkirk, brought
back a fortune of £170,000.
(Clen Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 189-192-207, p. 217.)
1708: 22 Feb: Plans for an invasion of Scotland. March 1708, King of France indicated support for the invasion to Edinburgh, but matters are badly organized by France.
1708: Early months, (Gila Curtis, p. 157), a French fleet seen by anxious English spies, assembled at Dunkirk, projected invasion by the pretended Prince of Wales, so Catholics are put under suspicion. Habeus Corpus is suspended. The prince opposing his half-sister's throne is now 20 years old, James Francis Stuart. Invasion fails, the English fleet under Sir George Byng, and the fall of Harley was also engineered. Enter the Junto. More fighting with the French. Harley takes to driving about the parks to provide an impression all was well. Queen Anne becomes ill. Harley as treasurer is losing his grip on most things, he cannot make himself understood clearly.
1708: Vice-admiral Charles Wager commands at Jamaica and with
three ships attacks the Spanish silver fleet, success incomplete.
He later becomes very rich. And about now, Anglo-French rivalry
shifts to American mainland.
(Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 330.)
See also: Ernest Samhaber, Merchants Make History: How Trade Has Influenced The Course Of History Throughout The World. London, Harrap. 1963.
1709: Ghilzai people under Mir Vais defeat Persian army; Afghanistan no longer an obedient province of Persian empire.
1709: A financial crash occurs in Lyon and Geneva in which financier Samuel Bernard loses a fortune.
1709: England: Orford (see Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 225), is made First Lord of Admiralty.
1709: Freemasons' modes of recognition mentioned in The Tatler.
1709: Liverpool begins its slave trade in 1709, says Samhaber.
1709: End of Sweden as a major European power when Charles XII and Swedish forces at Poltava, Ukraine, lose to Russian forces under Peter the Great.
1709: A Jesuit priest from Brazil, Father Bartolomeu de Gusmao, demonstrates a hot-air balloon to the Portuguese court at Lisbon. That is, the Montgolfier Bros of Paris were probably not the first people to fly in a balloon. (Source: James/Thorpe).
1710: Sir Gilbert Heathcote (1651-1733), a founder of the [New?] East India Company in 1693, London Lord Mayor in 1710-1711. (Lewis Melville, The South Sea Bubble. New York, Burt Franklins, 1921., pp. 123)
Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor
1710-1711 Gilbert Heathcote
(Note the connections here with the power structure of Loyalist New York, and De Lanceys)
Descendants of Gilbert Heathcote (c.1633;d.1634) and Anne Dickens
2. Colonel, Customs, Mayor New York, Caleb Heathcote (c.1700) sp: Patty (Martha) Smith
3. Anne Heathcote sp: Acting-Gov New York, James De Lancey, Loyalist (b.1703;m.1729;d.1760) 4. Merchant, horse racer, James De Lancey Junior (b.1732;d.1800) sp: Margaret Allen (m.1771) 4. Miss DE Lancey sp: MP, contractor, John Watts of New York (c.1775) 4. Julia De Lancey sp: Capt. Robert Timpson (c.1775) 2. London Lord Mayor Sir Gilbert Heathcote (b.1651;d.25 Jan 1733) sp: Hester Rayner (b.1682;m.1682) 3. Anne Heathcote sp: Steelmaster, South Sea Co. figure, Sir Jacob Jacobson 3. Sir John Heathcote, Bart2 sp: Miss Notknown 4. Hester Heathcote wife2 sp: Archibald Edmonstone (b.10 Oct 1717;m.Apr 1778;d.1807)
3. Hesther Heathcote wife2 sp: William Sloane 3. Elizabeth Heathcote sp: Sir Sigismund Trafford of Lincolnshire
2. Baltic Co. merchant Samuel Heathcote (d.13 Nov 1708) sp: Mary Dawson (m.1691) 3. Mary Of Hackney Heathcote wife1 sp: MP Sir Philip (William?) Yonge, Bart4 (b.1693;m.30 Jul 1716(Div);d.1755) 3. MP Sir William Heathcote, Bart1 (b.15 Mar 1693) sp: Elizabeth Parker (m.7 Apr 1720;d.27 Dec 1749)
4. Sir Thomas Heathcote, Bart2 of Hants (b.23 Jul 1721) sp: Elizabeth Hinton wife1 (d.27 Dec 1749) sp: Anne Tollett wife2 (m.30 May 1754;d.1709) 4. Elizabeth Heathcote, cousin (c.1740) sp: Admiral Francis William Drake (b.22 Aug 1724;m.3 Nov 1763;d.19 Nov 1789) 4. Sir William Heathcote, Bart2 (c.1754;d.23 Jul 1721) sp: Elizabeth Hinton wife1 (m.13 Dec 1742;d.27 Dec 1749) 4. Mary Heathcote, a fortune, cousin (d.1812) sp: Thomas Parker Earl3 Macclesfld Visc Parker (b.12 Oct 1732;m.12 Dec 1749;d.9 Feb 1795) 3. Anne Heathcote Of Hursley sp: MP Sir Francis Tavistock Drake, Bart4 (d.1740) 4. MP Sir Francis Henry Drake, Bart5 (b.1723;d.1794) 4. Admiral Francis William Drake (b.22 Aug 1724;d.19 Nov 1789) sp: Elizabeth Heathcote, (cousin) (c.1740;m.3 Nov 1763) sp: Miss Onslow wife2 sp: Elizabeth Hayman Of Kent
1710: The English Royal Africa Company lists include: Sir William Humphreys, Deputy-Governor Thomas Pindar, John Campbell, John Duncombe, William Elliott (sic), James Gohier (sic), Arthur Moore, Anthony Reynolds, Daniel Hayes, John Cutting, William Lancaster, Robert Vansittart, John Cooke, Stephen Pendarves, Sir Jonathan Andrews, Capt John Nicholson, Colonel Joseph Jorey, Thomas Lake, Sir Francis Dashwood, (another). Sir Stephen Evance (sic), Sir Samuel Stanier (sic), John Morgan, Charles Vere, William Mead, Colonel William Graham, Francis Dandridge.
1710+: James Russell 1710+, the greatest Maryland merchants in London were Captain John Hyde, plus his sons, John and Herbert Hyde. (Jacob Price article, p. 178)
1710+: James Russell 1710 or so, the greatest Maryland merchants in London are Captain John Hyde, plus his sons, John and Herbert Hyde. See Jacob M. Price, 'One Family's Empire: The Russell-Lee-Clerk Connection in Maryland, Britain and India, 1707-1857'., Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 72, 1977. See also: Jacob M. Price, 'The Last Phase of the Virginia-London Consignment Trade: James Buchanan and Co, 1758-1768', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. XLIII, No. 1, Jan. 1968., pp. 64ff.; Jacob M. Price, 'Buchanan and Simson, 1759-1763: A Different Kind of Glasgow Firm Trading to the Chesapeake', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. XL, No. 1. Jan. 1983., pp. 3ff.; Jacob M. Price, 'The Rise of Glasgow in the Chesapeake Tobacco Trade, 1707-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. XI, April 1954., pp. 179ff.; Jacob M. Price, (Ed.), 'Joshua Johnson's Letterbook, 1771-1774: Letters from a Merchant in London to His Partners in Maryland'. London, 1979. Jacob M. Price, 'Capital And Credit In The British-Chesapeake Trade, 1750-1775', in Virginia B. Platt and David Curtis Skaggs, (Eds.), Of Mother Country And Plantations: Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Conference In Early American History. Bowling Green, Ohio, 1971. Jacob M. Price, essay, 'Joshua Johnson In London, 1771-1775', in Anne Whiteman et al, (Eds.), Statesmen, Scholars and Merchants, Essays ... presented to Dame Lucy Sutherland. Oxford, 1973.
John M. Hemphill, Virginia and the English Commercial System,
1689-1733. London. Garland. 1985. [facsimile of a 1964 Ph. D
thesis, Princeton Univ. p. 259, citing on Perry, Elizabeth Donnan,
'Eighteenth-Century English Merchants: Micajah Perry',
Journal of Economic and Business History. 4 Vols. Cambridge
Mass, 1928-1932, iv 1932., pp. 70-98.
John M. Hemphill, Virginia and the English Commercial System, 1689-1733. London. Garland. 1985. [facsimile of a 1964 Ph. D thesis, Princeton Univ. pp. 44-45ff, a good deal of discussion of Micajah Perry and his views on trading.
See Katharine A. Kellock, 'London Merchants and the pre-1776 American Debts, Guildhall Studies in London History, Vol. 1, No 3, October 1974., pp. 109-149.
1711: England: Formation of South Seas Company.
1711: South Seas Company founded by Rbt Harley, (Earl of
Oxford), in 1711, and in 1720 it attempted to take over the
national debt on terms disadvantageous to itself. Rbt Walpole an
astute speculator actually made money out of it all. People in all
ranks of society left penniless. Allegations of bribery,
corruption, robbery and jobbery. One minister committed suicide,
Chancellor of Exchqr and some MPs committed to the Tower, and
estates confiscated. The PM was arraigned. King is reviled for
supporting the Co.
Rbt Harley becomes Chancellor Exchequer in August 1710, needs to improve finances, National Debt is over £nine million, plans especially leaned on the stability of the Bank of England [only recently founded by William Paterson]. Fantasies of vast riches to be found in Peru and South America, [Britain once again as a freebooter]. Idea that ships are only to travel out by Straits of Magellan or by Terra del Fuego, not to trade in goods India, Persia or China, go no further west than Chile, Peru, or Mexico, under pain of heavy forfeitures to East India Company. Bubble directors are not to be in EICo or Bank of England. South Seas Co. has royal assent on 18 May, 1711, by July, some £2,000,000 are subscribed, a further 2 million more came in. South Seas Royal Charter gained by 8 Sept., 1711, for South Seas and other parts of America. Some high connections of the Co. included William Astell, Francis Acton, William Chapman, South Sea Co. set up house in building north-east corner of Threadneedle St, by Bishopsgate St, City. Was to settle factories at Panama, Port Bello, Cartagena, Vera Cruz, Buenos Aires, Havana, agents at Jamaica and Cadiz, Madrid, one ship yearly.
(See Lewis Melville, The South Sea Bubble. New York, Burt Franklins, 1921.)
1711: England, John, Duke of Buckinghamshire in 1711 is president of the council.
1711: China: Ch'ing emperors are willing to relax restrictions on foreign trade and English East India Co. allowed to create a base at Canton.
1711: War between Turkey and Russia.
1711: Sir Gilbert Heathcote (1651-1733), a trader of the EICo in 1693, Lord Mayor of London 1710-1711. (Melville, South Sea Bubble, p. 123.)
1711: Firm Champion and Dickason of Great Ayliffe Street, Goodman's Fields, (formerly the house of Storke from 1711 when John Storke died in 1711 [Storke genealogy remains patchy at best - Ed]) with partner Alexander Champion, also in the New England Company with Thomas Lane, alderman George Hayley also of this house married Storke's widow - Champion left in 1764 to 117 Bishopsgate and Thomas Dickason. Champion retired in 1789 died 1795, the business went to Dickason and Dickason Jnr, and William Burgess debt-collected for them (Champion and Hayley had dealt together in 1764)-Kellock; Champion and Dickason, Kellock, London debt claimants of 1790 appendix p. 120. This firm had its roots in one established by John Storke died 1711, whose mother was a Dummer, which gave him New England correspondents such as Samuel Sewell of Boston. [See William I. Roberts, III, 'Samuel Storke, An Eighteenth Century London Merchant trading to the American Colonies', The Business History Review, XXXIX, Summer 1965., pp. 47-70. Storke's son John died 1725 continued business and was succeeded by his son Samuel Storke, died 1746 aged 59, of [Great Ayliffe Street] Goodman's Fields. By 1734, Samuel Storke had Thomas Gainsborough for a partner with correspondents such as Andrew Oliver of Boston and Cuylers and Livingstons of New York. In 1742 the firm became Storke and Son. Links with a society for the propagation of the gospel in New England. Some funds transfers re such linkages. Samuel Storke took a partner, Alexander Champion, who headed the business after Storke died in 1753. Champion dealt with New England and Thomas Lane of Lane, Son and Fraser, till 1775. In 1764, when Lane declined to give more credit to Gov Jonathan Trumbull later gov of Connecticut, Champion and Hayley gave him £1200 worth of goods on nine months credit. At some time, George Hayley of the Storke counting house married Storke's widow, with a dowry of £15,000, and he became Champion's partner. Storke's widow was a termagent (turbulent) sister of John Wilkes the radical alderman. At end of 1764, Champion left Great Ayliffe Street, Goodman's Fields, and went into business with a new partner Thomas Dickason, at 117 Bishopsgate. When Champion and Hayley parted, Hayley, seeking correspondents for himself, wrote to Champion's correspondents that it had really been he who had conducted the business as Champion had poor health and spent most of his time in the country. Champion retired in 1789, he died in 1795, and he turned the business over to Dickason, who then took on his son and namesake. Young Dickason had already been to America on one debt collecting trip and the firm had earlier sent over William Burgess for the same purpose.
1711: Dies 1711, Merchant John Storke Senior, married to Miss
Dummer of Boston. His son Samuel died of a sudden stroke leaving
Alexander Champion in charge of their firm which had dealt with
Americans such as Robert Livingston Jnr, and Henry Cuyler, families
in the American fur trade. The firm also from 1723-1724 dealt with
James Logan, who had a connection with the Pennsylvania trade of
Quaker John Askew, whose son John Askew Jnr carried on the fur
trade till 1730 when he also died. For the next ten years Storke
dealt with Logan and Shippen, In 1746 Storke began dealing with
Thomas Lawrence. In Philadelphia, Storke dealt with Isaac Norris Sr
and Isaac Norris Jnr, in wheat sent to Spanish and Mediterranean
ports. Storke had agents in Jamaica named Tindale, Manning and Co.
A Storke son also worked in Hamburg. Storke dealt among others with
four large Boston houses, Joshua Cheever, James Bowdoin, Andrew and
Peter Oliver, and Bill & Sewall. In the 1730s Storke dealt with
Holbroide and Pearson at Gibraltar, Patrick Purcell and Co at
Cadiz, Winder and Ferrand at Barcelona. Samuel Storke Jnr entered
the family firm in 1742 and soon took as a partner, Alexander
Champion. His father's firm had been known as Samuel Storke and Co,
Storke and Gainsborough, Storke and Son, Storke and Champion, and
dealt with Boston, Philadelphia, New York, Lisbon, Cadiz,
Gibralter, Jamaica, St Johns, Newfoundland, and major northern
European ports. This firm also dealt with Andrew Oliver of Boston
and Livingstons of New York. Storke died in 1753, so Champion
continued to trade, later linked with Lane, Son and Fraser. Samuel
Storke II had married Mary Wilkes; when he died, Mary married
alderman George Hayley. After Hayley died, Mary consorted with the
American whaler, Francis Rotch. An irony here is that since Mary
was sister of the radical John Wilkes, who had influenced political
thought in America, the business interests of his sister suffered
by the American War. The Hayley estate as a British Creditor
See also, Anthony Dickinson, 'Some aspects of the origin and implementation of the eighteenth century Falkland Islands sealing industry', International Journal of Maritime History, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1990., pp. 33-68. Eduoard A. Stackpole, Whales And Destiny: The Rivalry between America, France, and Britain for control of the Southern Whale Fishery, 1785-1825. University of Massachusetts Press, 1972., pp. 102, 145; George Rude, Wilkes and Liberty. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1962. Kel lock's article, p. 111, p. 120. Collected citations would include D. A. Farnie, 'The Commercial Empire of the Atlantic, 1607-1783', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 15, 1962., pp. 205-218; G. D. Ramsay, (Ed.), English Overseas Trade during the Centuries of Emergence. London, 1957, especially Ch. 7, William I. Roberts, 'Samuel Storke: An Eighteenth Century London Merchant trading to the American Colonies.'
Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor
of 1712 - Sir Richard Hoare
Descendants of Henry Hoare (d.1654/1655) and sp: Catherine Nott
2. Yeoman Henry Hoare sp: Olive Notknown
3. Henry Hoare of London sp: Cicely Notknown (d.1678)
4. London Lord Mayor, South Seas Co. figure, Sir Richard Hoare (b.1648;d.6 Jan 1718/1719) sp: Susannah Austen (m.27 Jul 1672)
5. Richard Hoare (b.1673) sp: Sarah Colston wife1 sp: Mary Bolton wife2
6. London Merchant William Hoare (d.13 May 1753) sp: Martha Cornelison (m.26 Jul 1746;d.25 Sep 1777)
7. Banker Henry Hoare (b.20 Apr 1750;d.15 Mar 1828) sp: Lydia Malortie (m.20 Feb 1775;d.19 Jul 1816)
5. Levant trader, John Hoare (b.3 Apr 1682;d.18 May 1721) sp: Elizabeth Hookes 5. Mary Hoare (b.17 Jan 1685;d.18 Apr 1761) sp: Sir Edward Lyttleton, Bart3 (m.10 Jul 1781;d.21 Jan 1741) 6. Sir Edward Lyttleton, Bart4 (d.18 May 1812) sp: Frances Horton (no issue) 6. Frances Lyttleton sp: Moreton Walhouse 7. Moreton Walhouse sp: Anne Cracroft Portal
5. Banker, Goldsmith Henry Hoare (c.1702;d.12 Mar 1724/1725) sp: Jane Benson (m.19 May 1702;d.9 Jun 1742)
6. Banker Henry II Hoare (b.7 Jul 1705) sp: Anne Masham wife1 (m.11 Apr 1726;d.4 Mar 1727) sp: Susan Colt wife2 (m.5 Jul 1728;d.17 May 1743)
7. Sir Richard Colt Hoare, Bart (c.1782) sp: Hester Lyttleton (d.1785) 7. Banker Henry Hoare Unm (b.22 Dec 1730;d.1752) 7. Susanna Hoare wife1 (d.1783) sp: Thomas Bruce Brudenell Earl4 Ailesbury (b.30 Apr 1729;m.17 Feb 1761;d.19 Apr 1814) sp: Charles Boyle Visc Dungarvan (b.27 Jan 1729;d.16 Sep 1759) 7. Anne cousin Hoare wife1 (d.5 May 1759) sp: Sir Richard Hoare Sir, Bart2 (b.7 Mar 1734/1735;m.20 Mar 1756;d.12 Oct 1754) 6. London Lord Mayor, Banker, Richard Hoare (c.1745;d.1754) sp: Sarah Tulley wife1 (m.24 Apr 1732)
7. Sir Richard Hoare, Bart2 (b.7 Mar 1734/1735;d.12 Oct 1754) sp: Elizabeth Rust wife2 (m.30 Jun 1737) sp: Anne cousin Hoare wife1 (m.20 Mar 1756;d.5 May 1759) sp: Elizabeth Rust wife2
5. Banker Benjamin Hoare (b.11 Jul 1693;d.12 Jan 1749/1750) sp: Ellen Richards (d.Feb 1747/1748) 6. Banker Richard Hoare (b.24 May 1673;d.26 May 1778) sp: Susan Cecilia Dingley wife1 (m.24 Jun 1762;d.20 May 1795) 7. Sophia Hoare sp: William (Grimston) Bucknall (b.23 Jun 1750;m.7 Feb 1783;d.25 Apr 1814)
3. Henry Hoare of London sp: Cicely Notknown (d.1678)
1711: Pennsylvania prohibits the importation of blacks and Indians.
1712: Whaling history: Nantucket Island. Capt. Christopher
Hussey in a Nantucket sloop is blown offshore and finds a new
species of deep-sea whale - the Sperm. By 1715, Nantucket has six
30-40 ton ships chasing deepwater Sperm. About now, a Nantucketeer
developed a brick tryworks enabling whalers to extract oil from
blubber. Also, Benjamin Crabb invented a way of making spermaceti
candles, meaning less shipment of fluid whale oil.
K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways.. University of South Carolina Press, 1988., p. 231.
1712: From 1712 the British slave trade became "free trade", and later the Company itself provided only an insignificant supply of slaves, allowing outports such as Bristol and Liverpool to become so dependent on slavery.
1712: Slave revolt in New York, following tumult amongst whites with Leiser's Rebellion. Slaves of New York City kill whites during an uprising the militia later quelled. Some 19 rebels are executed. Also in 1712, New York declares it illegal for blacks, slaves and Indians to murder other blacks, slaves and Indians. And in 712, New York forbids freed blacks, Indians and mulatto slaves from owning real estate and holding property.
1713: Treaty of Utrecht.
1713: A number of English merchants trading to the tobacco
colonies were also engaged in the slave trade, and in the
Chesapeake the higher prices for slaves before 1708 were those of
the separate traders, not the Royal Africa Co.
Olson, Virginia Merchants of London, p. 372 note 33)
1700-1713: After the establishment of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty of 1700, a French company (French Guinea Co though not named) is formed which receives the exclusive privilege of the Spanish-American slave trade - the asiento. Encyclopedia Britannica. - Asiento chronology -
1713: At the Peace of Utrecht of 1713, the British claim the asiento. This privilege goes to the South Sea Company, and forms part of the basis for the financial madness (and anti-Spanish fervour) of the South Sea Bubble, which bursts from 1720. Encyclopedia Britannica. - Asiento chronology -
December 1713: Queen Anne falls dangerously ill. Money is being distributed it was said in the Highlands for Jacobite purposes. Govt losing supporters. Bolingbroke quarrels with Oxford, Bolingbroke to the head of the high church party, and it is now known Bolingbroke had corrupt relations with a merchant and commissioner for Trade, Arthur Moore, re provisions for the peninsula army. Clark, Later Stuarts, pp. 245-247).
1713-1730: Changes in tobacco export inspection procedures from
1713 to 1730 prior to the idea of the 1733 Excise Act instigated by
(John M. Hemphill, Virginia and the English Commercial System, 1689-1733. London. Garland. 1985. [facsimile of a 1964 Ph. D thesis, Princeton Univ. pp. 152ff.])
1713: Virginia merchants very apprehensive about pirates disturbing trade. (Rediker, p. 281).
1713+: From 1713, under a contract with the South Sea Company,
slaves are supplied to Spanish colonies by the British, the Royal
Africa Co. assisting, Spanish colonies bought all their slaves from
France or England, as when a South Sea Co ship went to the "fairs"
at Vera Cruz and Cartagena. But these Anglo-Spanish relations
always remained uneasy, the last such English ship (there were only
ever eight) sailed in 1733, and Adam Smith anyway said the last
South Sea Co. ship sent, Royal Carolina of 1733, was the
only one to make a profit; the arrangements were abandoned in
(Williams, Whig, pp. 296-297.)
1713: England: The arrival of peace in 1713 after twelve years of war with France sparks a sudden upsurge in serious crime. Military demobilization sets loose thousands of toughened young men in the London area with a need for employment and a taste for hard living. Unlike France and other absolutist monarchies in Europe, England lacks professional police on either the national or the county level. The country's long-standing commitment to protecting popular liberties hindered the development of a coercive bureaucracy. Much as with the traditional fear Englishmen had of standing armies, the prospect of a full-time police force engenders widespread alarm. ....London and other urban areas depend heavily upon amateur guardians like constables and watchmen who have excessive workloads.
1713: By 1713 a prominent London tobacco merchant is Thomas Coutts. See later careers of Coutts bankers.
1713, York Lodge makes eighteen Masons at Bedford. (Hamill.)
1713: The British Parliament passes an Act awarding £20,000 to anyone of whatever nationality who can determine a way to determine longitude to an accuracy of one degree. This prize not won until 1761 when a Hull man, John Harrison, produces his No. 4 Marine Timekeeper, now at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich. The clockmaker George Graham assisted this invention.
1714: John Ailsabie (1670-1742) Treasurer of Navy from 1714, chancellor of Exchqr in 1718, disapproves of the South Sea Company. (Melville, South Sea Bubble, p. 24.)
1714 Circa: Vacant directorships of South Seas Co. filled by
Second Duke of Argyll, Sir Lambton Blackwell, Richard Horsey, Jacob
Jacobsen a merchant and others. Ships Bedford and
Elizabeth sail with this Co's goods in 1714, to Cartagena
and Vera Cruz; disastrous trade though.
(Melville, South Sea Bubble, p. 21.)
1714: England: Death of Queen Anne. Scots Jacobites abroad intrigued with Bolingbroke, hoping to crown the Old Pretender instead of George I of Hanover in 1714. Bolingbroke's plans failed and a rising grew, in Scotland, 1715, led by Bobbing John Erskine, Earl of Mar and Bolingbroke from France. Mar's military incompetence doomed the 1715 rising; at Preston in Scotland on Nov 13, 1715, the Jacobites capitulated to the English, while at Sherrifmuir with an indecisive battle the Duke of Argyll defeated Mar's 9000-strong Jacobite forces, three times the strength of his enemy, and Mar withdrew leaving Argyll ready to fight another day. James Edward Stuart cross from France to be crowned but his cause was already lost.
1714: England: Charles Montague, later Halifax, in 1714 he again becomes First Lord of Treasury.
1714: Mariner William Dampier's health is broken down, in
September he is 63, living in Parish of St Stephens, Coleman
Street, London, near Old Jewry, looked after by his female cousin
Grace Mercer, one of his main beneficiaries. Some furniture is left
with Capt Richard Newton. Dampier died early March, 1715.
(Clen Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 239-241.)
1714: From March 1714, the Pope contributes funds to the Stuart/Jacobite cause of Scotland.
1714: Geo I quite sensibly disliked the English habit of officers buying their commissions, which is hardly any way to encourage professionalism or run an efficient army. (Williams, Whigs)
1714: Polish-born physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit invents the mercury thermometer.
1715: Jacobite uprising of the Scots against the English, unsuccessful.
1715: By an act of 1715, South Seas Co. now has capital of £10 million and wanting 2 million more. (Melville, South Sea Bubble, p. 23.)
By 1715, a former agent of Jamaica is Sir Gilbert Heathcote MP. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 171.)
1716: (Penson, Colonial Agents, p.102), the proprietors of the Bahamas have their rights resumed and the Crown takes up the islands; and then in 1718, the famous navigator Capt Woodes Rogers is sent there as governor to suppress pirates.
James /Bateman/ Lord Mayor of London 1600 Sir James Bateman
elected in 1716.
(Item, per Peter Western)
1716-1718: (Rediker, p. 257), the Bahamas Islands ungoverned and
undefended so become a haven for pirates in hundreds, and by 1718,
the resulting complaints lead Geo I to appoint Woodes Rogers to
bring the pirates under control. Rogers scatters pirates to
Carolinas and Africa. By 1718, Madagascar is a pirate's
entrepot for plunder and booty and a spot for temporary
settlement. They also used the mouth of the Sierra Leone River on
the African West Coast. (See Woodes Rogers, A Cruising Voyage
Round the World, edited by G. E. Manwaring, 1712, reprinted New
York, 1928. Rediker cannot clarify if the pirates' Jolly Roger, the
skull and crossbones, was appropriated from Freemasonry, although
he says the pirate's symbol of the death's head was appropriated
Rediker (p. 268) has a fascinating diagram of social links amongst pirates and their captains 1714-1727. Given that Anglo-American pirates had their own codes of behaviour, but remained in opposition to all other social codes, the diagram resembles a social whirlpool, with the vortex concentrated in the years 1715-1721. Death often visited the centre of this social and organisational vortex. (Rediker, p. 257).
1715: Maryland declares all slaves entering the province and their descendants to be slaves for life.
1715: Rhode Island legalizes slavery.
1716: On Francis March: By 1716 a West Indies merchant of London, Francis March, had agreed to ship to plantations all prisoners he was able take from Gravesend, at his own expense. He ended being paid £2 per head by the Treasury. Some ships used about then were Lewis and Queen Elizabeth, for Jamaica. March's career was short. By July 1718 he was replaced by Jonathan Forward, who had the ear of the Solicitor-General. [Coldham, Emigrants in Chains, pp. 59-61]. In early 1717, the Treasury paid Francis March £108 to transport 54 felons aboard three vessels to Jamaica. [Treasury Order, 6 march, 1717, in William A. Shaw, Calendar of Treasury Books, London, 1905-1957., Vol. 31, pp. 171-172. [Noted by Ekirch]
1716: (Mingay, p. 124), in 1716 it is estimated there are 60,000 debtors imprisoned in England and Wales. The Marshalsea had 300 debtors in 1729, many literally starving to death.
1716: Departing England December 1716, ship Lewis Capt.
Roger Laming, for Jamaica. (Coldham, pp. 915-916 in his Complete
Book Of Emigrants in Bondage.)
See also Peter Wilson Coldham, 'Transportation of English Felons', National Genealogical Society Quarterly, LXIII, 1975. Also, Peter Coldham, Bonded Passengers To America. 9 Vols. Baltimore, 1983. Peter Wilson Coldham, The Complete Book of Emigrants in Bondage, 1614-1775. Baltimore, Genealogical Publishing Co., 1988. Lists convicts per ship England to North America. Directions to other writings by Coldham not given. Appends list of ships and ships captains 1716-Oct 1775.
1716-1717: A West Indies merchant, Francis March, in 1716 agreed to ship to plantations all prisoners he was able take from Gravesend, at his own expense, but he ended being paid £2 per head by the Treasury. Ships used about then were Lewis and Queen Elizabeth for Jamaica. March's career was short. By July 1718 he was replaced by Jonathan Forward, who had the ear of the Solicitor-General.) In early 1717, the Treasury pays the merchant Francis March £108 to transport 54 felons aboard three vessels to Jamaica. Treasury Order, 6 march, 1717, in Shaw, William A., Calendar Of Treasury Books, London, 1905-57. , XXXI, pp. 171-2. See also A. Roger Ekirch, Bound For America: The Transportation Of British Convicts To The Colonies 1718-1775. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1987.
1717: Coldham notes, Forward's first convict ship in 1717 was Dolphin, master/owner Gilbert Poulson. But finally, Poulson sued Forward, Dolphin had been impounded and ended unseaworthy, Forward's Maryland assets worth £2000 were seized, Lord Baltimore was obstructing Forward's endeavours, law suits dragged on. During the fracas, Forward used another of his ships from the slave trade, Eagle, Capt Robert Staple (September 1718).
1717: Formation of Freemason's Grand Lodge of London.
1717: Forward as a slaver was not well-reported until Coldham
suggested his ship Jonathan regularly sailed in the slave
trade until she sank at Antigua in 1717, leaving Forward in need of
new business. Coldham notes from records of lawsuits, Forward took
on the assigneeships of bankrupt tobacco dealers, one of whom was
John Goodwin. Forward in 1717 had transported 131 convicts to
Maryland and in July 1718 he shipped another 40. Thomson considered
Forward ready to take felons at a lower rate than other merchants -
simple price undercutting, in fact. As an indication of the kind of
commercial imagination at work, Forward once suggested that a penal
settlement be founded at Nova Scotia. (Ekirch, p. 112.)
Forward operated from a Cheapside house on Fenchurch Street, London, and also had experience in the Atlantic slave trade. He also had links to the tobacco trade in Virginia and Maryland. (Coldham, Emigrants in Chains, p. 61, pp. 71ff.)
Follows here a list of English ship managers operating
1717-1775, shipping convicts to America: With a list of merchants
shipping convicts to Australia from 1786-1788, to 1867: The two
lists will enable completion of any research on the English use of
convict transportation in the period covered...
Please note: This collected list has never appeared in any printed book to date, and did not appear on the Internet before 16-6-2002 - Dan Byrnes.
1717: Francis March, London:
1718 Jonathan Forward, London;
1720 members of the Lux family, Darby, John, and Francis (probably London before becoming colonials, (later linked to Jonathan Forward's operations) and in 1750, William Lux;
1721-1722, Jonathan Forward Sydenham of London;
1722, ? Cheston;
1731, various men named Reed, to 1771;
1737, Joseph Weld in Dublin;
1739, Andrew Reid, London, with James and Andrew Armour, London, and John Stewart of London;
1740++, Moses Israel Fonseca, London;
1740, Samuel Sedgley, Bristol;
1740, James Gildart, Liverpool;
1744, John Langley, Ireland;
1745, Reid and Armour, London;
1745, Sydenham and Hodgson, London;
1747, William Cookson of Hull;
1749, Jonathan Forward Sydenham a nephew of Jonathan Forward above;
1749, Stewart and Armour, London;
1750, Andrew Reid, London;
1750, Samuel Sedgely and Co of Bristol; John Stewart and (Duncan) Campbell, London (JS&C);
1758, Sedgely and Co (Hillhouse and Randolph), Bristol;
1759, Stewart and Armour, London;
1760, Sedgely and Hillhouse of Bristol;
1763, Andrew Reid retired;
1764, John Stewart and Duncan Campbell, London;
1766, Patrick Colquhuon, Glasgow; 1766, Sedgely and Co. at Bristol replaced by William Randolph, William Stevenson and James Cheston, Bristol;
1767, Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston, Bristol? with a colonial agent Cheston;
1768, Jonathan Forward Sydenham, London or nearby counties;
1769, Dixon and Littledale, Whitehaven;
1769, Sedgely, Bristol; 1769, any ships captain providing necessary securities could transport felons;
1770, James Baird, Glasgow;
1772, John Stewart died, Duncan Campbell carried on alone in London until 1775.
At Bristol, Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston (SRC) were active
till 1776; they made ill-advised and vain attempts to transport
felons to North America at the end of the American Revolution.
Wisely, Duncan Campbell (1726-1803) did not attempt to resume
convict transportation to America.
(The above list does not include names transporting convicts from Ireland. blut)
The above list has been re-compiled from myriad information compiled by historians working independently between 1933 and 1987 on the original documentation of transportation to North America. [Historians such as A. E. Smith, Oldham, Coldham -[Peter Wilson Coldham, Emigrants in Chains. Phoenix Hill, Far Thrupp, Stroud, Gloucestershire, Allan Sutton, 1992.], Eris O'Brien, Shaw, Ekirch [Roger A. Ekirch, Bound for America: The Transportation of British Convicts to the Colonies, 1718-1775. Oxford University Press. And also, importantly, Roger A. Ekirch, 'Great Britain's Secret Convict Trade To America, 1783-1784', American Historical Review, Vol. 89, No. 5. December 1984., pp. 1285-1291.] and Kenneth Morgan, 'The Organisation of the Convict Trade To Maryland: Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston, 1768-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, Vol. 42, No. 2, April, 1985., pp. 201-227. ]
Often-mentioned merchants were obviously stayers in the convict service .[John M. Hemphill, Virginia and the English Commercial System, 1689-1733. London, Garland, 1985. [Facsimile of a 1964 Ph.D thesis, Princeton University, pp. 152ff, on matters such as changes in tobacco export inspection procedures from 1713 to 1730, prior to consideration of the 1733 Excise Act instigated by Walpole. By 1713 (Marcus Rediker, Between The Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Merchant Seamen, Pirates and the Anglo-American Maritime World, 1700-1750. Cambridge, 1987., p. 281) Virginia merchants remained very apprehensive about pirates disturbing trade. ]
Notably in maritime terms, merchants shipping felons had a commercial advantage over their competitors - their voyage out was partly or wholly paid. The merchants' inconvenience was that they had to wait till convicts became available from the courts before despatching a ship outward, and given the seasonal nature of shipping colonial tobacco home, this did not always suit ship turn-arounds.(See here, Abbot Emerson Smith, Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labour in America, 1607-1776. Gloucester, Massachusetts, University of Carolina Press, 1947. [Peter Smith, 1965])
From 1786, Duncan Campbell, the overseer of the Thames prison
hulks, never sent a convict ship to Australia, though he had every
opportunity to do so if he wished.
(Below names asterisked are merchant names which are still resistant to genealogical or other forms of research.)
Merchants shipping convicts to Australia from 1786-1788 include: for the First Fleet: William Richards Junior, London alderman William (later Sir) Curtis, London alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay, Leightons, James Mather. For the Second Fleet to Sydney, London-based slavers supplying slaves to Jamaica at the time, Camden*, Calvert* and King. The Third Fleet, the Enderby whalers together with Calvert's firm. Later, a London whaling investor, John St Barbe.
By 1800 or so, John Wilsone, Gabriel Gillett with William Wilson, (who had links with the London Missionary Society, as did James Duncan*; William Hingston*, Edward Redman*, Thomas Patrickson*, John Prinsep (pioneer of the indigo industry in India); the London whaler Daniel Bennet. London dockowner names Money and Wigram, who from 1810 were also investor-names in the firm Forbes and Co. at Bombay (a firm which still survives with that name!). Alexander Towers*; Joseph Lachlan* (who as an agent took more than 84 contracts - "in bulk" - and so camouflaged the names of the shipowners actually involved); Buckle, Buckle, Bagster* and Buchanan*; J. Atty* and Co., Hovelds*, Lyalls*, Birch* and Ward*, Thomas Ward, Abel Chapman, J. Blacket*, Johnsons*, John Barry*, Robert Brooks, Joseph Somes*, Duncan Dunbar*.
The two lists above of convict-transporting ship managers given for North America, then Australia, are the mainstay-names for England's long-use of convict transportation from 1718 to 1867.
For more detailed information on these merchant names as chapters arise, see Dan Byrnes' website on convict transportation from England, 1718-1810: The Blackheath Connection at: http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/blackheath/
1717: French authorities open their ports to American colonial shipping, boosting trades in sugar and molasses to pleased American surprise. Rum becomes a favoured American beverage and supplants French brandy as a staple item in Guinea slave trade.
After 1718: Virginia and Maryland take the brunt of receiving English convicts.
1718: By 1718, Virginian planter John Tayloe is dealing with Messrs James and Lyonel Lyde of Bristol. (John M. Hemphill, Virginia and the English Commercial System, 1689-1733. London. Garland. 1985. [facsimile of a 1964 Ph. D thesis, Princeton Univ., p. 49.])
1718: John Ailsabie (1670-1742), ("avaricious and unscrupulous") is Treasurer of Navy from 1714, Chancellor of Exchqr in 1718, disapproved of the South Seas Co. (Melville, South Sea Bubble, p. 24.
1718: William Nevine is proposed as agent for Montserrat (Penson, Colonial Agents, p.93, p. 104.) In 1718-1728 Woodes Rogers co-governs Bahamas with George Phenney, and Phenney unpopular as he exacts money from the inhabitants. Rogers died in 1732.
1718: December: At Providence the capital of the Bahamas Islands in the West Indies is a mass hanging of pirates which had been anticipated with relish by the governor and vice-admiralty judge Woodes Rogers. (Rediker. pp. 56ff).
1718: France: John Law amongst other things acquires control of
the Senegal (French) slave trade, he also buys out the old French
Eastern and China companies, and has monopolies of tobacco sales,
mint, and tax collections. Law's bank becomes the French royal bank
in 1718 and can issue notes.
(Pierre Vilar, A History of Gold and Money, 1450-1920. London, Verso, 1991., p. 242, Vilar's chapter, From Colbert to Law.)
1718: The Treasury and Jonathan Forward made an agreement on 8
August, 1718 which allowed Forward a monopoly on convict
contracting. [Coldham, Emigrants in Chains, pp. 61-61.
In 1719 Forward wanted higher fees for his services, partly as tobacco prices were low; the Treasury gave in. later, Forward as in Coldham, Emigrants in Chains, had a corrupt link with Wild the thief taker, for people, see on thief-taker Jonathan Wilde, see Robert Hughes, The Fatal Shore, p. 27, and especially p. 613, Note 13 re corrupt links with Jonathan Forward.
1719: Departing England May 1719 ship Margaret Capt. William Greenwood for Maryland. Coldham. Departing England 1719 Sept 19 - Ship Margaret in trade. See F. H. Schmidt, 'Sold And Driven: Assignment Of Convicts In Eighteenth-Century Virginia', The Push From The Bush, No. 23, 1986, History Dept. University Of New England.
1718-1720: Acts 4 Geo III c. 11 and Act 6 Geo III c.23 condemned
any person convicted of any larceny or felonious stealing to be
transported to America at discretion of the court. Fifteen more
such acts were made until 1765, enlarging the scope of application
of such a punishment as transportation.
(O'Brien, on Penal Colonisation, p. 124)
See also A. E. Smith, Transportation Of Criminals To The American Colonies In The Seventeenth Century. American History Review, Vol. XXXIX, Jan. 1934. Cited in Eris O'Brien, Foundation, p. 316. A. E. Smith, Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labour in America, 1607-1776. University of Carolina Press, 1947. Gloucester, Mass. Peter Smith. 1965.
1720: George Campbell of the London bank which became Coutts from about 1720. This George Campbell was associated as a banker with a firm, Campbell and Carr. Sources: R. B. Westerfield, Middlemen in English Business: 1660-1760. New Haven, Connecticut, 1915. [Reprinted, Newton Abbot, 1968]., p. 383. On Coutts bank, see Edna Healey, Coutts and Co, 1692-1992: The Portrait of a Private Bank. London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1992.
1720: Japan removes its ban on European culture.
Departing England October 1720, convict ship Gilbert, Capt. Darby Lux for Maryland. Coldham. 1721, 18 May, ship Gilbert Capt. Darby Lux (A. E. Smith, p.126), probably Captain Lux' second voyage in the convict service. Darby Lux made eleven more voyages, seven on the Patapsco Merchant. His last voyage was in 1738, when he settled in Maryland and acted as general agent for Forward. He still acted for Forward in 1749. Oldham rev. p.51. Departing England August 1721, ship Owners Goodwill, Capt. John Lux for Maryland. Coldham.
Re 1720++ Robert Brenner, Merchants and Revolution:
Commercial Change, Political Conflict, and London's Overseas
Traders, 1550-1653. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press,
Brenner, I take it, demonstrated that there was greater genealogical coherence in trading history, and in merchant biographies, than had been previously thought. Which is to say, that families engaged in England's international trade tended to stay together in trade (and often in clusterings of trade, such as the Levant Company, or East or West India trade) where possible, whether or not their members entered politics, or married into the aristocracy. This was due to many factors, including class consciousness, the maintenance of family fortunes, commercial and family tendencies in favour of the employment of nephews, and also to the ability of such families to place money in secure investments. This was more so after the disaster of the South Sea Bubble (1720-1723) produced an investment house which could give secure returns to annuities, while the East India Company also provided useful investment returns to the affluent. These tendencies can also be noticed in some London-based families engaged in aspects of the trans-Atlantic slave trade.
1720++: Convict contractors to North America and associated
merchants, including British Creditors:
Note: This list has been extracted in its entirety from a 1994 compilation, Dan Byrnes, 'A Bitter Pill: An assessment of the significance of the meeting between Thomas Jefferson and Duncan Campbell of the British Creditors in London, 23 April, 1786'. Now available on the Net.
Biographical information on the British Creditors
A note on forms of citation: citation is sporadic due to time pressure and the way information has been compiled from a variety of sources. It might be mentioned, again, the histories of the Anglo-American trade and convict transportation have been divorced. These appendices represent an attempt to set contexts aright.
See Katharine A. Kellock, 'London Merchants and the pre-1776 American Debts', Guildhall Studies in London History, Vol. 1, No 3, October 1974., pp. 109-149.
Kellock researched 72 of the 207 British Creditors listed in the original document dealt with here. There are several contexts which Kellock ignored when she researched the Creditors, including Scottish tobacco traders, British whaling and other non-whaling maritime history, (although Kellock did consider the records of Lloyd's of London), convict transportation to both North America and Australia, and some commercial history of the City of London. Some notations here will indicate where further information on them might be found. Often, these varieties of information are complex to cite.
The social status of convict contractors:
It has been thought that convict contractors looking to America
were of a lower social status, even in merchant circles. This does
not apply to Forward. According to Coldham (1992), Forward's
daughter Elizabeth married Robert Byng, MP, some-time governor of
Barbados and brother of the unfortunate Admiral John Byng (born
1704), who was executed in 1757; they were the sons of Admiral
George Byng (1663-1732), Viscount Torrington. (See GEC, The
Complete Peerage, for Bath, p. 26; Ashburton, pp. 27ff.
According to GEC, later with this line, a marriage was made between Harriet Baring, second daughter of the first Baron Ashburton, Alexander Baring, and Capt Henry Frederick Thynne (1797-1837), RN, an Earl of Bath. On Robert Byng as Governor of Barbados, see Valentine, British Establishment. (Discrepant information is found on the parentage of the Viscount's wife, Margaret Master).
Burke's Extinct Baronetcies indicates that the family names Sydenham and St Barbe [see below] had entwined for centuries. St Barbes had arrived with William the Conqueror in England. From the 1720s, the name Sydenham became associated with Forward's convict contracting situation, in that his nephew, Jonathan Forward Sydenham, became active as a convict contractor from 1744 if not earlier.
Burke's Extinct Baronetcies [pp. 460-461, p. 561] unfortunately provides two sets of contradictory information on these family linkages. One George Sydenham was a chaplain to Henry VIII. (On Jonathan Forward Sydenham, see also, Ekirch's work.) It is difficult to find reliable information on later St Barbe-Sydenham connections, since after the 1750s, the name Sydenham is little mentioned, anywhere. It would be remiss to fail to note what information does exist. (Here, see
Further on Jonathan Forward:
Jonathan Forward of London, (1680-1760, died at Carolina) was active by 1718. Some of Forward's colonial factors were William Blewitt, and/or Charles Delafaye. Forward's address was Fenchurch Street, Cheapside. He had a grandson, Edward Stephenson, a name which might propose a link with the Bristol convict contractors, Randolph, Stephenson and Cheston (listed below), who operated to 1775 (?).
A name active as a convict contractor by 1745 was Hodgson,
parents unknown, when he had become a partner with Jonathan
Forward. Interestingly, Robert Byng, MP, one-time governor of
Barbados, whose father was Admiral George Byng (married to Margaret
Master) was married to Elizabeth Forward, who may have been a
daughter of Forward.
Sources: Basil Sollers, 'Transported convict labourers in Maryland during the colonial period', Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 2, Baltimore, Maryland Historical Society, 1907., pp. 17-47. [Quoted in A. E. Smith, Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labour in America, 1607-1776. University of Carolina Press, 1947. Gloucester, Mass. Peter Smith. 1965., mentioning Modyford, p. 21 and Micajah Perry and 50 women convicts, p. 24; p. 30.] Some colonial agents for Jonathan Forward of London were John Moale and Daniel Russell.
23 April: 1720: John Lux, mate of ship Susannah and Sarah, at Annapolis. John Lux deposed that out of 79 felons shipped, ten had died at sea.
1720: Meanwhile, to 1775, also, there is a certain symbolism of
ships' names which provides clues about a ship owner's interests
(the same is often noticed with the names of racehorses).
Concerning the profits of the slave trade, the ship King
Solomon of the Royal African Company in 1720 carried a cargo of
slaves worth £4252; 296 Negroes were sold in St Kitts for £9228, a
profit of 117 per cent. The profit on the company's exports between
1698-1707 was about 66 per cent.
(Eric Williams, From Columbus to Castro: The History of The Caribbean, 1492-1969. London. Andre Deutsch. 1970., p. 147.
1720++: The Lux family: From 1720, members of the Lux family,
Darby, John, and Francis, were sometimes associated with London
and/or American tobacco colonies. They were later linked to
Jonathan Forward's operations. Darby Lux Jnr a sailor in the
convict service to Virginia was born in 1725, his father being
Darby Lux, his mother being Anne Samson. (By about 1730, Darby Lux
Snr who sailed in the convict service for Jonathan Forward was
married to Anne Samson (Sampson?). Darby Junior married Rachel
Ridgely; her issue are listed in Stella Pickett Hardy, Colonial
families of the Southern States of America: a history and genealogy
of colonial families who settled in the colonies prior to the
Revolution. Second edition, revised. Baltimore, Genealogical
Publishing Co., 1968., p. 443 [a title which also has some
information on Claiborne descendants]. Some of Forward's business
at Leedstown was handled by Jonathan Sydenham who was originally
from London. There were also John, Francis and later William Lux
all engaged in aspects of the convict service. From 1750 the name
William Lux is noted, active in the America-West Indian rum trade.
William Lux in 1750 took over his father's retail business, and in
1758 went into West Indian trade with his brother, Darby, to
Barbados, fetching rum. Darby Lux with his rum import dealt with
the noted tobacco merchant William Russell (listed below). Luxes in
London used James Russell, an associate of William Russell. Luxes
also dealt with Charles Ridgely, and Dorseys, in business also
associated with James Russell, on the Patapsco, especially around
Elk Ridge (where, later, Duncan Campbell sometimes landed
prisoners). Luxes broke suddenly with Russell in 1766 and departed
owing Russell a considerable sum. Ridgely were also associated with
an ironworks, as was one John Buchanan. Russell's business had been
managed about Patapsco River by Lux, Charles Ridgely and one
Dorsey. By 1764, William Lux owed £3685 to James Russell and
The Lux family: Sources: Richard Pares, Yankees and Creoles: The Trade between North America and the West Indies before the American Revolution. London, Longmans, Green and Co, 1956., p. 34, on William Lux, pp. 76n, p. 133. Richard Pares, A West-India Fortune. London, Longman Green and Co, 1950. [There survives a William Lux Letterbook, kept by the New York Historical Society]. Jacob M. Price, 'One family's empire: The Russell-Lee-Clerk connection in Maryland, Britain and India, 1707-1857', Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 72, 1977., pp. 165-225; here, p. 178, Note 39. F. H. Schmidt, 'Sold and Driven: assignment of convicts in eighteenth-century Virginia', The Push from the Bush, No. 23, 1986., pp. 2-27, here, p. 26, Note 145. For a sale of convicts, see Wm Lux to James Russell and Molleson, 16 January, 1765, William Lux Letterbook, microfilm at the University of California. John McCusker, Rum and the American Revolution: the rum trade and the balance of payments of the thirteen continental colonies. New York, Garland Publishing, 1989.
1721: More to come
1717-1722: Jonathan Forward gives up his convict trading business to his nephew, Jonathan Forward Sydenham.
1720-1723: The bursting in England of the South Sea Bubble. (In 1841, Charles Mackay writes his book on investment bubbles in history, Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds. Mackay listed more than 100 schemes decreed illegal and abolished in Britain in 1720.)
1720: Re South Sea Company - List of Directors of the South Sea Company.
1 Mr. Thomas Ayles
2 Sir Thomas Cross
3 Mr. Samuel Clarke
4 Capt John Dorrell cross out – replaced by illegible
5 Thomas Frederick Esq.
6 Roger Hudson, Esq.
7 Mr. Christopher Hayne (2)
8 Mr. Edmund Herring cross out – replaced by illegible (William Sheen?)
9 Edmund Halsey Esq
10 Richard Hopkins Esq
11 Mr. Thomas Gearing
12 Mr. John Girardot de Tellieux
13 Capt. Samuel Jones
14 John Lade Esq
15 Benjamin Lethieullier, Esq (1)
16 Matthew Lant, Esq
17 Mr. John Lloyd
18 Henry Lovell, Esq
19 Mr. Nathaniel Micklethwait
20 Mr. James Metcalfe
21 Mr. Robert Michell
22 John Nicoll, Esq
23 Capt. James Osborne
24 Mr. Thomas Pearle
25 Mr. Samuel Pitts, Jnr.
26 Mr. Matthew Raper
27 Gabriel Roberts, Esq cross out replacement illegible (2)
28 Richard Thompson, Esq
29 Mr. Thomas Willis
30 Robert Wood LLD
N.B. Every person is to deliver as many Lists (?) as he has Vote(s) (?) The Election will be at the South Sea House on Thursday the 2d of February, 1720
(From a PDF file of an original sent by Ken Cozens on 17-3-2006)
::::::::: Ends List :::::::
1722: James Cheston in convict-shipping trade to North America with ship Isabella.
1723: Hungary: In 1723 Charles III (1711-1740) induces the Hungarian barons to accept the Pragmatic Sanction, which recognizes the rights of inheritance of the female offspring of the Hapsburg dynasty and the indivisibility of the Hapsburg Empire.
1723: Virginia in America abolishes the manumissions of slaves.
1724: Asaf Jah, a minister of the Mogul emperor, retires to the Deccan; he becomes an independent ruler and is declared first Nizam of Hyderabad.
1724: French Louisiana prohibits slaves from marrying without the permission of their owners.
1724: By 1724, an agent for Jamaica was Alexander Stephenson. Names following in that role are Edward Charlton, 1725-26; in 1728, Charles Delafaye and possibly James Knight. [Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 89-91, p. 167] notes Delafaye, active in 1735, as a clerk in the office of the secretary of state for the southern department and later an under-secretary of state. Delafaye may have acted at times for Jonathan Forward, a convict contractor listed below.
1724: Item: Ship Jonathan, 68 live convicts into
Annapolis. (Schmidt, p. 12.) Probably for J. Forward. In 1725,
Jonathan Forward's agents were discomfited as two convicts ships to
Annapolis had been unable to unload as colonial authorities were
wanting bonds for good behaviour - London later straitened the
Coldham, Emigrants in Chains, p. 65.
On Jonathan Forward: Sources: Alan Valentine, The British Establishment, 1760-1784: an eighteenth century biographical dictionary. Two Vols. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1970., for Byng. Coldham, Emigrants in Chains, 1992; Oldham; A. E. Smith; F. H. Schmidt, 'Sold and Driven: Assignment of Convicts in Eighteenth-Century Virginia', The Push from the Bush, No. 23, 1986., pp. 2-27.
1725: Bouchon's idea automates the silk loom.
1725: (Olson, London Mercantile Lobby, p. 23), in London were the Chesapeake merchant group from the 1670s, New York from the 1690s, New England by the 1680s, Carolina from 1715 and Pennsylvania [working through Quaker groups, London Yearly Meeting of Friends, while the annual Quaker London Meeting for Sufferings was sub-divided into committees of merchants trading to various colonies] lobby groups, gathering at various coffee houses, etc, to buy insurance, pick-up mail, exchange information. Not initially political, but could be politicized for dealing with the Privy Council or Board of Trade.
1725: (Olson, Virginia Merchants of London, p. 371), by
1725 the Virginia mercantile lobby included Richard Perry, Thomas
Cary, John Norton, John Flowerdewe, George Hatley who had close
relatives among the tobacco planters, both needing and aiding each
See Jacob Price, 'Who was John Norton? A Note on the Historical Character of some Eighteenth-Century London Virginia Firms,' William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, XIX, 1962., pp. 400-407.
1725: (Olson, Virginia Merchants of London, p. 366, by about 1725 a total of 261 London merchants had signed petitions to Parliament, the Lords of Trade, etc, on matters relevant only to Virginia trade. There were 74 trading to New England, 43 to NY and 20 to Maryland. By about 1725, an early core group was Richard Perry the elder, Micajah Perry, their partner Thomas Lane (Perry and Lane trading from 1688), plus Arthur Bailey, Benjamin Bradley, Isaac Milner, John Hyde, Thomas Coutts, Thomas Wharton.
1725: (Olson, London Mercantile Lobby, p. 26), Most single-colony lobbies were led by a small group of men, possibly father-son units, who would call meeting to discuss matters, increasingly as the colonies became more volatile. these leaders were seldom challenged. and often the leaders met amongst themselves. The core of the mercantile umbrella leadership were seventeen men, (DeBerdts, Bakers and Athawases were father-son units).
1725, One date given for formation of Irish Grand Lodge of Freemasons.
1725: By 1725 the Virginia mercantile lobby in London included
Richard Perry, Thomas Cary, John Norton, John Flowerdewe and George
Hatley, most of whom had close relatives among the tobacco
planters, both needing and aiding each other. By 1775, one notices
much less intermarriage between London merchants and their
families, and the more affluent families of Virginia and Maryland.
However, I have not extensively examined families from New York,
Boston or Philadelphia for levels of intermarriage.
See Jacob M. Price, 'Who was John Norton? A Note on the historical character of some Eighteenth-Century London Virginia Firms', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, 14, 1962., pp. 400-407.
1725: Hanbury and Co: John Hanbury (1700-1758) Quaker of Tower
Street, London, tobacco merchant, cousin Capel (died 1769) a
partner was son of a Bristol soap-maker, John promoted Ohio Co,
close to Lord Baltimore, and in Seven Yrs War remitted govt funds
to armies in America, then entered Osgood Hanbury, and when Capel
died, Osgood took in John Lloyd a relative by marriage, dealt with
George Washington re Custis tobacco, till 1774, debts in Virginia -
Hanbury and Co, Kellock, London debt claimants of 1790 appendix, p.
127, John Hanbury, (1700-1758) Quaker early established in Tower
Street, London, a major figure in tobacco trade. at some time he
took a partner Capel (d. 1769) son of a Bristol soap maker.
John Hanbury promoted the Ohio Company for new lands for tobacco growers and was close to Lord Baltimore. and in the war 1755-1763 he transmitted govt funds for the armies in America. After John's death his son Osgood (1731-1748) became Capel's partner and after Capel died Osgood took as partner John Lloyd a kinsman of his wife. In Feb 1766 Capel Hanbury testified against the Stamp Act, as monies he felt could only be collected in tobacco. From Jan 1759, George Washington handled his relatives Custis' tobacco, and he dealt with Hanburys till 1774. In 1790 Hanbury and Co claimed a pre-war debt of £78,809 in Virginia. - Kellock's article.
1726: More to come
1727: Canton, China: English supercargoes threaten to move their trade north to Amoy, obliging the Mandarins running Canton to allow more trade to the English, who had to stay in Macao part of any year.
1728: The agents of the Farmers General of France were beating down prices of tobacco, unreasonably, so various London merchants formed an organisation to set a minimum price for all, first meeting on 2 March, 1728 at Black Swan Tavern behind the Royal Exchange. Some men attending that meeting feared their tobacco would not be sold at joint bargaining so they sell lower to the French, secretly. (Kellock's article, p. 110.)
1718-1728: (Penson, Colonial Agents, p.104), Woodes Rogers co-governs Bahamas with George Phenney, and Phenney unpopular as he exacted money from the inhabitants. Rogers dies in 1732.
1729: An Imperial Chinese edict expresses disapproval of young people taking opium. By the 1770s, the French view was that the Chinese had developed "an unbelievable passion for this narcotic". (Frank Welsh, History of Hong Kong).
1730: Richard Shubrick, (Kellock, London debt claimants of 1790 appendix p. 145), About 1730, Henry Laurens knew this firm. About 1763 Richard Shubrick a Carolina merchant and Royal Assurance Co. director, was of Barge Yard, Bucklesbury, and Thomas and Richard Shubrick were in African trade. In about 1755 Shubricks put 220 Gambia and Windward Coast slaves to South Carolina. In 1769 was firm Thos. and Richard Shubrick of 52 Watling St, by 1775 with another partner Clemson at 19 Birchin Lane, Cornhill, near Carolina Coffee House. Thomas Shubrick of Charles Town in debt to his brother, all debts in Carolina and Georgia.
1730: By 1730, the English drank coffee, but after heavy propagandizing by the EICo they turn to tea, and from then the Co. lived on the tea revenues.
1730: Firm Lane, Son and Fraser was founded by John Lloyd (1656-1730), of 11 Nicholas Lane, Lombard Street. Portugal trade, then with the New East India Company. Friends with one Peter Godfrey. Thomas Lane came into firm in 1735. Lane accumulated debts in America during the Seven Years War. (Kellock's article, pp. 131-132.)
11 February 1731: Jamaica agents for 1731-1733 were John Gregory and Charles Delafaye (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 269ff), noted regarding the Jamaica Assembly an Act appointing them as agents. Some members of HM Council for Jamaica included Richard Mill and Edward Charlton; speaker of the assembly was John Stewart. Others in the assembly included Dennis Kelly, Alger Pestell, Andrew Arcedeckne and George Ellis.
1731: On the period to 1776 - 1731, various men named Reed were active in the convict service to 1771.
1731: Bartholomew Pomeroy, (Kellock, London debt claimants of 1790 appendix, p. 141.) William and Henry Pomeroy in Leadenhall Street dealt in textiles in London by 1731. In October 1767, William Pomeroy linen-draper was a director of the EICo, later there were William and Henry Pomeroy and Thomas Streatfield. Next partner after Streatfield who went off alone was Samuel Hodgkin. Firm then became Bart. Pomeroy and Co. In 1790 the executors claimed £18,307 in Georgia, New York, South Carolina and Massachusetts. (Kellock's Lists).
1732: Slaves aboard the ship of New Hampshire's Captain John Major kill both captain and crew, and seize the vessel and its cargo.
1733, Appearance of first Masonic Lodges in the American colonies.
1733: (Olson, Virginia Merchants Of London, p. 379), Virginia merchants in a flurry of activity re the excise crisis of 1733. London's grouping of tobacco merchants shrank, reflected a shift in tobacco trade from London to the outports. and as Jacob Price suggests, the development of an official French market gave opportunities to the merchants handling larger volumes of tobacco. but if less merchants were involved, there was also less leadership. after 1733 the core group shrank to five men, Micajah Perry (Virginia), John Hanbury (also New York, Penn and Labrador), Samuel Hyde, James Buchanan (also South Carolina) and William Black (also South Carolina), who gave less leadership than earlier provided.
1733-1750: On Micajah Perry, Virginia merchant of London:
Micajah Perry (died about 1750), was a noted tobacco merchant, and
at times, an adviser to government on commercial affairs. Micajah
Perry, one-time "dean of the American lobbyists", bankrupted partly
as he spent excessive time lobbying government ministers and
(Perry once refused to take 50 women convicts to Virginia. The women were sent instead to the Leeward Islands. There were probably not two lots of 50 women convicts, probably only one merchant named Perry. (This is a detail from William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 8, 1899-1900., p. 273.) The early volumes of the quarterly are replete with snippets of information (newspaper items, tombstone readings, birth death and marriages notices, diary items), which can be related to convict transportation, merchant activity, ships captains, colonial folk, and to Duncan Campbell's career as well.)
(See Alison G. Olson, Making the Empire Work: London and American Interest Groups, 1690-1790. London, Harvard University Press, 1992., p. 103.)
Given early mentions of his name, Perry becomes one of the first contractors the historian of trans-Atlantic convict transportation should name. By 1688, the London firm Perry and Lane was backing William Byrd's applications from Virginia. Perry helped to provide slaves to Virginia in the decade following 1710. Davies reports that after the contracting of the Royal Africa Company, slave delivery to Virginia was the business of two prominent merchants, Jeffrey Jeffreys and Michajah Perry [the elder?]. After 1689, when a monopoly was no longer enforceable, that contract system fell into disuse, and men such as Jeffreys became separate traders in the "Africa trade". Jeffrey Jeffreys was active in merchant circles from 1675. Other labour-suppliers with his surname are mentioned in K. G. Davies, The Royal African Company, p. 295.
1733: On Micajah Perry: For Virginia merchants, by 1733,
lobbying was incidental to business. The Virginia lobby claimed to
represent only a well-defined community of merchants, it did not
speak for or to the public or for North American merchants in
general, it never lobbied for "a popular cause". Micajah Perry
disapproved in 1733 when a Virginia agent came to London for the
tobacco excise, and printed and wanted to present his cause to the
people. By 20 December, 1745, John Hanbury commented on Micajah
Perry's "out of date" business methods in a letter to John Custis
[Custis Papers, Library of Congress].
By the late 1740s, Perry and Hyde were bankrupt and had no relatives to revive the business. Olson comments, "They were a sad object lesson in the difficulties of combining political and mercantile careers". Hanbury as a Quaker also stood aloof, he was financially the most successful. Micajah Perry was an active merchant by 1699, certainly by 1725, and he had a brother working in Virginia. William Beverly of Virginia used Micajah Perry in London when Perry was partner with Thomas Lane. Perry bankrupted in the late 1740s due to being over-extended to Virginia merchants. [The Virginia colonial agents John Povey and Nehemiah Blakiston to 1721 used Perry as their banker]. Perry was providing slaves to Virginia by the 1710s. By 1688, a firm Perry and Lane had been backing William Byrd's applications from Virginia. Perry was an acknowledged leader of the tobacco trade, but his defaults in paying excise became a spectacularly and blatantly corrupt practice. The government had been surveying excise practices, before 1733 and the advent of Walpole's Act, which was bitterly resisted. Government viewed Perry as a nuisance as in Parliamentary debates he spoke against their proposals. Perry bankrupted in the late 1740s due to being over-extended to Virginia merchants. Micajah Perry [the younger] died about 1750. It was presumably Micajah Perry Senior who married wife Ann Owen on 20 October 1663, St Swithins, London. Their relative may have been Aaron Perry, christened 26 October 1690, St Andrew's, Holborn, London. One Mikai (sic) Perry was christened on 30 April 1695, St Katherine Creecchurch, London. From IGI records we find a variety of women marrying the name Perry can be associated with the London parish St Dunstan's [in the East?]. In North America, Perrys were at Fairfield, Connecticut or St Andrews, Charleston, South Carolina. Further to Perry providing slaves: Lists can be drawn from the Courts of Assistants to the Royal Africa Company, a supplier of slaves, can include Perry's name: see K. G. Davies, The Royal African Company. London, Longmans, 1960. William Sedgwick, William Johnson, Sir John Moore, Nathaniel Mountney, George Boun (sic), Richard Craddock, Thomas Heatley, Abraham Hill, Sir William Hussey, John Cooke, John Ashby, Peter Joye (sic), Thomas Belasyse (sic) Viscount Falconberg [Fauconberg], Sir Peter Colleton, Nicholls or Niccols (sic), John Morice, William the Earl of Craven, Sir Samuel Dashwood, Sir Gabriel Roberts, Capt Henry Nurse [also agent-general for the Africa Company at Cape Coast Castle], Sir William Hedges. Thomas Russell the Earl of Pembroke, Sir Henry Capel at Treasury, Sir Richard Clayton, Richard Perry and Thomas Lane, Jeffrey Jeffreys slaver, Micajah Perry, Peter du Cane marine underwriter, shipbuilder William Warren, Richard Cary a Nevis merchant, James Kendall on Barbados, Job Charnock the founder of Calcutta, John Lloyd of the New East India Company and founder of Lane, Son and Fraser, William Penn persecuted by Queen Mary, Sir Gilbert Heathcote, Sir Basil Firebrace, Sir Stephen Evance, Craddocks, Sir William Fazakerley, Bartholomew Gracedieu.
On Micajah Perry: Sources: Julian Hoppit, Risk and Failure in English Business, 1700-1800. Cambridge University Press, 1987., p. 101. Olson, Virginia Merchants in London, p. 367, p. 380, Note 73. Alison Olson, Anglo-American Politics, 1660-1775. New York, 1973; Joseph Albert Ernst, Money and Politics in America, 1751-1775: A Study in the Currency Act of 1764 and the Political Economy of Revolution. Chapel Hill, NC, 1973; Jack M. Sosin, Agents and Merchants: British Colonial Policy and the Origins of the American Revolution, 1763-1775. Lincoln, Nebraska, 1965. Other relevant titles include: Jacob Price, 'The Tobacco Adventure to Russia: Enterprise, Politics and Diplomacy in the Quest for a Northern Market for English Colonial Tobacco, 1676-1722', American Philosophical Society, Transactions, NS LI, Part 1, 1961, pp. 31ff, cited in Olson, Virginia Merchants of London, p. 366. See also, Alison Olson, 'The Board of Trade and the London-American Interest Groups', Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth Studies, 8, 1980. The Virginia colonial agents John Povey and Nehemiah Blakiston to 1721 used Perry as their banker; he became bankrupt by the late 1740s. See John M. Hemphill, Virginia and the English Commercial System, 1689-1733. London, Garland, 1985. [Facsimile of a 1964 Ph. D thesis, Princeton University.; pp. 44-45ff, with discussion of Micajah Perry and his views on trading.
On Micajah Perry: John M. Hemphill, Virginia and the English Commercial System, 1689-1733. London. Garland. 1985. [facsimile of a 1964 Ph. D thesis, Princeton Univ. p. 259, citing on Perry, Elizabeth Donnan, 'Eighteenth-Century English Merchants: Micajah Perry', Journal of Economic and Business History, 4 Vols. Cambridge Mass., 1928-1932., iv 1932., pp. 70-98.
John M. Hemphill, Virginia and the English Commercial System, 1689-1733. London. Garland. 1985. [facsimile of a 1964 Ph. D thesis, Princeton Univ. pp. 44-45ff, a good deal of discussion of Micajah Perry and his views on trading.
On Micajah Perry: Sources: See A. E. Smith, Colonists in Bondage, variously. Julian Hoppit, Risk and Failure in English business, 1700-1800, p. 101. Robert C. Nash, 'The English and Scottish tobacco trades in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: legal and illegal trade', Economic History Review, Series 2, 1982., pp. 354-372., here, p. 360, Note 28. See Alison Olson, Anglo-American Politics, 1660-1775. New York, 1973. Olson, Virginia Merchants of London, p. 371.
1733: (Olson, London Mercantile Lobby, p. 24), a representative of the moneyed interest was John Hanbury (See also Capel Hanbury and Osgood Hanbury, etc.)
Item: 6 June, 1734: [From GLRO Index to Catalog, Misc. Ms
136.14]: Order for the payment of J. Forward for the transportation
of 64 malefactors to Maryland, at £5 per head. On 6 June, 1734, 53
felons from London and Middlesex, the rest from nearby counties. On
19 December, 1737, Jonathan Forward merchant, James Forward
merchant and John Whiting, mariner, all of London, dealt with Miles
Man, Esq., Common Clerk of City of London, for various named
(See Wilfrid Oldham, Britain's Convicts to the Colonies. Sydney, Library of Australian History. 1990., p. 16.)
British Creditor Lists: 1730s: Harrison and Ansley, (Kellock, London debt claimants of 1790 appendix, p. 128), from 1768 at 52 Bread Street, founded by Christopher Kilby, from Boston, (1705-1771), who arrived in London in 1739 as special agent for Massachusetts. By 1741 he replaced the usual agent, a merchant Francis Wilks. By 1745 the head of Sedgwick, Kilby and Barnard had died and Kilby married the Sedgwick widow (a sister of Richard Neave), and the firm became Kilby, Barnard and Parker. With political connections, Kilby got a share of government connections from the 1756 war with the French, and one contract here was shared with Sir William Baker. Kirby's wife was a sister of Richard Neave, a rising merchant in the West Indies trade who by 1781 was a deputy governor of the Bank of England. The firm became Barnard and Co. of Sise Lane, Budge Row (Barnard and Harrison). and later had debt with John Hancock in whale products, before Hancock went to George Hayley. Later Harrison and Barnard bankrupted. The final firm in 1790 claimed pre-war debts of £24,684, Mass, New York, Penn, Maryland.
1735: In France, King Louis XV declares that when an enslaved woman gives birth to the child of a free man, neither mother nor child can be sold. Further, after a certain time, mother and child shall be freed.
1735: The Carolinas, colonies in America, receive 8000 slaves from Angola.
1735: Using an English law, Georgia prohibits the importation and use of black slaves but also in 1735 petitions Britain for the legalization of slavery, and in 1738, Georgia's trustees permit the importation of black slaves.
1735: British Creditor Lists: Lyonel and Samuel Lyde, Kellock, London debt claimants of 1790 appendix p. 133. Lyonel Lyde (1724-1791) was a second son of Lyonel Lyde, in 1735 the Mayor of Bristol, a man who combined the slave trade to Africa and Virginia with the tobacco trade. He sent his second son Lyonel to London as an agent, and by 1763 Lionel and Samuel Lyde were at Copthall Court, Throgmorton Street. they claimed in 1790 a debt of £9113. They had dealt heavily in the Upper James River Naval District 1773-1775 buying tobacco with cash or bills on London, not on goods, a system which got the best tobacco leaves. In 1765 Lionel Lyde a director of the Bank of England and in 1772 a baronet. In 1769 he signed the anti-Wilkite address.
List of Bankers 1736:
ARNOLD, ATTWOOD Robert, Basinghall St, BANCE, BELLAMY, BENSON, BOWDLER, CASWELL and MOUNT, COLEBROOK, ROCKE and HARVEY, CHILD Sir Francis and Co., Temple Bar, DRUMMOND, FREAME and BARCLAY, GLEGG and VERE, GREEN and TYSOE Lombard St, KNIGHT and Jackson, MARTIN, MORSON Richard, Lombard St, PEPYS and HOLLINGSWORTH, SNOW Thomas, Fleet St, STONE Richard, TEMPLE and HAWN.
From Little London Directory 1677 by J. C. Hutton, reprinted in The Handbook of London Bankers F. G. Hilton-Price, 1876.
1735: Lyonel and Samuel Lyde, (Kellock, London debt claimants of 1790, appendix, p. 133), Lyonel Lyde (1724-1791) was second son of Lyonel Lyde, in 1735 the Mayor of Bristol, a man who combined the slave trade to Africa and Virginia with the tobacco trade. He sent his second son Lyonel to London as an agent, and by 1763 Lionel and Samuel Lyde were at Copthall Court, Throgmorton Street. They claimed in 1790 a debt of £9113. They had dealt heavily in the Upper James River Naval District 1773-1775 of Virginia, buying tobacco with cash or bills on London, not on goods, a system which got the best tobacco leaves. In 1765 Lionel Lyde a director of the Bank of England and in 1772 a baronet. In 1769 he signed the anti-Wilkite address.
From 1737, Dublin, Ireland, 19 firms contracted to remove 384 felons, but 14 carried convicts only once. The largest trader was Joseph Weld, with four separate contracts. By 1739, Weld and a partner had invested £1500 in shipping and equipment, wanted to transport from both Dublin and Cork. In 1739, one firm, petitioned the Irish Parliament in order to secure the whole trade.
nil date: John Bland Virginia tobacco merchant, 11 Lime Street, dealt with colonial Robert Beverly - Kellock Lists;
Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor
of 1737-1738 Sir John Barnard
Descendants of Quaker merchant John Barnard (c.1685) London, and sp: Sarah Payne
2. London Lord Mayor, MP, Sir John Barnard (b.1685;d.29 Aug 1764) sp: Jane Godschall (b.1687;m.1708;d.1747) 3. Jane Barnard wife2
sp: Henry (Houblon) Temple (m.12 Sep 1738;d.18 Aug 1740) 4. Lord Admiralty Henry Temple Visc2 Palmerston (b.4 Dec 1739;d.16 Apr 1802) sp: Mary Mee wife2 of Dublin (m.5 Jan 1783;d.20 Jan 1805) 5. Frances TEMPLE 5. Prime Minister Henry John Temple Visc3 Palmerston (b.20 Oct 1784;d.18 Oct 1865) sp: Emily Mary Lamb widow Cowper (b.21 Apr 1787;m.11 Dec 1839;d.1869) 6. William Francis Cowper-Temple Baron Mount Temple (b.13 Dec 1811;d.16 Oct 1888) sp: Georgiana Tollemache wife2 (m.22 Nov 1848;d.17 Oct 1901) sp: Harriet Alicia Gurney wife1 (b.1825;m.27 Jun 1843;d.28 Aug 1843/1844) sp: Miss (wife2) Ashley (Shaftesbury) 7. Rt Hon. Ashley Evelyn (b.1836;d.1908) sp: Elizabeth Tollemache (m.1848) 6. Lady Shaftesbury, Emily Cowper heiress sp: Mister Notknown
5. Sir William Temple (b.Jan 1788) 5. Mary Temple (b.Jan 1789) 5. Elizabeth Temple (b.Mar 1790) sp: Frances Poole (m.6 Oct 1767;d.20 Jan 1805) 3. Sarah Barnard (d.15 Mar 1762) sp: Banker Alderman Sir Thomas Hankey (b.21 Dec 1704;m.19 Jun 1733;d.3 Jul 1770) 4. Thomas Hankey sp: Mary Wyver 4. Robert Hankey 4. Susanna Hankey (d.1 Aug 1799) sp: Exchequer official, MP, Beaumont Hotham Baron2 Hotham (b.5 Aug 1737;m.6 Jun 1767;d.4 Mar 1814) 5. Beaumont Coldstream Guard Hotham heir app (b.1768;d.Aug 1799) sp: Philadelphia Dyke 5. Rev. Frederick Hotham sp: Anne Elizabeth Hodges 6. Gov. Victoria Sir Charles Hotham Sir (b.14 Jan 1806;d.31 Dec 1855) sp: Jane Sarah HOOD (m.1853;d.28 Apr 1907) sp: James Norman husband1 4. John Hankey (b.6 Sep 1741;d.29 Aug 1792) sp: Elizabeth Thomson 5. MP Thomson Hankey of London (b.1805;d.13 Jan 1893) sp: Martha Harrison
6. Gov. Bank of England. Thomson Hankey MP (b.1805;d.Jan 1893) sp: Apolline Agatha Alexander (An American) (m.1830) 6. George Hankey (b.1815) sp: Caroline Donovan wife1 (m.1838) sp: Katherine Selina Ardill wife2 6. Louisa Hankey sp: Banker Thomas Hankey 6. Emma Hankey sp: Rev. W. Weguelin 6. Albinia Hankey sp: Dr. James Somerville 5. John Peter Hankey Esq (b.4 Sep 1770;d.6 May 1807) sp: Isabella Alexander 6. Julia Hankey sp: Lt-Col. Seymour Thomas Bathurst (d.10 Apr 1843) 7. Allen Alexander Bathurst MP (b.1832;d.1 Aug 1892) sp: Muriel Leicester Warren wife1 (b.25 Nov 1839;m.31 Jan 1862;d.6 Jul 1872) sp: Evelyn Hankey (cousin) wife2 of Surrey (m.1874) 6. John Alexander Hankey sp: Ellen Blake 6. John Alexander Hankey sp: Ellen Blake 5. General Henry Aitchison Hankey sp: Caroline Maria Robarts wife1 (m.29 Jun 1839) 6. Cecil Aitcheson Hankey Miss (d.11 May 1897) sp: Hon. George Frederick Nugent Greville (m.17 Aug 1870) 5. Frederick Hankey
4. Thomas Hankey sp: Mary Wyver
3. John Barnard extinct
1737: 12 July: On Micajah Perry - William Beverley of Virginia, uses Micajah Perry of London. By 12 July, 1737, Perry is partner with Thomas Lane. Peter Perry was brother of Micajah in Virginia. mention of William Fitzhugh. [William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 1, 1892-1893, reprint 1966.. pp. 223-225.]
By 1737: Joseph Weld was active in Dublin. From 1737, Dublin, Ireland, some 19 firms contracted to remove 384 felons, but 14 carried convicts only once. The largest operator was Joseph Weld, with four separate contracts. By 1739, Weld and a partner had invested £1500 in shipping and equipment, wanting to transport from both Dublin and Cork. In 1739, one firm petitioned the Irish Parliament in order to secure the whole trade. About 1737, Capt. Hugh French was in the convict trade. The Virginia Gazette of July 22, 1737, announced his death on a convict ship, from on-board gaol distemper. (Sources: Oldham, Britain's Convicts, pp. 4-7.)
In 1737, Abbe de Saint-Pierre completes Observations On The Continuous Progress Of Universal Reason. (An influence on the encyclopedia movement in France)
List of London Bankers 1738:
ATKYNS, HONYWOOD and FULLER, BRASSEY, CASWALL and MOUNT, CHAMBERS, CHILD Sir Francis and Co., DRUMMOND, FREAME and BARCLAY, GLEGG and VERE, GREE and TYSOE Lombard St, HANKEY Sir Joseph and Thomas, HOARE Benjamin and Henry, KNIGHT and JACKSON, KNIGHT and SHUTTLEWORTH, MARTIN, MIDDLETON, MINORS Thomas, Lombard St, PEPYS and HOLLINGSWORTH, SNOW Thomas, without Temple Bar, STONE Richard, SURMAN Robert, TIMBREL Thomas.
From Little London Directory 1677 by J. C. Hutton, reprinted in The Handbook of London Bankers F. G. Hilton-Price, 1876.
1738: In 1738, James Russell registers the sloop Charming Molly, 15 tons. In 1742 he registers the ship Nottingham 150 tons in partnership with his brother-in-law, James Wardrope and with John Buchanan. About 1750 he had the ship Ogle, 300 tons, as sole owner. In 1750s he had a ship in partnership with Annapolis shipbuilder James Roberts, and Annapolis merchant James Dick. (Jacob Price, One Family, note 7.)
1739: Nadir Shah invades India and sacks Delhi, taking away Peacock Throne of the Mogul emperors, and vast wealth.
1739: London merchant Andrew Reid a friend of the Secretary of the Treasury was placed on a government payroll as convict contractor though J. Forward continued to transport felons from provincial jails until the late 1740s. Reid had several partners including James and Andrew Armour of London and John Stewart, a Scotsman. (Works by Ekirch - Stewart was later an older partner of Duncan Campbell (1726-1803) who was originally from Glasgow).
1739+: Andrew Reid was a London-based convict contractor. By
1739, he worked with James and Andrew Armour, London, and John
Stewart, London. A firm active by 1745 was Reid and Armour, London.
By 1750 he was known as Andrew Reid only, London [By 1750, John
Stewart may have gone into business on his own account]. When
Andrew Reid retired in 1763 he left the London scene entirely to
John Stewart and Stewart's younger partner, Duncan Campbell. Andrew
Armour was active by 1749, becoming Stewart and Armour, London.
Sources: A. E. Smith, Colonists in Bondage. The Newgate Calendar, Vol. 1, pp. 196ff, naming some merchants operating from 1749.
1739: Jamaica's period of prosperity was 1700- 1774, a gradual decline 1774-1834 following the American Revolution. In 1739 the golden age of prosperity began, the white population then 7000-8000, exporting 33,155 hogsheads of sugar each of 14 cwt, and accompanying the extra output was extra input of slaves. (See Orlando Patterson, pp. 16-23.)
1739: Stono Slave Rebellion. In 1733, Spain had issued an edict to free all runaway slaves from British possession who went into Spanish territories. On 9 September 1739, about 20 slaves, mostly Angolans, gathered under the leadership of slave Jemmy near the Stono River, 20 miles from Charleston Carolina. Some 44 blacks and 21 whites died. South Carolina in response placed restrictions/import duties on slaves from abroad, mounted more patrols and increased militia training, and recommended a more benign treatment of slaves
Below are items still uncollected
This free script provided by
View web stats from www.statcounter.com/ for this website begun 4 July 2006