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This file is devoted to presenting basic Timeline information for website readers. The items are often sketchy, and some have been extracted from other websites managed by Dan Byrnes. These Timelines will be added to intermittently, as new data and new e-mail arrives. Book titles will be entered according to the timeframes they treat. -Ed

Below is given a table on various book titles we have collected on the topic of the rise of Capitalism from somewhat after the beginning of the Crusades to the Holy Land.

The Crusades can be seen as failed exercises in colonisation, prior to military failure. And they failed, and mostly in Italy, techniques of financial management were refined which lead to what we today call Capitalism.

On which, we particularly recommend several titles in overview ...

Christopher Hibbert, The Rise and Fall of the House of Medici. London, Penguin, 1974/1979.

Deepak Lal, Unintended Consequences: The Impact of Factor Endowments, Culture, and Politics on Long-Run Economic Performance. London/Cambridge Massachusetts, MIT Press, 1998.

Charles Massey, The Australian Merino: The Story of a Nation. Edn 2. Sydney, Random House Australia, 2007., pp. 14-15. Massy here mentions both Spain and Italy as centres of wool trades. A noted Italian wool trader was Signor Francesco Pegolotti (who worked for the bankers Bardi), who left extensive price lists of the Fourteenth Century of value to historians. Given that he wrote in Australia, Massy is surprisingly helpful on the development of Capitalism in Europe.

Raymond De Roover, Money Banking and Credit in Medieval Bruges: Italian Merchant Bankers, Lombards and Money Changers: A Study in the Origins of Banking. Cambridge Masschusetts, The Medieval Academy of America, 1948. PhD thesis.
Raymond De Roover, 'The story of the Albergi Company of Florence, l302-l348', Business History Review, 1958.
Raymond Roover, The Rise and Decline of the Medici Bank, 1397-1494. Beard Books, 1999/2008.

Books on Middle Ages economic history

A. Beardwood, Alien Merchants in England, 1350-1377. Cambridge, Mass, 1931.
E. A. Bond, 'Extracts relative to Loans supplied by Italian merchants to the kings of England in the 13th and 14th centuries', Archaeologia, 28, 1840 (1940?).
C. Brooke and G. Keir, London 800-1216. 1975.
W. R. Childs, Anglo-Castilian Trade in the Later Middle Ages. Manchester, 1978.
E. M. Carus-Wilson and O. Coleman, England's Export Trade, 1275-1547. Oxford, 1963.
W. C. Jordan, (Ed.), Order and Innovation in The Later Middle Ages. Princeton, NJ, 1976,
R. Kaeuper, 'The Frescobaldi of Florence and the English crown', Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History, 10, 1973.
J. Klein, The Mesta: A Study in Spanish Economic History, 1272-1836. Cambridge, Mass, 1932.
R. W. Kaeuper, Bankers to the Crown. Princeton, NJ, 1973. (On The Riccardi)
T. H. Lloyd, The English Wool Trade in the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press, 1977.
T. H. Lloyd, Alien Merchants in England in the High Middle Ages. Harvester Press, Sussex/St Martin's Press, New York, 1982.
W. E. Lunt, Financial Relations of the Papacy with England to 1327. Cambridge, Mass, 1939.
K. Polyani, 'Ports of Trade in Early Societies', The Journal of Economic History, 23, 1963.
M. M. Postan, Medieval Trade and Finance. Cambridge, 1973.
M. Prestwich, 'Italian merchants in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth century England, in The Dawn of Modern Banking. New Haven and London, 1979.
T. F. Ruiz, 'Castilian Merchants and England, 1248-1350', in W. C. Jordan, (Ed.), Order and Innovation in The Later Middle Ages. Princeton, NJ, 1976, which also has A. R. Lewis, 'Northern European sea power and the straits of Gibraltar, 1031-1350AD'.
A. A. Ruddock, Italian Merchants and Shipping in Southampton, 1270-1600. Southampton, 1951.
V. M. Shillington and A. B. W. Chapman, The Commercial Relations of England and Portugal. London, 1907.
C. Verlinden, 'The Rise of the Spanish trade in the Middle Ages', ECHR, 10, 1939-1940.

From 1500 to 1600

1441: Portuguese mariner Dom Henrique (Henry the Navigator/Sailor) departs Portugal to search for sub-Saharan African "kingdoms of gold". By now, Spaniards and Portugeuse (Iberians) were already familiar with the place of slaves from Africa in their countries due to the Moorish occupation of Spain. Africans had also been used in the sugar culture around the Mediterranean Sea, and after Madeira (1419 [Henry the Navigator] if not earlier) and the Azores (1427-1431 if not earlier) were discovered by the Portuguese, slaves were used there. Dom Henrique landed on the coast of West Africa but found no gold, though he did find other trade goods. Two of his captains captured 12 Africans, men, women and children, who were taken to Portugal to demonstrate to the king that it ewas cheaper to get slaves directly from West Africa than to buy them from Arabic or other middlemen. Dom Henrique offered to give the Pope two black slaves. The Pope granted permission to the Portuguese to conduct a slave trade on the West African coast. Perhaps more outrageously, the Pope granted complete absolution in advance to anyone who would die in battle on the African West Coast. This did something to end the long Arabic monopoly of slave-supply in the Saharan region.

1444: First African slaves are brought to Portugal from northern Mauritania. During 1444-1445, Portuguese made their first contacts with sub-Saharan Africa.

1448: For the first time in Africa, leaders in Mali and Songhay exchanged about 1000 slaves with the Portugeuse in return for horses, silk and silver. Such slaves were probably used as domestics, in the Mediterranean sugar industry, and at Azores and Madeira. Black slaves were also sold to Spain and Italy.

1471: Portuguese make their early contact with the West African Gold Coast.

1481-1482: Portuguese begin building Elmina Castle (the mine) on the Gold Coast.

1488: Mariner Bartholomew Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope.

1490: First Portuguese missionaries go to the Congo, in Africa.

1494: The Pope makes the Treaty of Tordesillas which grants world territory east of the Tordesillas line through Brazil to Portugal and the west to Spain. (There was some associated quibbling about territory which was later adjusted to give Brazil to Portugal.) This also gave the Portuguese a monopoly of the slave trade from the West African coast. Spain meantime had free access to the Caribbean and South and Central America. It was unfortunate for Africans that the Spanish and Portuguese found that Africans were hardier workers than AmerIndians.

1500: Sugar plantations are established on the island of Sao Tome some 200 miles from the coast of West Afirca.

Portugal after 1492 - when Columbus had discovered the Caribbean - by about 1510 - begins to develop aspirations of breaking the monopoly of Moslem traders on the spice trade to Europe. (The legend exists that by 1536, Portuguese mariners had discovered Botany Bay at what is now, Sydney, Australia - see Kenneth McIntyre, The Secret Discovery of Australia, a discovery which was lost to history.) (By 1505, geopolitically, an important strategic hot spot was the entrance to the Red Sea - Aden - where Moslem trading ships sailed. The entrance to the Red Sea was also important to Moslems, since Indian Moslems sailed from Western Indian ports into the Red Sea and up to ports from where they travelled to Mecca. So the entrance to the Red Sea was important to Moslems for both religious and commercial reasons.

Meanwhile, as part of the operation of the Spice Trade, Moslem mariners had sailed as far south-east as the Spice Islands, or, the Malacca Straits, from where they could also deal with mariners from China (Canton).)

1500: Cabral discovers Brazil, "officially", though Portugal may actually have discovered it some years before. (McIntyre, Secret Discovery of Australia, p. 30, pp. 215-216ff).

1500: By now and due to the printing press, mariners are able to use printed seacharts for improved navigation.

1500 India: Fleeing king of Jaunpur dies in Bengal; Governor of Delhi revolts but is imprisoned; Cabral comes with 13 ships to Calicut, gets in way of a conflict, so bombards Calicut in return for assurances. Political rivalry in Malawa.

1500: 9 March: Six months after Da Gama has returned, Pedro Alvarez Cabral sails from Portugal with thirteen ships and 1200 men for India.

1501-1524AD: Reign of Ismail, first Safavid Shah of Persia.

1500-1502: World exploration: The Portuguese Corte-Real brothers sail about Labrador and Newfoundland. Did they are even earlier-working Portuguese survey other areas of the eastern North American coast?
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1502: Portugal: Cartographers produce a fine map of the world (now known as The Canino Map) which becomes prized by the Duke of Ferrara in Italy, who is a map collector and fascinated by the discovery work of the Spanish and Portuguese. The Duke employs Alberto Cantino as an agent to find a copy of this map from Lisbon. The map shows part of the coast of South America, including Brazil which was discovered only in 1500 by Cabral, plus the West Indies islands, known as "The Antilles of the King of Spain", and northwest of them, the Florida peninsula, which was not "discovered" by Spain till 1513 (?).
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

In 1502 Gama went again to India with 20 ships, when he also tried to gain the submission of some African chiefs - by harsh methods. In 1524 he went back to India as a Viceroy but soon died. All this vindicated the discovery voyages of Bartholomew Diaz from 1487, suggesting that a large ocean lay east beyond the Cape of Good Hope. At that time, ideas existed that a Great Southland existed south of Asia, called Jav La Grande. It did exist. It is now called Australia, but it was missed by the Hispanics, and "discovered" by the English in 1770.

1502 Europe-India: Papal Bull views Portugal's king as a "lord of trade" to India, Persia, Bijapur. Da Gama begins his third voyage of trade/discovery.

1503-1505: World exploration: Little-known voyage by French mariner inspired by Da Gama's voyage, backed by local merchants and shippers, Jean Binot Paulmier de Gonneville, from Honfleur in Normandy for the East. He got to an unknown tropical land and brought back a son, Essomericq, of the local king, who had a son who remained in France. The facts remain unknown. One possible destination named is Madagascar.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1503 India: First European fortress in India is Turumumpara, for Albuquerque.

1503: Portuguese sailors first reach Table Bay, South Africa, and later use it as a refreshment base.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1503 India: Sikander transfers the capital of Empire from Delhi to Agra; battles of succession in Kandesh.

1503: The Spanish and the Portuguese begin to transport slaves from Western Africa to replace Native Americans who'd been worked in Caribbean and other New World mines.

1505: Portugal after 1492 - when Columbus had discovered the Caribbean - by about 1510 - begins to develop aspirations of breaking the monopoly of Moslem traders on the spice trade to Europe. (The legend exists that by 1536, Portuguese mariners had discovered Botany Bay at what is now, Sydney, Australia - see Kenneth McIntyre, The Secret Discovery of Australia, a discovery which was lost to history.)
(By 1505, geopolitically, an important strategic hot spot was the entrance to the Red Sea - Aden - where Moslem trading ships sailed, human traffic re the pilgrimage to Mecca not unrelated. The entrance to the Red Sea was also important to Moslems, since Indian Moslems sailed from Western Indian ports into the Red Sea and up to ports from where they travelled to Mecca, and returned. So the entrance to the Red Sea was important to Moslems for both religious and commercial reasons.

Meanwhile, as part of the operation of the Spice Trade, Moslem mariners had sailed as far south-east as the Spice Islands, also to the Maldive Islands, or, to the Malacca Straits, from where they could also deal with mariners from China (Canton).)

1505: Portugal: Francisco de Almeida is made viceroy of Portuguese territory in India and sails with fleet of 21 ships to enlarge Portugal's chain of forts on Indian soil. Almeida's son Lourenco leads an expedition to the Maldives and Ceylon/Sri Lanka, a move which brings retaliation from the sultanate of Egypt and other Moslem states. In 1508, Lourenco's ships are trapped by an Egyptian fleet off Chaul on the central Western Indian coast. Lourencos is killed. His father in revenge destroys an Egyptian fleet and its local allies off Diu of Northwestern India. Later Almeida is then (in 1509) replaced in India by Afonso de Albuquerque. Almeida ends killed by South Africans near Table Mountain.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1505: European Ludovico Varthema sails in the East.

On the Order of Christ in Portugal:
An early master of the Order of Christ was Henry the Navigator (died 1460). Later, the heir of the King of Portugal, John II Capet, The Perfect (died 1495) was his wife's brother, also his cousin, Manuel Duke Beja, who was Master of the Order of Christ at the time. The (otherwise unexplained ) revenues of the Order of Christ at this time funded the Portuguese explorations of Africa. The Portuguese from 1505 via the Order of Christ explored the western coasts of Africa. At the same time, Almeida went to Cochin to invade Moslem trading areas, after earlier Portuguese voyages to the east of 1500.

1507 (and 1516): A world map - Carta Marear - A Portuguese Navigational Sea-chart of the Known Earth and Oceans - is drawn by German-born cosmographer Martin Waldeseemuller (c.1470-1518), the first ever to call a continent "America", and the first to chart latitude and longitude "with precision". The map is first owned by Nuremburg astronomer and geographer Johannes Schoner (1477-1547), later thought lost, but is found in 1901 in Castle of Wolfegg in Southern Germany. It remained there in obscurity till 2001, when US Library of Congress bought it from Prince Johannes Waldburg-Wolfegg for $10 million. The map clearly shows the west coast of North America from modern Canada (near Vancouver Island) to the equator (Ecuador). This map's depiction of Florida and Caribbean seems to have been influenced by two earlier charts, the Cantino of 1502 (Alberto Cantino is agent of Duke Ercoli d'Este of Ferrara) and the Caviero Map on 1505. These maps also show the Great Bahamas Bank, but the Caviero also shows the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, which is not on the Cantino. Menzies in 1421 thinks all these maps were influenced by an even earlier map - Chinese in origin.
(Item from Gavin Menzies, 1421, The Year China Discovered the World. 2002 - hardcover edition)

1508: Maritime history: Voyages of Pinson and de Solis.

1510: First black slaves are shipped to Spanish colonies in South America via Spain. This was with the permission of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand. Spain had developed a centre for slave dealing at Lisbon, the government slave agency (Casa dos Escravos) sold about 1200 slaves between 1511-1513.

1510: May: Albuquerque is ejected by Moslems from his fort at Goa, India. He retakes it later in 1510, and then has ambition to take the Straits of Malacca (actions of 1511). As a conqueror he is "soaringly imaginative".
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1510: Invention of the watch in Nuremberg.

1511: Portuguese become first Europeans to set foot on (Indonesian archipelago) Banda Islands, spice islands, They do not return until 1529 when Portuguese trader, Capt. Garcia, lands troops on the Banda Island, principal island named Neira. The islands are so small they are in gunshot of each other, except for Run. There are stories of cannibalism and head-hunters. Previously, spices had reached the west from Venice, and before that, Constantinople, and before that, Arab mariners in the Indian Ocean. Now, the Venetian monopoly on the European spice market is broken.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1511: Maritime history: Albuquerque captures Malacca/Malacca Straits. That is, Melaka in what is now Malaysia.

1512: Arrives at Malacca a former apothecary (chemist) of the Portuguese court, sent by Albuquerque (who dies 1515) to examine on the medicinal properties of spices, Tome Pires. (Estensen, "Discovery, p. 45) Pires travels to Java and elsewhere in Indonesia and finally wrote Suma Orientale, (forgotten till 1937) a compendium for his King Manuel on economics and geography from Egypt east to Irian Jaya (West New Guinea). He recommended Timor for sandalwood. Pires was later sent as head of Portugal's first mission to China, where he was imprisoned. Absurd legends develop that Sumatra is "an island of gold".
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1512: Maritime history: Abreu and Serrao reach Moluccas (Malacca Straits) of Indonesia. Albuquerque in April 1512 sends to King of Portugal a locally-made pilot's map of Java, Indonesia got by Francisco Rodrigues. Later in 1512 Albuquerque sends Rodrigues under command of Antonio de Abreu with three ships and 120 men exploring further east of Melaka, to pre-empt likely Spanish moves. These Portuguese maybe got as far east as Mindanao in the Philippines. Rodrigues finally produces a book of navigational rules, tables and procedures, 26 charts of coastlines from Europe to China and 69 panoramic drawings depicting the northern Indonesia islands. (See Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land.

1513: Scottish Battle of Flodden.

1513: Maritime history: The Spaniard Balboa crosses the Isthmus of Panama. (Site roughly of present-day Panama Canal). (The area later remained vital in the views of English promoters of colonisation, since if it could be taken from the Spanish, it would provide an ideal foothold for further English activity in the Caribbean region, and against the Spanish, as happened much later.)

1516: First settlement of Timor island, Indonesia, by Portuguese.

1516: Benin in Africa decides to restrict the "export" of male slaves, fearing a labour shortage.

1517: Martin Luther nails his 95 revolutionary theses to the door of Wittenberg University Church.

1518: Origin of the Spanish asiento [contract giving the holder an exclusive right to supply slaves for the Spanish New World]: King Charles I of Spain with papal sanction authorizes the supply to Spanish America of 4000 Africans as bond-labourers. The contract (Asiento de negros) for this was awarded to one of hs favourites. Between 11-15 million Africans are estimated to have been sent to the New World under the terms of the asiento. (Cited in Theodore W. Allen, The Invention of the White Race, Vol. 2, The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America. New York, Verso, 2002., pp. 8-9)

1519: Maritime history: Mariner Magellan sails from Spain. Mariner J. de Alburquerque sails from Portugal. Mendoca is sent from Lisbon as captain of a 14-ship fleet sailing from Lison to the East.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1519: Herman Cortes begins conquest of the Aztecs of Mexico. He takes their capital in 1521.

1519: Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec Empire, has a population of 200,000.

Bernal Diaz del Castillo, lieut for Cortes, said of Aztec cities, "We were amazed and said that it was like the enchantments they tell of in the legend of Amadis, on account of the great towers and temples and buildings rising from the water, and all built of masonry. And some of our soldiers asked whether the things that we saw were not a dream."
(It is estimated that the indigenous population of Mexico shrinks from 25 million to one million in the first century of Spanish rule.)

1520-1618: Smallpox is introduced by the Spanish to Mexico, only three months after Cortes has laid siege to the Aztec capitol. The result is that the population is reduced from 20 million to 1.8 million. Later, South American suffers from waves of measles, typhus and influenza. The indigenous populations are reduced by up to 95 per cent according to some estimates.

1520: Portuguese governor at Goa, India, receives orders to discover "gold islands" south of Sumatra.

1520 Mexico: Hernan Cortes as he advances on Tenochtitlan is regarded as a god by the Aztecs, that is as an avatar of their supreme god, Quetzalcoatl.

1520-1566AD: Reign of Sulayman the Magnificent; Ottoman empire at its peak.

1521: Died 1521, Ferdinand Magellan, in the Philippines, where he attempted to convert local natives at gunpoint. He is killed by natives using iron-pointed bamboo spears and scimitars.
Magellan's crew once sold a cargo of 26 tons of cloves for 10,000 times its original cost - a good example of the mercantilist's hopes of buying cheap and selling dear. Magellan by now has discovered Tierra del Fuego, but it is not known for a century that the area is an island, not part of a major land mass.

1521-1522: New Zealand: Possible deposition of The Ruapuke wreck, reputed to be a New Zealand version of Australia's mahogany ship enigma at Warnambool. As referred to by K.G McIntyre in The Secret Discovery of Australia (pp. 281-284 of the original hardback edition) as possibly the second of Cristavao de Mendonca's caravels to come to grief in his venture of 1521-22. Evidence cited includes the Tamil Bell and the Wellington Helmet. Since the publication of Gavin Menzies' book 1421 on the claimed world-discovery trip of the Chinese, it is suggested that the Tamil Bell might be an artefact left by the Chinese, who were familiar with Ceylon at the time.

1521-1522: Ferdinand Magellan begins his expedition to make the first circumnavigation of the world.

November, 1521, Magellan's ships reach the Indonesian spice islands, the Moluccas. This severely annoys the already-resident Portuguese on the spice islands.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1521: Magellan rounds Cape Horn, on his way to the Moluccas Islands, Indonesia, which were far further west than he had imagined.

1522: African workers appear in the Caribbean, either as bond servants or slaves. Perhaps brought by the Portuguese, who could trade in slaves, as the Spanish were not permitted to do so.

1522: Maritime history: Voyage of Cristovao de Mendonca with three ships leaving Malacca for a voyage south from the west coast of Sumatra. He returns with one ship only. (Legends exist that one or more of ships visited some coastline of Australia.) Later he is appointed governor of island of Hormuz in Persian Gulf region.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1524: Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazano arrives in France to report on his New World discoveries, which include (what is later seen as) New York's bay.

1524: (Reported 30 July 2002: Mexico City: A manuscript dated 23 September 1524 has been found at Mexico's National Library of Anthropology and History, detailing the takeover of Mexico by Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortes.

1524: Maritime history: Junta of Badajoz. Voyages of Verrazano and Loaysia.

1525: April: Spain: A fleet of seven ships under Garcia Jofre de Loaisa sails from La Coruna in Northern Spain. Flagship is Santa Maria de la Victoria. Sailing the Atlantic for Straits of Magellan and into the Pacific. One ship was wrecked on a shore. Another disappeared entirely. Another sailed home. Four ships got into the Pacific but never saw each other again. One ship got to the Philippines, where the crew was killed or enslaved. The flagship got to Tidore, where crew fought the Portuguese for eight years. In 1527, Charles V directed Cortes as governor of New Spain (Mexico), to send three ships to find Loaisa's ships or men. This 1527 expedition was commanded by Alvaro Saavedra de Ceron, to be lost near the Marshall Islands in the Pacific. Saavedra attempted to return home to Mexico via the north coast of New Guinea, he died, and his crew returned to Tidore.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1525: The Portuguese governor of the Moluccas sends from the Indonesian island Ternate an expedition (for gold or for diplomatic explorations) led by Diogo de Rocha and pilot Gomes de Sequeira. They possibly reached the western Caroline Islands before homing to Ternate. Sequeira later sailed the Arafura Sea and possibly sighted the islands today known as Bathurst, Melville and Croker, the Coburg Peninsula, Wessel Island and Prince of Wales Island. If so, he was the first European discoverer of North-Western Australia.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1525: Maritime history: Two voyages of Gomes de Sequeira.

1526: Founding of the Mogul Dynasty in India.

1526: Europeans by now have sighted the northern coasts of New Guinea. Spaniard Capt. Alvaro de Saavedra Ceron who believes there exists an Island of Gold somewhere southwest of New Guinea in 1528 tries to find an eastward route (from the Malaccas?) across the Pacific (to Mexico?). Headwinds forced him back. He died at sea in 1529.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1527: Bristol merchant Robert Thorne, an English trader in Seville, Spain, writes secretly to King Henry VIII that it is possible to reach the Eastern spice islands via the North Pole.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1529: Portuguese Captain Garcia visits spice island, Neira.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1529: World exploration: French brothers Jean and Raoul Parmentier sail from Dieppe in ships Pensee and Sacre and reach Sumatra, where they die of fever. Their pilot Pierre Crignon returns home with charts etc. Crignon's reports may have helped inspire a 1540 French map by Jean Mallard which shows a large promontory, Terre Australle, lying south of Malacca. Another member of the Parmentier expedition was Jean Rotz who in 1542 produced a world map noting Java La Grande (a French term), with an imaginary picture of "Australia". In 1544, a French mariner distrusted in his own lifetime, Jean Fontenau, claimed to have seen La Grande Jave. He married a Portuguese woman and was also known as Jean Alfonse - and thought that La Grande Jave extended south to near the South Pole. In any case, the Parmentier voyage seems to be the key to rising notions of the existence of Java La Grande as it was depicted in a series of maps produced in Dieppe, France.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1532: The Spanish arrive into Inca territory of South America. Within 50 years, about five million Inca have died. But mysteriously, this had been a tragedy long foretold. The Inca believed their ancestors had arrived from the stars (constellations). The stars then were their real home; the Inca supposedly were besotted by astrology. The Inca custom of child sacrifice with victims taken from various of their tribes was then a way of sending messengers "home". Views have arisen that various "cultural codings" used by the Inca were derived from older civilisations, perhaps as old as 13,000 years ago. About 1432 or so, the early Inca produced a prophecy that the Inca would fall after five rulers had been at their head, then all would fall. Disasters on earth would reflect disasters in the heavens, such as "heavenly disconnections". Such prophecies were so precise that it might well be asked: why did the Inca then bother to build an empire?
Some information/views here taken from TV documentaries various as screened in Australia after new research by archaeologists around Year 2000 or so.

1532: First direct shipment occurs of slaves from Africa to the Americas.

1534: England splits with the Church of Rome.

Circa 1535:

Pizzaro an outright murderer: Australian researchers using refined new technology have examined a fragment of a letter with a beeswax seal written by a Jesuit in Inca territory, to find a date for the writing of the letter. A mystery of conquest may now be solved - Pizzaro and his few troops overwhelmed the Incas by the simple expedient of murdering their emperor and his general. (Reported in Australia 13 October 1999)
Pizarro is illiterate, but "experienced". In 1528 he sails along Inca coastlines to reconnoitre. He arrived in middle of a civil war. The Sapa Inca had been Huayna Capal, to 1525, he had two sons, Atahuallpa and Huascar, and Huascar lost the battle which broke out, Pizarro murders Atahuallpa. (Notes - the Incas were at Machu Picu.)
(Reader's Digest, The Last Two Million Years, p. 203) ... When Pizarro murders Atahuallpa, he also "eliminates" the 4000-strong leadership of the Inca Empire, from 1530. A TV documentary on Australian SBS on 29-7-2001, says that in the Spanish new world, the Pizzaros and the Orianas were two related large families who became deadly enemies in the New World over gold (?).

1535: Jacques Cartier discovers Montreal, Quebec. The first European to reach the area was Jacques Cartier on 2 October, 1535. Cartier visited the villages of Hochelaga and Stadacona, and noted others in the valley which he did not name. (From GeneaNet newsletter Sep 2010.)

1536: Further on the destruction of the Inca Empire: From about 1432, the Incas had developed an astronomical/astrological system which allowed belief also in a dire prediction about the demise of what became their empire, more or less a self-fulfilling prophecy, after five rulers had exercised power. Disasters on earth would echo disasters in the skies/heavens, in conformity with the formula, "as above- so below". The time of disaster coincided with a conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter. As to disaster, the Inca Empire had a population of more than five million. Within 50 years of the arrival of the Spanish from 1532, five million Incas had died. But the tragedy had been long foretold, and during the lead-up to their demise, the Incas had tried to stave off or forestall disaster by engaging in child sacrifice (every fourth year, and/or at an annual solstice,. the victims aged 7-12), in a deliberate effort to rearrange earthly patterns so that the heavenly patterns became more congenial.
The idea was that the children, carefully selected from tribes which had their origins in certain constellations, would return as messengers to their heavenly home to plead for a rearrangement of circumstances on earth. In which case, human sacrifice was a ritual-of-last-resort. As to such beliefs, the questions arise: were the Incas here exercising an old belief system shared by other civilizations? Such as might have been exercised at Sumer? A belief system spread by maritime contact? From how long ago?
It also seems that this belief system was the major asset enabling the Inca Empire to grow and enjoy (or coerce) the co-operation of the diverse peoples in its mountainous territories.

1536: Spaniard Hernando de Grijalva, possibly on orders from Cortes, after going to Mexico from Peru, on returning home decides to turn his ship into the Pacific. Arises an obscure story, that his ship ran short of water and provisions, was blocked by strong northeasterly winds, his crew mutinied, killed Grijalva, and headed for the Moluccas. They were shipwrecked off New Guinea and probably killed except for a few survivors who were ransomed by some Portuguese.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1537: Spanish Conquistadors searching for "legendary El Dorado" reach Columbia and loot the burial places of Indian priests and chiefs, also ransacking gilt-lined temples and palaces. This is in the Great Lakes region of Columbia, location of the ancient Sinu sanctuaries. Today (March 2001), a tomb-looting indigenous tribe continue the looting, the Guaqueros, their chief named Jaunito. These looters either sell artefacts, or if no buyer can be found, melt them down. There is a legal artefact-manager in the country, the Gold Museum in Bogota - which evidently cannot stamp out looting. (From an article by Francois Guenet in The Australian Magazine, 3-4 March, 2001).

1537: Maritime history: Pedro Nunes discovers the Loxodrome.

1538: Appearance in Spain of The Asiento (Asiento des Negros), a kind of official agency to engage in the slave trade, a monopoly contract for slave supply to colonies. One early holder of the Asiento was a courtier to the Spanish king, King Charles V, the Fleming, Laurens de Goumenot, who was given a right to transport 4000 Negroes to Hispaniola (Haiti), Jamaica and Puerto Rico, slaves whom he obtained from the Portuguese. de Goumenot however did not have the capital required, so he sub-contracted (or soold h is right) his right to some Genoese traders for 25,000 ducats. The Genoese reorganised links with the Portuguese on the West Coast of Africa. One result was that it was not unknown for an African king dealing with the Portuguese to sell his own citizens or to undertake military slaving raids against his neighbours to find victims for the slave trade.

1538: Flemish cartographer Gerard Mercator publishes his map of the world. He adopts the view of Magellan, that about the area of Tierra del Fuego is a large land mass, a southern continent of unknown extent, terra incognita.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1539: Maritime history: Orellan's voyage down the Amazon River.

1540: Execution for treason of Thomas Cromwell, earlier chief adviser to King Henry VIII of England.

1540: Francisco Vasquez de Coronado takes 2000 men into the deserts north of Mexico in search of the Seven Cities of Cibola, which legendarily had palaces and temples filled with gold and silver. In the present-day New Mexico. What was found was a humble Zuni Indian settlement.

1541: Dies in the Spanish New World: Francisco Pizzaro (c1471-1541). Discoverer and conqueror of Peru. He accompanied Balboa on discovery of the Pacific Ocean. In 1522 Pizzaro dreamed dreams of conquest to the south, and he sailed down the west coast of South America. He returned to Seville in Spain by 1828 and by 1829 was made governor and captain-general of New Castile. (The South American coast he had seen). Pizzaro is joined by his brother Hernando. Pizzaro in 1541 is assassinated by followers of his Spanish enemy, Diego de Almagro. Half-brother of Francisco was Gonzalo Pizzaro (C1505-1548), In 1539, an ex-miner at Potosi mines, Gonzalo becomes governor of Quito, later governor of Peru. He was executed by an enemy on 26 June 1546.

1541AD: Hungary: After the Turkish occupation of Buda in 1541, the region of the Great Plain becomes part of the great Ottoman Empire which stretches over three continents.

1542: France: Jean Rotz produces a manuscript, Boke of Idrography on hydrography and marine sciences, earliest of the major works of the Dieppe school of maps. Rotz, of Scots descent (Ross), presented his book to Francis I, but got no position at court, so he went to England to present it to Henry VIII, to be rewarded with post of Royal Hydrographer till Henry's death in 1547. Rotz had sailed to Guinea (West Africa) and Brazil in 1539. He may also have sailed with the Parmentiers to Sumatra in 1529-1530. In 1529 he seems to have been in the Western Pacific.

1542: Spanish Mexico: A fleet of six ships under Ruy Lopez de Villalobos leaves port of Navidad with orders from the King of Spain to colonise The Islands of the West, that is, the Philippines, and to seek gold, spices and other trade goods. Voyage across the Pacific took three months. Villalobos spent a year trying to found a colony about Mindanao but failed and resorted to the Moluccas where he died of fever. Spain did not try the Philippines again till 1565.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1543: Copernicus suggests the earth is not the centre of the universe and thus shocks the Catholic Church.

1546: The Compass improved: The Spanish improved on the Chinese invention of the compass by installing it within a set of gimbals. Gimbals invented by the Chinese about 100BC. (Source: James/Thorpe).

1546-1601: Life of Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe, who produced systematic star maps.

1547: Death of Hernan/Hernando Cortes, Spanish conqueror of Mexico. He studied law, began at Hispaniola (Santo Domingo), as a farmer. In 1511 he went with Diego Velasquez on expedition to Cuba. In 1519, Cortes went to Yucatan, later to Tabasco. There he found a mistress, Dona Marina (Malintzin) who gave him a son, Martin. Cortes then founded Veracruz, then went inland at a time when nation of Tiaxcala is at war with Aztec ruler Montezuma of Mexico. Cortes entered Mexico City on 8 November 1519, and killed Montezuma. By 1521, Cortes had caused the fall of the Aztec Empire. Cortes returned to Spain and was made captain-general (of Mexico). Cortes' enemies grew, but Cortes did explore Lower California about 1535. Later he explored Honduras. Cortes again returned to Spain and died near Seville in 1547. See M. Collis, Cortes and Montezuma. 1955.
Encyclopedia Britannica item

1549-1551AD: Mission of Jesuit St. Francis Xavier to Japan.

From 1550: Islam spreads to Indonesia.

1500-1550: (From a website reviewing book on climate change by H. H. Lamb, Climate History and the Modern World): After a generally warmer interlude between 1500 and 1550, northern Europe turns much colder... there appears The Little Ice Age, which reached a peak in the 16th and 17th centuries, experienced temperatures that were as much as 1.5°C colder than the 20th century. Great hurricanes arose in the North Atlantic. (A gale whose winds exceeded the speeds of any modern tempest destroyed the Spanish Armada and changed history. Traces of this era of cold persisted until the mid-19th century.)

1550: Portuguese settlement of Nova Scotia. (Canada)

22 April, 1550: The first encounter between Europeans and South American Indians/Brazil, as recorded by Pero Vaz de Caminha, an official scribe for a Portuguese flotilla that accidentally arrived on the coast of Brazil, off-course for a voyage to India. The Indians were given a red beret, a linen hood and a black hat. In return, the Indians gave a headdress of bird feathers, a necklace of white beads. Not so long later, the Portuguese enslaved the Indians. At the time of first contact, there were about five million Indians in 1400 tribes speaking 1300 languages. In April 2000, a 500th anniversary was observed at Porto Seguro, a small coastal town. Today, DNA research reveals that about 45 million Brazilians, about a third of the population, share some indigenous DNA levels. Brazil still has about 30 pockets of Amazon jungle where so-called Stone Age tribes live, of about 100-300 people. Land rights remain a serious issue for Brazil's indigenous people.

1551AD: Bayinnaung inherits the Burmese throne and overruns Thailand.

1553: On 23 June 1553 sets sails the voyage under Englishman Richard Chancellor, adopted son of Henry Sidney, for The Mystery, Company and Fellowship of Merchant Adventurers for the Discovery of Unknown Lands, Chancellor on ship Edward Bonaventure. Also sailing with two other ships, Bona Esperanza, and Confidentia. Also sailing is Sir High Willoughby. The ships reach Barents Sea, and end 300 miles inside the Arctic Circle, worried by pack ice. Some of the ships crew had written wills dated January 1554. Willoughby and his men froze to death. Chancellor had gone into the White Sea near today's Archangel, and gone overland to Moscow. Chancellor meets Grand Duke of Russia, Ivan Vasilivich, also Emperor, who is impressed enough to grant trade rights, which thus begins the English Muscovy Company.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1553: Sir Hugh Willoughby's "fateful expedition to the Arctic".
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1556-1605AD: Reign of Mogul emperor Akbar in India.

In 1553 and 1555 Englishman Richard Eden publishes his Treatise of the New India and Decades of the New World or West India. There arose by 1555 a "fruitful co-operation" in Elton p. 334, of merchants, sailors and moneyed gentry including a few members of court and council. from 1551 the first trade contacts grew with Africa. See 1551.

1558: From Brussels, Oliver Brunel advertises that he has travelled on the coasts of northern Russia, and might soon find a North-East Passage to the Indies. He would soon take a Russian ship to the spice islands. (This might reduce a year's sailing time?) This information caused great pain to London merchants, so they denounced Brunel to the Russians as a spy and he is imprisoned for 12 years.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1559: First cultivation of tobacco starts in Spain.

1559: Queen Elizabeth I sends aid to Scottish lords to drive French from Scotland.

1561: Dieppe Map by Desliens displays Portuguese flags on Java La Grande, and the same in 1566 and 1567.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1561-1562: The French Wars of Religion: "Throughout France, members of the rival creeds (Catholic and Huguenot) attacked each other, killing, burning, raping, torturing, and looting. The atrocities were as outrageous as they were cruel. In a frenzy of Protestant iconoclasm, churches were desecrated and their clergy hunted down like vermin; one Huguenot captain wore a necklace of priests' ears while the infamous Baron des Adrets made Catholic prisoners leap to their death from a high tower. Even the dead were attacked; at Orleans a Reformist mob burnt the heart of poor Francois II and threw Joan of Arc's statue into the river. The Counter-Reformation was not yet in evidence so Papist fanatics were rare but nonetheless Catholics were goaded into fury. At Tours two hundred Huguenots were drowned in the Loire while the bodies of those slaughtered at Sens came floating down to Paris. That grim old soldier Blaise de Montluc made Protestant captives jump from the battlements and remarked with satisfaction that all knew where he had passed by the trees which bore his livery - a hanged Huguenot; on one occasion he strangled a pastor with his own hands." As Pascal said a hundred years later, "Men never do evil so completely and cheerfully as they do from religious conviction."
From: Desmond Seward, The First Bourbon: Henri IV, King of France and Navarre. London, Constable, 1971., p. 143

1562: Maritime history: Legazpi sails in Philippines area.

1563: Stress of urbanisation: French parliament begs the king to prohibit vehicles from the streets of Paris.

1563: Spanish navigator Juan Fernandez amazes his associates by sailing from Callao, Peru to Valparaiso, Chile in 30 days instead of the usual 90. Then sailing west into the Pacific he discovered a number of islands which now bear his name. He was possibly trying to find any eastern coast of any Great Southland. By legend he got to New Zealand but this seem highly unlikely.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1565: April: Spain tries again (after 1542), to found a colony of the Philippines. Miguel Lopez de Legazpi leaves from Acapulco in Mexico and founds colony on Cebu with three ships and 300 men. Spanish administration six years later was transferred to Cebu on Luzon Island. With this 1565 expedition was Miguel de Urdaneta, now a monk, who had been asked to help establish a useful return route home from the Philippines. Sensibly, Urdaneta wanted to go about new Guinea to establish its proximity to any Great South Land, then to possibly examine just where the Great Southland lay. This went far beyond Legazpi's brief to found a colony and establish a route home. On 1 June 1565, Urdaneta (died 1568) sailed from Cebu and went north, overshooting on the West North American coast, then south, which brought him to California, then to the port of Navidad of Mexico.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1566: Maritime history: Mendana's first voyage.

1567: November: The viceroy of Peru permits controversial mathematician, scientist and adventurer Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa to take two ships from Callao to settle "the great southern continent". Sarmiento captains one ship but has to answer also to a 26-year-old, Alvaro de Mendana, a nephew of the viceroy. Both however belief in lands of gold to the west. After 80 days sail they found an island, possibly Nui of today's Tuvalu. By early 1568 they were at the Solomon Islands, where the local people resented them, so the expedition went to today's Honiara on Guadalcanal, where it was again resented, so it went to San Cristobal. It finally returned home dismal with failure. Young Mendana however is convinced he has found outlying islands of the Great South Land. He tried again in 1595.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1568: Spain: Muslims are forcibly converted to Catholicism in Spain.

1570: Geographer and mapmaker Abraham Ortelius publishes his world map and following Mercator depicts an unknown great southern land, modifying its name from terra incognita to Terra Australis Nondum Cognita, or Southern Land Not Yet Known.
1570: Ortelius produces a world map which shows New Guinea as separate from the conjectural land south of it called Terra Australis. Cornelis de Jode's map of 1593, Speculum Orbis Terrae shows much the same re New Guinea. But in 1594, Plancius on his map shows New Guinea joined to the Great South Land.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1571: The Battle of Lepanto; 117 Turkish galleys taken and 80 lost, only 12 Christian vessels are lost.

1571: Foundation by Spanish of city Manila, the Philippines.

1572: France: 3000 Protestants are killed in St Bartholomew's Day Massacre in Paris, one of the bloodiest incidents of a series of religious wars.

1572: Mapmaker Ortelius issues his atlas, which amongst other legends speaks of King Solomon's ships sailing for (mythical) Ophir, where they gather 420 talents of gold.

13 December 1577: Francis Drake begins a world voyage from Plymouth, England, in Golden Hind.

1577: Francis Drake leaves England on his world voyage.

Where did English mariner Sir Francis Drake make his Pacific landfall (Nova Albion?) on North American land. Did he leave a "Drake was here" plate at Campbell Cove, Bodega Head, California in the summer of June 1579 as he repaired his ship, Golden Hind? In 1997, writer Brian Kelleher of Cupertino began asking questions about such a site. Or was the landing spot at a Marin County Bay, or on the Oregon coast? Researchers including archaeologist Dr. Kent Lightfoot, at University of California may follow up Kelleher's suggestions. Drake's five-ship expedition was the second attempt to circumnavigate the world, following up Magellan. From the western Pacific coast, Drake sailed to Indonesia, then across the Indian Ocean, around Cape of Good Hope and home to England. (Reported 10 July 1999)

1579: More maritime history mystery: Fresh controversy arises over whether history should be rewritten with the case of English pirate Francis Drake, and the Golden Hind voyage: did Drake discover Alaska? A new book, The Secret Voyage of Sir Francis Drake, by Samuel Bawlf argues that Drake was forbidden from publicly reporting his discovery due to fear of the Spanish becoming aware of English moves. Working from study of maps and Drake's mention of a "frozen zone" where natives shivered in their furs and snow scarcely melted even in summer, Bawlf argues for a thorough rewrite of the history of Elizabethan discoveries. The English he said had an ambitious plan to find the North-West Passage and found an empire in the Pacific. Part of the problem is lack of information on Drake's whereabouts in the summer of 1579, a question long and hotly debated on the US' western coasts. Bawlf, a Canadian geographer, believes Drake spilled details to his personal map-maker, Abraham Ortelius, who is said to have invented the atlas. Bawlf feels that a map showing four non-existent islands off the coast of California are the shapes of actual islands further north, including Vancouver Island. Sceptics are reportedly unconvinced, and some sceptics still believe that Drake went no further north on these West American coasts than Mexico. (Reported 16 August 2003)

1580: Spain annexes Portugal.

1580: Crowns of Spain and Portugal are united.

1580: English merchants back a voyage into the Arctic (Kara Sea), to find any near-Russia North-East Passage to the East, perhaps by "a river near China".
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1582: As France suffers a civil war, historian and cartographer Lancelot du Voisin, Seigneur de La Popellinere, translates the Latin of Hondius' atlas and argues in a treatise, Les Tres Monde, that the French can still catch up with the discoveries of Portugal and Spain by settling The Great Southland. No one takes any notice.

1583: Dutchman Jan Huyghen van Linschoten proceeds to the East Indies, and later writes five big books of "fables" which happen to contain information of great interest to merchants. He returns home in 1592, the year in which Plancius published his "world map" based on the work of Abraham Ortelius and Gerard Mercator.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1583: Sir Humphrey Gilbert founds first English colony in North America at St John's, Newfoundland.

1586-1587: Under threat from Indians, English colonists sail from Roanoke Island, North Carolina, dismally ending the first English settlement in America. English colonists had come ashore on Roanoke Island, attempting to establish the first permanent English settlement in the New World. It now seems that the colonists were confronted with the region's worst drought in 700 years, which caused mass starvation and made for tense and aggravated relations with Native Americans. By 1590, the ill-fated settlers had vanished with little trace.

1587: Mapmaker Rumold Mercator, son of Gerard, issues his map of the world which amends the name of the so-called Great Southern Land to terra australis, which his father had called terra incognita. This imagined land encircles the entire Southern Hemisphere. It supposedly has various regions, some of which are Maletur, Lucach and Beach - thought to be either gold-producing or overflowing with interesting spices. These odd words and ideas are due to poor translations of words used by Marco Polo for his descriptions of today's Malaysia and Indochina. Beach was taken to be southwest of the Straits of Magellan.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1588: The Spanish Armada attempts to invade England but is repulsed.

1588: British sea forces under Sir Francis Drake destroy Spanish Armada in battle off France.

1589: Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Norris make expedition of 150 ships and 18,000 men to Portugal.

1591: London merchants petition Queen Elizabeth I for a licence to trade to the East Indies, then choose expedition commander, James Lancaster, who had captained a ship Edward Bonaventure earlier against The Spanish Armada. In late 1591 Lancaster sets sail with Edward Bonaventure, Penelope and Merchant Royal. The expedition is a failure.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1592: Dutch mapmaker Pieter Plancius publishes a large world map which seems to be based on information from Portuguese hydrographer Bathrolomeu Lasso. Also in 1592, Dutch merchant brothers Cornelis and Frederick Houtman visit Lisbon as agents for Dutch trading houses and are caught trying to steal secret Portuguese maps of trading routes to the East. They were imprisoned for three years but returned home with 25 of Lasso's nautical charts which they presumably used on their later voyages East.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1593: Cornelius de Jode issues a map depicting New Guinea, with the belief that south of New Guinea is the great "Austral land", so large it may form a fifth part of the world. By 1597, Cornelius Wytflet in his atlas with a factually-uninspired guess suggests that the Austral land begins at two or three degrees below the equator.

1594: Paris has population of 180,000 in 1594, two years before the invention of the water closet, which meant a reason for the import from China of toilet paper, invented there 1000 years before.

1594: A Dutch fleet, the first of three, leaves Texel for the Spice Islands under William Barents who thus became an arctic explorer. Voyage of the associated mariner Cornelis Nay, of the second Dutch fleet, led to Northern Russia once being called "New Holland", and he renamed the Kara Sea. By 1595, the second Dutch expedition was also blocked by ice. A third Dutch fleet sailed in 1596 under William Barents and Capt. Jacob van Heemskerck, to be trapped in ice. Barents died.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1594: Appearance of a manuscript, 1594, mentioning that African slaves dig for precious metals, presumably ore and gold, in a Spanish colony in the America. The Latin title is, "Nigritae in Scrutandis Venis Metallicis ab Hispanis", c. 1594.

1595: Netherlands: Cornelis and Frederick de Houtman return to Amsterdam from their map-thieving visit to Portugal just as adventurer Jan Huyghen van Linschoten, who had been some 14 years in the Portuguese East, published on his travels, partly basing on the work of a cosmographer for the Spanish Crown, Luis Teixeira. A group of Amsterdam merchants are willing to form a consortium to trade with the East Indies. In spring 1595 they sent four ships under Cornelis de Houtman about Cape of Good Hope, to Goa, then the Indonesian Islands, returning in mid-1597. Other companies formed and other Dutch voyages followed.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1595: Spring, The Dutchman Cornelius Houtman, a spy by temperament, leads an expedition to the East, in command of ships including Mauritius and Amsterdam. To Cape Verde Islands. Crew discipline frays badly. To the wealthy port of Bantam in Java, Indonesia.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1595: Spaniard Mendana sails with four ships from the Peruvian port of Paita for the Solomon Islands which he has visited 30 years previous, again trying his dream of colonising the Great South Land and finding its gold. He has 280 soldiers and sailors plus 378 men, women and children colonists. Chief pilot of the expedition is Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, a Portuguese navigator aged about 30. This expedition discovers the Marquesas Islands, then misses its mark and gets to the Solomons, though not near to Guadalcanal and other areas already settled by Spanish. Mendana tried a colony at Santa Cruz. Matters failed, the survivors went to Manila. Quiros meantime had adopted Mendana's dream of finding terra australis and spends near a decade seeking support from the Pope and the King of Spain for a new expedition. Quiros' next expedition did sail 1605-1606.

1595: The Dutch send their first fleet into Eastern Trade.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1595: World exploration - Maritime history: Houtman becomes the first Dutchman active in the East Indies. Second voyage for Mendana.

1550++: On the development of attitudes of whites to blacks, regarding the rise of slavery, see also W. D. Jordan, White over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro,1550-1812. (Cited in Theodore W. Allen, The Invention of the White Race, Vol. 1, Racial Oppression and Social Control. New York, Verso, 2002.)

1550: Islam begins its spread to Indonesia.

1550: Portuguese settlement of Nova Scotia. (Canada)

1550: Portuguese settlement in Nova Scotia, first European settlement in North America. (McIntyre, Secret Discovery of Australia, pp. 215-216.)

Essay by Dan Byrnes

The material covered in this orientation-style essay-article is covered in more detail in the website, The English Business of Slavery

An English heritage - essay section

Dampier and the earlier eastern travels of Ralph Fitch:

This section began with an overview of England's trading in the sixteenth century. This overview sees events not in terms of any point of view relating to the seat of power, London, it seeks to concentrate information found on the fringes of what became an empire. By 1640, one of those fringes, seen only faintly in the eyes of the Anglo-Dutch financier, Sir William Courteen Senior, was Australia, or, terra australis incognita.
(Material used for the preparation of this chapter include: E. G. R. Taylor, Tudor Geography, 1485-1583. London, Methuen, 1930. R. G. Lang, 'Social Origins and Social Aspirations of Jacobean London Merchants', Economic History Review, 2, V, 27, 1974., pp. 28-47. Thomas S. Willan, Studies in Elizabethan Foreign Trade. Manchester University Press, 1959. Kenneth R. Andrews, Elizabethan Privateering: English Privateering during the Spanish War, 1585-1603. Cambridge at the University Press, 1964. J. H. Parry, The Age of Reconnaissance. New York, Mentor/New American Library, 1963. Ramkrishna Mukherjee, The Rise and Fall of the East India Company: A Sociological Appraisal. Bombay, Popular Prakashan, 1973., pp. 62-64. Citations on Ralph Fitch include: Robert Brenner, Merchants and Revolution: Commercial Change, Political Conflict, and London's Overseas Traders, 1550-1653. Cambridge University Press, 1993., p. 20, pp. 168ff. Kenneth R. Andrews, Trade, Plunder and Settlement: Maritime Enterprise and the Genesis of the British Empire, 1480-1630. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1984., pp. 168ff. Information on Michael Lok's family is found in James A. Williamson, The Age of Drake. London, Adam and Charles Black, 1938., pp. 153-159; Who's Who /Shakespeare, pp. 153ff. . P. W. Hasler, The History of Parliament: The House of Commons, 1558-1603. Vol. 1, 2, 3. London, The History of Parliament Trust, 1981., p. 485. James A. Williamson, The Age of Drake. London, Adam and Charles Black, 1938., pp. 28ff. Alderman William Lok of London was a player in the Spanish trade by the 1560s, and he evidently gave Michael his entre to trade. Hasler, The History of Parliament, Vol. 3, p. 350, entry for Sir John I Savile, MP, d.1607. On Sir Christopher Hatton, p. 109 of Who's Who /Shakespeare. G. R. Elton, England Under the Tudors. London, Methuen, 1955. DNB entry on Anthony Jenkinson. W. Foster, England's Quest of Eastern Trade. London, 1933., on Fitch, pp. 79-109. Jonathan Israel, (Ed.), The Anglo-Dutch Moment: Essays on the Glorious Revolution and its World Impact. London, Cambridge University Press, 1991. Ian R. Christie, British `non-elite' MPs, 1715-1820. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1995. Sir John Clapham, The Bank of England: A History. Two Vols. Cambridge University Press, 1944. A. Jessopp, (Ed.), Roger North, The Lives of the Norths. Vols. 1-3. London, Greg International Publishers Ltd., 1972., Vol. 3, p. 180. Oskar H. K. Spate, The Pacific Since Magellan. Canberra, Australian National University Press, 1979-1988. Vol. 1, The Spanish Lake. Vol. 2, Monopolists and Freebooters. (1983) Vol. 3, Paradise Found and Lost. (1988). H. R. Fox Bourne, English Merchants: Memoirs in Illustration of the Progress of British Commerce. London, Chatto and Windus, 1886. Ian Bruce Watson, Foundation for Empire: English Private Trade in India, 1659-1760. New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House, 1980. In following merchant careers, the maritime history of English expansionism, and links between aristocrats and merchants, I have relied on some of the following titles, especially for genealogical material, apart from Brenner, Merchants and Revolution. Joyce Lorimer (Ed.), English and Irish Settlement on the River Amazon, 1555-1646. London, The Hakluyt Society, 1989. Theodore K. Rabb, Enterprise and Empire: Merchant and Gentry Investment in the Expansion of England, 1575-1630. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1967. Richard S. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624-1730. London, Jonathan Cape, 1973.)

But it is not easy to implant Courteen's career in a narrative of Seventeenth Century English commercial history. To set the scene, it is convenient to outline a different view of the origin of Capitalism, modern capitalism which utilises a scientific outlook... and a view which did not occur to Karl Marx. The proposition is: that as a prerequisite, modern capitalism required exercise of the institution of slavery. This implies, that the study of economics, today, has been divorced from the history of the development of slavery, especially in respect of the price of the input of labour. Economics, as a matter of study, world-wide, remains a dismal science since the historians of economics-as-a-discipline have overlooked an ubiquitous economic institution - slavery. Failure to examine this matter is partly the result of historians paying insufficient attention to linkages between the trading history of the East India Company, the development of the Company's repertoires of financial sophistication, and Englishmen involved in various ways in slavery.

Though it is difficult to illustrate, it can be demonstrated, genealogically, that many Englishmen, and/or their families, and/or their associates were involved in both East India trade, and various sets of activities linked closely to... slavery. Often, in terms of individual commercial careers, an individual man, and his associates or relatives were involved in either/both kind of trade.
(Here I have in mind works such as: Robert Brenner, Merchants and Revolution: Commercial Change, Political Conflict, and London's Overseas Traders, 1550-1653. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1993. Theodore K. Rabb, Enterprise and Empire: Merchant and Gentry Investment in the Expansion of England, 1575-1630. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1967. E. G. R. Taylor, Tudor Geography, 1485-1583. London, Methuen, 1930. Lists of merchant names are also found in R. W. K. Hinton, The Eastland Trade and the Common Weal in the Seventeenth Century. Cambridge University Press, 1959.)

Such a proposition might tend to harrass histories which treat slavery and East India trade separately. It is rather as though the very activity of studying economic history (as a numbers game) has distracted economists and historians from genealogical matters which were noticed by both academic and popularistic English historians working until about 1939, or, World War Two... the extent of the linkages between business activity and family careers in English commercial life, and following, the history of English expansionism, that is, maritime life, from about 1540. Willan's work treated this, for example, but the themes became lost.
(Thomas S. Willan, Studies in Elizabethan Foreign Trade. Manchester University Press, 1959.) Perhaps, in the 1950s and 60s, British sensibilities about empire were too torn-up by loss of Empire for objective work to be done on the origins of that Empire?)

Willan's work on Elizabethan foreign trade in particular claims that many London-based cloth exporters became interested in "Barbary trade", in particular in importing sugar. But it is not explained if the sugar in question was grown in Morocco (using Negro slave labour?), or had come through Arabic trade routes from, say, India (Bengal)? Nevertheless, there arose a complex set of linkages between aristocratic families and merchants interested in foreign trade and in promoting marine endeavour. From the 1580s, it becomes notable how many English aristocratic families had a twin interest - in their family members promoting trade (including maritime endeavour), particularly in respect of Caribbean sugar islands, and in governing (or, suppressing) Ireland.

This book began with such observations along such lines, and so I have abandoned more modern perspectives on the rise of English trade in search of what arises when the preoccupations of earlier writers are re-explored. Where these preoccupations are linked to genealogical inquiry, the reader will find that the lists placed in these files of English merchants interested in Barbary, or Moroccan trade, especially in sugar, will name some names which have genealogical persistence in narratives of English commercial life - sometimes, persistence for centuries. There is another point. I assume that where families became interested in maritime endeavour, this resulted in later generations retaining information and documents, telling stories, passing on a set of traditions. Much of these traditions became the cultural heritage of Anglo-Australia. But a heritage somewhat misunderstood.

An argument as to Capitalism begins thus:

Origins of modern capitalism in sugar and slavery:

Medieval sugar industries are noted on Malta, Rhodes, Crete and Cyprus. Later, sugar production arose in the Canary Islands (we have already noted the interest of the English Hawkins' in the Canary Islands from 1562 if not earlier) and Madeira, involving Negro labour. Those production areas were overtaken by Brazilian and West Indian production.
(Sidney W. Mintz, Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History. New York, Viking, 1985., p. 36. On the importers of sugar to England from Antwerp by 1556 and later, see Thomas S. Willan, Studies in Elizabethan Foreign Trade, p. 95., p. 159, being William Garrard, John Hopkins, Sir Thomas White, Edward Jackman and others, some of them noted cloth exporters. William Chester and John Gardener were two pioneers of sugar refining in England.)

Mintz, a very insightful writer on the marketing of sugar to Europe, is nevertheless surprised by mention from K. G. Davies, the historian of the English Royal Africa Company, of sugar production on Java and in Bengal. With the history of sugar and its role in the history of the enslavement of Africans, one problem is to decide why Europeans did not import sugar in bulk from Bengal, India, and preferred to take it from islands in the Atlantic or Caribbean? Presumably, from the origins of the English East India Company, 1600, sugar was not in ship management terms a cost-effective cargo to return to England from India?

It is here that Willan's failure to mention the actual source of Moroccan sugar becomes intriguing. Encyclopedias may convey: Sugar was cultivated in India between 500-350BC, but its use did not reach Persia till about 500AD. Its use was shifted west by the Islamic movement.

Should Mintz have read Willan and placed more pressure on available histories of English merchant families? As we will find, the lists given here of London-based merchants and politicians set up reverberations which had long genealogical persistence. This concentration on genealogy removes romance from the history of improvements in navigation and exploration, and enhances appreciation of that history in terms of commercial life - so that we find how sea lanes twisted and turned until finally, Australia grew into the consciousness of the world. Not so far, actually, from the supposed origin of sugar-cane - Irian Jaya/West Papua New Guinea. It is possible that Dutch East India Company interests had thought that too much dependence on Eastern sources for sugar was too dangerous, unprofitable, that the supply line was too thin, and that it was better to deal with the Americas and the West Indies for sugar. In turn, perhaps the British agreed with the Dutch in this?
(Mintz, Sweetness, p. 235.)

It is useful to place at the head of the list, Elizabeth I's famous favourite, Leicester, or, Dudley. Leicester's main interest seems to have been in allowing English merchants to step into a power vacuum once the Portuguese had been forced to quit Morocco. English mariners sailed also to "the Guinea coast". Naturally, some English commercial tendencies entwined with Portuguese interests, during and while England became a larger maritime power. Here, then, the list:


English merchants and others interested in Barbary (Morocco) trade, 1540-1680

Thomas Wyndham, dealing in sugar by 1551.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 81. Willan, Elizabethan Foreign Trade, p. 100. Williamson, Age of Drake, pp. 14ff.)

A co-founder of the Russia or Muscovy Company, Francis Bowyer.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 14, pp. 72ff.)

Robert Dudley (1534-1584/88), Earl Leicester.
(Taylor, Tudor Geography, p. 26. Lorimer, (Ed.), Amazon, pp. 28ff. Willan, Elizabethan Foreign Trade, p. 172, p. 184, p. 225. Ida Lee, 'The First Sightings of Australia by the English', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. XX, Part V, 1934, pp. 273-280. Note: Issues of Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society between 1930-1936 are studded with articles on world navigators of various eras from various countries.)

Mariner Sir Martin Frobisher (1553-1594), a nephew of John Yorke, Russia merchant and an originator of the English-Guinea trade.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 20. Taylor, Tudor Geography, p. 37.)

London Lord Mayor, Sir James Harvey.
(Willan, Elizabethan Foreign Trade, p. 164. R. G. Lang, `Jacobean London Merchants'.)

London Lord Mayor Sir George Bond, active 1587.
(Willan, Elizabethan Foreign Trade, p. 220. R. G. Lang, `Jacobean London Merchants', pp. 28-47. Burke's Extinct Baronetcies for Leigh of Stoneleigh, Bond of Peckham, p. 70.)

Nicholas Stile (died 1615), as part of an extended family operation.
(Willan, Elizabethan Foreign Trade, p. 208.)

Privateer Henry Colthurst, engaged in Morocco and Mediterranean trades, associated with the Stile family, who were linked to Simon Lawrence, who traded cloth to Hamburg.
(Willan, Elizabethan Foreign Trade, pp. 205ff. Andrews, Elizabethan Privateering, pp. 100ff.)

Roger Oldfield, part of a family operation, about 1584.
(Willan, Elizabethan Foreign Trade, p. 195.)

Somerset man, Sir John Luttrell.
(Williamson, Age of Drake, pp. 14ff. Willan, Elizabethan Foreign Trade, p. 97.)

London Salter and sugar importer, Robert How. Privateer George Henley of Somerset.
(Noted in Willan, Elizabethan Foreign Trade. Henley is noted in Brenner, Merchants and Revolution.)

Gerard Gore the Elder, a Portugal trader, with sons becoming early members of the East India Company. (Long later, the pastoralists Macansh of Queensland, Australia, would be descendants). London Lord Mayor Sir John Gore (died 1636), and London alderman c.1641 William Gore. John Swinnerton, a factor in Morocco, dealing in cloth-sugar for Gores by the 1580s.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 385. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Temple of Stowe, p. 2393. Burke's Landed Gentry for Elwes of Roxby. Willan, Elizabethan Foreign Trade, p. 213. R. G. Lang, `Jacobean London Merchants'. The Australian connection: Macansh: See L. M. Mowle, A Genealogical History of Pioneer Families of Australia. Fifth edition. Sydney, Rigby, 1978., p. 106.)

Thomas Cordell (died 1612).
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 18. Rabb, Enterprise, p. 111.)

By the late 1630s, London customs farmer, Sir Nicholas Crispe (1599-1666), the founder of the English slave depot and refreshment base for East India shipping on the African coast, Kormantin, whose faction sought a royally-backed monopoly on Moroccan trade.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 174. K. G. Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 9.)

Crispe's faction was resisted by Maurice Thompson (Thomson), who is treated at length in later chapters, as are Thomson's probable allies in resisting Crispe, the Anglo-Dutch entrepreneur, Sir William Courteen Snr. (1572-1636) plus Samuel Bonnell.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 12, pp. 170ff.)

About 1650, John Penn, "an old Morocco hand", the grandfather of the founder of Pennsylvania, William Penn.
(Andrews, Ships, Money and Politics, p. 171.)

A noted figure in seventeenth century power struggles over the proprietorship of English Caribbean islands, Francis Willoughby (1613-1666), fifth Baron Willoughby of Parham, in 1660 a grantee of the "Morocco Company".
(Richard S. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624-1730. London, Jonathan Cape, 1973., p. 50.)

Some of these names are referred to in earlier files, other names will ring through following chapters.

If we might consider Barbados here from 1625-1628, we might also briefly consider sugar imports into Britain, rather than "gold and slaves", since the economic inter-linkages involved in trade in cloth and sugar required long-term investment in genuinely productive capacity. But here we can also notice, that in the way they treat European-Asian trade between 1600 and 1900, economic historians mostly treat commodity gathering (such as pepper or tea) and exchanges of partly or fully-finished goods, plus bullion. Topics treated less effectively are the military and other costs of protecting trade routes, the costs of maintaining distribution pathways once cargoes reached European ports, and the interests of European consumers, down to the housewife sprinkling spices on a newly-baked cake. What genealogical inquiry does, is press us to ask more questions about the English families involved in trade - down to their social history, and the way they shared their history with their contemporaries.

Amongst the main supply-line factors providing broad connectivity were - sugar and slavery. Antwerp merchants were refining sugar by 1508. English merchants, likewise by 1544. When Spain sacked Antwerp, sugar bakers migrated to London, providing expertise, and probably, various linkages between Dutch capital and expertise.
(G. G. Birch and K. J. Palmer, Sugar: Science and Technology. London, Applied Science Publishers Ltd., 1979. The first Englishman to actually process raw sugar was Colonel Holdip on Barbados in 1641.)

In Mintz's book on the history of the consumerism of sugar is given a revised appreciation of the origins of modern capitalism, in terms of a capitalism that relies on scientifically predictable outcomes. This is an origin of capitalism that escaped the attention of Karl Marx, who was little interested in science and technology; but an origin of capitalism that fits well the history of technology and science, generally - including the history of sugar-growing and the history of the rise of navigation. As the history of Barbados shows for the English case, this capitalism began in the early seventeenth century, and relied on slavery.
(In Rabb, Enterprise and Empire, p. 111, it is noted that London alderman Thomas Cordell (died 1612) was Master of Mercers, a director of the Spanish, East India and Levant companies, an investor in privateering, in Ireland and in Virginia, "and a pioneer in sugar refining in England".
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 18; Rabb, Enterprise, p. 111; Andrews, Elizabethan Privateering, pp. 76ff.)

In this sense, there is traceable one of the distinguishing characteristics of modern capitalism, which is - the capitalist's resentment at paying workers a living wage - call this matter, equity - although capitalists surely appreciate a profit. This resentment existed, and exists, because of early-modern capitalism's reliance on slavery in the Caribbean. Particularly, the resentment of the English capitalist.

This form of capitalism, criticised by Karl Marx, and memorably identified by Tawney in Religion and the Rise of Capitalism, was of course translated to the first British colony in Australia, after forms of semi-slavery, convictism, had been planted there.
(R. H. Tawney, Religion and the Rise of Capitalism: A Historical Study. Ringwood, Victoria, Pelican, 1966.)

Yet any forms of semi-slavery in Australia, convictism, were distinct from the slavery of Negroes at the time, from 1788, because of the legislation backing convict transportation to Australia. European Australia escaped the worst excesses of slavery, although to 1830, many notable figures influencing life in the colony of New South Wales had exposure to slavery as seen in the Caribbean, as an inspection of Australian Dictionary of Biography quickly reveals.

The distinguishing characteristics of this form of Capitalism, as outlined by Mintz, included:
(1) concerted investment at the outset in property and productive facilities;
(2) regular production by a trained work force;
(3) regularly applied accountancy;
(4) with production, some reliance on a scientifically predictable outcome relating to rates of production and a capacity to make reliable future projections;
(5) a growing market for product.

Given the period, from 1600, people's views of physical time, "agricultural time" and a changing human sense of time should also be measured. Europeans began to rely on time measured into various packets, as by a clock, as historians of the Industrial Revolution generally point out. Mintz sees all these necessary characteristics evident earlier than the Industrial Revolution in so-called agricultural operations, sugar plantations of the Caribbean, decades before they were seen in the factories, the "dark satanic mills", of England's industrial revolution, which required new working practices.

In particular, where the sense of time, and the production of a predictable outcome are concerned, Mintz draws attention to the way sugar slurries were crystallised. This was a heat-using and seasonal process where timing was crucial. As a post-agricultural phase of production, it was managed for longer than all-night sessions by skilled slaves. The process was crucial, since it reprocessed much of the year's production. If this process was not successful, the plantations year became a financial disaster.

It was to this part of the "capitalistic production process" that the best of the science-of-the-day could be applied. So in this sense, the sugar industry rapidly absorbed new science and technology and harnessed them to old-fashioned forms of labour, including the use of slavery. With all this, the history of a small Caribbean island, never before inhabited till whites arrived, Barbados, allows us to see how sophisticated urban financiers, writers and commentators, the managers of royal monopolies, small planters, ship managers, all worked to apply science to redevelop an agricultural pursuit, producing... anew variant of Capitalism. Capitalism, for example, as still seen in agrarian Virginia after the American Revolution in the income flows of a founder of the modern United States, Thomas Jefferson.

As the English East India Company grew from 1600, and expanded operations in India, Bengal sugar was not profitable-enough a cargo at the time, and was only consumed by the upper classes of Europe. Gradually, the consumption of sugar was democratised. My argument above is owed to Mintz's excellent book, to which I would add several points.
(1) Genealogically, many descendants can be identified, of Englishmen involved in this elaboration of slave-based capitalism in the seventeenth-century Caribbean - including Duncan Campbell (1726-1803) the subject of a later portion of this series of books. Including, William Bligh "of the Bounty".
(2) In English economic history, what historians have missed is a recurrent flip-flop of capital between "slavers", or, those involved in the sugar industry, and men usually seen as involved with the English East India Company. Usually, historians see England's slave-based enterprises as distinct from East India Company business, and so they treat the two sorts of enterprises separately. This is chimerical, as I will demonstrate.

The nexus of this recurrent "flip flop of capital" between these large-scale, capitalistic enterprises, sugar-slavery and East India business, was the City of London, or rather, the dealings of financiers in the City. Genealogy can be helpful with illustrating how this happened. The history of Barbados helps us to unfold these dismal aspects of modern capitalism.
(In outlining Mintz's perceptions here, I have relied also on material in the following titles in respect of relevant English history. James A. Williamson, The Age of Drake. London, 1938. On West Indian privateering, Kenneth R. Andrews, Elizabethan Privateering: English Privateering during the Spanish War, 1585-1603. Cambridge, England, 1964. Theodore K. Rabb, Enterprise and Empire: Merchant and Gentry Investment in the Expansion of England, 1575-1630. Cambridge Massachusetts, 1967. Here, Rabb, especially, has lists of over 6000 persons investing in overseas commercial ventures about the 1630s. Dunn finds some interesting names are not on this list, such as Thomas Modyford. Also helpful is Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 11, p. 58. On English anti-Spanish activity see Arthur Percival Newton, The Colonising Activities of the English Puritans: The Last Phase of the Elizabethan Struggle with Spain. New Haven, Connecticut, 1914.)


An early question to be answered, necessarily, is: Why did England's East India traders not deal in sugar from Bengal after 1630 or so? Initially, after 1600, the English East India Company found it difficult to gain hegemony in India's eastern ports. By the time the English could have exported Bengal sugar, England was so committed to Caribbean interests that there was little point. The turning point took effect from the 1640s, when Barbados was turned over from more diversified agriculture to sugar - and slavery - as Cromwell's power took hold at home. And it was between the 1650s and 1718 that the transportation of English convicts came to be intensified - with felons sent to work in areas where slavery of Negroes was already common. That is partly how the transportation of English convicts came to be linked with slavery. Later, economies devoted to tobacco production were dependent on slavery.

Sugar cane originated in western New Guinea (although, there is a botanists' debate about this). Gradually, the use of sugar made its way west, and sugar was produced in Bengal, as Europeans noted. The English found it uneconomic to import Bengal sugar. By 1660, the English found it profitable to ship sugar from the Caribbean. By the time of Cromwell's Western Design, the 1650s, England's East India traders still had relatively little experience in investing in sugar-based enterprise. What, if anything, changed this situation? It also seems, that from about 1627, the first West Indian ventures in sugar were supported by Dutch capital, with the English following Dutch inspiration.
(Mintz, Sweetness, p. 53.)


Most reviews of world exploration, and especially of the explorers of Australia and the Pacific, avoid questions of the development of the slave trade. In this book however, specific links between England's first notable mariners, the East India Company and English slaving interests are explored due to necessities arising from a review of the career of the "first English explorer of Australia", William Dampier.

For centuries, European Mercantilists preferred to deal with large and thriving populations, with industrious peoples inhabiting regions rich in resources, such as India or Indonesia, and later, China. Thinly-populated Australia could not be seen this way. Australia's low population density is one reason - perhaps the main reason - why Australia was settled so late in world history. When Dampier after 1700 reported negatively on the prospects of north-western Australia, he implicitly encouraged Mercantilists, from any European power, to ignore the mysterious Australian continent. But why was Dampier, mostly regarded as a "pirate" of the Caribbean, or South America, ever in the Australasian region in the first place?

How Dampier followed up Ralph Fitch:

After 1700, when Dampier went to "the East", and on his way reporting negatively on north-western Australia, he retraced the steps of an Englishman working in the 1580s, Ralph Fitch.
(C. R. N. Routh, Who's Who in History. England: 1485-1603. Vol. Two. London, Basil Blackwood, 1964. On matters genealogical in general here, see variously: John Burke and John Bernard Burke, A Genealogical and Heraldic History of Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of England, Ireland and Scotland. Second edition. London, John Russell Smith. [Facsimile of the 1964 edition]. Hereafter, Burke's Extinct Baronetcies. Vicary Gibbs, (Ed.), The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom. [Extinct, extant or dormant]. London, St. Catherine's Press, 1910. [Hereafter, and as usual form of citation, GEC, Peerage, given name of title(s), or surname(s), page references] W. A. Shaw, The Knights of England. Two Vols. London, Heraldry Today, 1971. Burke's, A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry. London, Edn. 18., Burke's Peerage Ltd. Patrick Montague-Smith, (Ed.), Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage. (Australasian edition) London, Debrett's Peerage, 1980. Also, Charles Kidd and David Williamson, (Eds.), Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage. London, Macmillan's/Debrett's Peerage Ltd., 1985. R. G. Lang, `Social Origins and Social Aspirations of Jacobean London Merchants', Economic History Review, 2, V, 27, 1974., pp. 28-47.)

Ralph Fitch in his own day was racing to compete with the Dutch, and so Fitch was a kind of economic espionage agent. Dampier in his own day was assisting England's "New" East India Company as it tried to infringe on the operations of the "Old" East India Company, which had begun operations in 1599-1600. In this, Dampier stepped out of his usual role of "pirate" and more resembled Fitch, a scout for London's merchant interests. One historian, Routh, considers Fitch one of the greatest of England's merchant adventurers. If so, we would be unwise to overlook Fitch. So we need now to consider first some of the active promoters of London's commercial life, for they did much to inspire maritime activity and exploration.

In the 1690s, before William Dampier travelled East to scout areas that the Old (English) East India Company had not yet exploited successfully, or where the company had experienced difficulty in maintaining its influence, the reasons for his mission fulfilled a long heritage of commercial infighting in the City of London that can be traced back to Tudor times. Many Lords Mayors and aldermen of London were shrewd traders. The intermarriages between them, or their children or relatives, and members of the English aristocracy, have been traced in insufficient detail, and so it is necessary to mention genealogical groupings of noted figures in London's life from era to era. A notable person in the narrative, mentioned earlier, is Anne Boleyn, the executed wife of Henry VIII. The lives of the genealogical cast of characters demonstrate all the themes needing to be discussed, from the development of slavery, to the English government of Ireland, to the increasingly sophisticated financial powers of the East India Company and the City of London. Various connections between Englishmen and English institutions, and Dutch interests, of course culminated in 1688 with the installation of William III of England as King of England.
As noted in an earlier file: the wife of London Lord Mayor Geoffrey Boleyn (died 1463) was Ann Hoo, the daughter of Thomas Hoo, first Baron Hoo. Hoods titles became extinct. Ann's sister Eleanor married one James Carew, but it remains impossible to connect him with the name Carew as connected to Sir Francis Drake.
(GEC, Peerage, Hoo, pp. 561ff.)


Amongst the many descendants of Geoffrey and Ann Boleyn and their extended families are many figures notable in English expansionism, or, maritime history, including:
Sir Thomas Boleyn (died 1538) the first Viscount Rochford and eighth earl of Ormond;
Henry Carey (1525-1596) a noted figure in maritime history, first Baron Hunsdon;
(GEC, Peerage, Hunsdon, pp. 625ff; Wentworth, pp. 508ff; Effingham, p. 10; Rochford, p. 52.)

Abigail Cokayne who married John Carey (1608-1677) second Earl Dover.
(GEC, Peerage, Rochford, p. 52; Hunsdon, p. 630.)
Abigail's father was Sir William Cokayne (1561-1626), Lord Mayor (1619-1620), son of a prominent merchant tailor, married to a second wife, Mary Morris, promoter of the ill-fated Cokayne project. He was responsible for the Corporation of the City of London for their lands in Ireland; so he was the technical founder of Londonderry. His daughters married several aristocrats, his son Charles became first Viscount Cullen.
(Rabb, Enterprise, p. 206. Hasler, History of Parliament, Vol. 2, p. 345. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, on "Cokayne's Project", p. 59, p. 78, p. 87. GEC, Peerage, Cullen, p. 561; Campden, p. 516; Leeds, p. 509; Kilmorey, p. 261; Lindsey, p. 20; Holdernesse, p. 534; Nottingham, p. 789.)

In 1614, James I appointed Cokayne controller of the king's Merchant Adventurers, a company with a monopoly to sell dressed and dyed cloth to the Baltic. "Cokayne's Project" was designed to steal such trade from the Dutch, but it folded. Cokayne was also interested in Nova Scotia.

Catherine Carey (died 1602) the wife of Charles Howard (1536-1624) second Baron Howard of Effingham. He maintained a set of stage players (in "Shakespeare's world of theatre") and jointly-commanded English moves against the Spanish Armada.
(Who's Who /Shakespear, p. 123, p. 140. Hasler, History of Parliament, Vol. 2, p. 344, and p. 422. GEC, Peerage, Norfolk, tabulations; St John, p. 335; Nottingham, p. 782; Effingham, p. 10; Kildare, p. 240; Monson of Bellinguard, p. 68; Mordaunt, p. 200; St John, p. 335; Tyrconnell, p. 113; Northumberland, p. 726; Willoughby, p. 692; Galloway, p. 604.)

Howard had licences to export woolen cloths and in 1598 to trade with Guinea. His titles became extinct. Charles' father, the first Baron Howard of Effingham, William (1510-1572/73), Lord High Admiral (1553-1557) is said to have been greatly instrumental in Elizabeth I gaining her throne.
(Who's Who /Shakespeare, p. 224. GEC, Peerage, Dudley, p. 482; Effingham, p. 9. Bath, p. 19. Nottingham, p. 782. Information on an earlier period can be found in Gordon Connell-Smith, Forerunners of Drake: A Study of the English Trade with Spain in the early Tudor Period. London, Longmans Green and Co., 1954.)
Mary Cokayne (1598-1650) the sister of Abigail above, and wife of third Baron Howard of Effingham, Charles Howard, the son of Charles Howard and Catherine Carey above. (1579-1642);
(Hasler, History of Parliament, Vol. 3, p. 343. GEC, Peerage, Nottingham, p. 788; Effingham, p. 10.)

The privateer Sir Richard Leveson, who married a daughter of Mary Cokayne above; (He was son of the vice-admiral of Wales.
(Andrews, Elizabethan Privateering, p. 29.)

The privateer and vice-admiral of Norfolk and Suffolk, Sir Robert Southwell (1563-1598);
(Hasler, History of Parliament, Vol. 3, p. 422. GEC, Peerage, Carrick, p. 60; Willoughby, p. 692; Northumberland, p. 727. Who's Who /Shakespeare, p. 236. Andrews, Elizabethan Privateering, p. 29.)

An anti-Spanish rear-admiral, who sailed under Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Francis Drake in 1578, Sir Francis Knollys (1550-1648); he was son of the Puritan and statesman, Sir Francis Knollys (1512/14-1596) who married Catherine Carey (died 1569), daughter of William Carey and Mary Boleyn, the parents of Henry, first Baron Hunsdon.
(Hasler, History of Parliament, pp. 408-409. GEC, Peerage, Northumberland, p. 734; Paget, p. 284. Who's Who /Shakespeare, p. 141. J. Shakespear, John Shakespear of Shadwell and his Descendants, 1619-1931. Self-published, Newcastle UK, 1931., tabulations, pp. 80ff and notes thereto.)

Walter Devereux (1539-1576), second Viscount Hereford, who married Lettice Knollys, daughter of Catherine Carey and Sir Francis Knollys above; the colonisation of Ulster cost him 25,000 pounds.
(GEC, Peerage, Hereford, p. 479; Northumberland, p. 734; Southampton, p. 130; Carlisle, p. 32; Essex, pp. 140ff; Percy, p. 470; Ferrers, pp. 329-332.)

The colonist and Republican Robert Sydney (1595-1677) who married Dorothy Percy (1564-1659);
(His own DNB entry. GEC, Peerage, Sydney of Chiselhurst, St Leonards and Scadbury, p. 591; Romney, p. 83; Halifax, p. 243; Strangford, p. 359. Who's Who /Shakespeare, p. 177, p. 190. Dorothy Percy was daughter of the third Earl Northumberland, Henry Percy (1564-1632) and Dorothy Devereux.)

The republican hanged for his views, Algernon Sydney (1640-1683), an ancestor of Thomas Townshend, first Viscount Sydney, a major planner of Britain's first convict colony at Sydney, Australia.
(Alan Atkinson, The Europeans in Australia. Vol. 1, The Beginning. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1997. Here, Algernon Sydney is noted as an ancestor of Thomas Townshend, Lord Sydney, p. 51.)

James Hay, ambassador, much in favour with Charles I, first Earl Carlisle (1580-1636), "proprietor of the Caribbean".
(Newton, Colonising Puritans, p. 30. Also, Arthur P. Newton, (Ed.), The European Nations in the West Indies, 1493-1688. London, Black, 1933. Robert M. Bliss, Revolution and Empire: English Politics and the American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century. Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1990., p. 33 and p. 67.
This earl of Carlisle spent 400,000 pounds in his lifetime, died debt-entangled, and left nothing for his heirs. Charles I made him a proprietor of the Caribbean Islands.
(GEC, Peerage, Carlisle, pp. 32ff; Denny, p. 187; Norwich, p. 769.
Hay eloped with his second wife, Lucy Percy (1599-1660), daughter of Henry Percy, third Earl of Northumberland. Agnes Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England from the Norman Conquest. Vol. V. Anne of Denmark queen-consort of James the First, King of Great Britain and Ireland. Bath, Cedric Chivers Ltd., 1972. Also, Agnes Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England from the Norman Conquest. Mary II, Queen-Regent of Great Britain and Ireland, consort of William III. Vol. VII. Bath, Cedric Chivers Ltd., 1972.; Vol. 5, p. 284. Who's Who /Shakespeare. Richard S. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624-1730. London, Jonathan Cape, 1973. maps, p. 49 and Note 10; pp. 50, 55. Godfrey Davies, The Early Stuarts, 1603-1660. The Oxford History of England. Oxford University Press, 1959., p. 326.)
This earl Carlisle's commercial associates were Marmaduke Roydon, William Perkins and Alexander Bannister, of whom little is known. His son by Honora Denny, James Hay (1605-1660), second earl Carlisle, by 1639 had hereditary rights to Barbados, but his line became extinct.


The daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham (1532-1590) and Ursula St Barbe, Frances Walsingham (1567-1631), who became the wife successively of Richard De Burgh, first Earl St Albans, Philip Sydney (1554-1586), promoter of International Protestantism, first Earl Leicester and Robert Devereux (1566-1600).
(On Walsingham and Ursula St Barbe: GEC, Peerage, Clanricarde, p. 231; Nottingham, p. 235; Essex, p. 142; Burke's Extinct Baronetcies for Worsley, p. 580. Hasler, History of Parliament, Vol. 3, p. 574, calls Ursula "shadowy to posterity", and it is difficult to find if her father is named Henry or John.)
( Newton, Colonising Puritans, p. 30. Also, Arthur P. Newton, (Ed.), The European Nations in the West Indies, 1493-1688. London, Black, 1933. Robert M. Bliss, Revolution and Empire: English Politics and the American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century. Manchester, Manchester University Press. 1990., p. 33 and p. 67. This earl of Carlisle spent 400,000 pounds in his lifetime, died debt-entangled, and left nothing for his heirs. Charles I made him a proprietor of the Caribbean Islands.
(GEC, Peerage, Carlisle, pp. 32ff; Denny, p. 187; Norwich, p. 769. Hay eloped with his second wife, Lucy Percy (1599-1660), daughter of Henry Percy, third Earl of Northumberland. Agnes Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England from the Norman Conquest. Vol. V. Anne of Denmark queen-consort of James the First, King of Great Britain and Ireland. Bath, Cedric Chivers Ltd., 1972. Also, Agnes Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England from the Norman Conquest. Mary II, Queen-Regent of Great Britain and Ireland, consort of William III. Vol. VII. Bath, Cedric Chivers Ltd., 1972.; Vol. 5, p. 284. Who's Who /Shakespeare. Richard S. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624-1730. London, Jonathan Cape, 1973. maps, p. 49 and Note 10; pp. 50, 55. Godfrey Davies, The Early Stuarts, 1603-1660. The Oxford History of England. Oxford University Press, 1959., p. 326.)

Ursula St Barbe evidently inherited Walsingham's premises in Seething Lane, London. (The Seething Lane site had earlier been "headquarters" of the navy in the time of Sir William Winter, noted in earlier files.) So that Frances inherited the site.

Later Robert Devereux (1590-1646) was born there, as his grandmother was Frances. This Seething Lane address, probably the one becoming No. 33, evidently stayed with the St Barbe family, for after the 1770s, No. 33 Seething Lane was the address of the whaler and convict contractor interested in the Pacific, John St Barbe, of whom we hear more later. Unfortunately, the St Barbe genealogy is broken between 1710-1770, so it is impossible to unequivocally explore this possibility.

Robert Devereux (1566-1601), the executed favourite of Elizabeth I, nineteenth Earl Essex and third Viscount Hereford, executed as a rebel, once took part in an expedition against the Azores.
(GEC, Peerage, Essex, pp. 141-142; Southampton, p. 133; Ferrers, pp. 329-332; Somerset, p. 73; Burlington, p. 431; Bouchier, p. 250; Clanricarde, pp. 230ff; Winchilsea, p. 778.)

Robert Rich, first earl Warwick, (1559-1618), whose son Robert (1587-1658), the second Earl of Warwick was to become an extraordinarily influential figure in promoting both privateering provocation of the Spanish, and Caribbean and North American trade. (Their forebear First Baron Rich is noted in earlier files here.)

The privateer George Carey (1541-1616), who married Lettice a daughter of the first Earl of Warwick, above. He was once to be treasurer in Ireland. He invested money in voyages by Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Thomas Cavendish.
(Hasler, History of Parliament, on Careys, Vol. 1, p. 546.)

And Anne Boleyn (1500-1536), the beheaded wife of Henry VIII, the mother of Elizabeth I. The implications are that Elizabeth I was surrounded by relatives, including a great number of aristocrats, who were powerfully interested in provoking the Spanish, expanding English trade internationally, in creating colonies and developing sea power, and as a corollary, ensuring that Ireland remained no threat to England, since it would remain occupied by England. In this, Elizabeth had few choices, she could not deny such people, and in many ways, histories of English sea power which emphasise the maritime exploits of Hawkins, Drake and Raleigh, under-emphasise these thematic aspects seen in and around the genealogy of the Boleyn family. What the great Boleyn family did was help to create a model for activity, in society generally, that became a Puritan-dominated social movement in England, particularly for families from England's south-western areas, especially Devon and Somerset, the areas from which Drake and Raleigh and many of their comrades were recruited. A poem written long-later celebrates such adventurism:

Drake he's in his hammock till the great Armadas come,
(Capten, art tha sleepin' there below?,
Slung between the round shot, listenin' for the drum,
An' dreamin' arl the time o' Plymouth Hoe.
Call him on the deep sea, call him up the Sound,
Call him when ye sail to meet the foe;
Where the old trade's plyin' and the old flag flyin',
They shall find him ware an' wakin', as they found him long ago!
(I am grateful to Michael Sharkey for drawing this anti-Spanish poem to my attention. Drake's Drum. Third and fourth stanzas. From, Henry Newbolt, Poems: Old and New. London, John Murray, 1917.)

This social movement was powerfully anti-Catholic, and it helped set the seeds for the development of English capitalism, inasmuch as modern historians' associations between Puritanism and the rise of capitalism remain useful commentary.
(R. H. Tawney, Religion and the Rise of Capitalism.)

This was also, incidentally, Shakespeare's England, but the focus in what follows will be on the fringes of a developing empire. This social movement ended in giving to the world - the continent of Australia.


The London backers of Ralph Fitch's travels:

London Lord Mayor, Sir Edward Osborne (1530-1592), was a co-founder of the Spanish Company and the Levant Company. He was born a first son in 1530, and was commercially active by 1577. His father was Richard Osborne of Kent, spouse of Jane Broughton, and Edward's own spouses were firstly Anne Hewett, and secondly Margaret Chapman (by 15 September 1588). Osborne was a clothworker who became a financier and international merchant, earlier an apprentice of his father-in-law, Lord Mayor Sir William Hewett.
(GEC, Peerage, Leeds, p. 507. Alfred C. Wood, A History of the Levant Company. London, Frank Cass, 1964.)

Osborne traded with Spain and Portugal, also the Levant, and re-exported cloth to the Baltic. In 1575 he and Richard Staper sent agents to Turkey to reconnoiter before signing a treaty. Osborne also became governor of the Levant Company, and he and Richard Staper personally financed the travels of Ralph Fitch and John Newbury to the East when England was first considering developing international trade by sea, not by overland routes.

It has been noted, in the context of Osborne helping to finance Fitch's travels, "It was apparently Fitch's report, on his return, that led the Levant Company merchants to seek the inclusion of the overland route to the East in their renewed monopoly charter of 1592".
(Routh, Who's Who in History, pp. 435ff on Ralph Fitch and John Newbury. Hasler, History of Parliament, Vol. 3, p. 157 for Sir Edward Osborne (1530?-1592), London Lord Mayor in 1583, who helped finance Fitch's activities. W. Foster, England's Quest of Eastern Trade. London, 1933., on Fitch, pp. 79-109. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 20ff. Also, there was a Thomas Fitch, active by 1641, intended to be deputy-governor of the Puritan-inspired Providence Island operation intended to harass the Spanish. (Providence Island was off the Nicaraguan coast). (Newton, Colonising Puritans, pp. 304ff).

So, by about 1581, England had set up four merchants, only, to trade to Turkey, but soon London saw to the origin of the Levant Company, incorporated in 1592 as the Turkey Company, involving twelve merchants. Meanwhile, Elizabeth I became a leading shareholder of the Venice Company.

Another Lord Mayor (in 1590), and a Puritan, Sir John Hart (died 1604) was a grocer, moneylender, a member of the Levant and Muscovy companies.
( Michael Lok's brother John was with the Guinea expedition of 1554. Loks, engaged in the Levant trade, were disappointed by Barbary piracy and so became interested in any plans to find north-west passage to Cathay. Michael Lok became a member of the Muscovy Company (founded in 1555), and in 1574 with the patronage of the first Earl of Warwick helped promote Frobisher's voyage, inspired by Sebastian Cabot's earlier voyages; but Frobisher's failures led to Lok's ruination. Zacariah, an MP who died in 1603, son of Michael Lok, was in the service of Henry Carey, first Baron Hunsdon, noted elsewhere here.)

Hart's spouse was Anne Haynes, his father was Ralph Hart. (Burke's Extinct Baronetcies for Bolles, p. 69.) Hart was often governor of the Muscovy Company between 1583 and 1600. He was a friend of Humphrey Smith of the Grocer's Company, of which he was a member. As a Puritan, Hart hoped in his will to be "of the elect". By 1602 he was an investor in the East India Company.
(Hasler, History of Parliament, Vol. 2, p. 264. Burke's Extinct for Bolles, p. 69.)
(Hart worshipped at St Dionis Backchurch, London. From 1583, he and Richard Staper helped Fitch's travels. (GEC, Peerage, Leeds, p. 507. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 18, p. 72. Hasler, History of Parliament, Vol. 2, p. 264, Vol 3, pp. 156ff.)

In all, the linkages between merchants of the Levant and Muscovy companies were genealogically complex, a factor which flowed into the character of the East India Company from 1600. And so it seems, that the East India Company was greatly influenced by merchants who were already experienced in conducting the international trades of their day. Ralph Fitch's travels should be seen in this light - he was intended to expand horizons for London's international traders - many of whom were intermarried.

Fearing the Portuguese maritime hegemony at the Cape of Good Hope, the Levant Company in February 1583 sent men out via Syria and the Persian Gulf to find what could be bought and sold in Asia, and to visit Akbar, the great Mogul emperor of India. The travellers included Ralph Fitch and a jeweller, John Newberry (Newbury), Leeds, and Storey. (John Newberry (Newbury), via Aleppo, of the Turkey Company, was active by 1580 (Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 20.). A jeweller, Leeds, and Storey, who went to India, were arrested by the Portuguese as heretics and were given to the Inquisition at Goa, but they escaped with help of a English Jesuit. A related story is that an English priest in India (Goa) sent information back to his father, a London merchant, and that this information helped stimulate trade interests.

They escaped anyway with help from an English Jesuit. Some of these English however did manage to inspect the Mogul splendour of northern India. During 1584, Fitch went down the Hughli River of Bengal, then to Chittagong (present-day East Pakistan), then by boat to Pegu in Burma, then to Rangoon, then to Chiengmai in northern Siam. These were all territories which possessed little naval power, or, if they possessed it, they did not emphasise it, a situation which would continue.

1583: Edmund Fenton of the Muscovy Company (who had married Thomasine, daughter of Benjamin Gonson the naval administrator of England) was also active by 1583, and he visited the Moluccas and the Spice Islands, although Houtman for the Dutch was the first European to exploit Sumatra successfully. Fenton made a voyage partly of discovery, partly of plunder, with the backing of the first Earl of Leicester, Sir Philip Sydney (1554-1586 who was married to Frances daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham) and Secretary of State, William Cecil (1521-1598), Lord Burghley.

The Muscovy Company as a body had provided a large direct investment. Fenton's supporters included Thomas Pullyson, William Towerson, Thomas Aldersey, Thomas Starkey (all Spanish Company directors) plus Sir George Barne (died 1593), a founding Spanish Company director and a co-founder of the Turkey Company. (Barne's father was deep in the Spanish trade from the 1560s.
(On Barne, Governor of the Muscovy Company in 1580 and 1583: Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 18-20, p. 63. Burke's Extinct Baronetcies for Garrard, p. 214, and , p. 446. Hasler, History of Parliament, Vol. 3, p. 571 for his daughter's marriage to Walsingham. Conyers Read, Mr Secretary Walsingham and the Policy of Queen Elizabeth. Vol. 3, Oxford University Press at the Clarendon Press., pp. 425ff. Valerie Hope, My Lord Mayor: Eight Hundred Years of London's Mayoralty. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson in association with the Corporation of the City of London, 1989.)

Also, Martin Calthorpe, and the powerful trade overseer Sir John "Customer" Smythe (1558-1625), Sir Richard Martin (Turkey Company founders) and Thomas Cordell, a co-founder of the Venice Company. Also, Robert Sadler was a co-founder of the Venice Company.
( The third governor of the Levant Company, from 1600, was Sir Thomas Smith, whom I cannot well identify genealogically.)
(Wood, Levant Company, Appendix IV). Some confusion exists on the genealogy for Smythe (one individual has dates 1556-1608), which is unfortunate as his family was notable in customs collection. Sadler was a co-founder of the Venice Company. As privateer-merchant of the Levant Company of the 1590s, Sadler backed ventures by Drake and Fenton; Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 20-21. Rabb, Enterprise, p. 112.)

It is difficult not to see Fitch's and Fenton's travels as coordinated in London. Making a thorough survey, Fitch had moved on to Malacca near Singapura, or, the later Singapore, and noted the vital strategic role of the Straits of Malacca. Then he turned back, going to Pegu, then Ceylon, up the west coast of India to Cochin, then to Goa, then Basra, Babylon, Mosul, Aleppo, and back to London. (Newberry meantime on his way home died in the Punjab area.) In all, Fitch was away eight years. Except for the mention of Ceylon, it would appear that Fitch mostly used local, coast-hugging ships. Over a century later, William Dampier visited some of those same areas, merely tacking the north of Western Australia (and the Philippines) on to Fitch's list of more southern South-East Asian destinations. Fitch had thought some the countries he saw were much wealthier than his own, which was doubtless correct. Pegu was bigger than London! More importantly, it is said, Fitch's information was sifted by merchants and led later to the creation of the East India Company. Long later, Imperial Britain ruled many of the areas Fitch had visited.

Fitch's backers had assumed land power, but were interested in developing sea power. After 1700, Dampier's backers urbanely assumed sea-power. In 110 years, the balance had changed dramatically, due to Caribbean sugar island and South Sea English piracy, and the more sedate operations of the East India Company. Unfortunately, historians who have tended to treat English piracy - which via the careers of Drake and Raleigh becomes part of the history of English navigation, and of the exploration of the Pacific - separately from the apparently more sedate operations of the East India Company. But when both topics are treated together, it is then one realises how regularly capital was flip-flopped between Caribbean (or African-slaving interests) and East India interests. This happened in the intimacies of the City of London, with merchants who are readily identifiable, genealogically involved.

Some of these merchants of the seventeenth century are:

Thomas Crisp (Crispe), associated with England's acquisition of Cape Coast Castle for the Guinea Company, and thus an associate of the ubiquitous Maurice Thompson (Thomson) of the Rich faction, that is, the faction managed by the second Earl of Warwick.
(K. G. Davies, Royal Africa Company; Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 69, p. 231. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 191. Burke's Extinct Baronetcies, on Crispe, pp. 143-144.)

Captain Robert Jenkins, the Jenkins of "the war of Jenkins' ear", an "East India captain" taking slaves from Madagascar to the Malabar Coast of India. Was he perhaps the first captain to ship coerced labour between Southern Africa and India on a large scale?

Royal Africa Company investor, Sir Benjamin Bathurst. (He was governor of the East India Company 1688-1689 and treasurer to Princess Anne of Denmark.
(GEC, Peerage, Bathurst of Battlesden, p. 28. K. G. Davies, Royal Africa Company.)

George Berkeley, ninth Baron Berkeley, first Earl Berkeley (1627-1698), probably an investor in the Royal Africa Company, was on the committee of the East India Company 1660 till his death. He was once Master of Trinity House and as a peer declared for William III.
(Amongst Berkeley's later genealogical linkages were the first of the Scots tobacco merchants and bankers, Coutts, in the nineteenth century, and the bankers Grenfell. Also, Admiral Sir George Cranfield Berkeley (1753-1818), who sailed with James Cook about Canada.)
(GEC, Peerage, Berkeley, p. 139 and table, p. 146; Burlington, p. 431; Tankerville, p. 633. K. G. Davies, Royal Africa Company.)


Further notes on merchant history of the English-speaking world since 1550:

Further views on English trade:

Oddly enough, of all the merchant-expansionist groups, the aspiring exploiters of the Amazon area are the most revealing in terms of merchant-aristocracy linkages, genealogically. Another reason to emphasise genealogical connections is in view of a peculiar English reticence about discussion of engagement in trade, which used to surface in debates between English historians. By 1926, H. R. Wagner had expressed a view that England's "orgy of piracy" had engendered "a profound disdain" amongst the gentry for legitimate [ie, commercial] activity, after Elizabethan times. By 1967, Theodore Rabb as a student of merchants thought Wagner seemed wrong. We can agree here with K. R. Andrews' thesis, that privateering played a vital role in the formative years of England's expansion, as "resoundingly" confirmed [by Rabb's work].
(Rabb, Enterprise, p. 80, Note 106. Andrews, Elizabethan Privateering, variously.)

It often appears that Wagner's view has won the day in English historiography - and it is taken that aristocracy had little direct engagement in English trade. So, I have taken pains to discover genealogical connections between English aristocracy, commercial adventurers, and the upper echelons of England's commercial sector, particularly the Lords Mayor and aldermen of London, plus financiers and other notable names.

Computerisation of data of course is helpful. Before 1967, working on merchants, Rabb had originally intended to treat genealogical data, but as his project was already complex, he ceased work on family relationships.
(Rabb, Enterprise, p. 97, Note 131. Rabb, discusses his methodology as he began using computerised techniques, p. 133; also see p. 102 and p. 210.)

This meant that scholars have had to wait for Brenner's work (published 1992-1993) for more than an inkling on the networks focused in London, of family relationships, commercial relationships and activity, and the involvements of aristocrats or members of their families. Rabb himself notes the striking attachment of commercial men to the Middle Temple, London. Attention can be drawn to just one parish in London, St Dunstan's in the East, since my own genealogical research suggests that a great many names had links to that parish, which was a stronghold of radical-Puritan commercial, and maritime, endeavour.

Rabb also notes that the phrase applied to the evolution of the British Empire, a phrase sometimes applied to the argument about Britain's reasons for settling Australia, that the Empire was developed in a "fit of absence of mind", was first used by J. R. Seeley in The Expansion of England. (London, 1883.) (An argument against any view of Australia being settled in a fit of absence of mind is found in Atkinson, The Europeans in Australia.
(Alan Atkinson, The Europeans in Australia, Vol. 1, variously.)

Rabb and Andrews seem correct, Wagner wrong, but as Brenner shows, the greater problem is in organising information on merchant groupings, family networks, and then merchant linkages to aristocratic families. Meanwhile, Rabb says a plague in 1603 "virtually brought London's trade to a standstill"; in the first decade of reign of James I was an economic boom, and, the foundation of the Virginia Company in 1606 proved a watershed once peace with Spain presented other and less-threatening implications. From 1601, Parliament saw battles over royal monopolies, and again in 1604. Should all comers have privileges in foreign trade, should trade be open to all upon payment of a fee, or not? Sir Edwin Sandys opted to promote free trade, and made an attack on the "200 families" which by Stuart times more or less ruled the English economy.
(Ramkrishna Mukherjee, The Rise and Fall of the East India Company: A Sociological Appraisal. Bombay, Popular Prakashan, 1973., p. 73.)
(Here, we should note that by the 1960s, it was thought by English Marxists that between Stuart times and the 1960s, the number of families "ruling England" had grown to 400 or more). So, I have opted to simply trace linkages and let the reader make up their own mind.

In 1601, London men sought to find a north-west passage to sell more English woolens in colder areas, especially, China.
(A. N. Ryan, `"A New Passage to Cataia": The Northwest Passage in Early Modern English History', pp. 299-317 in John B. Hattendorf, (Ed.), Maritime History Vol. 1: The Age of Discovery. Malabar, Florida, Krieger Pub. Co., 1996.)

Many trading scenarios arose due to lack of Indian/Asian demand for European manufactures including woolens. Dunn suggests that between 1560 and 1630, it is probable that English merchants put more investment money into privateering than any other enterprise, including the East India Company, but of course, in 1559, the Spanish had refused to surrender their "right" to exclude foreigners from the Indies, about which England failed to agree, so disagreements took place away from home. About 1604, English privateers captured hundreds of enemy ships and took home about 100,000 pounds in sugar, hides, logwood, indigo, silver, gold and pearls.
(Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, pp. 10-11.)

Amazon adventurers:

With any genealogical unity notable amongst and between England's notable traders, explorers, mariners and colonists from before 1600, we find that cloth traders and their associates were conspicuous - although, somewhat under-rated in maritime history. Logwood, as the English called it, sometimes called redwood, was a source of dyes for the cloth trade. It was gained from near-Caribbean areas where the English had less influence than the Spanish and Portuguese. The earliest English exploration of the Amazon River area took place between 1553-1608; the first English and Irish settlements were made there, 1604-1620.

Some of the names of interest in the context of English expansionism generally were: Sebastian Cabot, who warned of Portuguese interest in the area by 1553; Hakluyt the commentator on English maritime expansionism; Sir Walter Raleigh, inspired by tales of gold, by 1595, and his backers Myddleton.
(GEC, Peerage, Dacre, p. 12. Who's Who /Shakespeare, p. 201. Andrews, Elizabethan Privateering, p. 26. A. L. Rowse, Raleigh and the Throckmortons. London, Macmillan, 1962., pp. 129ff notes Raleigh, and also that the Throckmortons had been in the service of the Earls of Warwick, who captured the loyalty of many large families. Newton, Colonising Puritans, p. 67: Fulke Greville (1554-1628), the first Lord Brooke, naval treasurer, was an intimate friend of Sir Walter Raleigh and interested in his colonisation schemes. Brooke also published Sidney's political tract, Arcadia. (On Brooke: Who's Who /Shakespeare, p. 98, GEC, Peerage, Brooke, pp. 331ff; Willoughby, p. 690). Lorimer (Ed.), Amazon, p., 293 notes Raleigh's son, Carew (1605-1666). Backers of Raleigh or others of Raleigh's circle included Hugh Middleton (1580-1627, brother of Thomas below), Sir George Carey, keeper of the Privy Purse Henry Seckford, the great London merchant and privateer, Lord Mayor Thomas Myddleton (1556-1631), Lord Charles Howard the Lord High Admiral of England, Baron Effingham. Raleigh was a half-brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert; Raleigh's father was a privateer, and Raleigh began his career working with a London merchant-privateer, Alderman Watts. Raleigh's cousin, Charles Champernowne was a privateer. Michael J. G. Stanford, `The Raleghs take to the Sea', The Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 48, No. 1, February 1962., pp. 18-35. On the Myddletons and their families, Who's Who /Shakespeare, p. 164; Andrews, Elizabethan Privateering, pp. 113ff. Lord Mayor Thomas Myddleton, a Puritan, had a brother, Robert, who was an MP and an East India Company investor. Thomas traded from the Elbe River in cloth, mercery, sugar and spices, and reported to Sir Francis Walsingham on customs farms matters. He was in partnership with Raleigh, Drake and Hawkins, and had a sugar refinery in Mincing Lane.).

(Matters do not confine themselves just to the name Myddleton. The founder of the Spanish Company was Sir Richard Saltonstall (1577-1601). His daughter Elizabeth married Levant Company merchant, Peter Wyche (died 1643), and their daughter Jane married John Granville, first Earl Bath. The Wyches form a separate and interesting line in matters commercial (see Wood as historian of the Levant Company). Elizabeth's sister Hester Saltonstall married Sir Thomas Myddleton, her brother, Sir Samuel was an MP and "colonist", and yet another sister married Thomas' brother, the MP and merchant, Robert Myddleton.)
John Ley, died 1604;
(Lorimer, (Ed.), Amazon, pp. 20ff, p. 149. GEC, Peerage, Marlborough, pp. 488ff.)
Robert Dudley, who married Anne Cavendish of a mariner family, (He was the illegitimate son of Robert Dudley by lover Douglas Sheffield. Robert in being married to Anne was brother-in-law of Thomas Cavendish, mariner and MP, and perhaps, brother- in-law of the writer on navigation, Richard Hakluyt, 1552-1616.
GEC, Peerage, Northumberland, pp. 722ff. Lorimer, (Ed.), Amazon, pp. 28-29 and p. 30, Note 2. Andrews, Elizabethan Privateering, p. 68. Gwenyth Dyke, `The Finance of a Sixteenth Century Navigator, Thomas Cavendish of Trimly in Suffolk' , Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 44, 1958., pp. 108-115. Who's Who /Shakespeare, p. 42.), the grandson of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland; Sir Thomas Roe (1581-1644) visited Guiana in 1610-1611.
(Lorimer, (Ed.), Amazon, p. 38. Roe's father was Robert, of Low Leyton, Essex, son of Thomas Roe, merchant tailor, Lord Mayor of London in 1568. A family member, William Roe, was Lord Mayor in 1590, Henry Roe was likewise in 1607, Lord Mayor. In May 1609, an Oxfordshire gentleman, Robert Harcourt, had links to Edward Gifford and Edward Harvey when he became interested in the Amazon area.
(K. N. Chaudhuri, Trade and Civilization in the Indian Ocean: An Economic History from the Rise of Islam to 1750. Cambridge University Press, 1989., pp. 86-87, p. 147.)
Roe was an associate of Arundel; Mary F. S. Hervey, The Life, Correspondence and Collections of Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel. Cambridge University Press, 1921. Kraus Reprint, New York, 1969., Chapter 20. Newton, Colonising Puritans, p. 26. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 300.

Sir Thomas Roe had commercial links with Emanuel Exall, John Rizelye, William Stannarde, John Wightman, Peter Sohier and Robert Smith. Roe explored the swamps of Wiapoco and Cuyuni with several Virginia pioneers.

Roe, also an emissary to the Mogul Emperor, was a protégé of the sister of Charles I, the Electress of the Palatinate, Elizabeth. By 1636-1637 Roe wanted a voluntary war in the West Indies.)

Also, Sir Walter Raleigh; Robert Rich, second Earl Warwick; Robert Harcourt; Roger North.
(GEC, Peerage, North, p. 655, Note f. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 109ff. Lorimer, Amazon, p. 60, Note 2. Newton, Colonising Puritans, p. 27.

Roger North's backers included his eldest brother; Ludovic Stuart (1574-1624) the second Duke of Lennox), the earls of Arundel (being Thomas Howard (1585-1646) Earl 14 Arundel, the earls of Warwick, Dorset (being Treasurer Thomas Sackville (1536-1608) Earl1 Dorset, whose mother Winifred was daughter of Lord Mayor Brydges); and Clanricarde (being Richard De Burgh (1572-1635), fourth Earl Clanricarde, who married Frances the daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham and Ursula St. Barbe); and "the great part of the council", or, the Lord Chancellor, the Earl of Pembroke, Southampton, Hamilton, and the Marquis of Buckingham.

Thomas Warner accompanied North to areas of Spanish hegemony, Guiana. In 1618, Arundel with the Earl of Warwick proposed a scheme to colonize Guiana/the Amazon River.

Thomas Warner (1575-1649) later governor of Antigua;
(On Thomas Warner of St Kitts, Barbados and Antigua. Jan Rogozinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean: From the Arawak and the Carib to the Present. New York, Facts on File, c.1992., p. 76. Richard B. Sheridan, `The rise of a Colonial Gentry: A Case Study of Antigua, 1730-1775', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 13, 1960-1961., pp. 342-357., here, p. 346. Newton, Colonising Puritans, p. 27. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 184.

By 1635, John and Samuel Warner were in the Virginia tobacco and provisioning trade. Thomas Warner was about 1622-1625 backed commercially in London by Ralph Merrifield (an associate of the Earl of Carlisle), who was interested in the West Indies.)
Peter Courteen of Cologne (1581-1631) a brother of Sir William Courteen Senior;
(This Peter Courteen (1581-1731) of Cologne, son of tailor William Courteen and Margaret Casiere, was unmarried. Kenneth R. Andrews, The Spanish Caribbean: Trade and Plunder, 1530-1630. London, Yale University Press, 1978., p. 233, pp. 244ff.)
Sir Nathaniel Rich (1585-1636), was second-in-command in commercial matters for the second Earl of Warwick. Sir Thomas Somerset (1579-1649) Viscount Somerset.
(Colonist Sir Nathaniel Rich (1585-1636). He was a grandson of illegitimate descent of Richard, first Baron Rich. Lorimer, (Ed.), Amazon, p. 195, Note 1. Newton, Colonising Puritans, p. 242 and disputing the content of the DNB entry.

Nathaniel's brother Robert was wrecked with Somers on Bermuda. Nathaniel, knighted in 1617, was an investor in the Bermuda Company in 1615, the Virginia Company in 1619, in the New England Company in 1620, and the Providence Island Company in 1630. His own DNB entry.)
(Later, by 1626-1627 arose the Guiana Company.
(Robert, first Earl Warwick (1559-1619), married Penelope Devereux and Frances Wray; and (Lorimer, (Ed.), Amazon, pp. 192ff), had a 1619 patent to go the Amazon/ Waiapoco area as an adventurer with the Earl of Arundel, Edward Cecil, Dorset, Clanricarde, Jo. Danvers and Thomas Cheek. This Earl Warwick was the most powerful landowner in Essex.
(Hasler, History of Parliament, for Careys, Vol. 1, p. 546. GEC, Peerage, Holland, pp. 539ff; Warwick, pp. 404ff; Newhaven, p. 539. See also, Robin Law, `The First Scottish Guinea Company, 1634-1639', The Scottish Historical Review, Vol. LXXVI, No. 202, October 1997., pp. 185-202.)

In the Caribbean before 1625, the Englishman Roger North was associated with a company founding plantations and trading stations on the delta of the Amazon River.
(Some notables interested in the Guiana area included: the Courteens, Daniel Elfrith about 1619, Sir Thomas Warner of Barbados fame, and the mariner Roger North. Sir Thomas Roe (died 1644). Sir Christopher Neville (died 1649). William Herbert Earl3 Pembroke and Anne Clifford, Baroness Clifford, wife of Philip, fourth Earl Pembroke. Treasurer of the Guiana Co., Sir Henry Spelman. Amazon Colonist Robert Harcourt. Sir Thomas Mildmay (died 1625-1626). Rich, The second Earl Warwick. Thomas Finch second Earl Winchelsea (died 1639). George Villiers, first Duke Buckingham. Dudley North, fourth Baron North (died 1677). Sir Arthur Gorges (died 1661). Henry Grey Earl1 Stamford (died 1673). Cromwellian Sir John Hobart (died 1683).)

(Soon after Sir Walter Raleigh's first voyage to the Guianas in 1595, the English explorer Captain Charles Leigh attempted to start a settlement on the Waiapoco (Oyapock) River, now the border between Brazil and French Guiana).
(Thomas Roe, an English explorer of Amazonia, later an emissary to the Moghuls of India. See Godfrey Davies, The Early Stuarts, 1603-1660. The Oxford History of England. Oxford University Press, 1959., pp. 335ff.)

From 1609, various English syndicates had been interested in Guiana, and in 1619, Roger North was backed by the "great colonizing connection" around Rich, second Earl of Warwick, and raised money. The 1619 Guiana venture required some 60,000 pounds. Massive follow-up funds however did not appear.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 109, p. 125.)

The Amazon Company of 1619 organized by the Earl of Warwick and Captain Roger North put men at the head of the Amazon delta. The Spanish however did not agree. That led to the later first permanent English settlement in the West Indies. Left alone after the failure of the Amazon venture was (Sir) Thomas Warner, son of an old, landed but non-wealthy East Anglian family.


But we are here considering two different strands of commercial endeavour, eastern/Asian and southern, in that the first East India Company investors (1599-1601) were commercial men who did not want the co-operation of "gentlemen", that is, aristocrats. As the East India Company began, following up on the travels of Ralph Fitch, the "gentlemen", some as listed above, were attempting to exploit the Amazon area. In fact, more genealogical unity can be found concerning Amazon adventurers between 1580-1630 than concerning the first East India Company merchants; not that English histories necessarily give this impression.

Many of the descendants of England's "Amazon adventurers" maintained their interest in the Caribbean and nearby areas, including Virginia. They often expressed anti-Spanish sentiments, they elaborated their interests through layers of merchant, not aristocratic, connections. Interests in slavery were maintained. And strangely enough, they often left the East India Company alone, sans "gentlemen".

The descendants of the Amazon adventurers dealt with the East India Company by linkages in the City of London, by financial intermediation. This is partly how it occurred that there was more regular "flip-flop" of capital between slaving and East India Company interests than historians have thought. And how is the proof of this provided? By tracing the long Seventeenth Century infight between certain English aristocratic interests, and their commercial underlings over control of the Caribbean. This history is greatly dogged by the distractions of the English Civil War, and of matters Cromwellian, as well as by narratives of conflict with French, Dutch or Spanish interests. In retracing matters, the mysterious image of "the Great Southland", and the rather neglected role of the investments of the Anglo-Dutch merchants, Courteens, need new explanation. (Some of the history of the English interest in producing sugar has been outlined earlier in these files.)

On the origin of the English East India Company:

The East India Company first began operations in 1600 in England, "lured by spices and peppers". The earliest voyages were to the islands of the Far East, not India, but later, English interest concentrated at Surat, India, partly to avoid annoying the Spanish-occupied territories. The Dutch meanwhile pushed on to the Moluccas and Java. By 1600, the Dutch with their monopoly of the pepper-trade had annoyed England by sharply increasing the price of their product - Londoners reacted by chartering their East India Company, so it is said.
(Mukherjee, Rise and Fall, p. 101.)

Historians disagree even here. From 1599, it is also said, the legend is incorrect, that England was annoyed as the Dutch raised their pepper price from 3/- to 8/6d per pound. Foster for example feels the English East India Company were more interested in exporting woolens.
(Michael Greenberg, British Trade and the Opening of China, 1800-1842. Cambridge University Press, 1951.)

Why English woolens would be needed in tropical and semi-tropical countries is an interesting question. (?) But more interesting is why England needed dye for cloth, and spices and pepper for the improvement of a bland diet? The role of Englishmen in the cloth industries is paramount, as shows in collections of genealogies.

The East India Company established itself to take over the commerce of the Levant Company men in far eastern commodities by developing a direct sea-route with India and the East Indies via the Cape of Good Hope. Some of the same group were trying to pry open the valuable import markets of the Portuguese empire in South America.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 19.)

Just which men were involved in which scenarios is crucial to an argument. In 1599, under the auspices of Merchant Adventurers (who were little interested in shipping woolens), an association was formed, with 101 shares, asking the queen for a warrant to fit out three ships, a charter of privileges and permission to export bullion. But might this break the peace with Spain and Portugal? The queen was persuaded to send an agent, merchant John Mildenhall, on an embassy to the Great Mogul, via Constantinople. He did not arrive till at Agra, and he got home overland by 1607 - with permission for the English to trade.
(Mukherjee, Rise and Fall, pp. 65-67.)

The first meeting of East India Company Adventurers was held in London, 24 September, 1599. The trade of members was to be on an individual basis, with no joint stock. These were Levant Company merchants who had their own offices. Seven of the original fifteen East India Company directors were Levant men. The first governor of the East India Company was Sir Thomas Smythe, whose family unfortunately remains difficult to trace genealogically.
(His son was also Sir Thomas III Smythe, who had a son-in-law, Alderman Robert Johnson, a governor of the Bermuda Company. (Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 98ff. Thomas III was of the East India and Muscovy companies, and was in 1632 governor of the Bermuda Company.)

However, seven of the original 24 directors of the East India Company of the charter of 31 December, 1600, were Levant merchants.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 21, p. 86. Encyclopedia Britannica of 1928.)

Between 1601-1605, Levant Company charter officers included Andrew Bayning, John Bate, Thomas Cordell and Richard Staper. Other noted merchants were Arthur Jackson, Sir Robert Lee, Robert Bowyer, Richard Wyche and Lawrence Greene.
(See Wood, Levant Company, for various lists.)

After 1600 the East India Company had 125 shareholders (including Elizabeth I), with a capital of 72,000 pounds, but the Company wished to avoid dealing with "gentlemen", that is, aristocrats. They wanted more bourgeois involvements. This was wise, since aristocrats had been involved in much other trading to 1600, and it is possible that it was the Levant merchants who wished to exclude aristocrats where possible from the East India Company. At the time, this reflected one kind of radical view. By 31 December, 1600, the Company had obtained a royal charter, and now proposed voyages. The captain of the first venture was Sir Edward Michelbourne. One of the first East India Company traders after 1600 was James Lancaster. One interesting figure from 1598 was the Aleppo merchant, William Clarke.
(On Edward Clarke as a commercial explorer with Anthony Jenkinson; Jenkinson's DNB entry. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, Jenkinson.)

One of the original Company men of 1599-1600 was Thomas Alabaster, a Spanish merchant of the 1580s who by 1601 was the East India Company accountant. In 1600, Thomas Mun was a factor of William Garraway [Garway?], sometime a merchant in Italy.
(K. N. Chaudhuri, The English East India Company: The Study of an Early Joint-stock Company, 1600-1640. London, Frank Cass, 1965., p. 75. See also, P. J. Thomas, Mercantilism and East India Trade. London, Frank Cass and Co., 1963. (Orig., 1926.) S. A. Kahn, The East India Trade in the Seventeenth Century. London, 1923. W. H. Moreland, From Akbar to Aurangzeb. London, 1923. J. C. Appleby, `Thomas Mun's West Indies Venture, 1602-1605', Historical Research: The Bulletin of the Institution of Historical Research, Vol. 67, No. 162, February, 1994., pp. 101-107.)

(For the first Company voyage, Alabaster sent Captain Baker and Robert Pope to the west country to get bullion - bullion obtained by piracy - and some money from Calais and Rouen in France.)
(K. N. Chaudhuri, An Early Joint-stock Company, 1600-1640, p. 126. On trade in an earlier era, see James A. Williamson, Maritime Enterprise, 1485-1558. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1913.)

The East India Company's first fleet left with four ships from the Thames under Captain James Lancaster, in February 1601, for a voyage of two years. There was a second voyage in 1604 under commander Henry Middleton, to go to Bantam in Java where Lancaster had left some factors; Middleton was also to try Banda and Amboina.

The first East India Company ships were Red Dragon, Hector, Ascension and Susan, sailing for Java and Sumatra in 1601.
(The East India Company's "first fleet" of four ships left the Thames under Captain James Lancaster, in February 1601, for voyages of two years. A second voyage in 1604 sailed under commander Henry Middleton, to go to Bantam in Java where Lancaster had left some factors, Middleton also to try Banda and Amboina. In 1606 the returning interloper/pirate Sir Edward Michelbourne had warned the Company that English at Surat could expect trouble from the Portuguese. Middleton later fought the Portuguese; so did Capt. Thomas Best of Voyage 10.)

Trade in pepper and spices was envisaged, competition with the Dutch became severe; and the Dutch by 1623 drove out the English except from Bantam, at Java.
(Bal Krishna, Commercial Relations Between India and England, 160-1757. 1924.)

However, by 1607 the English were lodged at Surat and were dealing with the Mogul emperor. The English had new stations at Madras, 1639, Bombay, 1662 and the Calcutta area, 1686. The English traded also with ports of the Persian Gulf and the southern Red Sea. England needed pepper from the East Indies and saltpetre (for gunpowder manufacture) from northern India, silk, cotton, indigo, drugs of all kinds.

A useful "merchant list" for comparative purposes for 1600 and later includes the names Ralph Freeman of the Levant Company, William Hawkins the slaver (and naval administrator) with an assistant Captain Keeling, Abraham Cartwright of the Levant Company, Paul Bayning (1588-1629), first Viscount Grandison, of the Venice Company; Anthony Jenkinson of the Muscovy Company, William Salter of the Levant Company, John Smith the "founder" of the colony of Virginia, and John Dee as an adviser on navigation. Plus Sir Walter Raleigh, mariner.
(Freeman from 1624 was part of the Rich/Earl Warwick faction, controllers of the Virginia Company. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 79, p. 103.)
(The father of first Viscount Bayning, Alderman Paul Bayning (died 1616) of St. Olave's Hart Street, London, was a privateer, one of four Venice merchants who combined with the merger of the Grocers Company and Turkey Company into the Levant Company. Alderman Paul's ship Susan was commanded by Captain James Lancaster.
See Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 18; GEC, Peerage, Bayning, pp. 35ff; Grandison, p. 75; Dacre, p. 13; Pembroke, p. 420ff; Cleveland, p. 280. Andrews, Elizabethan Privateering, pp. 108ff.

The Bayning descendants and their linkages included Thomas Lennard (1654-1662) Baron15 Dacre, married to Elizabeth Bayning with progress to the Barons Teynham; the Viscounts Clare; and an exotic specimen in commercial life, a "customs farmer", Barbara Villiers (1641-1709), Duchess Cleveland, whose sons began the line of the Dukes of Grafton.
(GEC, Peerage, Cleveland, pp. 280ff.)

(Ends this essay by Dan Byrnes)

Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor of 1550, Sir Andrew Judd
Descendants of Coloniser and Muscovy Co. merchant, London Lord Mayor, Sir Andrew Judd (c.1551/1553) and sp: Joan Mirfyn
2. Elizabeth Judd sp: Sir William Morgan (b.1542;d.1583) 2. Alice Judd (b.1538;d.1563) sp: London customs receiver Sir Thomas Smythe (b.1522;m.1554;d.7 Jun 1591)
3. Sir John Smythe of Kent (c.1620) sp: Isabella Rich (c.1648)
4. Isabella Smythe wife2 (b.1648) sp: John Robartes Earl1 Radnor
5. Leatitia Isabella Robartes sp: Charles Moore Visc4 Drogheda, Earl2 Drogheda (m.28 Oct 1669;d.18 Jun 1679) sp: Dramatist, William Wycherley (m.1680) sp: Customs Commr, MP Charles Cheyne Visc1 Newhaven (b.Oct 1625;m.8 Jun 1688;d.30 Jun 1698)
3. Miss Smythe sp: Dir EICo, Alderman Robert Johnson merchant (c.1630)
4. Miss Johnson sp: London merchant tailor Nathaniel Knightley
3. Sir Thomas II Smythe Sir (b.1558;d.4 Sep 1625) sp: Sarah widow Blount wife2 sp: Judith Culverwell wife1 sp: Joan Hobbs
3. Catherine Smythe wife2 (b.1564) sp: Coloniser, London Lord Mayor, Sir Rowland Hayward (b.1520;d.5 Dec 1593)
4. Sir John Hayward 4. Susan Hayward wife1 (d.1592)
sp: MP Henry Townshend (b.1537;d.1621) 5. MP, journalist, Hayward Townshend (b.1577;d.1603) sp: Francasina Neville Illegit 4. Elizabeth Hayward sp: MP Richard Warren (b.1545;d.1598) sp: Thomas Knyvett Lord Knyvett Baron Knyvett of Escrick (b.1548;m.1597;d.1622) 4. Alice Hayward sp: MP Sir Richard Buller 5. Francis Buller sp: Thomasine (Honywood) Honeywood 6. Francis Buller sp: Miss Notknown 7. John Buller sp: Anne Coode sp: Miss Notknown 7. John Buller 5. Thomasine Buller sp: Josias Calmady 4. Joan Hayward sp: John Thynne
5. MP Sir Thomas II Thynne (b.1578;d.1639) sp: Catharine Howard wife2 sp: Maria Audley wife1 (m.1601)
4. Widow, Catherine Hayward wife2 (d.1632) sp: Sir Richard Sondes (b.1571;m.1609;d.1645) sp: Sir John Scott (c.1599)
3. Sir John I Smythe of Kent, (b.1556/1557;d.29 Nov 1608) sp: Elizabeth Fineux (m.Jan 1577) 4. Sir John Smythe sp: Miss Notknown
5. Sir Thomas Smythe
4. Thomas Smythe Visc1 Strangford of Kent (b.1599;d.30 Jun 1635) sp: Lady Barbara Sydney (b.28 Nov 1599;m.1621;d.1643) 5. Philip Smythe Visc2 Strangford (b.23 Mar 1623/1624;d.Aug 1708) sp: Mary Porter wife2 6. Endymion Smythe Visc3 Strangford sp: Miss Notknown 7. ? Smythe Visc4 Strangford sp: Miss Notknown 6. Catherine Clare Smythe wife1 (b.1683;d.1711) sp: Henry Roper Baron8 Teynham, (suicide) (b.1676;d.16 May 1723) 7. Henry Roper Lord10 Teynham (b.1708;d.29 Apr 1781) sp: Miss Notknown sp: Catherine Powell wife1 (b.18 Sep 1709;d.22 Sep 1765) sp: Anne Brinckhurst wife2 (d.16 Jan 1771) sp: Elizabeth Newport wife3, widow sp: Miss Notknown 7. Philip ROPER Unm Died Young (d.13 Jun 1727) sp: Isabella cousin Sydney wife1 (b.1634;m.22 Aug 1650;d.Jun 1663) 3. Richard Smythe MP (b.1563;d.1628) sp: Elizabeth Scott wife1 (m.Sep 1589) 3. Mary has issue Smythe wife2 (d.1621) sp: Robert Davy MP (d.1599) 3. Joan Smythe wife2 (d.1622) sp: Exchqr Remembrancer Thomas Fanshawe (b.1533;m.1578;d.1601) 4. MP Thomas II Fanshawe (b.1580;d.1631) sp: Anne Babington (m.1604;d.1638) sp: Mary Mathew wife2


Item:
Paul M. Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery. London, Allen Lane, 1976. (Here, Hawkins is indexed but Sir William Winter is not indexed.) Ch 1 says, to 1603, and for Tudor times the cloth merchants who backed maritime endeavour were pro-Spanish; matters changed with the 1551-152 cloth slump, and in 1552 arose some English hopes of finding a north-east passage to fabled Cathay (China).

22 April, 1550: The first encounter between Europeans and South American Indians/Brazil, as recorded by Pero Vaz de Caminha, an official scribe for a Portuguese flotilla that accidentally arrived on the coast of Brazil, off-course for a voyage to India. The Indians were given a red beret, a linen hood and a black hat. In return, the Indians gave a headdress of bird feathers, a necklace of white beads. Not so long later, the Portuguese enslaved the Indians. At the time of first contact, there were about five million Indians in 1400 tribes speaking 1300 languages. In April 2000, a 500th anniversary was observed at Porto Seguro, a small coastal town. Today, DNA research reveals that about 45 million Brazilians, about a third of the population, share some indigenous DNA levels. Brazil still has about 30 pockets of Amazon jungle where so-called Stone Age tribes live, of about 100-300 people. Land rights remain a serious issue for Brazil's indigenous people.

1551AD: Burma: Bayinnaung inherits the Burmese throne and overruns Thailand.

1551: Capt. Thomas Wyndham, dealing in sugar by 1551.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 81. Willan, Elizabethan Foreign Trade, p. 100. Williamson, Age of Drake, pp. 14ff.)

1551: And earlier: Already under Henry VIII, Hawkins makes made several voyages to Liberia [Grain Coast], gets pepper, ivory but no gold. Whyndham's syndicate (now also with Sir George Barnes) has idea re Gold Coast, with Portuguese pilot Antonio Pinteado (sic). Whyndham sails with 140 men including young Martin Frobisher (a kinsman of Sir John Yorke), and only 40 survived.

1551-1552: Thomas Wyndham sails to Barbary Coast, the Atlantic coast of Morocco, in 1553 to Guinea Coast into Benin Bay; he died on his last voyage, but his crew brought back enough gold to enrapture London.

1549-1551AD: Mission of Jesuit St. Francis Xavier to Japan.

1551-1552-1603: Kennedy writes that to 1603, more so in Tudor times, the cloth merchants who backed maritime endeavour were pro-Spanish, matters had changed with the 1551-1552 cloth slump, and in 1552 arose some English hopes of finding a north-east passage. See Paul M. Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery. London, Allen Lane, 1976.

1552: Rise of Londoner merchant and noted customs receiver, hence the name "Customer" Smythe, Thomas Smythe, born 1552.

1552: Birth near Budleigh, Salterton Bay, of Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618). Son of Walter Raleigh of Fardell and Catherine, daughter of Sir Philip Champernowne of Modbury. See 1578:

1552: (Lord/Earl) Northumberland forms joint-stock company to carry out John Dee's plan re north-west passage. Northumberland's company which included 200 "capitalists" sent out an expedition led by Sir Hugh Willoughby and Richard Chancellor. Willoughby died with all his crew trying to winter on the coast of Lapland, but Chancellor entered the White Sea, found village of Archangel, established contact with Czar/Ivan the Terrible.

1551-1553: London Lord Mayoralty period for colonist, Andrew Judd, co-founder of the Muscovy Co. Spouse Names wife1 Joan Mirfyn and wife2 Mary Mathew.
http on Winter naval family. (Hasler, The House of Commons, 1558-1603, p. 403 on John I Smythe d.1608.) Seen as alderman in Hasler, p. 97 on Sir Wm Morgan d 1583. Who's Who /Shakespeare, p. 231. Williamson, Age of Drake, pp. 14ff. GEC, Peerage, Strangford, p. 358.

1551: And earlier: Already under Henry VIII, Hawkins makes made several voyages to Liberia [Grain Coast], gets pepper, ivory but no gold. Whyndham's syndicate (now also with Sir George Barnes) has idea re Gold Coast, with Portuguese pilot Antonio Pinteado (sic). Whyndham sails with 140 men including young Martin Frobisher a kinsman of Sir John Yorke, and only 40 survived.

1551-1553: London Lord Mayoralty period for colonist, Andrew Judd, co-founder of the Muscovy Co. Spouse Names wife1 Joan Mirfyn and wife2 Mary Mathew.
http on Winter naval family. Hasler, The House of Commons, 1558-1603, p. 403 on John I Smythe d.1608. Seen as alderman in Hasler, p. 97 on Sir Wm Morgan d. 1583. Who's Who / Shakespeare, p. 231. Williamson, Age of Drake, pp. 14ff. GEC, Peerage, Strangford, p. 358.

1551: From 1551, Thomas Gresham restored financial stability to the royal purse. As the crown's financial agent, he required merchant adventurers to give him in Antwerp a large part of proceeds in foreign currency, from cloth sales, to be repaid in sterling at a fixed rate of exchange, which was usually more than what was available in Antwerp. The crown then had source of short-term loans, and this also forced up the price of sterling on the international market. This system remained in use for 20 years. In 1558 the English crown raised customs rates to increase revenue. Merchants in return were given gained extra privileges, including the hampering of non-English merchants in London, the Hanse men, Italian and Flemish merchants.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 55-56.

1551: English syndicate of merchants, with Sir John Lutterell, and Henry Ostrich equip ship for Morocco, area frequented by both Portuguese and Spanish. Ostrich is Sebastien Cabot's son-in-law. Promoters suffer disaster. Fever rages in London. Lutterell, Ostrich and others died as did other members of syndicate. New-found captain is Thomas Whyndham, a naval officer and vice-admiral of a fleet employed by Protector Somerset in Scottish campaign of 1547. Whyndham trades at Santa Cruz, so in 1552 another voyage backed by Sir John Yorke, Sir William Gerard, Sir Thomas Wroth, Francis Lambert, with three ships. Wyndham also to Canary Islands, but found no new commerce.

The early 1550s: William Winter is far too busy with conspiracies to deal with, eg., Muscovy or Levant companies.

1552: More to come

1553: Sir Hugh Willoughby's "fateful expedition to the Arctic".
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1553: On 23 June 1553 sets sails the voyage under Englishman Richard Chancellor, adopted son of Henry Sidney, for The Mystery, Company and Fellowship of Merchant Adventurers for the Discovery of Unknown Lands. Chancellor on ship Edward Bonaventure. Also two other ships, Bona Esperanza, and Confidentia. Also sailing is Sir High Willoughby. The ships reach Barents Sea, and end 300 miles inside the Arctic Circle, worried by pack ice. Some of the ships crew had written wills dated January 1554. Willoughby and his men froze to death. Chancellor had gone into the White Sea near today's Archangel, and gone overland to Moscow. Chancellor meets Grand Duke of Russia, Ivan Vasilivich, also Emperor, who is impressed enough to grant trade rights, which thus begins the English Muscovy Company.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1553: In 1553, Capt. Thomas Windham and Antonio Anes Pinteado (from Oporto, Portugal), with three ships and 140 men to sail to Brazil, Guinea Coast - Gold Coast, went to Benin for Guinea pepper, Windham died.
W. Walton Claridge, A History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti: From the earliest times to the commencement of the Twentieth Century. London, John Murray, 1915., p. 60.

1553: On 23 June 1553 sets sails the voyage under Englishman Richard Chancellor, adopted son of Henry Sidney, for The Mystery, Company and Fellowship of Merchant Adventurers for the Discovery of Unknown Lands. Chancellor on ship Edward Bonaventure. Also two other ships, Bona Esperanza, and Confidentia. Also sailing is Sir Hugh Willoughby. The ships reach Barents Sea, and end 300 miles inside the Arctic Circle, worried by pack ice. Some of the ships' crew had written wills dated January 1554. Willoughby and his men froze to death. Chancellor had gone into the White Sea near today's Archangel, and gone overland to Moscow. Chancellor meets Grand Duke of Russia, Ivan Vasilivich, also Emperor, who is impressed enough to grant trade rights, which thus begins the English Muscovy Company.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1553: Sir Hugh Willoughby's "fateful expedition to the Arctic".
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1553: Lord High Admiral (1553-1557), William Howard (1510-1572-1573), son of Thomas Howard, second Duke of Norfolk, and mother, Agnes Tilney, wife 2; he married Katherine Boughton wife1, then to Margaret Gamage, wife2.
GEC in The Peerage says it was "to him above all other Englishmen" that Elizabeth 1 owed her throne.
GEC, Peerage, Effingham, p. 9.

1553: 3rd February: Sir Thomas Wyatt and Kentish men march from Deptford to London, and entered Southwark where they wait till 6 February but cannot enter London. Wyatt is aged 23; his fellow-conspirator Winter, commands a fleet which brings him ordnance to his headquarters.
Cassell's History of England, p. 359). From websites on the Hawkins and Winter families cited elsewhere.

To 1553: English voyages to Morocco. Chancellor-Willoughby voyages for a north-east passage of 1553. First steps in English expansionism. Developing connection of Spanish-Morocco trades, latter taps sources of sugar and gold. Trade pioneers begin to import sugar to England, then refine it. Some voyages began in 1551-1552, eg., ship Bark Anchor as reported by Hakluyt. Aboard is Richard Chancellor.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 12-13.

1553: Decay of English Levant trade and rise of the Muscovy Co's Persian links. William Jenkinson initiates overland route with Persia for the Muscovy Co., through Ottoman Empire, dealing with Suliman in Aleppo.

1553: Some men in both the Merchant Adventurers earlier exporting cloth, and the new rising trades were Edward Jackman, Francis Bowyer, William Allen and William Garrard. in 1553 began some merchant syndicates seeking direct trade with Guinea, and here were involved some Spanish merchants who were developing the Morocco trade.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 14.

1553: Anthony Jenkinson: is at Aleppo, gets licence to trade from Suliman the Great.

1553: A voyage allowed by Northumberland (sailed a month after Edward VI succeeded Queen Mary). Two of Whyndham's ships are loaned by Navy. 1553 circa, Whyndham dies. Northumberland now ambitious to go to Asia via North-West Passage. Some backers include: Sir George Barnes, Sir William Gerard and Sir John Yorke already in Africa trade; Sir Andrew Judde, Rowland Hayward and Miles Mordeyne, who promoted later Africa voyages; Marquis Winchester, Earls of Arundel, Bedford and Pembroke, Lord William Howard the Lord Admiral and Sir William Cecil, plus Sir Thomas Gresham acting for a govt interest; all in a joint-stock company. Gov. of this Co. is Sebastian Cabot "for life". He knew English cloth needed a market in cold climates, not China and the Moluccas.
Williamson, Age of Drake, pp. 14-19.

1553: Winter took part in Dudley's plot to place a Protestant queen, Jane Grey (1537-beheaded 12 Feb. 1554, for nine days queen of England 6 July 1553 ).

1553: 3rd February: Sir Thomas Wyatt and some Kentish men march from Deptford to London, and entered Southwark where they wait till 6 February but cannot enter London. Wyatt is aged 23; his fellow-conspirator Winter, commanded a fleet which brought him ordnance to his headquarters.
(Cassell's History of England, p.359). From websites on the Hawkins and Winter families cited elsewhere.

1553: In the first year of the reign of Philip and Mary (1553), William Hawkins' partner, a naval officer, Thomas Wyndham of Norfolk, and Antonio Anes Pinteado, a Portuguese sailed to Guinea and Benin and although Wyndham died on his first voyage to Gold Coast; his ships brought back gold, pepper and ivory.

"The first voyage (for William Winter) was to Guinea and Benin - In the year of our Lord 1533, the twelfth day of August, sailed from Portsmouth, two goodly ships, the "Primrose" and the "Lion" with a pinnace called the "Moon." Thus sailing forward on their voyage, they came to the Islands of Canary, continuing their course from thence until they arrived at the island of St. Nicholas where they victualled themselves. From hence, following on their course, they came at length to the first land of the country of Guinea, where they fell with the great river of Sestos where they might for their merchandise have laden their ships with the grains of that country, which is a very hot fruit and much like unto a fig as it groweth on the trees. For as figs are full of small seeds, so is the said fruit full of grains which are loose within the cod, having in the midst thereof a hole on every side. This kind of spice is much used in cold countries". ("The first voyage to Guinea and Benin" - Anonymous report Hakluyt's "Voyages").
Per Winter family website.

1553: 3rd February: Sir Thomas Wyatt and the Kentish men march from Deptford to London, and entered Southwark where they wait till 6 February but cannot enter London. Wyatt is aged 23; his fellow-conspirator Winter, commanded a fleet which brought him ordnance to his headquarters. (Cassell's History of England, p. 359).
From websites on the Hawkins and Winter families cited elsewhere.

1554: In 1554 Capt. John Lok sails from the Thames with three ships to Cape Coast and Kormantin. W. Walton Claridge, A History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti: From the earliest times to the commencement of the Twentieth Century. London, John Murray, 1915., p. 64.

1554: Another venture for gold and ivory to Africa by John Lok (sic).

1554: Englishman Capt. John Lok sails from the Thames with three ships to Cape Coast and Kormantin. See W. Walton Claridge, A History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti: From the earliest times to the commencement of the Twentieth Century. London, John Murray, 1915., pp. 60-64.
1554: Martin Frobisher voyages with John Lok, captured by Negroes and given to the Portuguese at Elmina, later sent to Europe and released.

1553-1555: London men interested in opening a direct route to the far East, and in 1555 the Muscovy Co. charter claimed right to control all voyages of discovery to east by way of any north-east or north-west passages. See 1556.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 20.

1553-1555: Muscovy Co. established for discovering a north-east passage. this evolved into the Muscovy Company of 1555. Muscovy Co. idea to open a route for gold and spices of the Far East, free from Portuguese interference. new direct trade with Russia for furs and naval stores. (Interference for Mediterranean trade from rise of Turkish and Barbary naval power.
T. S. Willan, `Trade between England and Russia in the second half of the C16th, HER, 63, 1948., pp. 308-309.

1553-1555: Russia Co. is formed, two years later receives monopoly. First English company to employ joint-stock and own ships corporately. Co's captain Chancellour (sic) laid the foundation of its trade.
Ramkrishna Mukherjee, The Rise and Fall of the East India Company: A Sociological Appraisal. Bombay, Popular Prakashan, 1973. [Also, New York, 1974]., p. 25 and p. 41.

1554: In England, in October, English trade effort by Sir John Yorke, Sir George Barnes, Thomas Lok, Anthony Hickman (traded to Canary Islands and maintained factors there), Edward Castlyn (traded to Canary Islands and maintained factors there), sent another expedition to the Gold Coast (maybe had no official authorization). A second Gold Coast expedition for John Lok as representative of City and Court interests . John Lok (son of Sir William Lok, merchant and alderman of London) has brothers Thomas and Michael. John Lok returns in 1555 with good lading plus 400 lbs of gold.
Williamson, The Age of Drake, pp. 28ff.

1554: 20 February: Conspiracy: A group is sent to the Tower: William Winter, Sir Nicholas Throckmorton (one-time Elizabeth's ambassador in France) and William Thomas. The conspirators wanted Courtenay, a Yorkist heir descended from Sir William Courtney who married Catherine Plantagenet, daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville, to marry Elizabeth. on 7 April, 1544 the Lord Mayor found against Throckmorton, Crofts, Arnold, Carew, Pickering, Rogers, Winter and Warner who were charged with conspiring with Wyatt, Harper and others in London on 16 November 1553, with seizing the Tower and levying war against the queen to deprive her of her royal title (KB. 329 R.2 Controlment Rolls of the Courts of the King's Bench). Winter, Warner, Rogers and Arnold were never brought to trial. Winter was pardoned on 10 November 1544. The Duke of Suffolk was tried and executed, so was his brother Thomas Grey. Sir Thomas Wyatt, Anne Boleyn's cousin was executed on 15 March, 1553. Winter was sentenced to death but pardoned in November 1554; he retained his Surveyorship of the Navy and even escorted Philip II on his return to Spain.
From websites on the Hawkins and Winter families cited elsewhere.

1554: Michael Lok's brother John was with the Guinea expedition of 1554. Loks, engaged in the Levant trade, were disappointed by Barbary piracy and so became interested in a north-west passage to Cathay. Michael Lok became a member of the Muscovy Company (founded in 1555), and in 1574 with the patronage of the first Earl of Warwick helped promote Frobisher's voyage, inspired by Sebastian Cabot's earlier voyages; but Frobisher's failures led to Lok's ruination. Zacariah, an MP who died in 1603, son of Michael Lok, was in the service of Henry Carey, first Baron Hunsdon.
Mariner Sir Martin Frobisher (1553-1594), a nephew of John Yorke, Russia merchant and an originator of the English Guinea trade.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 20. Taylor, Tudor Geography, p. 37.)

1554: 20 February: Conspiracy: A group is sent to the Tower: William Winter, Sir Nicholas Throckmorton (one-time Elizabeth's ambassador in France) and William Thomas. The conspirators wanted Courtenay, a Yorkist heir descended from Sir William Courtney who married Catherine Plantagenet, daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville, to marry Elizabeth. on 7 April, 1544 the Lord Mayor found against Throckmorton, Crofts, Arnold, Carew, Pickering, Rogers, Winter and Warner who were charged with conspiring with Wyatt, Harper and others in London on 16 November 1553, with seizing the Tower and levying war against the queen to deprive her of her royal title (KB. 329 R.2 Controlment Rolls of the Courts of the King's Bench). Winter, Warner, Rogers and Arnold were never brought to trial. Winter was pardoned on 10 November 1544. The Duke of Suffolk was tried and executed; so was his brother Thomas Grey. Sir Thomas Wyatt, Anne Boleyn's cousin was executed on 15 March, 1553. Winter was sentenced to death but pardoned in November 1554; he retained his Surveyorship of the Navy and even escorted Philip II on his return to Spain.
From websites on the Hawkins and Winter families cited elsewhere.

1555: Sailed for the Guinea Coast, Englishman Capt. William Towrson (Towerson), Towrson in 1556, three ships on a second try, with one John Davis. In 1558 is Towrson's third voyage with four ships.

1555: The English Muscovy Co. continued the trade with Persia, sending six voyages 1557-1579 till the Turks cut the Persia-Russia route in 1580.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 13.

1555: Creation of the Muscovy Co. charter; 22 of the men named were part of the 34 merchants interested in the 1558 voyage to Guinea. Many of the 1550s Merchant Adventurers were leaders in the Muscovy, Morocco and Guinea ventures of the 1550s.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 14.

1555: Muscovy Co. continues to trade with Persia, sending six voyages 1557-1579 till the Turks cut the Persia-Russia route in 1580.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 13.
1555: Chancellor gets home in 1554 and in 1555 the Muscovy Co. forms to take advantage of new contacts. Chancellor later voyages with Stephen Borough to disaster. Chancellor fails to return in 1557, but England had found an outlet for its cloth trade, and could now break the Hanse's monopoly on shipping timber, cordage, and pitch as maritime supplies. (See 1566 re Sir Humphrey Gilbert.)
G. R. Elton, Tudors, pp. 331ff.
1555: Russia Co. successful in negotiating agreements with Russian Tsar, by White Sea route, see re Anthony Jenkinson in 1557. Co. sent an employee to Persia and Bokhara. Further rights in area granted in 1567.
Mukherjee, Rise and Fall of the East India Company, pp. 25ff.

1555-1570: Noted merchant adventurers 1555-1570 included Richard Malorye, Richard Champyon, Roger Martyn, Richard Foulkes, Thomas Rowe, William Allen, Humphrey Baskerfeld, Richard Chamberlyn, Rowland Heyward, Edward Jackman, Richard Lambert, William Beswick, alderman Lionel Duckett, John Ryvers, Henry Beecher, William Bond, Richard Pype and Alexander Avedon.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 81.
1550s: Date? : Merchant Adventurers send Hugh Willoughby to find China and lost two or three ships.
1555: Anthony Jenkinson admitted to membership of Merchants' Co., and in 1557 appointed by Muscovy Co. as Captain-general of their fleet sailing to Russia. Russia matters by 1557, diplomat to an indecisive Czar. Goes to Bokhara, Caspian area.

1555: Sails Capt. William Towrson (Towerson), for the Guinea Coast. Towrson in 1556, three ships on a second try, with one John Davis. In 1558 is Towrson's third voyage with four ships. W. Walton Claridge, A History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti: From the earliest times to the commencement of the Twentieth Century. London, John Murray, 1915., pp. 64-73.

Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor of 1555-1556 William Garrard. This material also points to other families of other Lords Mayor
Descendants of London grocer John Garrard and sp: Miss Notknown
2. London Lord Mayor Sir William Garrard (c.1555;d.1571) sp: Isabel Nethermill
3. Sir William Garrard (d.17 Nov 1607) sp: Elizabeth Rowe
3. Anne Garrard sp: London Lord Mayor, Spanish Co. merchant Sir George Barne (c.1587;d.2 Jan 1593) 4. William Barne sp: Miss Sandys 4. John Barne son2 sp: Miss Notknown 5. Mary Barne dr1 sp: Francis Roberts of Willesdon, Esq 6. Barne Roberts (d.30 Jan 1610/1611) sp: Mary Anne Glover 7. William Roberts (b.21 Apr 1604;d.19 Sep 1662) sp: Eleanor Atty (b.4 Jun 1608;m.22 Feb 1623/1624;d.22 Nov 1678)
4. Anne Barne wife1 (d.1564) sp: Sec. of State, Sir Francis Walsingham (b.1532;m.1562;d.6 Apr 1590) 4. Elizabeth Barne sp: London Lord Mayor Sir John Rivers (b.1574) 5. Alice Rivers sp: MP Richard Inkpen (d.1577) 6. Elizabeth Inkpen sp: Mr Anderson 5. MP George Rivers (b.1553;d.1630) sp: Frances Bowyer sp: Sir Matthew Carew 5. Thomas Carew Poet 4. John Barne son2 sp: Miss Notknown 5. Mary Barne dr1 3. London Lord Mayor Sir John Garrard (c.1592;d.7 May 1625) sp: Jane Partridge (d.24 Jan 1616) 4. London Lord Mayor Sir Samuel Garrard (c.1709) sp: Miss Notknown 5. Robert Halesfoot Garrard (d.1785) sp: Miriam Richards (d.1801) 6. Samuel Garrard (b.1757) sp: Miss Walker 7. Robert Garrard (b.1793;d.1881) sp: Esther Whippy sp: Miss Walker 7. Robert Garrard (b.1793;d.1881) 6. Goldsmith Robert Garrard (b.1758;d.1818) sp: Sarah Crespel 7. Henry Garrard, to Australia sp: Mary Mortimer sp: Miss Notknown 5. Robert Halesfoot Garrard (d.1785) 4. Sir John Garrard (d.1637) sp: Elizabeth Barkham wife1 (c.1611;m.1611;d.17 Apr 1632) 5. Jane Garrard sp: Sir Justinian Isham 5. Sir John Garrard, Bart2 (d.1685) sp: Jane Lambard 6. Sir John Garrard, Bart3 (d.Jan 1700) sp: Katherine ?ENYON 7. Jane Garrard (d.1724) sp: MP Montague Drake 6. Elizabeth Garrard (d.1683) sp: MP Sir Nicholas Gould, Bart1 (d.1664) 6. Sir John Garrard, Bart3 (d.Jan 1700) sp: Katherine ???? 7. Jane Garrard (d.1724) 4. Benedict Garrard (c.1629) 3. George Garrard sp: Margaret Dacres 4. Anne Garrard 4. Frances Garrard sp: Thomas Howard Earl3 Berkshire (b.1619;d.12 Apr 1706)


In 1553 and 1555 Englishman Richard Eden publishes his Treatise of the New India and Decades of the New World or West India. There arose by 1555 a "fruitful co-operation" in Elton p. 334, of merchants, sailors and moneyed gentry including a few members of court and council. from 1551 the first trade contacts grew with Africa. See 1551.

1556: Portuguese establish a trading factory at Macao, China.

1556: Agricola's De Re Metallica synthesizes knowledge of metals.

1556: Stephen Borough; Explorer for the Muscovy Co. And his more famous brother, William. In 1556 the Muscovy Co. sent Stephen to Russia, following up Chancellor's earlier visits. Stephen's daughter married into the Huguenot family of London alderman John Vassal, which family later became noted as planters/slavers in the Caribbean. This John Vassal was connected with the ship Mayflower, the famed ship bringing New England colonists to America; his daughter married Peter Andrews, said to be captain of Mayflower. Vassal fitted one or two of his own ships to fight against the Spanish Armada. He was later with the Virginia Company.
Andrews, Ships, Money and Politics, p. 58, p. 193, Note 22.; J. C. Brandon, Genealogies of Barbados Families, conveyed by email by Chris Codrington.
Taylor, Tudor Geography, variously. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 20, p. 134ff. Andrews, Ships, Money and Politics, p. 58. Williamson, Age of Drake, p. 26.

1556: In 1556-1557 the Muscovy Co. sent out first Stephen Borough then Anthony Jenkinson to test for north-east passages. In the 1550s, Martin Frobisher, who is a nephew of Muscovy Co. leader John Yorke, participates in first voyage or so to the Guinea trade. In 1576-1578, Frobisher led three ventures to establish trade routes to the Indies by way of a northwest passage with license from Muscovy Co. Frobisher's voyages had both court and merchant backing re Russia, Spanish and Morocco trades.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 20.

1556: Lord Mayor of 1537, Richard Gresham, father of the founder in 1566 of the Royal Exchange, Sir Thomas Gresham (1519-1579). (Burke's Extinct Baronetcies for Gresham, p. 227. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 55. R. G. Lang, 'Social Origins and Social Aspirations of Jacobean London Merchants', Economic History Review, 2, V, 27, 1974., pp. 28-47. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Bacon, regarding ancestors of the Lords Townshend.)

1556-1605AD: Reign of Mogul emperor Akbar in India.

Sebastio (Aviz), King Portugal 1557-1578.

1558: From Brussels, Oliver Brunel advertises that he has travelled on the coasts of northern Russia, and might soon find a North-East Passage to the Indies. He would soon take a Russian ship to the spice islands. (This might reduce a year's sailing time?) This information caused great pain to London merchants, so they denounced Brunel to the Russians as a spy and he is imprisoned for 12 years.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1558 and later: By Elizabeth's reign (from 1558) English ships were unloaded at the English factory at San Lucar de la Barrameda (the only port allowed to trade with the Americas from 1492-1717) and Cadiz. English merchants from London, Southampton, Bristol and the West Country resided in Seville where the Casa de las Indias was situated. The English in Spain became hispanized and the Spanish in England anglicised; the English family of Castlyns or Castelyn were perhaps of Spanish origin. Hugh Tipton, an important English merchant in Seville, was John Hawkins's agent to whom he sent cargoes.
(According to Spanish sources, John Hawkins was even knighted by Philip II whom he served when he was king of England and referred to him as his master during the Ridolfi Plot. (?)

1558: Calais falls from English control.

1558: Sir William Winter was in the fleet under Edward Fiennes de Clinton, earl of Lincoln, which burned Conquet in 1558. In 1559 he has instructions to sail north with 14 royal ships taking artillery and supplies to Berwick and to deal with the French. He kept his fleet intact.
From websites on the Hawkins and Winter families cited elsewhere.

1558: Anthony Wilkinson of the Russia Co. goes into Persia for trade. [Could this be a misprint in a book re Anthony Jenkinson?]

1558: January 1558, William Towerson set out on a third voyage from England. His squadron has two navy ships, evidence the Lord Admiral had connived at such business. Towerson had gone first to Gold Coast, and he and others built trade on success with that. Some fell out of the business; Portugal claimed rights in the area, rights which Towerson did not respect.
Williamson, Age of Drake, p. 31.

1558: Sir William Winter was in the fleet under Edward Fiennes de Clinton, earl of Lincoln, which burned Conquet in 1558. In 1559 he has instructions to sail north with 14 royal ships taking artillery and supplies to Berwick and to deal with the French. He kept his fleet intact.
From websites on the Hawkins and Winter families cited elsewhere.

1558: Mary Queen of Scots, aged 16, marries the Dauphin of France, the future Francis II.

1559: 16 December: Expectation of a French invasion, Admiral Sir William Winter is with fleet to lie in the Firth of Forth, with instructions to observe the French. He sailed from Gillingham, Kent with 14 vessels with orders to proceed to the Firth of Forth to watch for the French and if attacked to sink and destroy. He left Queenborough on the 27th December and sailed from there in January 1560 when the fleet was driven into Lowestoft, Suffolk by a gale and kept there for a fortnight. It sailed north on 15 January 1560 and was driven back into the Humber but on 20 January 1560 sailed to Berwick, along the coast to Fife near Kinghorn and in front of Burntisland was garrisoned by the French, who attacked Winter, who captured the Forth and cut off French communications and sent a message to Norfolk (Dom. MSS, Rolls House 16.12.1559). (25.1.1560 Scotch MSS, Rolls House).
From websites on the Hawkins and Winter families cited elsewhere.

1559: 16 December: Expectation of a French invasion, Admiral Sir William Winter is with fleet to lie in the Firth of Forth, with instructions to observe the French. He sailed from Gillingham, Kent with 14 vessels with orders to proceed to the Firth of Forth to watch for the French and if attacked to sink and destroy. He left Queenborough on the 27th December and sailed from there in January 1560 when the fleet was driven into Lowestoft, Suffolk by a gale and kept there for a fortnight. It sailed north on 15 January 1560 and was driven back into the Humber but on 20 January 1560 sailed to Berwick, along the coast to Fife near Kinghorn and in front of Burntisland was garrisoned by the French, who attacked Winter, who captured the Forth and cut off French communications and sent a message to Norfolk
(Dom. MSS, Rolls House 16.12.1559). (25.1.1560 Scotch MSS, Rolls House).
From websites on the Hawkins and Winter families cited elsewhere.

1559: First cultivation of tobacco starts in Spain.

1559AD: Henry II of France is killed in a jousting accident. Succeeded by his son Francis II died 1560. Arises the rivalry of the Guises and the Bourbon (who are Protestants) in French political life.

1560: Active from 1560, John Dee. Not a mariner, but interested in colonisation. By 1560, "the English by contrast, so far from being at that time the heirs to generations of sea-goers, were newcomers to ocean trade and shipping".
From Ralph Davis, The Rise of the English Shipping Industry in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. London, Macmillan, 1962., p. 1.

1560: Soon after 1560 John Hawkins moved to London and formed a syndicate of merchants and officials including alderman Sir Lionel Ducket and Sir Thomas Lodge, who were already engaged in Gold Coast trade, and Benjamin Gonson (death date not identified yet) and Sir William Winter (who dies the next year). This syndicate period may mark the time when a rather unexpected nexus of interest developed - between "naval men" and merchant-slavers.

1561: A company of English Guinea merchant adventurers includes Sir William Gerard, William Winter, Benjamin Gonson, Antony Hickman and Edward Castelin - and they sent out John Lok in ship "Minion". This syndicate sent two ships out in 1562 only to be harrassed by the Portuguese, and by now, Kormantin is already a focus point on African coast. A a minor English expedition sailed in 1563.
See W. Walton Claridge, A History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti: From the earliest times to the commencement of the Twentieth Century. London, John Murray, 1915., pp. 73-75.

1561: Richard Eden, geographer, "cosmographer" and promoter of colonisation. In 1561, Eden published The Art of Navigation. (In 1563, English sailors made a second voyage to Florida.) Eden had close links with Cabot above, Richard Chancellor and Stephen Borough. A friend of Sir John Cheke, Eden also knew the Spanish historian of Peru, Zarate. Eden dedicated a book to Northumberland, given the Earl/Duke's interest in a voyage to Cathay. (Little is known of Eden's family here.)
Taylor, Tudor Geography, p. 20. Williamson, Age of Drake, p. 43.

1561: Bristol merchant John Frampton trades to Cadiz and Lisbon, then overland to Malaga to buy wines. The Inquisition searches his ship. Frampton was pirated and a decade later still petitioned the admiralty for redress.
Williamson, Age of Drake, p. 45.

1561: By 1561-1562, Thomas Cobham, the brother of a peer, guilty of various piracies and has shown religious prejudice by murdering a friar. Martin Frobisher conducts similar piracies about now.
Williamson, Age of Drake, pp. 42ff.

By 1561, John Hawkins had links with a member of an important Canarian family of Genoese descent in Tenerife named Pedro de Ponte from whom he got information about the African and American trade and Hawkins's pilot, Juan Martinez, was Sevillian. The Canaries were free to English merchants under a treaty and there was a factory of the Company of English Merchants trading with Spain.

1561: Gold Coast venturers include treasurer of Navy Benjamin Gonson and secretary of Navy, Sir William Winter, who had use of four navy ships. The queen finds the equipment and £500 for vittles. Merchants paid the crews,cargo, repairs, undertook to hand on one-third of the profits. John Lok makes another voyage in 1561.
A formal charter party for an African voyage by Queen's ship Minion is found in Landsdowne ms 113, ff9-17, see Williamson, Age of Drake, pp. 34-35.

On Sir William Winter see website: http://www.pillagoda.freewire.co.uk/ADMIRAL.htm

1561-1562: The French Wars of Religion: "Throughout France, members of the rival creeds (Catholic and Huguenot) attacked each other, killing, burning, raping, torturing, and looting. The atrocities were as outrageous as they were cruel. In a frenzy of Protestant iconoclasm, churches were desecrated and their clergy hunted down like vermin; one Huguenot captain wore a necklace of priests' ears while the infamous Baron des Adrets made Catholic prisoners leap to their death from a high tower. Even the dead were attacked; at Orleans a Reformist mob burnt the heart of poor Francois II and threw Joan of Arc's statue into the river. The Counter-Reformation was not yet in evidence so Papist fanatics were rare but nonetheless Catholics were goaded into fury.

At Tours two hundred Huguenots were drowned in the Loire while the bodies of those slaughtered at Sens came floating down to Paris. That grim old soldier Blaise de Montluc made Protestant captives jump from the battlements and remarked with satisfaction that all knew where he had passed by the trees which bore his livery - a hanged Huguenot; on one occasion he strangled a pastor with his own hands." As Pascal said a hundred years later, "Men never do evil so completely and cheerfully as they do from religious conviction."
From: Desmond Seward, The First Bourbon: Henri IV, King of France and Navarre. London, Constable, 1971., p. 143

1562: Maritime history: Legaspi sails in Philippines area.

1562: Capt. John Hawkins has on his own account three ships in 1562. In 1562-1563, England passes an Act legalizing the purchase of slaves. From W. Walton Claridge, A History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti.

1562 from 1530: (H. R. Fox Bourne, English Merchants: Memoirs, p. 136, old Master William Hawkins of Plymouth, 1530, 1531, 1532, with ship Paul of Plymouth, 250 tons to coasts of Brazil, coast of Guinea, to Brazil to sell to the Indians, his sons William Hawkins a merchant and shipowner in London and John, a "naval hero'. He began the slave trade with three ships outfitted from London, one backer being Alderman Duckett, got 300 slaves from Sierra Leone, in 1562, later used one of the largest ships available in England, later a slave partner with Sir Francis Drake.

1562: Re Hawkins: The African coast was a favourite haunt of French pirates and privateers (mainly Huguenots, who were the finest sailors) who lurked amongst the islands and ravaged the coasts of Senegal and the Spanish West Indies. The difference between a pirate and a privateer was that the latter had Letters of Marque from a monarch or a government licensing them to do what pirates did illegally. William Winter was a privateer who raided the African coast with Letters of Marque from Elizabeth I. English privateers were first licensed by Henry VIII to seize French goods carried under the Spanish flag whereupon Charles V seized all English goods in Flanders and suspended trade with England. Huguenots seamen from Rouen and Dieppe, La Rochelle and Bay of Biscay practised piracy and raided the Caribbean. Under the provisions of the Treaty of Cateau Cambresis in 1559 everything below Tropic of Cancer was considered fair game for corsairs.

1562: John Hawkins, reputed to "begin the English slave trade", (but see an earlier Hawkins of the 1530s entering that trade), with three ships outfitted from London, one backer being London Alderman Duckett. Hawkins gets 300 slaves from Sierra Leone, in 1562, and later uses one of the largest ships available in England. Later Hawkins becomes partner in slaving with Sir Francis Drake.

1562: [John] Hawkins sails from Plymouth in October 1562 to the Canaries, his chief ally amongst the Spanish there being one Pedro de Ponte. Thence Cape Verde, while Ponte dealt with Hispaniola (Jamaica). Hawkins got about 400 slaves, some from Portuguese ships. In April 1563 Hawkins got to north of Hispaniolo, Puerto de Plata, then to La Isabela, bartering slaves for goods, pearls, hides and sugars, some gold.
1562: Frenchman Jean Ribault leads an expedition to Florida in 1562. About now, Elizabeth I wanted Thomas Stukely to go to Florida with Ribault, but Stukeley found Channel privateering more lucrative. Another Frenchman, a Huguenot, Rene de Laudonniere, sailed for Florida in 1564 with approval of French government.
Williamson, Age of Drake, p. 47, p. 60.

1562: First slave trading English venture in 1562, under John Hawkins (son of William earlier trading to Brazils, sailing from Plymouth. (Walvin cites The First Voyage of John Hawkins, 1562-1563, in Richard Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations... [12 Vols.] Glasgow, 1904.)
Elton says Hawkins has ideas of peacefully invading Spanish monopoly. He made a final profit of 60 per cent on a round-trip. By time he returns, relations between Spain and England are deteriorating.
James Walvin, Black Ivory: A History of British Slavery. London, Harper Collins, 1992., p. 303, p. 341.

1562: John Hawkins, reputed to have "began the English slave trade", (but see an earlier Hawkins of the 1530s entering that trade), with three ships outfitted from London, one backer being London Lord Mayor Duckett.
Merchant adventurer Sir Lionel Duckett; He had three daughters with dowry of 5000 pounds in Tudor money. Fox-Bourne, Merchant Memoirs. Duckett's staff worked with copper and silver, and in cloth manufacturing. Duckett had a company with Cecil, and the Earls of Pembroke, to construct waterworks to drain mines. Taylor, Tudor Geography, p. 107. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 81.

1562: Hawkins got 300 slaves from Sierra Leone, in 1562, and later used one of the largest ships available in England. Later Hawkins becomes partner in slaving with Sir Francis Drake.

1562: [John] Hawkins sails from Plymouth in October 1562 to the Canaries, his chief ally amongst the Spanish there being one Pedro de Ponte. Thence Cape Verde, while Ponte dealt with Hispaniola (Jamaica). Hawkins got about 400 slaves, some from Portuguese ships. In April 1563 Hawkins got to north of Hispaniolo, Puerto de Plata, then to La Isabela, bartering slaves for goods, pearls, hides and sugars, some gold.
1562: Frenchman Jean Ribault leads an expedition to Florida in 1562. About now, Elizabeth I wanted Thomas Stukely to go to Florida with Ribault, but Stukeley found Channel privateering more lucrative. Another Frenchman, a Huguenot, Rene de Laudonniere, sailed for Florida in 1564 with approval of French government.
Williamson, Age of Drake, p. 47, p. 60.

1562: Voyage of Legaspi in Philippines.

1562: First slave trading English venture in 1562, under John Hawkins (son of William earlier trading to Brazils, sailing from Plymouth. (Walvin cites The First Voyage of John Hawkins, 1562-1563, in Richard Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations... (12 Vols.) Glasgow, 1904.)
Elton says Hawkins has ideas of peacefully invading Spanish monopoly. He made a final profit of 60 per cent on a round-trip. By time he returns, relations between Spain and England are deteriorating.
James Walvin, Black Ivory: A History of British Slavery. London, Harper Collins, 1992., p. 303, p. 341.

1563: Stress of urbanisation: French parliament begs the king to prohibit vehicles from the streets of Paris.

1563: England: Anthony Jenkinson makes another trip to Russia, at Moscow by 20 August, 1563, one of his companions then is Edward Clarke who went home with Jenkinson's letters. Then from London came a second expedition to Russia of May 1564 with Thomas Alcock.

1563: William's brother George Winter (Clerk of Ships, died 1580) of Dyrham, Gloucestershire (which he purchased from Sir Walter Dennys in 1571 (13 Elizabeth I) is mentioned in an order from Elizabeth dated 16 July 1563 to Lord Clinton, Lord High Admiral asking him to deliver certain stores to George Winter "Clerk of our Ships" (Add. MSS Vol. 5752) a position he held until he died in 1582.

1564: Death of Michelangelo and birth of English playwright, William Shakespeare. Note: Michelangelo: The received wisdom that he is a homosexual is dismissed. From a book review, September 1999. See James Beck, Three Worlds of Michelangelo. Norton, 1999.

1564: King of Moluccas Islands, Indonesia, cedes his territorial rights to king of Portugal. Portuguese now link Indian Ocean trade to the New World via Philippines.


1564-1567: Muscovy Co. loses leader as Richard Chancellor dies, replaced by Anthony Jenkinson.
Williamson, Age of Drake, p. 37.

1565: Spanish colonise Florida.

1565AD: India: Of the Hindu kingdoms surviving, Vijayanagar survives till destroyed in 1565 by Muslims.

1565: Philippines: An expedition from New Spain commanded by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, establishes a first Spanish settlement in Sebu, Manila, on the island of Luzon, is occupied in 1571, partly to gain a link to existing trade with China. From J. H. Parry, The European Reconnaissance: Selected Documents. London, Macmillan, 1968., p. 255

1565: 30 May: Anthony Jenkinson addresses memorial to Elizabeth 1 re north-east passage to Cathay, but nothing comes of ideas. Jenkinson back in Russia by 23 Aug. 1566, obtains monopoly of White Sea trade, but more trouble with Czar.

1565: Francis Drake sails with John Lovell on a slaving voyage from Guinea to South America.

1566: Invention of the full stop, as a punctuation mark, by Aldus Manutius the Younger, author of a punctuation handbook, Interpungendi ratio. He was grandson of the Venetian printer who invented "the paperback book".

1566: Maritime history: Mendana's first voyage.

1566: Sir Humphrey Gilbert, promoter of navigation, and his brother Adrian active by now. Humphrey Gilbert writes on discovering Cathay, "a mix of sense and nonsense". Dee spoke of a "Southern Continent" (Australia?). (See 1574.)

1566: Mendana's first voyage.

1566: Elizabeth I has financial stake in John Hawkins' second voyage of plunder undertaken in defiance of views of the Spanish.

1566: John Lovell follows in Hawkins' maritime footsteps, but finds Spanish ports closed to him, and he is remembered only as he had Francis Drake (born c.1540) with him. Drake's father a chaplain at Chatam dockyard. (This John Hawkins born in 1532).

1566: Sir Humphrey Gilbert, promoter of navigation, and his brother Adrian active by now. Humphrey Gilbert writes on discovering Cathay, "a mix of sense and nonsense". John Dee speaks of a "Southern Continent". (See 1574.)
Elton, Tudor England, pp. 336ff.

1566: On 9 November 1566 John Lovell, on his way to the Indies sailed to Cape Verde with four ships Paul, Salomon, Pasco and Swallow, seized a Portuguese vessel with negroes, wax, ivory and other merchandise. In February 1567 he captured a ship with a cargo of sugar and negroes, close to Santiago, capital of the Cape Verde Islands, killing some of the crew, as well as a ship from Lisbon bound for Brazil and two more off the Island of Maio.

1567: By now, Dutch ships from West Friesland and Zeeland have anchored in Spanish Havana, Cuba. Gradually, the Dutch became interested in the following commodities from the West Coast of Africa, the West Indies and the Amazon-Orinoco area: palm oil, balsam oil, gums, white incense or mastix, orange dye called annatto, Brazil wood, other aromatic woods, pearls, gold and silver, salt, animal hides, tobacco, sugar, ginger, canafistula, sarsparilla, cochineal, dyewoods, cacao. indigo, Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, 1580-1680, p. 54.

1567: Francis Drake commands Judith 50-tons on the third slaving voyage of his kinsman, John Hawkins, on which voyage, only Drake's and Hawkins' ship escape from an encounter with Spanish at San Juan de Ulua. In following years, Drake becomes most successful of the English corsairs annoying the Spanish main.
(Encyclopedia Britannica entry, Drake).

1567: Hawkins equips his third fleet, in which voyages Elizabeth I has shares.

Follows material on London Lord Mayor 1568 Thomas Rowe and his Lord Mayor son for 1607, Henry Rowe.
Descendants of Merchant Tailor Robert Rowe and sp: Miss Notknown
2. Sir, Lord Mayor Thomas Rowe Thomas Merchant adventurer (c.1569) sp: Mary Gresham
3. Robert Rowe (c.1551) sp: Elinor Notknown 4. Coloniser, EICo trader, Sir Thomas Rowe (b.1581;d.1644) sp: Eleanor Cave (m.1613) 3. Rowe Elizabeth sp: Sir William Garrard (d.17 Nov 1607) 3. London Lord Mayor William Roe London (c.1590) 3. London Lord Mayor Sir Henry Rowe (c.1607) sp: Miss Notknown
4. Susan Rowe wife2 (c.19 Sep 1582;d.16 Jan 1645/1646) sp: Gov. EICo London alderman William Halliday (b.1610;d.14 Feb 1623/1624)
5. Miss Halliday sp: Sir Henry Mildmay


1568AD: -Circa 1600 Period of national unification in Japan begins when feudal lord, Oda Nobunaga, captures capital, Kyoto.

1568: Muslims forcibly converted to Catholicism in Spain.

1568AD: Japan: Regional Lord Oda Nobunaga first seized Kyoto (Azuchi Momoyama Period). Castles. Hirajiro versus Yamashiro, break of power of Buddhist monk armies & Ashikagas.

1568-1600AD: Japan: Age of Unification.

1568: England: William Cecil (Burghley) effectively becomes chairman of joint-stock company managing about a third of the slaving voyages of John Hawkins. The Earls of Leicester and Pembroke also heavy investors, but most profit of the third Hawkins' voyage was booty is recaptured by the Spaniards in Sept. 1568 at San Juan de Ullao. He has much trade with the Canary Islands.
Who's Who / Shakespeare, p. 110. See also G. R. Elton, Tudor England.

1568: Civil war in France.

1568: December 1568 Spanish ships take borrowed Genoese money to pay the army in Netherlands of Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, duke of Alba, scattered by Huguenot pirates, find refuge in the ports of Fowey, Plymouth and Southampton. William Hawkins, mayor of Plymouth (John's brother) helped to unload treasure there which Elizabeth promptly seized, saying she would borrow the money from the Genoese herself. Philip retaliated by seizing all English ships and sailors in Spanish ports, Elizabeth threw all Spaniards and Flemings in London into prisons and seized their goods, far more valuable than the original Spanish cargo.
From websites on the Hawkins and Winter families cited elsewhere.

1568: December 1568 Spanish ships take borrowed Genoese money to pay the army in Netherlands of Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, duke of Alba, scattered by Huguenot pirates, find refuge in the ports of Fowey, Plymouth and Southampton. William Hawkins, mayor of Plymouth (John's brother) helped to unload treasure there which Elizabeth promptly seized, saying she would borrow the money from the Genoese herself. Philip retaliated by seizing all English ships and sailors in Spanish ports, Elizabeth threw all Spaniards and Flemings in London into prisons and seized their goods, far more valuable than the original Spanish cargo.
From websites on the Hawkins and Winter families cited elsewhere.

1568: Cecil Burghley effectively became chairman of the joint-stock company managing about a third of the slaving voyages of John Hawkins. The Earls of Leicester and Pembroke also heavy investors, but most profit of the third Hawkins' voyage was booty was recaptured by the Spaniards in Sept. 1568 at San Juan de Ullao. He had much trade with the Canary Islands.
Who's Who / Shakespeare, p. 110. See also G. R. Elton, Tudor England.

1569: January, Hawkins returns from his third voyage slaving and later sent out as a privateer. In 1569 Walter Raleigh gained war experience when men of Devon raised a body of horse for service under Coligny.
Williamson, Age of Drake, p. 102.

1569: By 1569 the Portuguese conception of shape of Australia had found its way to the "international" maps of Mercator, and Spaniards such as Mendana, and by 1569, Mercator had changed his mind about what lay south of Java, adopting the Dauphin map propositions.
McIntyre, Secret Discovery of Australia, p. 53, p. 133.

1569: And earlier, Hawkins' third voyage. Much capital invested including some from Elizabeth who loans two ships. Drake was on Judith. Origins here of Drake's revenge against the Spanish. John Oxenham on this voyage, hanged at Lima. Hawkins' right hand man was sailor Robert Barrett, burnt alive in market-place at Seville.
A. L. Rowse, Elizabethan Garland, pp. 99ff.

1569: January, Hawkins returns from his third voyage slaving and later sent out as a privateer. In 1569 Walter Raleigh gained war experience when men of Devon raised a body of horse for service under Coligny.
Williamson, Age of Drake, p. 102.

1569: The English lose the cloth staple at Antwerp, the Netherlands were occupied by Spanish under Alba and the trade in Mediterranean centred in Seville. Cecil established a new centre in Germany that year and William Winter in command of 7 of the Queen's ships, convoyed fleet of merchantmen to Hamburg taking cloth, spices sugar, pepper, hides, dyes and wines captured by the Channel rovers.
From websites on the Hawkins and Winter families cited elsewhere.

1569: And earlier, Hawkins' third voyage. Much capital invested including some from Elizabeth who loans two ships. Drake was on Judith. Origins here of Drake's revenge against the Spanish. John Oxenham on this voyage, hanged at Lima. Hawkins' right hand man was sailor Robert Barrett, burnt alive in market-place at Seville.
A. L. Rowse, Elizabethan Garland, pp. 99ff.

1569: A small number of merchants in 1589 proposed a voyage to Far East by way of Cape Good Hope, using ships Susan, Merchant Royal and Edward Bonaventure, owned by Paul Bayning and Thomas Cordell, of Venice Co., men also in Spanish trade and leading privateers, these ships plus one other were used in "pathbreaking" voyage of James Lancaster to India Ocean in 1591-1592. (Brenner, p. 21.)

1570: Japan: Nagasaki is opened to western trade.

1570: August: Huguenot Pourtholt, lying at Plymouth, offers Admiral Winter ten chests of money if he would "but wink at an attack on the Spaniards." Huguenot traders from La Rochelle sell salt and wine, buying gunpowder with the proceeds, use Plymouth as a base of operations for their piracy as well as a market for their goods. There is an entry in Cecil's diary of an agreement by the Huguenot leader to deliver salt and wine to the value of £10,000. (Murdin 766).
From websites on the Hawkins and Winter families cited elsewhere.

Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor for 1570-1571 Sir Rowland Hayward
Descendants of George Hayward and sp: Margaret Whitebrooke
2. London Lord Mayor Sir Rowland Hayward (b.1520;d.5 Dec 1593) sp: Joan Tillesworth wife1 sp: Catherine Smythe wife2 (b.1564)
3. Sir John Hayward 3. Susan Hayward wife1 (d.1592) sp: MP Henry Townshend (b.1537;d.1621) 4. MP, journalist, Hayward Townshend (b.1577;d.1603) sp: Francasina Neville Illegit 3. Elizabeth Hayward sp: MP Richard Warren (b.1545;d.1598) sp: Thomas Knyvett Lord Knyvett Baron Knyvet of Escrick (b.1548;m.1597;d.1622) 3. Alice Hayward sp: MP Sir Richard Buller 4. Francis Buller sp: Thomasine (Honywood) Honeywood 4. Thomasine Buller sp: Josias Calmady 3. Joan Hayward sp: John Thynne 4. MP Sir Thomas II Thynne (b.1578;d.1639) sp: Catharine Howard wife2 sp: Maria Audley wife1 (m.1601) 3. Catherine widow Hayward wife2 (d.1632) sp: Sir Richard Sondes (b.1571;m.1609;d.1645)


1571: Digges' theodolite for surveying and aiming.

1571: In 1571 William Winter attacked Tenerife (Simancas Trans. 1571, p. 339.) William Winter (probably Sir William's son and not the Admiral himself who was now getting too old for such adventures) was taken prisoner by the Spanish in the Canaries and nearly brought before the Inquisition but escaped in time. Sir William Winter was involved in the slave and Guinea trade with John Hawkins with whom he later fell out.
From websites on the Hawkins and Winter families cited elsewhere.

1571: The Battle of Lepanto; 117 Turkish galleys taken and 80 lost, only 12 Christian vessels were lost.

1571: Foundation by Spanish of city Manila, the Philippines.

March 1571: With Cecil's connivance, John Hawkins (who had briefly served Philip II when he was king of England) went to the Spanish ambassador, Gerau de Spes, an avowed enemy of the English, to offer his fleet at Plymouth. Hawkins' confidential servant and friend George Fitzwilliam, who had sailed with him from Plymouth on 18 October 1564 on his second slaving voyage, had been captured in San Juan de Ulua with 29 other English seamen in 1569 and sent to a Spanish prison in Seville but released in 1570 after he had a letter sent by Hugh Tipton, a prominent English businessman in the city. Fitzwilliam, a relative of Jane Dormer, duchess of Feria (the childhood playmate of Edward VI) had a hand in uncovering the Ridolfi Plot. As Hawkins' agent, he offered ships to Philip II to help put Mary on English throne. A plan arose to assassinate Elizabeth and install Mary. When Fitzwilliam returned to England with letters from the Duke of Feria (who died shortly afterwards) and his son to Hawkins, he was sent from Plymouth to London to Cecil (created Lord Burghley in February 1571) with a letter. Three days after Hawkins wrote, the Duke of Norfolk was sent to the Tower. The bishop of Ross was told he no longer had diplomatic immunity as Mary's ambassador and confessed everything.
The duke was executed on 2 June 1572 and his son Philip, earl of Arundel died imprisoned in the Tower. (There were spies and counter spies, agents and double-agents in Walsingham's, Burghley's and Philip II's spy networks - the king of Spain spun such a complicated web that no one has ever been able to disentangle it. The Spanish spies used milk or lemon juice as invisible ink to write messages in codes and ciphers which showed up when the paper was heated.)
From websites on the Hawkins and Winter families cited elsewhere.

1571AD: Turks conquer Cyprus.

1572: France: St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, as Guise faction slaughters the Protestant factions of Paris.

1572: England: May 1572, Drake with two ships sets off from Plymouth to attack Spanish with 75 men. He tries to take "Darien". Gets some $40,000 of Spanish silver.

1572: England: Drake raided Nombre de Dios in 1572 to bring home £40,000. (See Neville Williams, Elizabeth 1: Queen of England. London. Sphere, 1971.) Elizabeth later knights Drake. Hakluyt's book becomes famous.

1572: News of Mendana's discoveries in Pacific reach England.
1572: Anthony Jenkinson ceases travelling. He married in 1567 Judith Mersh, daughter of London merchant John Mersh, governor of the Company of Merchant Adventurers and of a company trading to Netherlands, who is related to Sir Thomas Gresham.

Follows family history material on London Lord Mayor 1573 John Rivers (parents unknown)
London Lord Mayor Sir John Rivers (b.1574) sp: Elizabeth Barne
3. Alice Rivers sp: MP Richard Inkpen (d.1577) 4. Elizabeth Inkpen sp: Mr Anderson
3. MP George Rivers (b.1553;d.1630) sp: Frances Bowyer
2. Miss Rivers sp: Robert Streatfeild (d.1559) 3. Henry Streatfeild sp: Alice Moody 4. Richard Streatfeild (b.1559) sp: Anne Fremlyn 5. Henry Streatfeild (b.1586) sp: Miss Notknown 6. Richard Streatfeild (b.1611) sp: Anne TERRY 7. Henry Streatfeild (b.1639) sp: Sarah Ashdown 7. William Streatfeild sp: Miss Notknown
6. Richard Streatfeild (b.1611) sp: Miss Notknown
2. London Lord Mayor Sir John Rivers (b.1574) - 2. Miss Rivers

1573-1620 Reign of emperor Wan Li in China: period of great paintings and porcelain-making; imperial kilns at Jingde produce vast quantities of "china" [ceramics].

1573: Walter Devereux *1541-1576), first Earl of Essex, unsuccessfully tries to plant an English colony in Ulster, Ireland, enviages Ireland as "England's Indies" and predicted that England would have to restrict emigration to Ireland as the Spanish had restricted emigrants to the Indies [the New World] Yet another English "colonist" of the Irish was Robert Dudley (1532-1588) the first Earl of Leicester. (In about 1155 the English had benefited from a papal assignment of their "lordship" over Ireland,before the time of William the Conqueror. As early as 1315 in the matter of land-holding, England with occupying Ireland had held traditional Irish tribal Brehon Law in contempt whilst denying the Irish recourse to English law. In 1315-1317, and since arguments had gone on since 1277, the Irish responded with military action against the English, helped by forces from Scotland.) (Cited in Theodore W. Allen, The Invention of the White Race, Vol. 1, Racial Oppression and Social Control. New York, Verso, 2002, pp. 31-45.)

1574: More to come

1575++: Reference item: Cornelis CH. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, 1580-1680. Assen, The Netherlands, Van Gorcum and Co., Dr., H. J. Prakke and H. M. G. Prakke, 1971.

Olde Wives Tales from Olde England

Life in the 1500s: some interesting things to ponder... submitted "from the Net"

Lead cups were used to drink ale or whiskey. The combination would sometimes knock them out for a couple of days. Someone walking along the road would take them for dead and prepare them for burial. They were laid out on the kitchen table for a couple of days and the family would gather around and eat and drink and wait and see if they would wake up. Hence the custom of holding a "wake."

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England is old and small, and they started running out of places to bury people. So, they would dig up coffins and would take their bones to a house and reuse the grave. In reopening these coffins, one out of 25 coffins were found to have scratch marks on the inside and they realized they had been burying people alive. So they thought they would tie a string on their wrist and lead it through the coffin and up through the ground and tie it to a bell. Someone would have to sit out in the graveyard all night to listen for the bell. Hence on the "graveyard shift" they would know that someone was "saved by the bell" or he was a "dead ringer."

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Most people got married in June because they took their yearly bath in May and were still smelling pretty good by June. However, they were starting to smell, so brides carried a bouquet of flowers to hide the b.o.

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Baths equaled a big tub filled with hot water. The man of the house had the privilege of the nice clean water, then all the other sons and men, then the women and finally the children. Last of all the babies. By then the water was so dirty you could actually lose someone in it. Hence the saying "Don't throw the baby out with the bath water."

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Houses had thatched roofs. Thick straw, piled high, with no wood underneath. It was the only place for animals to get warm, so all the pets... dogs, cats and other small animals, mice, rats, bugs lived in the roof. When it rained it became slippery and sometimes the animals would slip and fall off the roof. Hence the saying, "It's raining cats and dogs."

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There was nothing to stop things from falling into the house. This posed a real problem in the bedroom where bugs and other droppings could really mess up your nice clean bed. So, they found if they made beds with big posts and hung a sheet over the top, it addressed that problem. Hence those beautiful big four-poster beds with canopies. I wonder if this is where we get the saying "Good night and don't let the bed bugs bite..."

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The floor was dirt. Only the wealthy had something other than dirt, hence the saying "dirt poor." The wealthy had slate floors which would get slippery in the winter when wet. So they spread thresh on the floor to help keep their footing. As the winter wore on they kept adding more thresh until when you opened the door it would all start slipping outside. A piece of wood was placed at the entry way, hence a "thresh hold."

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They cooked in the kitchen in a big kettle that always hung over the fire. Every day they lit the fire and added things to the pot. They mostly ate vegetables and didn't get much meat. They would eat the stew for dinner leaving leftovers in the pot to get cold overnight and then start over the next day. Sometimes the stew had food in it that had been in there for a month. Hence the rhyme: peas porridge hot, peas porridge cold, peas porridge in the pot nine days old."

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Sometimes they could obtain pork and would feel really special when that happened. When company came over, they would bring out some bacon and hang it to show it off. It was a sign of wealth and that a man "could really bring home the bacon." They would cut off a little to share with guests and would all sit around and "chew the fat."

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Those with money had plates made of pewter. Food with a high acid content caused some of the lead to leach onto the food. This happened most often with tomatoes, so they stopped eating tomatoes... for 400 years.

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Most people didn't have pewter plates, but had trenchers - a piece of wood with the middle scooped out like a bowl. Trenchers were never washed and a lot of times worms got into the wood. After eating off wormy trenchers, folk would get "trench mouth."

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Bread was divided according to status. Workers got the burnt bottom of the loaf, the family got the middle, and guests got the top, or the "upper crust".

More olde wive's tales from the Net - Where some expressions came from

In English pubs, ale is ordered by pints and quarts. So in old England, when customers got unruly, the bartender would yell at them to mind their own pints and quarts and settle down. It's where we get the phrase "mind your P's and Q's."

Many years ago in England, pub frequenters had a whistle baked into the rim or handle of their ceramic cups. When they needed a refill, they used the whistle to get some service. "Wet your whistle," is the phrase inspired by this practice.

In Shakespeare's time, mattresses were secured on bed frames by ropes...when you pulled on the ropes the mattress tightened, making the bed firmer to sleep on. That's where the phrase, "good night, sleep tight" came from.

The phrase "rule of thumb" is derived from an old English law which stated that you couldn't beat your wife with anything wider than your thumb.

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Reference Item:
Richard W. Unger, The Ship in the Medieval Economy, 600-1600. Montreal, 1980.

English traders from 1575-1600 - continued

Reference item: C16th: A good treatment of the impact of Spanish silver on European economies and other useful overviews are given in Fernand Brandel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II. Vol. 1. (Translated by Sian Reynolds) Sydney, Perennial Library, Harper and Row, 1960. (Post Crusades)

1551-1552-1603: Kennedy writes that to 1603, more so in Tudor times, the cloth merchants who backed maritime endeavour were pro-Spanish, matters had changed with the 1551-1552 cloth slump, and in 1552 arose some English hopes of finding a north-east passage. See Paul M. Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery. London, Allen Lane, 1976.

1575: Philippines: Spaniards of Manila engage and defeat a fleet of Chinese pirates who had damaged the coast of Fukien and the result is an invitation to talk to Chinese officials, to the envy of the Portuguese who had never received such an invitation. Though little came of this, really. See C. R. Boxer, South China in the Sixteenth Century. London, Hakluyt Society, 1953. From J. H. Parry, The European Reconnaissance: Selected Documents. London, Macmillan, 1968., pp. 255-256.

1572: Birth of Anglo-Dutch merchant, Sir William Courteen (1572-1636). Goslinga writes: "The De Moor-Courteen House was an Anglo-Dutch company begun by William Courteen, a Fleming, who had lived in Zeeland before going to live in England. In London he developed a thriving trade which maintained connection in Zeeland. He became a great merchant, and his company soon enjoyed a remarkable position in the commercial world of the early seventeenth century. ... The Dutch were the preponderant partners in the company, and the books were kept at Middelburg." ... "Despite its association with the Groenewegen settlement in the Caribbean, the De Moor-Courteen House was to become far better known as the sponsor (with largely Dutch money) of the 1625 expedition to Barbados under Captain John Powell... a personal friend of Groenwegen, who continued a semi-official function as factor of the De Moor-Courteen House till the death in 1644 of Jan de Moor. Then Groenwegen became a servant of the Dutch West India Company.
Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, 1580-1680, pp. 414-415ff.

1576: More to come

1577: Francis Drake leaves England on his world voyage.

Where did English mariner Sir Francis Drake make his Pacific landfall (Nova Albion?) on North American land. Did he leave a "Drake was here" plate at Campbell Cove, Bodega Head, California in the summer of June 1579 as he repaired his ship, Golden Hind? In 1997, writer Brian Kelleher of Cupertino began asking questions about such a site. Or was the landing spot at a Marin County Bay, or on the Oregon coast? Researchers including archaeologist Dr. Kent Lightfoot, at University of California may follow up Kelleher's suggestions. Drake's five-ship expedition was the second attempt to circumnavigate the world, following up Magellan. From the western Pacific coast, Drake sailed to Indonesia, then across the Indian Ocean, around Cape of Good Hope and home to England. (Reported 10 July 1999)

13 December 1577: Francis Drake begins a world voyage from Plymouth, England, in Golden Hind.

1587-1629: Reign of Shah Abbas I (the Great) of Persia; he consolidates and expands territories.

1578: Blois van Treslong, famous Dutch sea-beggar, tries as early as now to interest merchants in a company especially to conquer the Spanish silver fleet. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, 1580-1680, p. 49.

1579: Netherlands proclaim independence from Spain.

1579: More maritime history mystery: Fresh controversy arises over whether history should be rewritten with the case of English pirate Francis Drake, and the Golden Hind voyage: did Drake discover Alaska? A new book, The Secret Voyage of Sir Francis Drake, by Samuel Bawlf argues that Drake was forbidden from publicly reporting his discovery due to fear of the Spanish becoming aware of English moves. Working from study of maps and Drake's mention of a "frozen zone" where natives shivered in their furs and snow scarcely melted even in summer, Bawlf argues for a thorough rewrite of the history of Elizabethan discoveries. The English he said had an ambitious plan to find the North-West Passage and found an empire in the Pacific. Part of the problem is lack of information on Drake's whereabouts in the summer of 1579, a question long and hotly debated on the US' western coasts. Bawlf, a Canadian, believes Drake spilled details to his personal map-maker, Abraham Ortelius, who is said to have invented the atlas. Bawlf feels that a map showing four non-existent islands off the coast of California are the shapes of actual islands further north, including Vancouver Island. Sceptics are reportedly unconvinced, and some sceptics still believe that Drake went no further north on these West American coasts than Mexico. (Reported 16 August 2003)

1580: Spain annexes Portugal: Crowns of Spain and Portugal are united.

1579: Appearance of Saxton's Atlas of England.

1580: English merchants back a voyage into the Arctic (Kara Sea), to find any near-Russia North-East Passage to the East, perhaps by "a river near China".
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1580: After 1580, when Spain controlled the main sources of black merchandise within her realm, her government included these asientos on a much more regular basis. As a majority of the slave centres were located in West Africa, the Portuguese asentistas were the only people of that nation who willingly accepted Spanish domination. - Asiento chronology -

1580: English merchants back a voyage into the Arctic (Kara Sea), to find any near-Russia North-East Passage to the East, perhaps by a river near China.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

Item: "Guinea" is the north-west African coast generally.
Cornelis CH. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, 1580-1680. Assen, The Netherlands, Van Gorcum and Co., Dr., H. J. Prakke and H. M. G. Prakke, 1971.

1580: Some great English Merchant Adventurers who joined the Levant Co. were Richard Saltonstall, Middletons, Batemans, Ferrars, Henry Andrews. By about 1580, the Muscovy Company was led by Sir George Barne. Rowland Heywood tried for a north-east passage, sending a voyage led by Arthur Pet and Charles Jackman.

In 1581, Elizabeth granted charters to English companies trading to Spain and Portugal, the Eastland Co. to the Baltic, Levant Co. to Turkey and Raleigh planning a company in Virginia ended in disaster and finally the EICo chartered.

1582AD: Japan: Oda assassinated by Akechi Mitsuhide. Akechi was killed by a farmer. Oda's close follower Toyotomi Hideyoshi keeps the campaign and completes it in 1590. He never took the title of Shogun. He made a clear distinction between samurais and other classes. He monopolized foreign trade, confiscated the arms of the peasantry, drawing a sharp line between them and the samurai.

1582: Introduction of Gregorian Calendar in Italy.

1582: Reference item:
Elizabeth Story Donno, (Ed.), An Elizabethan in 1582: The Diary of Richard Madox, Fellow of All Souls. London, The Hakluyt Society, 1976.

Reference item: W. Walton Claridge, A History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti: From the earliest times to the commencement of the Twentieth Century. London, John Murray, 1915.


Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor of 1583 Sir Edward Osborne:
Descendants of Richard Osborne of Kent and sp: Jane Broughton
2. London Lord Mayor, Levant trader, Sir Edward Osborne (b.1530;d.1592) sp: Anne Hewett wife1
3. Sir Kt Hewett Osborne sp: Miss Notknown 4. Sir Edward Osborne, Bart sp: Anne Walmsley wife2
5. Thomas Osborne Duke1 Leeds Earl1 Danby (b.20 Feb 1631;d.26 Jul 1712) sp: Bridget Bertie (b.1629;m.1653;d.7 Jan 1703/1704) 6. Edward Osborne Visc Latimer (b.1655;d.Jan 1688/1689) sp: Elizabeth Bennet (b.1659;m.Mar 1676;d.1 May 1680)
7. Vice-Admiral Peregrine Osborne Duke2 Leeds Earl Danby (b.1659;d.25 Jun 1729) sp: Bridget Hyde (b.1662;m.25 Apr 1682) 6. Sophia Osborne wife3
sp: William Fermor Baron1 Leominster (c.1692) 7. Thomas Fermor Earl1 Pomfret (b.23 Mar 1698;d.15 Jul 1753) sp: Henrietta Louisa Lady Jeffreys Bedchamber-16915 (m.1720;d.17 Dec 1761) 6. Martha wife1 Osborne dr5 (b.1664;d.11 Sep 1689) sp: Earl2 Bath Charles Granville (b.Aug 1661;m.22 May 1678;d.4 Sep 1701 suicide)
4. Gov. Guernsey Sir Peter Osborne (b.1584;d.1653) sp: Dorothy Danvers 5. Dorothy Osborne (d.1694/1695) sp: Irish statesman, Sir William Temple (b.1628;m.31 Jan 1654/1655;d.1699) 6. Paymaster-General, Sec-of-War, John Temple (d.1689) sp: Mary Duplessis (Huguenot) 7. Elizabeth Temple 7. Dorothy Temple sp: Nicholas Bacon sp: Miss Notknown 4. Sir Edward Osborne, Bart 4. Gov Guernsey Sir Peter Osborne (b.1584;d.1653) 3. Ann Osborne sp: John Offley sp: Margaret Chapman wife2 (m.15 Sep 1588) 3. Alice Osborne sp: Sir John Peyton 4. Frances Peyton wife1 sp: Miles Hobart (d.Dec 1639) 5. Cromwellian, Sir John Hobart (b.1627;d.22 Aug 1683) sp: Mary Hampden wife2 (b.1630;m.1655) 6. Sir Henry Hobart, Bart4 (d.21 Aug 1698) sp: Elizabeth Maynard (m.9 Jul 1684) 7. Lord of Trade John Hobart Earl1 Buckinghamshire (b.1695;d.22 Sep 1756) sp: Judith Britiffe wife1 (m.1717) sp: Elizabeth Bristow wife2 (m.10 Feb 1727/1728) 7. Henrietta Hobart (Lover) (b.1688) sp: George Augustus Guelf, George II (b.1683;m.2 Mar 1705/1706;d.1760) sp: Charles Howard Earl19 Suffolk (b.1675;m.2 Mar 1705;d.28 Sep 1733) sp: Hon. George Berkeley (m.26 Jun 1735;d.29 Oct 1746) 6. Sir Henry Hobart, Bart4 of Co. Norfolk (d.21 Aug 1698) sp: Elizabeth Maynard (m.9 Jul 1684) 7. Lord of Trade John Hobart Earl1 Hobart (b.1695;d.22 Sep 1756) 7. Henrietta Hobart Lover (b.1688) sp: Philippa Hobart (d.19 Jan 1654/1655) sp: Philippa Sydney


1582: Gregorian calendar is adopted in Christendom.

1583: Sir Humphrey Gilbert founds first English colony in North America at St John's, Newfoundland.


1583: Dutchman Jan Huyghen van Linschoten proceeds to the East Indies, and later writes five big books of fables which happen to contain information of great interest to merchants. He returns home in 1592, the year in which Plancius published his "world map" based on the work of Abraham Ortelius and Gerard Mercator.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

On the English family, Fenner, as a family of privateers see also, Kenneth. R. Andrews, 'Thomas Fenner and the Guinea Trade, 1564', The Mariner's Mirror., 1952, pp. 312-314. In 1584 Fenner went to see with pirate John Challice to plunder Portuguese shipping. One Thomas Fenner is a vice-admiral in England's expeditions of 1585-1587.

1584: Item:
Julian S. Corbett, Papers Relating to the Navy during the Spanish War, 1585-1586 - Cadiz Voyage - 1587. London, Navy Records Society, MDCCCXCVIII. (Copy at Griffith University, Brisbane, Nathan Campus.)

1584: Dies 1584, Timofeyevich Yermak; in 1579, he led an expedition to conquer Siberia for the Russian Empire. He fought with Kuchum, the Tatar warlord.

1585: Elizabeth backs more pirate voyages. (See Neville Williams, Elizabeth 1: Queen of England. London. Sphere, 1971.)

1585: Sir Walter Raleigh establishes the first English colony in Virginia. Raleigh's third attempt, "the famous lost colony of Roanoke" in 1587 with Gov. John White fell into difficulties re supplies in the year of the Spanish armada, but the second was more significant, in 1585, led by Sir Richard Grenville and Ralph Lane, eventually settled on Roanoke Island, Sir Francis Drake soon appeared there after raiding the Spanish.

1585: Sir Walter Raleigh establishes the first English colony in Virginia. (Mukherjee, p. 41.)

1586: Japan: Tenshoo shoonen shisetsu (Tenshoo Boy Missions) went to Europe and came back in 1590.

1586: Under threat from Indians, English colonists sail from Roanoke Island, North Carolina, dismally ending first English settlement in America.

1587: English colonists come ashore on Roanoke Island, attempting to establish the first permanent English settlement in the New World. It now seems that the colonists were confronted with the region's worst drought in 700 years, which caused mass starvation and made for aggravated tense relations with Native Americans. By 1590, the ill-fated settlers had vanished with little trace.

1587: At least three Dutch ships visit Brazilian port. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, 1580-1680, pp. 79ff.

1587: Elizabeth authorizes Drake to take four of her ships and 16 privately owned ones to Spain, where he attacked Cadiz, Lisbon, and off the Azores took a Portuguese galleon worth a prize of 140,000 pounds, of which 40,000 pounds went to Eliz (who had come into her reign with very little money). (See Neville Williams, Elizabeth 1: Queen of England. London, Sphere, 1971.)

1587: Raleigh's third attempt, "the famous lost colony of Roanoke" in 1587 with Gov. John White fell into difficulties re supplies in the year of the Spanish armada, but the second was more significant, in 1585, led by Sir Richard Grenville and Ralph Lane, eventually settled on Roanoke Island. Sir Francis Drake soon appeared there after raiding the Spanish. (Ver Steeg, The Formative Years, pp. 20-21.)

Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord mayor of 1587-1588 Sir George Bond
Senior Bond... 2. Founder Russia Co., William Bond of Somerset (c.1570;d.1576) sp: Miss Hill
3. Coloniser, London Alderman, William Bond (c.1566/1568) sp: Margaret Aldy, of Surrey 4. Sir Daniel Bond 4. William Bond sp: Margaret Gore 4. Anne Bond (d.9 Oct 1615) sp: London Lord Mayor William Whitmore (c.1631;d.8 Aug 1593) 5. MP Sir Kt William Whitmore (b.5 Nov 1572;d.Dec 1648) sp: Margaret Mosley wife1 6. Anne Whitmore (d.1666) sp: MP Sir Kt Edmund Sawyer sp: Dorothy Weld wife2 (d.1626) 6. MP Sir Thomas Whitmore, Bart1 (b.28 Nov 1612;d.1653) sp: Elizabeth Acton (d.1666) 7. MP Sir William Whitmore, Bart2 of Apley (b.8 Apr 1727;d.1799) sp: Mary Harvey Of London- (d.30 Jan 1710/1711) 7. MP Sir Kt Thomas Whitmore (c.1661;d.1685) 6. Richard Whitmore (b.21 Jun 1614;d.20 Aug 1667) sp: Catherine Deards 7. MP William Whitmore of Apley (c.1705;d.24 May 1752) sp: Elizabeth Pope sp: Anne Weld 7. MP William Whitmore Of Apley (c.1699;d.1725) sp: Miss Notknown 7. Richard II Whitmore sp: Miss Notknown sp: Miss Notknown 5. London Lord Mayor, Sir George Whitmore (c.1631/1632) sp: Miss Notknown 6. Margaret Whitemore Whitmore wife2-57573 sp: Sir Charles Kemeys, Bart2 (d.1658) 7. Sir Charles Kemeys, Bart3 (d.Dec 1702) sp: Mary Wharton 5. Elizabeth Whitemore Whitmore sp: London Lord Mayor Sir William Craven (c.1610;d.1618) 6. Whig of Carolina projects, William Craven Earl1 Craven (b.1608;d.9 Apr 1697) 6. Elizabeth Craven (b.7 Jan 1599/1600;d.8 Oct 1662) sp: Percy Herbert Baron2 Powis (m.19 Nov 1622;d.19 Jan 1666/1667) 7. Royalist William Herbert Earl1 Powis, Mqs1 Powis (b.1626;d.2 Jun 1696) sp: Lady of Bedchamber Elizabeth Somerset (m.Jul 1654;d.11 Mar 1690/1691)
7. Mary Herbert (b.Oct 1623) sp: George Talbot Lord Talbot (b.1620;m.Jan 1639;d.Mar 1644) 7. Urania Herbert sp: MP Coulson Fellowes (b.1696;d.1769) 6. John Craven Baron Craven of Ryton, died young (b.1643;d.1648) 6. Thomas Craven Died Young (b.1617;d.1637) 6. MP John Craven Baron1 Craven Of Ryton (b.1610;d.1648) sp: Elizabeth Spencer (b.16 Feb 1617/1618;m.4 Dec 1634;d.11 Aug 1672) 6. Mary Craven wife1 sp: Thomas Coventry Baron2 Coventry (b.1606;m.2 Apr 1627) 7. George Coventry Baron3 Coventry (b.1628;d.15 Dec 1680) sp: Margaret Tufton 7. Thomas Coventry Earl1 Coventry, Baron2 Coventry (b.1629;d.15 Jul 1699) sp: Winifred Edgecumbe wife1 (m.2 Apr 1627;d.11 Jun 1694) sp: Elizabeth Graham, (Grimes), spinster, wife2 (m.16 Jul 1695;d.1724) 5. Margaret Whitmore sp: Sir Kt Richard Grubham 5. Mary Whitmore wife2 sp: Sir Charles Montagu, of Cranbrook 6. Elizabeth Montagu (b.30 Dec 1672) sp: Christopher FRS Gov Guernsey Hatton Baron1 Hatton (b.Jul 1605;m.8 May 1630;d.4 Jul 1670) 7. Christopher Hatton, of Gretton, Visc Hatton sp: Frances Yelverton wife2 (m.1675;d.15 May 1684) sp: Cicely Tufton wife1 (m.12 Feb 1666) sp: Elizabeth Haslewood wife3 (m.Aug 1685) 6. Anne Montagu (b.1614;d.1 Feb 1680/1681) sp: Coloniser, Lord Keeper, Dudley North Baron4 North (b.22 Oct 1637;m.24 Apr 1632;d.24 Jun 1677) 7. Economist, Turkey merchant, Sir Dudley North (b.1641;d.1691) sp: Anne Cann 7.Lord Keeper, Francis North Baron2 Guildford (b.1638;d.5 Sep 1685) sp: Frances Pope (m.5 Mar 1671/1672;d.15 Nov 1678) 7. Charles North Baron1 Grey of Rolleston, Lord5 North (b.1634;d.Jan 1690) sp: Catherine Grey widow (m.6 Apr 1667;d.Jan 1694) 7. Prof John North Cambridge Univ. (b.4 Sep 1645) 7. Merchant, Montagu North 7. Lawyer Roger North (b.3 Sep 1653) sp: Mary Gayer 7. Anne North sp: MP Robert Foley (m.1674) 7. Elizabeth North (d.23 Jan 1730) sp: Sir Robert Wiseman (m.24 Sep 1672) sp: William Paston, Earl2 Y... (b.1653/1654;m.24 Sep 1672;d.25 Dec 1732) 7. Christian North sp: Sir George Wenyeve (m.1665) 7. Mary North wife1 sp: Sir William Spring, Bart2 6. Mary Montagu sp: Sir Edward Byshe 5. Frances Whitmore (has issue) (d.1656) sp: Sir Kt John Weld (d.1662) 6. Sir John Weld Kt Banneret (d.1674) sp: Hon. Mary Stourton (m.1648) 6. Humphrey Weld (d.1684) sp: Clara Arundell (m.1638) 7. Mary WELD sp: Mr Earl2 Carlingford (d.1690) 6. William Weld sp: Miss Notknown 7. William Weld sp: Elizabeth Sherburne (m.1672) sp: Miss Notknown 7. William Weld 6. Margaret Weld sp: Sir William Bowyer, Bart1 (b.1612;d.2 Oct 1679) 7. Sir William Bowyer, Bart2 (b.1639) sp: Frances Cecil 6. Humphrey Weld (d.1684) sp: Clara Arundell (m.1638) 7. Mary Weld sp: Robert King 4. Elizabeth Bond (c.1600) sp: London Alderman, Levant trader, merchant Henry Andrews (c.1634) 5. Miss Andrews sp: James Fenn (Venn) (b.1642) 5. Elizabeth Andrews sp: Samuel Mico 5. Daniel Andrews 3. London Lord Mayor Sir George Bond Sir (c.1587;d.1592) sp: Winifred Leigh 4. George Bond 4. Sir William Bond (c.1587) sp: Catherine Povey 2. John Bond (Navy) 2. Francis Bond (Navy)


1588: The Spanish Armada attempts to invade England but is repulsed.

1588: British sea forces under Sir Francis Drake destroy Spanish Armada in battle off France.

1588++: Dutchmen Steven van der Haghen is to become one of the founders of Dutch navigation to the East Indies - and is considering a new ship design - the flute or fluit - as built at Hoorn, which makes navigation in the Mediterranean and on the African West Coast more profitable. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, 1580-1680, p. 49.

1588: Elizabeth I gives a charter to some Merchants of Exeter to trade to Senegal and Gambia. See W. Walton Claridge, A History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti: From the earliest times to the commencement of the Twentieth Century. London, John Murray, 1915., pp. 79-80.

1589: Japan: Persecution of Christians

1589: Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Norris make expedition of 150 ships and 18,000 men to Portugal.

Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor for 1590 John Hart
Descendants of Ralph Hart and sp: Miss Notknown
2. Levant trader London Lord Mayor Sir John Hart (c.1590;d.1604) sp: Anne Haynes
3. Jane Hart sp: London Lord Mayor Sir George Bolles (b.1538;d.Sep 1621)
4. Sir John Bolles (d.8 Mar 1648) sp: Catherine Conyers 4. Anne Bolles sp: London Sheriff Humphrey Smith (c.1629) 3. Miss Hart sp: London grocer Edward Cage sp: Miss Notknown 2. Levant trader, London Lord Mayor, Sir John Hart (c.1590;d.1604)


1591: London merchants petition Queen Elizabeth I for a licence to trade to the East Indies, then choose expedition commander, James Lancaster, who had captained a ship Edward Bonaventure earlier against The Spanish Armada. In late 1591 Lancaster sets sail with Edward Bonaventure, Penelope and Merchant Royal. The expedition is a failure.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1591: London merchants petition Queen Elizabeth I for a licence to trade to the East Indies, then choose expedition commander, James Lancaster, who had captained a ship Edward Bonaventure earlier against The Spanish Armada. In late 1591 Lancaster sets sail with Edward Bonaventure, Penelope and Merchant Royal. The expedition is a failure.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1592-1597: Japan: Hideyoshi attempts to invade Korea, as the first step to conquer the world (China), but fails. (Diverts Samurai energies into Korean campaigns)

1593: Dutch mariner Barent Erikszoon is to become partly-responsible for opening Dutch trade on African West Coast. He had made voyages to Brazil with Portuguese, but struck trouble when he visited Portugal's centre, Principe, an island of the African West Coast. From Enkhuizen he organises a company to exploit West African trade. Erikszoon is closely followed by merchant-sailor Simon Taey, then Dirck Veldmuis - who did not return from his trip, as killed by the French. In 1593, Cornelis Freeksz Vrijer returned safely from Angola. In 1594, Cornelis Houtman made an exploratory expedition to trade with the area. By 1598 there are 25-30 Dutch merchantmen going to West Africa. Such early Dutch companies often had limited aims, sometimes intended for one voyage only. (In 1593, The Spanish capture ten Dutch ships along the coast of New Andalusia.) Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, 1580-1680, p. 51.

1593: London: Playwright Christopher Marlowe, also a spy, is killed in "a sordid pub brawl".

Circa 1593: John Spence, b.1550 Lord Mayor of London 1593 John Spencer, elected in 1594.
(Item, per Peter Western)

1594: Paris has population of 180,000 in 1594, two years before the invention of the water closet, which meant a reason for the import from China of toilet paper, invented there 1000 years before.

1594: A Dutch fleet, the first of three, leaves Texel for the spice islands under William Barents who thus became an arctic explorer. Voyage of the associated mariner Cornelis Nay, of the second Dutch fleet, led to Northern Russia once being called "New Holland", and he renamed the Kara Sea. By 1595, the second Dutch expedition was also blocked by ice. A third Dutch fleet sailed in 1596 under William Barents and Capt. Jacob van Heemskerck, to be trapped in ice. Barents died.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1594 Circa: Before the first Dutch arctic voyage, nine Amsterdam merchants meet in secret to discuss voyages to the East by the Portuguese route, the sale of pepper then controlled by a group of Fugger bankers, and in 1594 six Dutch merchants formed a Far Lands Company (Plancius invested in it), then settled to collecting information, as the brothers Cornelis and Frederik (sic) de Houtman had been sent to Portugal to collect what information they could, esp. on Moluccan spices; they returned in early 1594 after successful business-espionage, see Linschoten (sic) (Ton Vermeulen, Notes from European Voyaging towards Australia, pp. 34-35, edited by Hardy and Frost.)

1594: A Dutch fleet the first of three leaves Texel for the spice islands under William Barents who thus became an arctic explorer. The mariner Cornelis Nay, of the second Dutch fleet, led to Northern Russia once being called "New Holland", and he renamed the Kara Sea. By 1595, the second Dutch expedition was also blocked by ice. A third Dutch fleet sailed in 1596 under William Barents and Capt. Jacob van Heemskerck, to be trapped in ice. Barents died.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1595: Dutch introduce efficient 'fluyt' design for merchant ships.

1595: The Dutch send their first fleet into Eastern Trade.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1595: Maritime history: Houtman becomes the first Dutchman in the East Indies. Second voyage for Mendana.

1595: Spring, The Dutchman Cornelius Houtman, a spy by temperament, leads an expedition to the East, in command of ships including Mauritius and Amsterdam. To Cape Verde Islands. Crew discipline frays badly. To the wealthy port of Bantam in Java, Indonesia.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1595: Soon after Sir Walter Raleigh's first voyage to the Guianas in 1595, the English explorer Captain Charles Leigh attempted to start a settlement on the Waiapoco (Oyapock) River, now the border between Brazil and French Guiana.

Year 1595: Treating Drake and piracy, variously.

1566: Elizabeth had a financial stake in John Hawkins' second voyage of plunder in 1566 undertaken in defiance of views of the Spanish. (See Neville Williams, Elizabeth 1: Queen of England. London. Sphere, 1971.)

1595: Dutch establish trade in Western Java.

1595: A well-known asiento was that given by Phillip II for the Caribbean to the Portuguese Pedro Gomez Reynal in 1595, agreeing for an annual delivery of 4250 slaves per year for nine years, for the Antilles, New Spain, Honduras, Rio Hacha, Margarita and Venezuela, possibly also Brazil. Gomez paid the crown 900,000 ducats for this concession. Demand for slave labour was such that other asientos were made. The figures in these contexts on numbers of slaves used does not include slaves in the hands of English, French and Dutch slave traders. (Goslinga, Dutch in the Caribbean, p. 339) - Asiento chronology -

1595: The Dutch send their first fleet into Eastern Trade.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1595: Spring, The Dutchman Cornelius Houtman, a spy by temperament, leads an expedition to the East, in command of ships including Mauritius and Amsterdam. To Cape Verde Islands. Crew discipline frays badly. To the wealthy port of Bantam in Java, Indonesia.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1596 Approx: Dutchman Cornelius Houtman batters Bantam in the spice islands with cannon, slaughters hundreds of locals, and trains his cannon on the king's palace.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1596++: The visionary de Moucheron, a protégé of Prince Maurits, interested in both the East and West Indies, hoping to create a chain of trade from Brazil to Africa, is destined to become one of the two most important founders of the Dutch colonial empire. In 1596 he unsuccessfully tried to place a castle on the West African coast, Elmina, to compete with the Portuguese trade port, Mina, In 1596, Pieter van der Haghen of Rotterdam planned an expedition to the West Indies, in a year when some ships from Guinea brought some Negroes (and some Portuguese pilots) back to Middelburg - and notably, a burgomaster, Ten Haeff, complained they had been deprived "of their natural liberty". A fresh Dutch trading expedition followed this Middelburg matter. Another merchant about now, Johan van der Veken, got licences to trade with Guinea, Peru, and the West Indies. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, 1580-1680, pp. 52-55.

1596: About the time Raleigh (1596) publishes his book, The Discoverie of the Large and Beautiful Empire of Guiana, the Dutch have a trading post called Fort Orange about 20 miles up the Amazon, and seven miles further up, Fort Nassau. Gerrit Bicker by 1597 was one Dutch mariner wanting to go to the Amazon-Orinoco area. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, 1580-1680, p. 56.

1596 Approx: Dutchman Cornelius Houtman batters Bantam in the spice islands with cannon, slaughters hundreds of locals, and trained his cannon on the king's palace.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1597: Cartographers Gerard and Cornelis de Jode produce their atlas, Speculum Orbis Terrae. For unknown reasons, and long before Europeans know of the Australian mainland, at bottom right an illustration to this depicts as one of the world's animals a strange long-necked marsupial-type female animal with a pouch at its chest which carries two of its young. Remarkably like an Australian kangaroo! Was this animal pure imagination or is the illustration based on any actual report?
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1597: Scotland: The Scots Poor Law is amended to make vagrants and their children into "workers" at a time when vagrants (hard to believe) make up about ten per cent of the population. They become subject to a court sentence of lifetime servitude to private employers. This provision is intensified and made more punitive in 1605. Mining interests found such provisions very useful as a method of "recruiting" miners. (Cited in Theodore W. Allen, The Invention of the White Race, Vol. 1, Racial Oppression and Social Control. New York, Verso, 2002., p. 218)

Follows material on London Lord Mayor 1597-1598 Sir Richard Saltonstall.
Descendants of Gilbert Saltonstall of Yorkshire sp: Miss NOTKNOWN
2. Founder Spanish Company London Lord Mayor Sir Richard Saltonstall (c.1577;d.1601) sp: Susan Poyntz
3. Richard Saltonstall sp: Miss Gurdon
3. Elizabeth Saltonstall sp: Levant Company trader Richard Wyche (c.1605;d.20 Nov 1621)
4. London merchant, royal household, Sir Peter Wyche (d.Dec 1643) sp: Jane Meredith
5. Jane Wyche (d.3 Feb 1691) sp: John Granville Earl1 Bath Visc Granville (b.29 Aug 1628;m.Oct 1652;d.22 Aug 1701)
6. Carolinas Coloniser John Granville Baron1 Granville (b.12 Apr 1665;d.3 Dec 1707) sp: Rebecca Child (m.14 Apr 1703)
6. Grace Granville Earl1 Granville yst daughter, Countess Granville (b.1667;d.18 Oct 1744) sp: Whig, Sir George Carteret Baron1 Carteret (b.1659;m.15 Mar 1674/1675;d.22 Sep 1695)
7. John Carteret Earl2 Granville Visc Carteret (b.22 Apr 1690;d.2 Jan 1763) sp: Frances Worsley wife1 (m.17 Oct 1710) sp: Sophia Lady Fermor wife2 (b.29 May 1721;d.7 Oct 1745)
7. Philip Carteret Unm 7. Jemima Carteret Unm 6. Jane Granville dr1 (b.19 May 1675;d.7 Mar 1722/1723) sp: Sir William Leveson-Gower, Bart4 (d.1691) 7. John Leveson-Gower Baron1 Gower, Of Stittenham (b.7 Jan 1674/1675;d.31 Aug 1709) sp: Catherine Manners 7. Jane Leveson-Gower, a fortune (d.24 May 1725) sp: Tory MP Edward (Henry?) Hyde Earl4 Clarendon (b.1672;m.2 Mar 1691/1692;d.10 Dec 1753) 7. Notknown Leveson-Gower sp: Miss Notknown
6. Charles Granville Earl2 Bath, Suicide (b.Aug 1661;d.4 Sep 1701) sp: Martha Osborne wife1, dr5 (b.1664;m.22 May 1678;d.11 Sep 1689) sp: Isabella Nassau wife2 (d.30 Jan 1691/1692) 7. William Henry Granville extinct, Died Young (b.30 Jan 1690/1691;d.17 May 1711) 6. Catherine Granville sp: Craven Peyton 5. Ambassador to Russia Sir Peter Wyche Sir (c.1669) sp: Elizabeth Bolles 6. John Wyche Sir sp: Bethseda Savage 6. EICo trader at Surat, Barnard Wyche
6. Peter Wyche (b.25 Dec 1709) sp: Elizabeth Browne
5. Sir Cyril Wyche sp: Miss Jermyn
6. Jermyn Wyche Esq sp: Mary Hungerford
4. Elizabeth Wyche sp: London wine merchant Job Harby (c.1650)
3. Hester Saltonstall wife1 sp: London Lord mayor, privateer, Sir Thomas Middleton (b.1556;m.Oct 1585;d.1631) 4. son2 Myddleton Middleton 4. Thomas (Myddleton) Middleton
3. Miss Saltonstall sp: London MP Robert Myddleton merchant
3. Coloniser, merchant Sir Samuel Saltonstall sp: Miss Notknown
4. Wye Saltonstall, Writer (c.1625) 3. Peter Saltonstall
3. Mary Saltonstall sp: Richard Sunderland (m.28 Jan 1629) 4. Mary Sunderland (d.16 Jan 1673) sp: Edward Parker (b.3 Aug 1602;m.28 Jan 1629;d.1667) 5. Thomas Parker (b.1631;d.1 Aug 1695) sp: Margaret Assheton


1598-1621: A London hosier and tobacco dealer active by 1598 was Thomas Claiborne, eldest son of Thomas Claiborne and Grace Bellingham. (Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 121, p. 157, p. 596). It was apparently his brother, William, the surveyor of Virginia, who traded furs with the Susquehannock Indians and later backed the Kent Island project. William had some links with William Cloberry in London, who had influence as an English Secretary of State for Scotland and became a partner with Sir William Alexander's attempt to settle the matter of the proprietorship of Nova Scotia. The Kent Island project was intended to help provide provisions for Nova Scotia. Help with this plan had come also from a City of London trader and financier, John de la Barre. Maurice Thomson was also interested in promoting Kent Island. Regarding the Providence Island Company, by May 1638, William Claiborne was granted a commission to found a new settlement on the island of Ruatan off the coast of Honduras, which till 1642 was called Rich Island, when the Spanish overwhelmed it. (Maurice Thomson was also involved here). Brenner (p. 596) says Claiborne himself also kept a covetous eye on Maryland).

1621: Miles Standish and crew enter the inner harbour of Boston in September.

1598: France: Edict of Nantes.

1598: One date for first documented minutes of a Masonic Lodge in the British Isles.

1599: Or earlier: The little-known Englishman and vicar, Samuel Purchas, publishes his book, Purchas, His Pilgrimes, which is to inspire London's merchant adventurers, somewhat based on reports of Magellan's voyages.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

24 September, 1599: London. About eighty English merchants meet to discuss the formation of an English East India Company. Including, Richard Staper (Levant Co), Thomas Smythe (Levant Co), Sir John Hart, Richard Cockayne, Lord Mayor Sir Stephen Soane, James Lancaster mariner, John Davis mariner, Francis Pretty a friend of Thomas Cavendish, some of a crew of Sir Francis Drake, William Baffin arctic explorer, and brothers John, Henry and David Middleton. Another meeting follows on 16 October, 1599. Also, on 23 September, 1600. The crucial document permitting the East India Company to operate for the next 15 years was signed by Elizabeth I on 31 December, 1600.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)


1599: Dutchman Jacob van Neck returns to Amsterdam from voyage to the East with great wealth and spices from Bantam for his merchant masters.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1599: Netherlands, Merchants of Rotterdam and Zeeland confront Amsterdam by sending their own fleet to the East for spices. Amsterdam ordered its operators to toughen trade conditions. This attitude was resisted by attorney-general of Holland Johan van Oldebarnvelt, who realised the need for an organised monopoly, which by 20 March 1602 became the Dutch East India Company. (VOC, or Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, run by a council of 17 men).
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1599: Netherlands: Dutch traders now have bases in the Spice Islands region, at Bantam, Jacatra and Gresik on the coasts of Java coast, Patani and Johore on the Malay Peninsula, Amboina, Banda and Ternate of the Moluccas, obtaining trading rights from local rulers who often were Moslems.
(Estensen, Discovery: The Quest for the Great South Land)

1599: March: Dutchman Jacob van Heemskerk, who had some years earlier tried and failed to find an Arctic Route to the East Indies, arrives at Banda Islands in the Moluccas to trade for spices. On the way, Heemskerk had named Mauritius. On the Banda Islands, Heemskerk left behind 22 Dutchmen to stockpile nutmeg and wait for the next Dutch ship. Heemskerk arrived home in 1600 with much nutmeg. (These 22 were later murdered by local people.)
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1599: The very first meeting of EICo Adventurers was London 24 September, 1599, trade of members on an individual basis, no joint stock. (Bankey Bihari Misra, The Central Administration of the East India Company, 1773-1834. Manchester Univ. Press. 1959., p. 407. copy NSW State Public Library.)

1599: Robert Savage an English merchant a Baltic mast contractor. (Albion, Forests and Sea Power, p. 195. See 1540 previous on timber.)

1599: In 1599, under auspices of Merchant Adventurers, an association formed, 101 shares, asking the queen for a warrant to fit out three ships, a charter of privileges and export bullion. but might this break the peace with Spain and Portugal? the Queen was persuaded to send an agent, merchant John Mildenhall, on an embassy to the Great Mogul via Constantinople, he did not arrive till 1603 at Agra, got home overland by 1607 with permission for the English to trade. (From Mukherjee, p. 65.)

1599: Dutchman Jacob van Neck returns to Amsterdam from voyage to the East with great wealth and spices from Bantam for his merchant masters.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1599: March: Dutchman Jacob van Heemskerk, who had some years earlier tried and failed to find an Arctic Route to the East Indies, arrives at Banda Islands in the Moluccas to trade for spices. On the way, Heemskerk had named Mauritius. On the Banda Islands, Heemskerk left behind 22 Dutchmen to stockpile nutmeg and wait for the next Dutch ship. Heemskerk arrived home in 1600 with much nutmeg. (These 22 were later murdered by local people.)
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1599: Netherlands, Merchants of Rotterdam and Zeeland confront Amsterdam by sending their own fleet to the East for spices. Amsterdam ordered its operators to toughen trade conditions. This attitude was resisted by attorney-general of Holland Johan van Oldebarnvelt, who realised the need for an organised monopoly, which by 20 March 1602 became the Dutch East India Company. (VOC, or Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, run by a council of 17 men).
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

24 September, 1599: London. About eighty English merchants meet to discuss the formation of an English East India Company. Including, Richard Staper (Levant Co), Thomas Smythe (Levant Co), Sir John Hart, Richard Cockayne, Lord Mayor Sir Stephen Soane, James Lancaster mariner, John Davis mariner, Francis Pretty a friend of Thomas Cavendish, some of a crew of Sir Francis Drake, William Baffin arctic explorer, and brothers John, Henry and David Middleton. Another meeting follows on 16 October, 1599. Also, on 23 September, 1600. The crucial document permitting the East India Company to operate for the next 15 years was signed by Elizabeth I on 31 December, 1600.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1600: Formation of English East India Company.

1600: Active about 1600, Lord Mayor of London, Ralph Freeman, of the East India and Levant companies, who in 1620 reputedly "paid" the East India Company for the entire trade of the Russia Company.
( Freeman from 1624 was associated with the Rich faction by then in control on the Virginia Company.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 73-79, p. 103.)

1600: Capt. Charles Leigh, colonist of the Amazon area, about 1600. He possibly tried to settle on the border of Brazil.
Lorimer, Amazon, p. 149. Newton, Colonising Puritans, variously.

1600: Raleigh becomes governor of Jersey. In 1600 he sits as MP for Penzance in Elizabeth's last Parliament.

On 20 March, 1602 was founded the Dutch East India Company (VOC). By 1605 the Dutch had the main Spice Islands but were driven out in 1606 by a Spanish expedition from the Philippines.
(Glen Barclay, A History of the Pacific: From the Stone Age to the Present Day. London, Sidgwick and Jackson, 1978., p. 32.)

The VOC had at the top a board of 17 merchants, and was a corporation with a modern style, not joint-stock, but permanent capital, and its policies finally led to violence.
(Ton Vermeulen, `The Dutch Entry into the East Indies', pp. 33-46 in John Hardy and Alan Frost, (Eds)., European Voyaging Towards Australia. Canberra, Australian Academy of the Humanities, Occasional Paper No. 8, 1990., p. 37. Mukherjee, Rise and Fall / East India Co, pp. 111ff.)

1600S: Reference item: Chris and Carolyn Caldicott, The Spice Routes: Chronicles and Recipes from around the World. Fances Lincoln, 2001.

16002: Reference item: Lawrence Stone, An Elizabethan: Sir Horatio Palavicino. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1956.

Pre-1600?: The little-known Englishman and vicar, armchair navigator, Samuel Purchas, publishes his book, Purchas, His Pilgrimes, which is to inspire London's merchant adventurers, somewhat based on reports of Magellan's voyages.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1600s: Residents of Persia and India begin eating and drinking opium mixtures for recreational use. Portuguese merchants carrying cargoes of Indian opium through Macao direct its trade flow into China.
From website based on book: Opium: A History, by Martin Booth Simon and Schuster, Ltd., 1996. e-mail info@opioids.com

1605:Reference item: Victor von Klarwill, (Ed.), The Fugger News-Letters, Being a Selection of Unpublished Letters from the Correspondents of the House of Fugger during the Years 1568-1605. (Authorized translation by Pauline de Chary) New York/London, GP Putnam's Sons, The Knickerbocker Press, 1925.

Reference item:

See: Chris and Carolyn Caldicott, The Spice Routes: Chronicles and Recipes from around the World. Fances Lincoln, 2001.

1602: Spain has had seven years of plague and famine and expels 275,000 Christianized Moors over six years beginning in 1602. (Cited in Theodore W. Allen, The Invention of the White Race, Vol. 2, The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America. New York, Verso, 2002., p. 5)

1603: Reference item: Lawrence Stone, An Elizabethan: Sir Horatio Palavicino. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1956. (On a noted financier of the day))


1600: William Gilbert's "De Magnete" synthesizes, predicts vacuum in outer space.
About 1600: A physicist William Gilbert uses the word, "electric".

1600: C16th generally: Roland Fletcher, Assoc. Professor of Archaeology, Sydney University, thinks that one million people lived around Angkor Wat in the C16th. Similar-size populations lived in Edo (now Tokyo), Beijing, Sian (now Xi'an), Sukhothai in Thailand, and Pagan in what is now Burma.

1600++: tobacco and coffee consumption skyrockets in Europe.

1600s in Europe: The Tulip Craze, one of the oddest of financial bubbles known.

Circa 1600: Abbas I (reigns from 1587 to 1629) introduces reforms in Persia and expands territories.

1600: Charles E. Nowell, The Great Discoveries and the First Colonial Empires. Ithaca, 1954.*

1600: Richard W. Unger, The Ship in the Medieval Economy, 600-1600. Montreal, 1980.*

February 1601: Lancaster's five East India Company ships proceed down the Thames River. The crowd would not be repeated in size till 1610 when Nathaniel Courthope sailed for the East. Among the 1601 ships are Susan, Hector, Ascension, Red Dragon. The ships reached Table Bay by 9 September 1601, later to Madagascar. The Nicobar Islands. By 5 June 1602 to Achin, a port of Sumatra. When Lancaster arrived, he saw ships already there from Gujarat, Bengal, Calicut, and the Malay Peninsula. Lancaster departed Achin after various adventures in November 1602. Lancaster left for England in February 1603, arriving home in September 1603, when London had been victim to plague. There followed another English East India Co. voyage under Henry Middleton, with ships Susan, Hector, Ascension, Red Dragon.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1601: Raleigh helps suppress the rebellion of Essex and presides at execution of Essex as captain of the guard.

1601: Maritime history: Eredia claims to have discovered Nuca Antara.

Circa 1601: France: With all these distractions the King did not neglect his cares of state. He and Sully laboured to increase the Royal revenues. It is impossible to exaggerate the nightmare complexity of the Ancien Regime taxation system with its crazy mosaic of regional and social variations in assessment and imposition, its host of levies, dues and tariffs, ordinary and extraordinary, direct and indirect, sometimes nominal, sometimes crushing and frequently self-defeating, and its hydra-headed multitude of exemptions, the whole administered by a battening host of greedy officials; Dallington shuddered at 'the infinite number in all France, upon why they lie, as thick as the Grasshoppers in Egypt'. Why this chaotic system could not be simplified was of course a question of fundamental law; the rights of those who levied taxes had to be protected no less than the rights of those who were exempt from them, official posts being sacrosanct. All that Henri and Sully could hope to do was try to work this fantastically cumbersome and antiquated engine: it was a question of oil rather than spare parts, let alone new machinery.
They had first to combat the now almost traditional practices of embezzlement and plain theft which devoured the greater part of the revenue, and to force those who collected monies due to the King to pay them into his treasury. Much of the Royal income from indirect taxes reached him through the agency of 'farmers' whom the impossible system made indispensable; at least they had an incentive to extract the maximum from the unfortunate taxpayer. By cutting their percentage Sully made an immediate profit without impairing the tax farmers' greedy industry. Unlawful exemptions were set aside and corrupt assessments readjusted."
...Sir George Carew (the English ambassador) wrote: "When Sully first came to the managing of the revenues, he found... all things out of order, full of robbery, of officers full of confusion, no treasure, no munition, no furniture for the king's houses and the crown indebted three hundred million (that is, three hundred million pounds sterling). Since that time, in February 1608, he had acquitted one hundred and thirty millions of that debt, redeeming the most part of the revenues of the crown that were mortgaged; that he had brought good store of treasure into the Bastille, filled most of the arsenals with munition, ... but only by reducing that to the king's coffers which was embezzled by under-officers."
From Desmond Seward, The First Bourbon: Henri IV, King of France and Navarre. London, Constable, 1971., p. 143.

February 1601: Lancaster's five East India Company ships proceed down the Thames River. The crowd would not be repeated in size till 1610 when Nathaniel Courthope sailed for the East. Among the 1601 ships are Susan, Hector, Ascension, Red Dragon. The ships reached Table Bay by 9 September 1601, later to Madagascar. The Nicobar Islands. By 5 June 1602 to Achin, a port of Sumatra. When Lancaster arrived, he saw ships already there from Gujarat, Bengal, Calicut, and the Malay Peninsula. Lancaster departed Achin after various adventures in November 1602. Lancaster left for England in February 1603, arriving home in September 1603, when London had been victim to plague. There followed another English East India Co. voyage under Henry Middleton, with ships Susan, Hector, Ascension, Red Dragon.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1601: England enacts a new Poor Law.

1602: The new Dutch East India Company (VOC), quickly sends three ships under Sebald de Weert and Wybrand van Warwyck for Java, Sumatra, Ceylon and the spice islands. Warwyck was to visit China coasts and establish trading bases. The Dutch eventually got a world monopoly on the supply of cloves and in theory, on nutmeg also. This was soon abridged by a new fleet of English to the spice islands.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1602: 20 March: Organisation by attorney-general of Holland, Johan van Oldebarnvelt, who realised the need for an organised monopoly, which became the Dutch East India Company. (VOC, or Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, run by a council of 17 men).
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1602: Formation of Dutch East India Company.

1602: Lawrence Hyde about 1602 is railing in England against the system of monopolies.

1602: Bartholomew Gosnold charts the coast of lower Maine and Massachusetts, and gives names to Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard.
See K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways.. University of South Carolina Press, 1988.

1602: Raleigh sells his Irish estates to Richard Boyle. Raleigh finds he disagrees with James I re conflict with Spain, and is also expelled from Durham House. is dismissed from captaincy of guard, deprived of his monopolies and of government of Jersey.

1602: The new Dutch East India Company (VOC), quickly sends three ships under Sebald de Weert and Wybrand van Warwyck for Java, Sumatra, Ceylon and the spice islands. Warwyck was to visit China coasts and establish trading bases. The Dutch eventually got a world monopoly on the supply of cloves and in theory, on nutmeg also. This was soon abridged by a new fleet of English to the spice islands.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1602: 20 March: Organisation by attorney-general of Holland, Johan van Oldebarnvelt, who realised the need for an organised monopoly, which became the Dutch East India Company. (VOC, or Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, run by a council of 17 men).
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1602: By 1602-1604 in Guinea trade are Charles Leigh and his brother Oliph (sic). Charles Howard/Nottingham deals with shipowning merchants Robert and William Bragg who also handle war business. Allied to Cecil were Sir Thomas Myddleton and Sir Richard Hawkins; also in Cecil's circles Thomas Alabaster an Anglo-Iberian trader of Seville. Myddleton has a partner, Nicholas Farrar.
See Andrews, Chapter five of the Spanish Caribbean, pp. 110 ff.

1603: Japan: Tokugawa Shogunate, Edo Period.


1603: Japan: Tokugawa Shogunate begins. In 1633, Japanese are forbidden to travel overseas.

1603: London's Globe Theatre is razed during a production of Shakespeare's Henry IV.

1603: England: Raleigh on 19 July 1603 is committed to Tower of London, unsuccessfully tries suicide, on trial by November 1603, facing an unfair attorney-general Sir Edward Coke and sentenced to death. Raleigh is sent to the Tower to 19 March, 1616. His estate is confiscated from Raleigh's son by James I and only part repaid.

1603: Mariner Martin Pring on ship Speedwell re-surveys the areas of lower Maine and Massachusetts surveyed by Bartholomew Gosnold in 1602 and sails up Piscataqua River. Samuel de Champlain operates from short-lived French settlement of St. Croix at border of Maine/New Brunswick, sketches the coast north to Cape Cod (area also surveyed by George Weymouth). These surveys excite little real interest although some London and Plymouth merchants formed a trading-colonizing company that took the name of Raleigh's ill-fated settlement of Virginia.
Verbatim from K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways.. University of South Carolina Press, 1988.

Between 1604-1606, one of King James I's court was Sir Edward Michelbourne, one of the founders of the East India Company. However, James I also licenced one English and one Scots courtier to make their own voyages to the East, against the interests of the infant Company. Michelbourne became an interloper, as he'd fallen foul of the Company in London by not paying his dues. By 1604, Michelbourne had obtained from James a license to make an independent voyage to Asia, to China and Japan, in violation of the earlier royal charter, and he cruised as a pirate for two years; he returned to England in 1606 and shortly died. The East India Company desired but did not gain redress for the damage he'd done their reputation till 1609. (Later, Charles I when he backed Courteen's endeavours behaved much as James I had - distrustfully). (The East India Company "recalled" earlier distributing some 70,000 pounds in bribes to win a new charter, about or after 1604.)
(Mukherjee, Rise and Fall, pp. 71-79.)

1604: 5 December: James I has permitted an expedition by Sir Edward Michelbourne to the East Indies with Tiger and Tiger's Whelp departing Isle of Wight on 5 December, 1604, and with aboard the highly-experienced John Davis, who had sailed with James Lancaster. Davis had been bad-mouthed by Lancaster to the East India Company re dealings at Achin concerning Davis' views on availability of pepper at Achin, and prices. On this voyage, Michelbourne behaved like an unprincipled pirate in regard to local and Dutch shipping. A Japanese pirate junk which had already worked the coasts of China and Cambodia, Borneo, quietened Michelbourne down - and killed John Davis. Michelborne had to shoot cannon through the interior of his own ship to get rid of the Japanese. Michelbourne got home to England in 1606.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1604: The Dutch later become aware that Englishman Charles Leigh had maintained the first English colony on the Wiapoco River by 1604. By 1600 the Dutch were on the Xingu River with two forts. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, 1580-1680, p. 76.
Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, 1580-1680, p. 76.

1604: In 1604, James I licensed Sir Edward Michelborne to trade in China and elsewhere in the east. In 1609 (in an example of the unreliability of monarchs) James was persuaded to allow the establishment of a Scottish East India Company, which infringed the charters of the East India, the Levant and the Russia Companies. Some companies were forced to buy out their rivals.

1604: By 1604 in the English Caribbean trade are new men John Eldred and Richard Hall, talking to Sir Robert Cecil in 1604 of such trade, some Dutch names given, some Genoese, John Williams of London, Edward Savage a London merchant a go-between, Charles Howard earl of Nottingham and Lord High Admiral 1585-1619 is a political ally of Sir Robt Cecil and a privateer too.

1605: First Dutch sightings of Australia. Torres sails in Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea.

1602-1605: English mariner George Weymouth explores America's northern coastline, reaching the entrance to (what became) Hudson's River. Weymouth's information falls into the hands of the Dutch East India Co.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1604+: The first French East India Company was founded in 1604 - with letters patent granted by Louis XIII, but this effort was still-born. (See Mukherjee's book here on French activity.) In 1623, Coen, "the real founder of the Dutch eastern empire", tortured and killed ten Englishmen at Amboyna, the Spice Islands, ousting the English except from Bantam at Java. This soured English-Dutch relations and also, as a shifting of focus, led England to concentrate on the Indian mainland. The English remembered the Amboyna incident bitterly for generations.
(On Coen, see Om Prakash, The Dutch Factories in India, 1617-1623: A Collection of Dutch East India Company Documents pertaining to India. New Delhi, Manoharial Publishers, 1984.)

1605: Time of troubles in Russia.

In 1606, as returning interloper, Michelbourne had warned the Company that the English at Surat could expect trouble from the Portuguese (Middleton later fought the Portuguese; so did Captain Thomas Best of Company Voyage 10). With the English East India Company, 1607, Voyage 3, Captain Keeling and his second-in-command, Captain William Hawkins, had orders to open trade at Surat, or Red Sea ports, before going to the Archipelago. Hawkins here was ex the Levant Company and spoke Turkish (it is hard to align the career of this Hawkins with what we find on the other Hawkins' of Plymouth, treated earlier in these files.) James I meantime had written to the King at Surat. (There was at one time a Captain Keeling with a Lt. William Hawkins on Hector.)
(Furber, Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient, 1600-1800.)

Otherwise, in 1606, James I also with one charter established the London and Plymouth Companies, giving them grants extending 200 miles inland of "America". In early 1607, three ships under the command of Captain Christopher Newport (ex Mediterranean and Asia trades) carried 100 men and four boys to the Chesapeake. (Here, Sir Thomas Smith/Smythe, the leading merchant of the Virginia Company of London, was the same man also interested in the East India Company). Another Virginia Company investor was George Calvert (1578-1632), Lord Baltimore, a Catholic whose title had been granted by James I. Calvert had been the king's principal secretary of state but resigned, and he also invested in the New England Company.
(Ver Steeg, The Formative Years, pp. 21-22, pp. 42ff.)

In 1606, a few days before Christmas, sailed from London the ships Susan Constant, Godspeed and Discovery to begin the American colonisation.
(R. Davis, Rise of the English Shipping Industry, p. 3.)

The third East India Company voyage was in 1607, sailing for the Red Sea. The Company's fourth voyage was commanded by Alexander Sharpie (who receives uncommon little attention from historians). In January 1608, Sir Edward Michelbourne led an independent interloping voyage and found Surat unsafe. In 1608, William Hawkins (was he of the noted Plymouth family?) went to Surat, then to Agra, the Mogul Imperial capital, for permission to open trade on the Indian sub-continent. The Portuguese were represented at the Mogul Court by Jesuits, who succeeded in having Hawkins expelled in 1611. So the English East India Company's first bid to move into India ended in failure. Another move was made by Best in 1612. Later followed Sir Thomas Roe's visit to the Moguls.

From 1607 the English East India Company ceases using its own ships and begins to charter ships.
Mukherjee, Rise and Fall, p. 95.

Following this commercial decision, a list of notables with links to both the Virginia Company and also the East India Company would include:
Thomas Dyke (active 1617), interested in the 1612 voyage for a north-west passage, investor in the East India, Virginia and Bermuda companies;
Newton, Colonising Puritans, variously.
John Dyke, of the Rich/Earl Warwick faction controlling the Virginia Company by 1624, owner of some privateering ships used by the second Earl of Warwick, and a deputy-governor of the Providence Island Company;
Newton, Colonising Puritans, p. 63.
The dissident Sir Edwin Sandys (1561-1629), MP, of the Rich faction of the Virginia Company as its treasurer 1619-1621, also East India Company investor;
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 70-100. Who's Who /Shakespeare, pp. 214ff.

William Paget (1572-1628/29), fifth Baron Paget;
GEC, Peerage, Paget, pp. 283ff. Burke's Extinct Baronetcies for Asshurst, p. 18; Lorimer, Amazon, p. 215, Note 3. By 1612 he had invested in the East India, Virginia and Bermuda companies. He was a member of the council of the Virginia Company, 1611-1612 and actively promoted colonisation and colonial trade.
(Privateer, Christopher Newport. An East India Company investor, he commanded the Virginia Company voyage of 1606.
K. R. Andrews, `Christopher Newport of Limehouse, Mariner', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, 11, 1954., pp. 28-41. D. B. Quinn, `Christopher Newport in 1590', North Carolina Historical Review, 29, 1952., pp. 305-316. Andrews, Elizabethan Privateering, p. 36, p. 84; Rabb, Enterprise, p. 221.
(Richard Weston, first Earl Portland. (GEC, Peerage, Denbigh, p. 179; Portland, p. 583ff. Hasler, History of Parliament, Vol. 3, p. 605; Hervey, Arundel, p. 262.) a Catholic and friend of Spain, who in 1624 was a Commissioner for Virginia, a navy comptroller and a commissioner of the East India Company; Gabriel Barber of the Bermuda and Virginia companies (died 1633):
( Newton, Colonising Puritans, p. 63, p. 125.)
Thomas Cordell (died 1612);
London Lord mayor Ralph Freeman.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 73-103.)

Merchant Networks Timelines
From 1550 There are now 21-22 files in this series
Files are filled with data for ten-year periods (decadally) These data have been years in compilation. Their trend is to follow the changing shapes of the British Empire.

1604: 5 December: James I has permitted an expedition by Sir Edward Michelbourne to the East Indies with Tiger and Tiger's Whelp departing Isle of Wight on 5 December, 1604, and with aboard the highly-experienced John Davis, who had sailed with James Lancaster. Davis had been bad-mouthed by Lancaster to the East India Company re dealings at Achin concerning Davis' views on availability of pepper at Achin, and prices. On this voyage, Michelbourne behaved like an unprincipled pirate in regard to local and Dutch shipping. A Japanese pirate junk which had already worked the coasts of China and Cambodia, Borneo, quietened Michelbourne down - and killed John Davis. Michelborne had to shoot cannon through the interior of his own ship to get rid of the Japanese. Michelbourne got home to England in 1606.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1606 Spring: Middleton arrives back to England after voyage to the East Indies/spice islands of the Moluccas, with little cargo due to the depradations of not the Dutch or Portuguese, but Englishman ("gentleman adventurer") Sir Edward Michelborne. Michelborne had earlier sweet-talked James I, who scarcely grasped the issues about trade, and the necessity for a properly-backed monopoly against the powers of the Portuguese and Dutch, into permitting a Michelbourne expedition to the East Indies with Tiger and Tiger's Whelp departing Isle of Wight on 5 December, 1604.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1606: Ships chartered by Elizabeth I are instructed to purchase the finest Indian opium and transport it back to England.
From website based on book: Opium: A History, by Martin Booth Simon and Schuster, Ltd., 1996. e-mail info@opioids.com

1606: Sir Edward Michelbourne arrives home to England from his piratical voyages to the spice islands to retire to disgrace. Meantime the English East India Company realised that after sending three fleets to the East Indies, and about 1200 men, they had lost 800 lives, mostly by disease. The Dutch were about sending 14 fleets made of 65 ships. So the English East India Co. decided to send out a Turkish-speaking Englishman, William Hawkins to negotiate with the Mogul Emperor of India, Jehangir, from 1607.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1607: Under William Keeling, third expedition of ships of English East India Co. to spice islands, with instructions to keep ahead of the Dutch, with £17,600 of gold bullion and only £7000 worth of English-produced goods. Also sailing is David Middleton, captain of a small ship, Consent (at Table Bay by 24 July 1607), who knew Gabriel Towerson, who had been left at Bantam in the spice islands by David's brother Henry in 1604. David Middleton sailed for the Celebes Islands, where he bought cloves (and slaves) and sailed for England. Middleton spent £3000 and reaped more than £36,000.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1606: Privateer Christopher Newport: An East India Company investor, he commands the Virginia Company voyage of 1606.

1606: Execution of some Gunpowder plotters including descendants of Sir William Winter, earlier a noted naval administrator.
On the Gunpowder Plot, see website: (broken link?) http://www.gunpowder-plot.org/news/1998_04/wintour1.htm

1606: Sir Edwin Sandys (1561-1629), associated with the Virginia Company as treasurer 1619-1621, also active with the Somers Island Company (1606-1621) and a member of the East India Company. His brother George (died 1644) was a treasurer of the Virginia Company, his sister had a daughter who married a governor of Virginia, Sir Francis Wyatt.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 70-100. Hasler, History of Parliament, Vol. 3, pp. 339ff. Who's Who /Shakespeare, pp. 214ff.)

1606: Sir Edward Michelbourne arrives home to England from his piratical voyages to the Indonesian spice islands to retire to disgrace. Meantime the English East India Company realised that after sending three fleets to the East Indies, and about 1200 men, they had lost 800 lives, mostly by disease. The Dutch were about sending 14 fleets made of 65 ships. So the English East India Co. decided to send out a Turkish-speaking Englishman, William Hawkins to negotiate with the Mogul Emperor of India, Jehangir, from 1607 for larger adventures.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1606: Sir Edward Michelbourne arrives home to England from his piratical voyages to the Indonesian spice islands to retire to disgrace. Meantime the English East India Company realised that after sending three fleets to the East Indies, and about 1200 men, they had lost 800 lives, mostly by disease. The Dutch were about sending 14 fleets made of 65 ships. So the English East India Co. decided to send out a Turkish-speaking Englishman, William Hawkins to negotiate with the Mogul Emperor of India, Jehangir, from 1607 for larger adventures.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1606 Spring: Middleton arrives back to England after voyage to the East Indies/spice islands of the Moluccas, with little cargo due to the depradations of not the Dutch or Portuguese, but of Englishman ("gentleman adventurer") Sir Edward Michelborne. Michelborne had earlier sweet-talked James I, who scarcely grasped the issues about trade, and the necessity for a properly-backed monopoly against the powers of the Portuguese and Dutch, into permitting a Michelbourne expedition to the East Indies with Tiger and Tiger's Whelp departing Isle of Wight on 5 December 1604.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1606: The voyage of Don Diego de Prado y Tovar through Torres Strait. The earliest documented account of the European discovery of Australia. Prado's 32-page manuscript was not produced till 1614-1615 after Prado returned to Spain, to become a monk of St. Basil in Madrid. Prado was second-in-command for the expedition led by Fernandez de Quiros, a Portuguese, to discover The Great South Land and to convert the heathen. Prado had been on Quiros' ship but changed to the second ship, captained by Luis Vaez de Torres at Vanuatu (which Prado called Australia del Spiritu Sancto). The two ships were storm-separated, Torres went through what is now the strait named for him, Quiros sailed for South America, forced to do so by a mutinying crew. The Prado manuscript came to light when the British sacked Manila in the 1760s. The Spanish had deliberately suppressed news of existence of Torres Strait to harass their commercial rivals. Torres Strait however was named by the British hydrographer of the later eighteenth century, Alexander Dalrymple. (From Sydney Morning Herald, 16 August 1997)

1607: English colony of Virginia founded in America.

1607: William Hawkins is sent on ship Hector by English East India Company to negotiate with Mogul Emperor of India, Jehangir for creation of an English factory on India's western coast at Surat. Hawkins had the bad luck to encounter the Indian owner of a ship that had earlier been pirated by Sir Edward Michelbourne. But Hawkins had luck in getting on well personally with Jehangir (a binge drinker and opium taker), speaking in Turkish. Hawkins became a member of the Mogul inner court, and ended up married to an Armenian woman. Hawkins finally died on his way home and his Armenian widow married East India trader Gabriel Towerson, who took her back to the East. (Towerson once kidnapped a Negro named Coree of the Table Bay area, took him back to London, to be met by Sir Thomas Smythe. Coree was cheered up by a present of some chain mail, which he often wore, then taken back to South Africa.)
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1607: Dutchman Jan Pieterszoon Coen sails to the East Indies/spice islands. Early in his career, Coen finds some Dutchmen there have been massacred, possibly with English planning. Coen sails for East Indies again in 1612.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1607: William Hawkins is sent on ship Hector by English East India Company to negotiate with Mogul Emperor of India, Jehangir for creation of an English factory on India's western coast at Surat. Hawkins had the bad luck to encounter the Indian owner of a ship that had earlier been pirated by Sir Edward Michelbourne. But Hawkins had luck in getting on well personally with Jehangir (a binge drinker and opium taker), speaking in Turkish. Hawkins became a member of the Mogul inner court, and ended up married to an Armenian woman. Hawkins finally died on his way home and his Armenian widow married East India trader Gabriel Towerson, who took her back to the East. (Towerson once kidnapped a Negro named Coree of the Table Bay area, took him back to London, to be met by Sir Thomas Smythe. Coree was cheered up by a present of some chain mail, which he often wore, then taken back to South Africa.)
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1607: Under William Keeling, third expedition of ships of English East India Co. to spice islands, with instructions to keep ahead of the Dutch, with £17,600 of gold bullion and only £7000 worth of English-produced goods. Also sailing is David Middleton, captain of a small ship, Consent (at Table Bay by 24 July 1607), who knew Gabriel Towerson, who had been left at Bantam in the spice islands by David's brother Henry in 1604. David Middleton sailed for the Celebes Islands, where he bought cloves (and slaves) and sailed for England. Middleton spent £3000 and reaped more than £36,000.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1607: English colony of Virginia founded.

1608: Christmas: William Keeling's ships in the spice islands sail home for England via the Banda Islands, only to be interrupted by arriving Dutch ships. Even more Dutch ships on a seriously commercial-military mission under Peter Verhoef, with 1000 Dutch fighting men and Japanese mercenaries. Verhoef proposed to build a fort on Neira Island, to defend the Dutch from the Portuguese, which locals found outrageous. This fort was built on the foundations of an old fort abandoned by the Portuguese about 100 years earlier. A massacre followed, perhaps co-organised by Keeling. The Bandanese massacred 42 Dutchmen. Dutch command went to Simon Hoen who demanded revenges, but signed a peace treaty by 10 August 1609 which gave Neira to Dutch power. But the Dutch ended killed by the locals including dyak head-hunters), so that when David Middleton arrived, he had great complexity to deal with. Encouraged by Middleton, the islanders killed even more Dutch. In London after Middleton got home, the East India Co. directors began to look at maps and the island of Run.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1608: By 1608, reports are that Henry Hudson (an Englishman) has sailed to within ten degrees of the North Pole. He has also touched the eastern coast of Greenland. English merchants are interested, the Dutch also. Hudson arrived in Amsterdam in 1608 to meet the Dutch East India Co., to have his navigation theory questioned by Petrus Plancius. The seventeen of the Dutch East India Co. failed to accept Hudson's plan, so Hudson was approached by the French (King Henry IV) via dissident Dutchman Isaac Lemaire. The Dutch found out and recalled Hudson for an expedition for 1609.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1609: August: Crew on Henry Hudson's ship Half Moon see the shores of Chesapeake Bay. later Hudson got to Coney Island at the mouth of the Hudson River. (The Hudson River had been discovered 85 years before by Giovanni da Verrazano in the service of the French, searching for a way to the East Indies.) Hudson's findings (eg about Manhattan Island) generate different views in Holland versus England. The Dutch are not interested, the English were.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1609: England makes a "plantation" of six counties of Ulster, Ireland. (Cited in Theodore W. Allen, The Invention of the White Race, Vol. 1, Racial Oppression and Social Control. New York, Verso, 2002., p. 31.)

1610: Samuel Eliot Morison, European Discovery of America. (Two Vols.) Boston, 1971-1974.*

1610: David B. Quinn, England and the Discovery of America. New York, 1974.* Also, Set Fair for Roanoke. Chapel Hill, 1984.*

Notes on merchant history of the English-speaking world since 1550:

Virginia to 1749: how it grew out of Amazon ventures:

Virginia. A word applied to tobacco. The name comes from Virgin, from the Virgin Queen, England's unmarried Queen Elizabeth. The area's name first referred to parts of North America not held by the Spanish or the French. Raleigh's piratical English colony on Roanake Island had failed, but England tried again, slightly north, with a venture sponsored by The London Company, or, the Virginia Company.
(On the merchants behind the first Virginia Company, Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 98ff.)

James I in 1606 with one charter established the London and Plymouth Companies, granting them land extending 200 miles inland of the Virginian coast.
(A few days before Christmas 1606, sailed from London the ships the Susan Constant, Godspeed and Discovery to begin the American colonisation; Davis, Rise of the English Shipping Industry, p. 3. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 93-94. C. M. Andrews, The Colonial Period of American History. Four Vols. New Haven, 1934-1936.)

In early 1607, three ships and 144 men under the command of Captain Christopher Newport, ex the Mediterranean and Asia trade, carried 100 men and four boys to the Chesapeake Bay. They entered the bay in April 1607, landing on Cape Henry. The new colony elected local councillors, selected a peninsula up the James River, and established there on 31 May, 1607, the first permanent English settlement, called Jamestown, the first of some 13 British colonies-to-be. Richmond is the capital of Virginia, today. Norfolk is the next largest city. The coastal plain or Tidewater region was flat and swampy enough to be called Dismal Swamp. It is cut by four large tidal rivers, the Potomac, the Rappahanock, The York and the James, which empty into Chesapeake Bay. By 1697 the best Tidewater lands had been taken up and some soils were found exhausted; so began the settling of the Piedmont.

At the western end the Tidewater rises and provides the Piedmont, which stretches south to the North Carolina boundary. Rising abruptly in the piedmont is the Blue Ridge, and between the Blue Ridge and the Appalachian plateau further west is the Shenandoah Valley, which has provided one of the world's memorable songs inspired by great rivers, songs that are often wide and sweeping, reflective, pensive if not outrightly melancholy.

As troubles reigned in Virginia, the numbers of newcomers were cut to only 38 by the end of 1607. The Virginian colonists held out, however, and more supplies plus additional settlers arrived in January and October 1608. A new charter of May 1609 abolished the original 1606 patent and a local governor with near-dictatorial powers was appointed. A large expedition, nine ships, sailed from England in May 1609 under Sir Thomas Gates as deputy-governor.
(On the English discovery of Bermuda, Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 14. As a comparative view, (Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 59) in 1609 there were 176 traders active in the unregulated trade with Spain.)

Two ships were lost in the Bermudas, the others arrived in May 1610 to find the people at Jamestown had barely survived "the starving winter". More settlers arrived however.

James I thought tobacco smoking horrible, loathsome to the eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the brain, dangerous to lungs, and he blasted it anonymously in a pamphlet, A Covnter [sic] Blaste to Tobacco by R.B. anno 1604.
(Richard B. Tennant, The American Cigarette Industry. Yale University Press, 1950., p. 116.)
Aware of lung cancer, modern medicine would agree with him. As early as 1610 the Virginia Company experienced trouble in covering the expenses of voyages, since many investors had defaulted on the second and third payment of their stocks. By 1612 it had to use lotteries to keep solvent. In 1611 Sir Thomas Dale was given authority in Virginia. In 1612 a third and final charter was given to the Virginia Company over the Bermuda Islands. This charter was more liberal in that each person transporting himself to Virginia would be granted 50 acres, and the company also set up subsidiary, private joint-stock companies to settle larger areas. And so, agriculture.

From 1612, John Rolfe tried tobacco planting using a Trinidad variety which found favour with the English. He married the Indian princess Pocahontas and thereby obtained some eight years of peace with the Indians of the area.
(In 1616, as a convert to Christianity, the wife of John Rolfe, and mother of a son, with several other Indians, Pocahontas sailed to London and was presented as a princess to the king and queen. She intended to return home in 1617 but took ill and died at Gravesend to be buried there. She was one of a line of indigenous people to visit England, including, from the Pacific, Tahitians and Australian Aboriginals. For example, Aboriginals Bennelong with Governor Arthur Phillip, Mydidie with Sir Joseph Banks. Like Pocahontas, several of these indigenes died in England, although Bennelong returned to Sydney. On John Smith and Pocahontas, see Ch. 4 in Peter Hulme, Colonial Encounters: Europe and the native Caribbean, 1492-1797. London, Methuen, 1986.)

The new governor became Thomas West, Lord De La Warre. ( Thomas West (1577-1618), Lord De La Warre.
Following sections reply heavily on Robert Bliss, Revolution and Empire.)

1608: Christmas: William Keeling's ships in the spice islands sail home for England via the Banda Islands, only to be interrupted by arriving Dutch ships. Even more Dutch ships on a seriously commercial-military mission under Peter Verhoef, with 1000 Dutch fighting men and Japanese mercenaries. Verhoef proposed to build a fort on Neira Island, to defend the Dutch from the Portuguese, which locals found outrageous. This fort was built on the foundations of an old fort abandoned by the Portuguese about 100 years earlier. A massacre followed, perhaps co-organised by Keeling. The Bandanese massacred 42 Dutchmen. Dutch command went to Simon Hoen who demanded revenges, but signed a peace treaty by 10 August 1609 which gave Neira to Dutch power. But the Dutch ended killed by the locals including dyak head-hunters), so that when David Middleton arrived, he had great complexity to deal with. Encouraged by Middleton, the islanders killed even more Dutch. In London after Middleton got home, the East India Co. directors began to look at maps and the island of Run.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1607: The Plymouth Company of England, the second Virginia Co. group, focuses attention on New England. They sent an expedition under George Popham to Sagahadoc (modern Popham Beach), to Maine, the Kennebec River. Their ship is 30-tonner Virginia, built by Digby, and not, as sometimes said, the first vessel built in America, as about seven ships earlier built by Spanish or French had preceded her. Virginia sails between England and her colony for another 20 years.

1608: By 1608, reports are that Henry Hudson (an Englishman) has sailed to within ten degrees of the North Pole. He has also touched the eastern coast of Greenland. English merchants are interested, the Dutch also. Hudson arrived in Amsterdam in 1608 to meet the Dutch East India Co., to have his navigation theory questioned by Petrus Plancius. The seventeen of the Dutch East India Co. failed to accept Hudson's plan, so Hudson was approached by the French (King Henry IV) via dissident Dutchman Isaac Lemaire. The Dutch found out and recalled Hudson for an expedition for 1609.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1608: Champlain founds Quebec for France in Canada.

1608: Death of London merchant John I Smythe.
(Hasler, The House of Commons, 1558-1603, p. 403).

1608: Lippershey invents telescope; Galileo makes astronomical observations.

An impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor 1608-1609 Sir Humphrey Weld
Descendants of John Weld sp: Joanna Fitzhugh-45664
2. London Lord Mayor Sir Humphrey Weld (c.1608/1609;d.1610) sp: Anne Wheeler
3. Sir John Weld Kt (d.1662) sp: Frances (has issue) Whitmore (d.1656)
4. Sir John Weld Kt Banneret (d.1674) sp: Hon. Mary Stourton (m.1648) 4. Humphrey Weld (d.1684) sp: Clara Arundell (m.1638) 5. Mary Weld sp: Carlingford Earl2 Carlingford (d.1690) 4. William Weld sp: Miss Notknown 5. William Weld sp: Elizabeth Sherburne (m.1672) 6. Humphrey Weld (d.1722) sp: Margaret Simeon (m.1701) 7. Edward Weld of Lulworth Castle (b.1705;d.1761) sp: Hon. Catherine Elizabeth Aston (m.1727;d.1739) sp: Mary Theresa Vaughan wife2 (m.1740;d.1754) 8. Edward Weld Of Lulworth (b.1741;d.1775) sp: Maria Mary Anne Smythe Fitzherbert (b.1756;d.1837) 6. Humphrey Weld (d.1722) sp: Margaret Simeon (m.1701) 7. Edward Weld of Lulworth Castle (b.1705;d.1761) sp: Miss Notknown 5. William Weld 4. Margaret Weld sp: Sir William Bowyer Bart1 (b.1612;d.2 Oct 1679) 5. Sir William Bowyer, Bart2 (b.1639) sp: Frances Cecil 6. Cecil Bowyer sp: Julian Parker 7. Sir William Bowyer, Bart3 (b.1710) sp: Lady Anne Stonhouse (d.22 May 1785) 8. Sir William Bowyer, Bart4 (b.1736;d.Apr 1799) sp: Anne Carey (m.26 Aug 1776;d.25 Dec 1802) 8. Lt-General Henry Bowyer 8. Vice-Admiral George Bowyer (b.1739;d.6 Dec 1799) sp: Henrietta Brett wife2 (m.4 Jun 1782;d.Nov 1845) 9. Sir George Bowyer Bart6, MP sp: Anne Hammond Douglas (m.19 Nov 1808;d.1844) sp: Margaret (Widow Downing) Price wife1 (d.18 Sep 1778) 8. Richard (Atkins) Bowyer-Atkins Bowyer Judge-Advocate (b.1745;d.21 Nov 1820) sp: Elizabeth Brady of Dublin (m.3 Feb 1773) 8. Penelope Bowyer

1609: Englishman Henry Hudson in service of the Dutch enters Delaware Bay. See later history of Pennsylvania.

Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor 1610-1611 Sir William Craven
Descendants of William Craven and sp: Beatrix Hunter(?) widow (d.1547)
2. London Lord mayor Sir William Craven (c.1610;d.1618) sp: Elizabeth Whitemore Whitmore
3. Whig, Carolina activist, William Craven Earl1 Craven (b.1608;d.9 Apr 1697) 3. Elizabeth Craven (b.7 Jan 1599/1600;d.8 Oct 1662) sp: Percy Herbert Baron2 Powis (m.19 Nov 1622;d.19 Jan 1666/1667) 4. William Herbert Earl1 Powis, Royalist, Mqs1 Powis (b.1626;d.2 Jun 1696) sp: Lady bedchamber Elizabeth Somerset (m.Jul 1654;d.11 Mar 1690/1691) 4. Mary Herbert (b.Oct 1623) sp: George Talbot Lord Talbot (b.1620;m.Jan 1639;d.Mar 1644) 4. Urania Herbert sp: MP Coulson Fellowes (b.1696;d.1769) 3. John Craven Baron Craven, Died Young, of Ryton (b.1643;d.1648) 3. Thomas Craven Unm, Died Young (b.1617;d.1637) 3. MP John Craven Baron1 Craven Of Ryton (b.1610;d.1648) sp: Elizabeth Spencer (b.16 Feb 1617/1618;m.4 Dec 1634;d.11 Aug 1672) 3. Mary Craven wife1 sp: Thomas Coventry Baron2 Coventry (b.1606;m.2 Apr 1627) 4. George Coventry Baron3 Coventry (b.1628;d.15 Dec 1680) sp: Margaret Tufton 4. Thomas Coventry Earl1 Coventry, Baron2 Coventry (b.1629;d.15 Jul 1699) sp: Winifred Edgecumbe wife1 (m.2 Apr 1627;d.11 Jun 1694) sp: Elizabeth (Grimes) spinster Graham wife2 (m.16 Jul 1695;d.1724) 2. Henry Craven (d.1604) sp: Margaret Notknown (d.1613) 3. William Craven (b.1571) 3. Thomas Craven (b.1578) 3. Robert Craven (b.1574;d.1661) sp: Margaret Shearwood (d.1670) 4. Sir William Craven Of Lenchwick (b.1610;d.1655) sp: Elizabeth Fairfax 4. Thomas Craven of Burnstall (b.1611;d.1682) sp: Anne Proctor (d.1681) 4. Henry Craven (b.1608;d.1634) 4. Sir Anthony Craven (d.1670) sp: Elizabeth Pelnets 2. Anthony Craven, of Darley (d.1604) sp: Margaret Notknown (d.1613) 3. William Craven


1609: August: Henry Hudson's ship Half Moon sees the shores of Chesapeake Bay. later Hudson gets to Coney Island at the mouth of the Hudson River. (The Hudson River had been discovered 85 years before by Giovanni da Verrazano in the service of the French, searching for a way to the East Indies.) Hudson's findings (eg about Manhattan Island) generate different views in Holland versus England. The Dutch are not interested, the English are.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1609: 12 September, English explorer Henry Hudson on Half Moon has discovered Delawere Bay, then sails into the New York river that now bears his name. The Dutch meantime are interested in furs from Indians on the Hudson River and in 1613 they make a post below Albany for such trade.

13 November 1609: Mariner Nathaniel Courthope is hired by East India Company to go to the spice islands, especially the Island of Run. Courthope is the hero of Milton's book as follows.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

30 December 1609: James I sees the departure of the New East India Co. fleet from Deptford. Ships are Trades Increase, Peppercorn and Darling. At a dinner, James I slips a great gold honorary chain around neck of EICo chairman Sir Thomas Smythe. Fleet actually sails in April 1610 under Sir Henry Middleton.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

28 October 1610: Leader of the newest East India Co. fleet Sir Henry Middleton rows ashore at Red Sea port of Mocha. Various unpleasant incidents follow.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1610: Arrival of tea in Europe from China.

1611: The Dutch establish an outpost in Africa - Maure or Fort Nassau - and their first governor on the Gold Coast is Jacob Adriaenszoon Clantius. The climate of the area in the next few years took 1000 Dutch lives. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, 1580-1680, p. 75.

1611: English establish factory at Masulipatam, India.

1611: England by 1611 had engaged the first killing of a "Greenland whale". Early English whalers included Thomas Edge and Marmaduke of Hull; William Baffin's name was attached to Baffin Bay. In 1618 arose the Scottish East India and the Greenland companies, but the Dutch companies for such ventures were larger than the English companies. The English whalers sailed from Leith, Yarmouth (sent by soap manufacturers), but whaling declined during the Civil War. (By 1671, George Turfry and Co. were whaling, but the industry seemed on its last legs, attempts to re-establish it failing. (Gordon Jackson, The British Whaling Trade. London, Adam and Charles Black, 1978).

An impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor 1612-1613 John Swinnerton,
1. Morocco trade merchant John Swinnerton (d.Oct 1608) sp: Miss Notknown
2. Wine merchant and customs farmer Lord Mayor John Swinnerton (b.1564;d.8 Dec 1616) sp: Buckfolde Thomasine - 3. Swinnerton Richard


1611: Dies Henry Hudson, after a futile search for the North-West Passage. His crew mutinies, and set him adrift in an open boat to freeze. The mutineers who returned home were found not guilty of mutiny.

1611: Dutchmen begin living on the entrance to Hudson's River, near Island of Manhattan.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

August 1611: Sir Henry Middleton's latest EICo fleet so far has accomplished nothing.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1612: Sir John Davies (1569-1626) considers English colonization in Ireland and writes A Discovery of the True Causes why Ireland was never entirely Subdued .... Davies was Solicitor-General 1603-1606 for James I in Ireland,and was later Attorney-General for England. Davies surveyed the history of England's interests in Ireland from 1160 to the plantation of Ulster in 1609. (Cited in Theodore W. Allen, The Invention of the White Race, Vol. 1, Racial Oppression and Social Control. New York, Verso, 2002., p. 44. See also, Hans S. Pawlisch, Sir John Davies and the Conquest of Ireland. Cambridge, 1985.)

1612: In 1612 the Mayor of Bristol is Thomas Povey, entertaining Queen Anne (of Denmark) when she visited his city. (Agnes Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England, Vol. 5, p. 147, p. 155, p. 162). Reasons connected with the origin of English chattel slavery will mean the name Povey is repeated.

1612: Jurist Hugo Grotius publishes his book Mare Librum: A Discourse on the right which the Hollanders claim of trade to India.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1613: The Dutch make extra efforts to control their imports from the Guianas and to colonize there, but are destroyed by Spaniards from Trinidad. But by 1615, the Dutch returned to Cayenne on the Waipoco and on the Amazon. Theodore Claessen of Amsterdam placed 280 colonists at Cayenne, but these people went to Surinam. Of these people, Capt Aert Adriaenszoon Groenwegen (who had been in the service of the Anglo-Dutch house of Sir William Courteen Senior) became rather "romantically mysterious". Groenwegen later served the Spaniards as a factor on the Orinoco, but then went to Zeeland, and met promoter-burgomaster Jan de Moor of Flushing. de Moor found the official support of the States of Holland and recruited Pieter Lodewijksz and his son Jan Pietersz, just returned from the Guianas planting tobacco, for work on the Wild Coast/Amazon area. Plus a fleet of three ships under Michiel Geleynsse, to make a colony on the Wiapoco. These were not the only Dutch endeavours about now.
Groenewegen's work was funded by Jan de Moor "in co-operation" with William Courteen. Groenwegen left Flushing in 1616. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, 1580-1680, pp. 79ff.

1613: The Hague, Holland. Dutch and English negotiators meet (till 1615) to try to promote peace in trade.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1613: East India Co. factor John Jourdain sails from Bantam to Amboyna in spice islands to buy cloves and spices. Jourdain gets on badly with the Dutch, including Jan Coen.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1613: English establish factory at Surat, India.

1613: Thomas Argall in ship Treasurer sails to Mount Desert on Maine Coast, America, to thwart French efforts there to plant a colony.

1614: Whaling history: John Smith has an expedition to discover more of the whaling fishery off the coast of Maine, New England, reporting a great number of whales and the richness of the cod resources. Full-time American whaling probably stemmed from 1640 with the English of Nantucket Island. Although the Indians of the outer Long Island area of New York had earlier been whalers. 1614 is a marker year for the "first chartered commerce" of New York.
K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways.. University of South Carolina Press, 1988., p. 229.

1614: A small English ship under Richard Welden moves amongst the spice islands, dealing with English already there including John Jourdain.

1614: Dutch establish colony of New Amsterdam, (later New York).

1614: John Smith of the colony of Virginia sails along the coast of New England to Cape Cod . Stocks of fish are found, sold to Spanish or English for £1500, a large profit for the times.

1615: Coffee is introduced to Europe.

14 May 1615: Armed conflict breaks out between Dutch and English in the spice islands.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1615: England: James I requires glass to be made only with coal.

1615: Sir Thomas Roe goes as official ambassador of James I to the Mogul Court, Delhi, India.

1615: By 27 June, 1615 the East India Company agent at Firando, Japan, is Mr. Wickham, who wanted to buy tea from Macao. (Misra, p. 19).

1615: Edward Wright, a little-known navigator and mathematician, dies 1615. Wright knew the navigator John Davis. Wright lectured on navigation for the East India Company, and had gone with George Clifford Lord Cumberland to the Azores.
Who's Who/ Shakespeare, p. 274.

1616: June: The Dutch commonwealth is fully liberated. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, 1580-1680, p. 75.

1616: Groenewegen's work in 1616 was funded by Jan de Moor "in co-operation" with William Courteen. Groenwegen left Flushing in 1616 with three ships, and founded a settlement 20 miles up the Essequibo River, using an abandoned Portuguese fort; and he married the daughter of an Indian chief, to rule his colony for nearly 50, dying in 1664 aged 83, a wealthy man. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, 1580-1680, pp. 79ff.

1616: John Smith of Virginia publishes book, Description of New England (an early pitch for real estate development). This helps to promote a series of new New England settlements, such as Plymouth in 1620, established by Pilgrims.

1616-1617: Raleigh obtains freedom from the Tower, where he has been occupied writing, with "discreditable means". He promises James I to find a gold mine in Guinea without bothering the Spanish, despite warning of Spanish ambassador, and James I agrees, though if Raleigh commits piracy he will be executed when he returns. Raleigh sails on 17 March, 1617, ill-equipped, and reaches mouth of Orinoco River by 31 December, 1617. Raleigh is ill and remains at Trinidad. He sends on Lawrence Keymis and his son Walter Raleigh, and a cousin of Walter. They encounter Spanish and Walter Jnr is killed. Keymis suicided when reproached by Raleigh Snr. for this outcome. When Raleigh returned home the king's threat is made good and Raleigh is executed 29 October, 1618.
(Encyclopedia Britannica, entry on Raleigh.).

23 December, 1616: Arrives at Run, a small spice island (an atoll) in the Indian Ocean, English ship Swan Capt. Nathaniel Courthope. James I has ordered that the ship reach their destination in secret. (The spice trade can bring profits in London of up to 60,0000 per cent.) (From: Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg, Or, The True and Incredible Adventures of the Spice Trader who Changes the Course of History. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.

1616: Governor of Virginia Sir Thomas Dale arrives back in London with Indian woman, Pocahontas. Dale's next work for English expansionists is to go to the spice islands, where he arrives about January 1619 with a new East India Company fleet.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1616: Nathaniel Courthope leaves his East India Company job as factor at Sukadana and returns to Bantam in the spice islands. Where he meets EICo merchant John Jourdain, who is from Lyme Regis in Dorset, England.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

October 1616, John Jourdain gives Nathaniel Courthope use of two ships in the spice islands, Swan (Master John Davis) and Defence to make for the Island of Run. Courthope begins to make fortifications.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

November 1617: Spice Islands, English ship Speedwell meets three Dutch vessels which humiliate Speedwell. By now, English feel tired of Dutch using physical force.

23 December, 1616: Arrives at Run, a small spice island in the Indian Ocean, English ship Swan Capt. Nathaniel Courthope. James I has ordered that the ship reach their destination in secret. (The spice trade can bring profits in London of up to 60,0000 per cent.) (From: Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg, Or, The True and Incredible Adventures of the Spice Trader who Changed the Course of History. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.

1617: Japan: Renewed persecution of Christians (fumie- walk on crucifix- test).

In 1620 came the abandonment of the charter of the Amazon Company. By February 1621, Sir Nathaniel Rich had wanted to see the establishment of a West India Company.
(Sir Nathaniel Rich, (1585-1636), knighted in 1617, was the senior business manager for the second Earl of Warwick, with Maurice Thomson evidently reporting to him. Nathaniel was grandson by illegitimate descent of Richard, first Baron Rich. Nathaniel's father Richard (died 1610) had been a Virginia colonist. DNB entry for Nathaniel Rich. Newton, Colonising Puritans, p. 242. Lorimer, (Ed.), Amazon, p. 195, Note 1.)

From 1618 erupted a squabble between the Sandys/Smythe factions for the role of treasurer of the Virginia Company.
(Here, the present writer would agree more with Brenner's analysis than with Bliss' analysis. The solution to the problem with the Virginia Company lay in finding a mode of government which fitted a plantation production system novel to the English; not, as was the Sandys plan, of finding ways to transplant English community life in a new environment. It rather seems as if Rich, the puritan Earl of Warwick realised more astutely than many others that an individualistic Puritanism that discriminated less against common folk - colonists - could solve this problem more easily).

1618: English merchants in search of slaves establish a fort on James Island at mouth of River Gambia, West African coast.

Spring 1618: Spice Islands: Three English ships are sent to reinforce Nathaniel Courthope on Island of Run.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1618, Bohemian Revolt in Europe: Outbreak of the Thirty Years' War.

30 December 1618, an English fleet gathers off Jakarta, Indonesia, eleven ships under Sir Thomas Dale, to fight seven Dutch ships under Jan Coen. Dale allowed the Dutch to escape unharmed. (Dale dies on 19 July 1619.)

1618: In 1618 James I commutes a sentence of death to transportation because the convicted person was a carpenter, and carpenters were needed in Virginia. If this commutation was mercy, it was mercy instituting a regime long to be corrupted in the history of British colonialism.

1618: Sir William St. John, active circa 1618, of the Guinea Company. (St John is active from 1618 in the Guinea Company, and saw some developments which culminated in the company selling Kormantin on the West African Coast to the English East India Company in 1657.
Sir Percival Griffiths, A Licence to Trade: The History of the English Chartered Companies. London, Ernest Benn, 1974.)

In 1618, Rich/Earl Warwick sent his ship Treasurer to plunder the Spanish West Indies; then he sought to use Virginia as a base for similar pirating. However, by 1620, Sir Edwin Sandys (1561-1629) and his circle intervened in this, and brought information to the Privy Council and the Spanish ambassador.
(Relevant here is Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, Chapter IV, The New-Merchant Leadership of the Colonial Trades.)

How far the colonising faction led by Warwick should be regarded as "aristocratic" or "commercial" remains unclear. Answering to Warwick in commercial matters from 1619, it appears, was his kinsman Sir Nathaniel Rich. (Newton regards Nathaniel Rich as the business head of the Warwick faction.) And some opponents of Sandys included an East India Company officer and alderman, Morris Abbot, a Levant Company officer Christopher Barron, and some top Merchant Adventurers including William Essington, William Palmer and Edward Palmer.
(Sir Nathaniel Rich is noted thus in Bliss, Revolution and Empire, pp. 10-16.)

Sir Thomas Smythe led another anti-Sandys faction of merchants including Sir John Wolstenholme and Sir William Russell, both leading crown financiers, plus merchants Hugh Hamersley, alderman Robert Johnson, Nicholas Leate, Anthony Abdy, John Dyke, Humphrey Slaney, Robert Bateman, Thomas Styles, Richard Edwards (all Levant Men), William Canning and Humphrey Handford (of the French trade and an importer of European wares).
(On the rivalry between the camps of Sandys and Sir Thomas Smith, see Bliss, Revolution and Empire, pp. 10-16.

In 1619, Sandys supplanted Smith as treasurer of the Virginia Company. In the Sandys camp were Wriothesley, Earl Southampton, Lord Cavendish (William Cavendish (1551-1625), first Baron Cavendish, first Earl Devonshire), and John and Nicholas Ferrar. Sandys saw "direct links between power and freedom, company profits and colonial prosperity". Lord Cavendish also had one-eighth of the Bermudas. It might also be noted that Frances, sister of Lord Cavendish, married William Maynard, first Baron Maynard, son of secretary of the treasury for Lord Burghley, Sir Henry Maynard. Frances' brother Charles, an auditor of the Exchequer, married Essex Corsellis, daughter of a colleague of Maurice Thomson, Zegar Corsellis, a Dutch financier name. In later generations, Cavendish women married Charles Lord Rich and Robert Lord Rich.
(GEC, Peerage, Maynard, p. 599. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 621.)

The "Rich faction", the faction of the second earl of Warwick, remained extremely active, although the extent to which it owed its Virginian interests to its earlier Amazon interests is debatable, and has not yet been traced in detail by historians. In 1618 the second Earl of Warwick had become an original member of the Guinea Company, newly-incorporated to engage in profitable trade in Negroes.
(Newton, Colonising Puritans, pp. 34-36.)

In 1618 the ship Treasurer Capt Daniel Elfrith was fitted with a Savoy Commission as a man-o-war; she carried the first shipment of Negroes ever sold in Virginia, and her arrival provided Warwick's enemies in Virginia with reasons to attack. They accused him of piracy, though Elfrith said the Negroes been obtained properly.
(Here, Newton, Colonising Puritans, p. 36, notes with irony that the same man, Warwick, who introduced Negroes slaves into British America also introduced the charter of Massachusetts, later the foremost abolitionist state.)

At the time of the ship money dispute, the value of the Rich navy was so great that Warwick obtained a commission modelled on the lines of Queen Elizabeth's commission to the anti-Spanish privateer, George Clifford (1558-1605), the thirteenth Lord Clifford, and third Earl of Cumberland , who according to Newton in European Nations in the West Indies had been "more prominent than any other English nobleman as a leader of corsairs; since 1587 he had organised and fitted out at his own expense no less than eleven expeditions against Spanish commerce", with his twelfth attempt being his last.
(Newton, Colonising Puritans, pp. 37ff. R. G. Marsden, `Early Prize Law', English Historical Review, April, 1910. Arthur Percival Newton, (Ed.), The European Nations in the West Indies, 1493-1688. London, Black, 1933., p. 115. Andrews, Elizabethan Privateering, p. 70. GEC, Peerage, Cumberland, p. 568; Clifford, pp. 294ff. Some of Cumberland's commercial associates were Thomas Cordell (Mercers, and Levant Co.), William Garraway, Sir John Hart, Paul Bayning, John Watts.)

1618++: So, the anti-Sandys faction included Smythe and the Rich/Warwick factions. There was a tendency to first destroy the Virginia Company in order to save it, and at the time, James I's treasurer was Sir Lionel Cranfield.
(Lionel (1574-75-1645), first Earl Middlesex, was early in his career, to 1622, a merchant adventurer. Rabb, Enterprise, p. 21, Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 68. GEC, Peerage, Middlesex, pp. 689ff.)

The pro-Sandys faction from 1618, the year of the "Great Charter" of the Virginia Company included William, first Baron Cavendish, and Wriothesley, Earl Southampton, plus brothers John and Nicholas Ferrar.

Squabbling over Virginia, and with company reforms of 1618, Sir Edwin Sandys' "gentry party" battled Sir Thomas Smythe's "merchant party" for the position of treasurer of the Virginia Company.
(Bliss, Revolution and Empire, pp. 10-16. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 99-100.)

Sandys' gentry party from 1618 ousted the Smythe faction, but still found it hard to keep Virginia supplied financially. London merchants withdrew from Virginian adventures, till 1623 when they joined forces to regain control of tobacco handling. Just who gained that control is difficult to find, but by 1617, Virginia was shipping 50,000 pounds weight of tobacco per year, and her planters were developing a boom mentality. By 1638, Virginia exported two million pounds of tobacco.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 113.)

Dissolution of the Virginia Company:

In 1619, the Earl of Warwick took a prominent part in financing Roger North's Guiana expedition, and in 1620 he was granted a seat on the council of the revived Plymouth Company for New England, and went to its meetings. As to linkages between Puritans, Warwick/Rich was a neighbour of Sir John Bourchier, whose daughter Elizabeth had recently married Oliver Cromwell. Warwick as organiser of the Guiana Company had wanted to settle there some of the separatists of Robinson's congregation at Leyden, but the dissolution of the Guiana Company meant that Company looked to North Virginia instead, hence the sailing of the Mayflower in August 1620. (The captain of the Mayflower seems to have been Capt. Peter Andrews, who engaged in Virginia and West Indies tobacco planting. Andrews was brother-in-law of the ship's owner, Samuel Vassall)
( Vassall was a Presbyterian City man and a navy commissioner who married a daughter of the London-Levant merchant, Abraham Cartwright. He was once interested with Pym in suppressing an Irish rebellion. He refused to pay ship money, was a wholesale clothier, imported eastern currants and silks, and also tobacco, flax and hemp. With Mathew Cradock he became a co-founder of the Massachusetts Bay Company. Vassall probably owned the Mayflower, taking the original Puritan Fathers to America. William Vassall was a Massachusetts Bay colonist.
Andrews, Ships, Money and Politics, pp. 59-60, p. 193, Note 22. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 151ff.)

(It was later, by 13 January, 1630 that Warwick obtained for the Mayflower puritans a grant of the second Plymouth patent.)

Robert Rich, second Earl of Warwick, was the eldest son of Robert (1559/60-1618-19), the first Earl Warwick and third Baron Rich, and great-grandson of Richard, first Baron Rich, chancellor of the Court of Augmentations to Henry VIII, founder of the family fortunes, a Puritan and a contemporary of John Preston.
(Lorimer, (Ed.), Amazon, pp. 192ff. GEC, Peerage, Holland, pp. 538ff; Newhaven, p. 539.)

The Rich family were anti-Spanish and therefore distasteful to James I. The second Earl of Warwick continued the earlier privateering expeditions of his forebears; in 1614 he became one of the original members of the Somers Isles Company. In 1618 he had 14 shares in the Somers Isle Company and one of the divisions of the Islands was called Warwick Tribe (sic, a peculiar appellation). In 1616 he and his father fitted out two ships with a Savoy Commission to rove in the East Indies. In fact, the second Earl of Warwick, and his commercial associates busily united the themes of anti-Spanish activity, interest in Virginia, and trade in the zones desired by the English East India Company. The anti-Spanish vehemence of Warwick's day lasted long in English cultural life, and was once expressed once Australia had been settled, by the Enderby whalers, by way of fantasies about attacking parts of the western coasts of South America. On one album of English folk songs can be found two anti-Spanish lyrics:

Take this scone to wear this horn, it was the crest when you were born,
Your father's father wore it and your father wore it too...
Hal-an-Tow, jolly rumble-o, We were up, long before the day-o.
To welcome in the summer, to welcome in the May-o.
The summer is a comin' and the winter's gone away-o.
What happened to the Spaniards, that makes a greater boast though?
Why they shall eat the feathered goose, and we shall eat the roast-o.
Hal-an-Tow. Jolly rumble-o. We were up, long before the day-o.

And again:

And now I will tell of brave Elliott, the first youth that enters the ring,
and so proudly rejoice I to tell it, ... he fought for his country and king.
When the Spaniards besieged Gibraltar t'was Elliott defended the place,
and he soon caused their plans for to alter, some died, others fell in disgrace...
(From (1) Hal-an-Tow and (2) Earsdon Sword Dance Song, sung by The Watersons, Frost and Fire: A Calendar of Ceremonial Folk Songs. Topic Records, UK. 12T136.

The Earl of Warwick's Savoy commission was obtained for considerable money from Scarnafissi, the agent of Charles Emmanuel I, who was then on a money-seeking mission to England. In the East, the Rich ships took a Mogul ship worth £100,000, which was recaptured by an East India Company ship; there followed a long dispute with the Company, though while it proceeded, Rich was "constantly at the Company", borrowing stock ordnance and stores for his ships.

1619: The first Negroes (about 20) arrived in Virginia in 1619 in a Dutch ship. Some think they were already "enslaved" but it is hard to know exactly what word to use to describe their formal status as workers at the time. Initially, most Negroes were indentured, not enslaved, but later, atrocious legislation by Europeans successively eroded any ideas or sentiments protecting the rights of Negroes so as to justify slavery, where human beings were owned as property. The local assembly, the House of Burgesses, became the first of its kind in the New World. By 1619 the urge on American soil for self government asserted itself very quickly, and by 1641 the colony was well established.

Regroupings in London of Virginia merchant factions:

One early Virginia Company investor was a magnate of the Levant and East India companies, Sir Thomas Smythe, whose plantation efforts were unsuccessful.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 97-98, p. 154.

Sir Thomas Smythe in 1623 became governor of the Bermuda Company, to be succeeded in that role by his son-in-law, alderman Robert Johnson.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 98; Newton, Colonising Puritans, p. 70).

Regrettably, confusion still exists about the genealogy of Sir Thomas Smythe. Here, however, arises a further genealogical mystery concerning a Lord Mayor of London about 1518, Sir Thomas Mirfyn. The implications are as follows - Mirfyn's possible longer descendancy via a son Edward and a daughter Frances involves the later names Palavicino, Cromwells, Earls Fauconberg, the later Edens, the eighth Marquis Tweeddale, other Cromwellians, second Baron Ashburton (that is, Baring), and Barringtons of the Rich faction. If the same Sir Thomas Mirfyn had a daughter Joan who married Lord Mayor Andrew Judd, then Mirfyn's shorter or other descendancy would include names such as customs receiver, "Customer" Smythe (died 1591), Knightleys as republicans, Lord Mayor Rowland Hayward, Roper/Lords Teynham; and perhaps some members of the Rich faction.)

By 1616, Smythe, a London alderman, had been sometime governor of the East India, Muscovy, French and Somers Islands companies. His son-in-law was Robert Johnson, a director of the Levant and East India companies who became a governor of the Bermuda Company. Smythe became one of the leading merchants of the Virginia Company of London, but he remained interested also in the East India Company.
(The Rich family, Earls Warwick, had a large interest in Bermuda; and the second Earl of Warwick became governor of the Bermuda Company in 1628. Alison Olson, Making The Empire Work: London and American Interest Groups, 1690-1790. London, Harvard University Press, London. 1992., p. 17.)

Sir Horatio Palavicino (1540-1600) was an Elizabethan financier from a Genoese family who died a remarkably wealthy English commoner. By 1592 he had tried to corner the world supply of pepper (does anyone ask if this had relation to reasons for the establishment of either the English or Dutch East India companies?) He had children by his wife Anne Hoftman, who as widow married the Royalist, Sir Oliver Cromwell (died 1626). Several of Cromwell's children by his first wife, Elizabeth Bromley, married Palavicino's children. Sir Horatio lived in the notable parish, St Dunstan's, Tower Ward.
Lawrence Stone, An Elizabethan: Sir Horatio Palavicino. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1956.)

Another of the "Virginia Magazine" was Sir John Wolstenholme, a leading London financier and a customs farmer as well as East India Company director. Other Virginia investors included William Essington, a leading Merchant Adventurer who was a son-in-law of the Merchant Adventurer, Sir Thomas Hayes, a Lord Mayor of London; William Canning, a noted Merchant Adventurer, was also deputy-governor of the Bermuda Company and several times master of the Ironmongers. (Ironmongery became important items of trade on the African slave coasts).
(Another noted Virginia Company investor was George Calvert (1578-1632), Lord Baltimore, a Catholic with a title granted by James I. Calvert had been the king's principal secretary of state but resigned; he also invested in the Virginia Company and the New England Company, and spent money on a Newfoundland colony, Avalon. Later his son Cecilius acquired land which became the colony of Maryland. Clarence L. Ver Steeg, The Formative Years, 1607-1763. London, Macmillan, 1965., pp. 21-23, pp. 42ff. GEC, Peerage, Baltimore, p. 393.)

With the arrival in London of James I after the death of Elizabeth I, earlier English interest in anti-Spanish privateering abated somewhat, but interest in Amazon adventures was retained, especially by the first and/or the second Earl Warwick. The descendants of Amazon adventurers gradually developed an interest in Caribbean plantations, which also allowed them to retain an anti-Spanish spirit. Meanwhile, seven or more Levant Company merchants had helped establish the East India Company in 1599-1600, and that grouping had little interest in the Caribbean, or anti-Spanish activity. But from about 1618, some figures interested in Amazon adventures firmed their interest in Virginian business.

1619: At the Virginia Company Court meeting, April 28, the treasurer says that His Majesty has sent a man suspected of deer stealing to Virginia. The same year the King sent another 50 people to Virginia. Roderick Cameron says that 1619 seems to be the earliest actual recording of transportation to a colony, "a hundred dissolute persons" being sent to Virginia by order of James I. (Roderick Cameron, Australia: History and Horizons. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson., pp. 48ff).

Follows an impression of family history of London Lord Mayor 1619-1620 Sir William Cokayne
Descendants of Levant trader, London Lord Mayor Sir William Cokayne (b.1561;d.1626) and sp: Mary Morris wife2
2. Martha Cokayne wife1 (b.1605;d.Jul 1641) sp: Montagu Bertie Earl2 Lindsey Lord Willoughby (b.1608;m.18 Apr 1627;d.25 Jul 1666)
3. Robert Bertie Lord16 Lord Willoughby, Earl3 Lindsey (b.1630;d.Sep 1655) sp: Elizabeth Wharton wife2 (d.1 Jul 1669) sp: Mary Masingberd wife1 sp: Elizabeth Pope 3. Bridget Bertie (b.1629;d.7 Jan 1703/1704) sp: Thomas Osborne Duke1 Leeds Earl1 Danby (b.20 Feb 1631;m.1653;d.26 Jul 1712) 3. Elizabeth Bertie wife4 (d.20 Jul 1683) sp: Baptist Noel, Visc3 Campden, Royalist (b.13 Oct 1611/1612;m.6 Jul 1655;d.20 Oct 1682) 3. Hon Charles Bertie, Co. Lincoln sp: Mary Tryon sp: John Ramsay Earl1 Holderness (b.1580;m.Jul 1624;d.28 Feb 1625/1626)
2. Elizabeth Cockayne wife2 (b.Mar 1609;d.Feb 1667) sp: Levant trader, Sir Thomas Rich, Bart, of Berks (b.1661;d.15 Oct 1667) 3. Sir William Rich, Bart (d.1711) sp: Lady Anne Bruce (c.1698) 3. Mary Rich sp: Sir Robert Gayer, KB sp: Thomas Fanshawe Visc1 Fanshawe (b.1596;m.24 Jun 1629;d.26 Mar 1665) 3. Thomas Fanshawe Visc2 Fanshawe (b.Jun 1632;d.May 1674) sp: Catherine Ferrers wife1 sp: Sarah Widow Wray Evelyn wife2 (d.Oct 1717) 2. Charles Cokayne Visc1 Cullen (b.4 Jul 1602;d.May 1686) sp: Mary O'Brien (m.24 Jun 1627) 3. Brien Cokayne Visc2 Cullen (b.12 Sep 1631;d.Jul 1687) sp: Elizabeth Trentham (m.1657) 2. Mary Cokayne wife2 (b.Oct 1598;d.6 Feb 1650/1651) sp: Charles Howard Baron3 Effingham of Effingham, Earl2 Nottingham (b.17 Sep 1579;m.22 Apr 1620;d.3 Oct 1642) 2. Abigail Cokayne sp: John Carey Earl2 Dover, Visc2 Rochford, Baron5 Hunsdon (b.1608;d.26 May 1677)


January 1619: Spice Islands: Former Gov of Virginia Sir Thomas Dale arrives about January 1619 with a new East India Company fleet for the spice islands.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)


July 1619: East India Englishman John Jourdain sails from spice islands for India via Malay Peninsula, meets three Dutch ships, and is killed.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1620: In 1620, the aldermen of London want 100 street children sent to Virginia, and get their way without protest. The tradition arises of people being "disappeared", especially in Middlesex. In 1620, Sir Thomas Smith is allowed to ship 20 people to the Somers Islands (Bermuda).

1620: The Mayflower sailed for North America (Cape Cod) in September 1620, landing at Plymouth; the settlement is annexed to Massachusetts in 1691.

18 October 1620, Spice Islands, Islanders of Great Banda rise up against the Dutch and turmoil results. Courthope wonders if they will come to his aid against the Dutch. But the Dutch (Jan Coen) end killing Courthope about the 20th October. The Dutch end renaming Jakarta as "Batavia". Coen becomes Gov-General of Dutch East Indies.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1620: From 1620, Scottish colonisation of Nova Scotia gives a small stimulus to trade. To end of king's reign, a slump, blamed on a shortage of specie, mistaking effect for cause, as Davies notes. Throughout his reign, James is in debt, unsound national finances rebound on business fortunes, James rarely repays money he borrows, and inflicts losses on individuals, and since he has no money with which to reward his followers, he often grants monopolies or permits them to accept bribes in order that others can gain monopolies - to 1625

1620: (Wood on Bentham, p. 330), The City of London "sent a swarm of 100 children to America".

In 1620, James I had stepped in to stop the Rich faction using Virginia and the Somers Islands (Bermuda) as bases for privateering against the Spanish in the West Indies. Later the king made the Rich faction abandon their efforts with Guiana. (Charles 1 gained the throne of England on 27 March, 1625.) In 1621 James 1 revoked the lottery funding the Virginia Company and in 1621-1622, James 1 tried unsuccessfully to back the Smythe faction in the battle for the position of treasurer of the Virginia Company. By 1623, when Sandys' faction thought they had convinced the king their views on the government of Virginia were sound, the king amazed them when in 1624 there was declared a vacancy of the Virginia Company charter, and with some involvement from Sir Nathaniel Rich, control of the company was given to Lord President Mandeville.
(Viscount Mandeville, first Earl Mandeville, sometime treasurer, Henry Montagu (1563-1642). His family turned part Whiggish; his son Edward was anti-ship money, a Cromwellian peer, although he later assisted the Restoration. GEC, Peerage, Manchester, p. 365; North, p. 657. The new governor of Virginia was Sir Francis Wyatt (a descendant of the Wyatt plotters early in the career of Elizabeth I), who had married a niece of Sir Edwin Sandys).

Charles I when he examined the Virginia Company situation dealt with two Sandys supporters, the Earl of Dorset and William, first Baron Cavendish.
(Earl Dorset, This was Richard Sackville (1589-1624)), third earl of Dorset, an investor in the Virginia Company by 1609.
(Lorimer, (Ed.), Amazon, p. 194, Note 5).

He was married to Anne Clifford, daughter of the anti-Spanish "privateer", George Clifford, third Earl Cumberland. Anne Clifford also married the anti-Spanish Philip Herbert, fourth Earl Pembroke, who was also interested in the Virginia Company, and was patron of Sir William Courteen Snr. in squabbles over the development of England's Caribbean interests. The first Earl of Dorset, sometime treasurer, Thomas Sackville (1536-1608), was of the descendants of Lord Mayor Geoffrey Boleyn.
(GEC, Peerage, Dorset, p. 422.)

Thus, the third earl of Dorset, as consulted on "colonisation" represented, as it were, two powerful families who had been affronted by Henry VIII's treatment of his wives; the Parrs and the Boleyns. )
Baron Cavendish: In 1624, (Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 113), Virginia had only 1000 colonists. On 1 March, 1624, the House of Commons' motion regarding seizure of departing East India Company ships, became part of the Smith/Smythe/Sandys squabble. Treasurer Cranfield had backed Sandys' opponents. The Commons gave some backing to Sandys and his gentry men trying to retain control of the Virginia Company. Maurice Thomson et al, were led by Smythe and backed by the Rich faction, the Earl of Warwick. At first, Charles and Cranfield had backed the merchants in their fight with Sandys; by 1624, Charles and Cranfield had destroyed Sandys tobacco monopoly, dissolved the old Virginia Company, and reconstituted it with merchants plus the Rich faction.

Behind the whole squabble seems a view taken in England, that one was either for or against the right of the individual in Virginia to own property, manage resources and make a profit in ways new to traditional English life and politics. Sandys lost the battle because his assumptions, while "democratic" enough in some ways to disaffect the king, were not well-fitted to the system of production which at the time was stimulating a boom mentality. What the king wanted finally was sufficient control over trade and profits, and so he conceded some ground on questions of colonial government, resulting in Virginia's new independent House of Assembly.)


Also as part of developing trends, in 1620 the City of London sent "a swarm of 100 children" to Virginia; street children.
(F. L. W. Wood, `Jeremy Bentham versus New South Wales', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. XIX, Part 6, 1933.. pp. 329-351; here, p. 330. Ver Steeg, The Formative Years, p. 24, pp. 35-37. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 273.)

In this, London's aldermen got their way without protest. The tradition was arising, of people being "disappeared", especially from Middlesex. So, in the American colonies, by 1619, after the struggle between the Smythe/Sandys factions for control of the Jamestown settlement at Virginia, instructions were received for the formation of a local government, the House of Burgesses, which became more democratic in ideas than anything in England or Europe (as Ver Steeg notes). But the need for labour led a demand for slave, convict and indentured labour that would also mean that over time, that any nascent sense of "democracy" was to be corrupted by equations of rights to citizenship with rights arising from property ownership; meaning that citizenship would be offered to fewer European individuals, and denied to those of other races.
(This theme is traced with some feeling in James Michener's novel, Chesapeake, although Michener there makes little mention of transported convicts. Bliss, Revolution and Empire, pp. 32-33.)

How colonisation provoked the transportation of offenders:

In 1620, Sir Thomas Smith (Smythe?) had been allowed to ship 20 people to the Somers Islands (Bermuda). (Within a few decades, the term "being Babadosed" came to mean being kidnapped to work on Barbados. Long later, the term was "Shanghaied"). By the 1640s, many younger people on Barbados had arrived after being kidnapped. Later, other new inhabitants included London thieves and whores, Scottish and Irish soldiers captured in Cromwell's campaigns. Cromwell did much to encourage the transportation of people deemed undesirable, but not before certain trends had earlier been set by the second Earl of Warwick, his associates, and those who answered to them. Between 1623-1624 the newly-organised Dorchester Company was granted permission by the Council of New England to fish and trade. By 1626 the company - with some members prominent Puritans - had established a settlement at Salem, promoting the idea of a Bible Commonwealth.
( By 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Company was formed with a charter from the Crown. Some Levant Company men investing in Massachusetts Bay Colony included Francis Flyer, Matthew Craddock, Samuel Vassall, Nathan Wright, men already active in America trade. It is difficult not to see them co-operating with "the Rich faction". The Massachusetts Bay Company members were merchants, some fishing men of the Dorchester Company, some London merchants and some Puritan gentry. (In 1630, some seventeen English ships sailed for Massachusetts, with 1000 persons plus provisions and animal stock).)

Renewed anti-Spanish feeling after the Sandys/Smythe squabble:

Puritanism remained a strong theme in politics. In 1628-1629 were parliamentary confrontations with the crown over unparliamentary taxation, forced loans, arbitrary imprisonment, and Arminianism and persecution of Puritans. A political opposition grouped around the Earl of Warwick, Lord Saye and Sele, and Sir Nathaniel Rich and their colonizing ventures.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 148ff.

It would appear that Brenner is the first historian to strongly link the second Earl of Warwick with the formerly unreported extent of the trading engaged by Maurice Thomson and Thomson's associates. To date, it seems arguable that the significance of the Earl of Warwick's commercial efforts have been understated. On Warwick and some of his aristocratic-investor connections.
See also, Joyce Lorimer, (Ed.), English and Irish Settlement on the River Amazon, pp. 194ff. It is given in Arthur Percival Newton, The European Nations in the West Indies, 1493-1688. London, A&C Black, 1933., pp. 172ff, that Warwick's efforts should be associated with English efforts seen in the Virginia Company, North's unsuccessful settlement of the Amazons, and the settlement of the American New England - as well as with the anti-Spanish Providence Island Company. Warwick was greatly responsible for the promotion of the English use of chattel slavery - and this is said far too seldom by historians.)

Warwick was probably encouraged by conflict with Spain, as it is almost as though having won his part of the Sandys/Smythe squabble, the Earl of Warwick wished to renew his anti-Spanish fervour, fully aware that English commercial shipping would now sweep wider from Africa, across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Virginia, and north on the Canadian coasts.

From 1625, England was to be at war with Spain, then with France. One of England's responses was to promote privateering again, in a context where proposals for the establishment of an English West India Company as well as for improvements to the navy were common. "A group of MPs associated with the second Earl of Warwick, Robert Rich", became vocal. Warwick was a "privateering magnate" and "was to lead the Providence Company in a private war with Spain".
(Andrews, Ships, Money and Politics, pp. 36-37. [Bliss, Revolution and Empire, p. 39] has Winthrop at Massachusetts believing by 1640 that the Providence Island Company had lost £120,000. Bliss writes, by the early 1640s, "Meanwhile, parliamentary leaders like the Earl of Warwick were as aware as anyone of the potential for sugar to fuel the sinews of war.")

Andrews in Ships, Money and Politics writes, Warwick was "the only great shipowning aristocrat of his time, patron and chief entrepreneur of westward colonization, especially in the West Indies and the Somers Islands"... Is this remark significant? "The only other peer with a considerable interest in shipping [was] the Earl of Carlisle..." However, it remains difficult to find ship men or traders associating with Carlisle. As he worked to "plant" the Caribees, Carlisle relied even more than Warwick did, on merchant backing. Carlisle's clique of merchants being led by Marmaduke Roydon.
Arthur Percival Newton, The European Nations in the West Indies, p. 156, p. 183. There is little information however on Roydon's family history or career, and his associates seem surprisingly few.

Later regarding Barbados, the associates of the Earl of Carlisle (family name Hay) were such as Peter Hay, James Holdip. Carlisle's backers included Marmaduke Roydon, William Perkins, Alexander Bannister. The Barbados experience acclimatised English people to managing chattel slavery.
Bliss, Revolution and Empire, p. 33.

These men Hay had kinsmen, Sir James Hay and Sir Archibald Hay who helped shore up the influence of the Earl of Carlisle, re rent collections. The new governor, Henry Huncks, threatened Peter Hay with physical violence. But the Hays did however understand colonial reluctance to undertake trade regulation if there was a share in colonial government a la issues later rising with the outbreak of the American Revolution].)

There seems however to be little evidence that Carlisle was interested in maritime activity before he developed ambitions to dominate the English efforts in the Caribbean. In fact, little is found in books on the merchants Carlisle used, and his commercial activities, as distinct from his political influences, remain rather blank to the historian. And further, Carlisle's interests cannot be properly understood without reference to Courteen's investments on Barbados - and much else. Perhaps, Carlisle was constrained to use shipping deployed by merchants whose greater loyalty was to the Earl of Warwick?

In 1628 the second Earl of Warwick took over the governership of the Bermuda Company to make it a Puritan project. By 21 June, 1628, Digges and Rich had again put forward a plan for a West Indies company; Rich had a bill pre-written. An associated idea was to "breed up mariners". Similar plans were expressed in late January 1629. (In August 1628 the Dutchman Piet Heyn (sic) reportedly took a Spanish treasure fleet for £1,200,000.)
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 267-268.)

1620++: Nova Scotia has been given attention by Scots colonists in 1620, but in 1629, Britain had abandoned her efforts on Nova Scotia as part of Charles I' peace plan with France. (Otherwise, Englishmen regularly entertained fantasies of sending convicts to Nova Scotia until after 1788). (Davies, Early Stuarts, p. 326.) Also in 1620s, James I grants land between Middle of New Jersey Coast and Newfoundland plus monopoly of offshore fishing to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and others in Council for New England.

June 1621: Dutch States-General charter the new Dutch West India Company to trade to South Africa, America, West Indies, Far East.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1621: William Claiborne, a colonist of Virginia, born circa 1587 in Cliburne, Westmoreland, England (died 1677 in Virginia) was possibly a son of E. W. Claiborne (Cliburne); his mother was Grace Bellingham. [Dictionary of American Biography, 1928]. In June 1621 he was appointed surveyor of the colony of Virginia; later, secretary of the colony, then treasurer. He was given much land, disliked Catholics, and dealt with the London firm Cloberry and Co. Claiborne obtained a semi-monopoly of a large trade territory by 1631 per William Alexander, secretary of state for Scotland. This led to troubles with Lord Baltimore regarding Maryland, as Claiborne by then was a partner with Robert Ingle. Baltimore would not recognise such Scots-based claims. (See Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 185). William Claiborne by 1638-1642 was associated with the Providence Island Company which intended to harass the Spanish, and also with the founding of an English colony at Ruatan, Honduras. (A relevant title here is J. H. Claiborne, William Claiborne of Virginia. 1917.
A descendant, Colonel Leonard Claiborne died in 1694 at Carlisle Bay, Jamaica, a son of one William Claiborne. Presumably there will be extensive material on the Claibornes of Virginia. Leonard Claiborne, son of Colonel William Claiborne of Virginia, settled in Jamaica where he was a colonel in the militia of St. Elizabeth's, killed in a repulse of the French in 1694 at Carlisle Bay. By his wife Martha he is supposed to have had two daughters, Katherine and Elizabeth. Elizabeth remains unknown. Catherine is supposed to have married Apt John Campbell of Inverary, Argyleshire, (Black River, Jamaica) who had gone to "Darien" and on his return to Jamaica was one of the custos of St. Elizabeth's. The published sources available to Dorman do not indicate if Campbell and Katherine Claiborne-Campbell had children; it seems they did not.

1622: In 1622 arose the first association of an English ship and Australia, on 25 May, 1622 when the East Indiaman Tryal Capt. John Brooke wrecked on a reef north of the Monte Bello Islands. Brooke had been relying on a 1620 southern route recommended by Capt. Humphrey Fitzherbert of the ship Royal Exchange, who had used the southern route to the Indies but seen no "South Land". Brooke sighted land near North West Cape but misunderstood Fitzherbert's directions and wrecked, losing 92 lives and much treasure. (In June 1681 the English ship London Capt. John Daniel came in sight of the coast of New Holland, making a sketch of Wallabi group that was later used as a chart by Alexander Dalrymple the East India hydrographer [and rival to Capt. James Cook]). The next major sighting of an Australian coast was made by William Dampier.

1602: W. L. Marvin, The American Merchant Marine, 1602-1902. 1902. *

1623: R. M. Baynes, History of Staten Island from its Discovery. 1887. *

1623: W. T. Bonner, New York, The World Metropolis, 1623-1923/4. (Two Vols) 1925. *

In 1623, Buckingham and Charles had returned from their mission to Spain, determined to end the Spanish match. Their stance seemed to open ways for a rise in anti-Spanish feeling generally. Buckingham and Charles wanted to resurrect the careers of the anti-Spanish Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton...
(This was Thomas Wriothesley, (1607-1667) fourth Earl Southampton; or his father, Henry, (1573-1624), third earl, an investor in the Virginia and East India companies, also interested in finding the north-west passage. The third earl was a backer of the Sandys faction in the Sandys/Smythe squabble over the treasuryship of the Virginia Company.)

....and the Earl of Oxford, lately imprisoned by James. They welcomed William Fiennes, Lord Saye and Sele, and also the second Earl of Warwick. (Another figure to be mentioned is the great Puritan minister, John Preston, linked to Calvinist ministry, who had tutored the Earl of Warwick's son). Also with close ties of friendship to Lord Saye was the puritan Sir Richard Knightley (1593-1639).
(One of Knightley's wives was Anna Courteen, daughter of Sir William Courteen Senior. Knightley's cousin Sir Valentine Knightley was a member of the Virginia Company. Newton, Colonising Puritans, p. 69. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Knightly. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 261.)

As Saye became an ally of Buckingham, there was also alliance with the parliamentary opposition. Buckingham even managed to recruit "the mighty earl of Pembroke", who hated Buckingham.
(Philip Herbert (1584-1649/1650), fourth Earl Pembroke, whose first wife was Susan De Vere and second, Anne Clifford. This fourth earl was given a grant of Barbados but he lost it to Earl Carlisle; by 1627-1628 he held this grant in trusteeship for Courteen Senior (as noted in DNB , entry for Courteen).

Pembroke in 1645 was Commissioner of Admiralty. In 1637 Pembroke with others was given a grant of the province of Newfoundland, which area became "a nursery of seamen". He was in the Virginia Company by 1609, East India Company by 1611, North West Passage Company by 1612 and was privateering by 1625. He and his brother were councillors for Virginia. He or his father appear to have been patrons of Courteen's early attempts to settle Barbados; whether he was double-crossed by the Earl of Carlisle remains unclear.
Burke's Extinct Baronetcies, p. 516. Who's Who /Shakespeare, p. 188. Lorimer (Ed.), Amazon, p. 291, Note 2. GEC, Peerage, Carnarvon, p. 44; Pembroke, p. 415; Oxford, p. 253; Dorset, p. 424; Clifford, p. 295. One of this earl's daughters, Mary, married Sir John Sydenham, Bart, (1642-1696) (Burke's Extinct Baronetcies, p. 516.). He was of the same family line as Elizabeth Sydenham, the second wife of privateer, Sir Francis Drake.)

A secretary of state, and a Buckingham protégé, was Sir Edward Conway, who tried to turn James to an anti-Spanish position and to recover the Palatinate. There was arising, a joint Anglo-Dutch move against Spain in the Caribbean, which may also have come to the notice of the Anglo-Dutch merchant, Sir William Courteen senior.

By 1623, writes Davies, James 1 was economically weak, with little credit given him for the good years. He restricted and disorganised trade by adding burdens, a rationalisation being that extra trade would result from peace with Spain. Earlier in James I's reign there had been new enterprises such as the East India Company and the Russia Company, and developments such as Scottish colonisation in Nova Scotia. Too little however was ever reported of Maurice Thomson till Brenner published his research.
(Here, one should also see Newton, Colonising Puritans.)

The extraordinary range of trading engaged by Maurice Thomson (agent for the second Earl of Warwick) and his associates is all the more remarkable if a brief tour is made of the fringes of English settlement and interest patterns of the decades 1600-1640, since it is helpful if the aspirations of a wide range of merchants is known as England expanded.

By Charles' proclamation of 13 May, 1625, Charles rejected Sandys' views on the government of Virginia as smacking too much of "popular government".
(Bliss, Revolution and Empire, pp. 19-24.)

In short, from 1618, the Sandys faction's views on the management of Virginia were brought undone by bad luck, the outcomes of earlier problems, and too much leaning to popular government. (One suspects the king realised that those with the most powerful grip on rising tobacco production, and import, including the Rich faction, had the political views he could live with more comfortably!) Sandys' faction between 1618-1622 sent over 3500 colonists to Virginia, mostly young men, but their policy of diversifying the economy and discouraging tobacco planting failed.

It appears to the present writer that the level of tobacco profits from 1618, problems on the ground in Virginia, plus disputes over how to govern Virginia - popularly, or within the confines of some kind of royal charter - blasted the Sandys faction. The extent of Charles' enthusiasm for controlling the tobacco trade is not explained in Bliss's political analysis - but till April 1623, Charles had favoured his father's outlook on managing Virginia - and the views of the Sandys faction. It seems then that the Earl of Warwick with the help of Sir Nathaniel Rich and later, Maurice Thomson, created means of dominating trade to Virginia - perhaps at the cost of abandoning their anti-Spanish prejudice, and not without the aid of some Dutch capitalists.

By 1624, the Virginia Company's charter was dissolved and declared vacant, and the Crown took over the colony. Charles I had stepped in and Virginia (along with the Bermudas, (the Somers Islands) and New England, became England's first royal colony. The Sandys faction, or the "old Virginia Company" meantime, consisted of customs farmer Sir John Wolstenholme, George Sandys, Sir John Danvers, Sir Robert Killigrew, Sir Thomas Roe, Sir Robert Heath, Sir John Zouch, the Ferrar brothers John and Nicholas, Heneage Finch, Gabriel Barber and Sir Dudley Digges.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 132.)

This faction had little interest in the Caribbean, which was also part of their undoing, since their commercial enemies were linking business between West Indian islands and Virginia. On 15 July, 1624 a new commission was issued by James I to "the merchant party" and also to members of the Rich faction. If there had been linkages between the Rich/Warwick faction, and Sandys' gentry/merchants faction, they were probably cast more in terms of Puritan affiliation, where religious viewpoint helped shape views on the government of colonies, than in terms of more traditional or gentry politics.
(Newton, Colonising Puritans, pp. 30ff.)

From 1623-1628 the affairs of the Somers Island Co. been going from bad to worse. The Governor. in 1622 was John Bernard, sent out to inspect Capt. Butler's proceedings, but Bernard died, and his successor was John Harrison, a nominee of the Sandys faction, who only held office in 1623. He was succeeded by Capt. Henry Woodhouse (1623-1626); Woodhouse was succeeded by Capt. Philip Bell qv, one of the Warwick/Rich faction. The company's agents were accused in England of monopolistic practices, as they sold dear to planters for necessities and bought cheap. There was conflict with a Barnstaple merchant, John Delbridge, who wanted a right to trade to the islands without paying high license duties required.)

What hampers many historians' treatments of the era is failure to recognise the role of Puritan nobles in what is termed, the anti-Sandys merchant faction.
(The Virginia Company was dissolved by the Crown, and in 15 July 1624 a new commission issued by James I to the merchant party and Rich faction, 41 members including Sir Baptist Hicks, Sir James Cambell and Sir Ralph Freeman, and, plus ten commissioners who were leading officers in the government of James I. But with the death of James I, this new commission was abrogated and Charles I never re-established it. So many of the City's merchants withdrew from trade with Virginia, except for some remaining, including Samuel Vassall and Matthew Craddock, plus Humphrey Slaney who traded with his son-in-law William Cloberry. Some others remaining were Edward Bennett (Levant), Nathan Wright (Levant), Benjamin Whetcomb (sic) (Levant), Anthony Pennyston (Levant), Richard Chambers (Levant), and Wm. Tristram (Merchant Adventurer).
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 92, p. 103, p. 216.

These were some of the merchants involved by the time William Claiborne in Virginia was promoting the Kent Island project. And so, a newer generation of Levant Company men, different to those first involved with the creation of the East India Company, were becoming interested in North American trade.)

Meanwhile, Warwick's chief business manager, Sir Nathaniel Rich, was understudied by a man who seems more like a merchant banker than a merchant with a great many associates, Maurice Thomson.

( Scattered material on Maurice Thomson surfaces in various books, but he has never been treated comprehensively.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 120ff.

When the Virginia Company was dissolved in 1624, William Tucker and Maurice Thomson were partners and brothers-in-law, and were leading Virginia development. Another brother-in-law of Tucker was William Felgate. By 1626, Maurice Thomson had returned to London to organise trade for Virginia, which suggests he had earlier lived in Virginia. Given his timing, one suspects that Thomson had astutely gauged the extent to which Puritan ideology would continue to remain an ally of the production system developing in Virginia.)

It is still not entirely clear that either Sir Nathaniel Rich or the powerful and puritan second earl of Warwick were fully involved in all the schemes in which Maurice Thomson became involved, yet, the schemes had a seamlessness of interest and push about them which suggests a continued high-level and successful inspiration, presumably from Warwick.

Following the settling of the Smythe-Sandys squabbling, a group newly-emerging in Virginian affairs had 41 or more members, including Sir Baptist Hicks, Sir James Cambell (Lord Mayor of London in 1629 and no relation to any Campbells of the extended Campbell family discussed here, who started on Jamaica in 1700). And Sir Ralph Freeman.
(Sir James Cambell; Burke's Extinct Baronetcies, pp. 98ff. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 89-90.)

There were also ten commissioners who were leading officers in the government of James I, but with the death of James I, this new commission was abrogated, and Charles I never re-established it.

London merchants by the mid-1620s found that Charles (son of James I) and Buckingham were willing to confront London's Merchant Adventurers in order to try to find new sources of merchant or financial support. The Earl of Carlisle was a dependent of Buckingham, and as proprietor of the Caribbean, Carlisle became an unexpected winner in colonisation stakes, since neither he nor his kin had ever had any interest in maritime activity. (In early 1624, Buckingham did not scruple to stop an outgoing East India Company ship and get from the Company some £10,000 for himself and an extra £10,000 for the king.)
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 216.

On 1 March, 1624 came a House of Commons' motion regarding the seizure of departing East India Company ships, and such matters became part of the squabble between the Smythe and Sandys factions. When the Commons backed Sandys and his gentry men as they tried to retain control of the Virginia Company, this meant that they moved against Maurice Thomson's interests, which meant they moved against the interests of Robert Rich the second Earl of Warwick, and/or those of Sir Thomas Smythe. The treasurer, Cranfield, had backed Sandys' opponents. The king and Cranfield had backed the Sandys party of merchants, but by 1624, Sandys' tobacco monopoly was destroyed, the "old" Virginia Company was dissolved, and it was reconstituted with merchants including associates of the Rich faction.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 252.)

London's America merchants in the City became disconcerted by the stance adopted by the Commons, as they could not deal with America on a monopoly basis, as free trade was to become the rule. Brenner feels it would have been worse for Virginia if the monopoly style of trade had been continued to there, as it would have bled the colonists dry. Sir Francis Bacon suggested that noblemen and gentlemen would be more useful for the Virginia trade as they'd be more inclined to bear a loss than merchants who wanted quick gains. But the nobles were "not interested"; they invested on average a mere £35 each at one time in Virginia. Some gentry did back the "hundreds", or plantation deals, including Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton and Sir Richard Berkeley, but these were short-term operations. Finally it was seen that new Virginia capital came not from gentry or the greater merchants, so American trade was infiltrated by merchants from lesser backgrounds, including "mere mariners".
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 79, pp. 104-108, pp. 114ff, pp. 116-118.)


So, many of the City's earlier-involved merchants withdrew from Virginia/America trade. Some men remaining in American trade in the 1620s included Samuel Vassall (a name to be known also on Jamaica) and Matthew Craddock, plus Humphrey Slaney, who traded with his son-in-law William Cloberry. Some other investors remaining were Edward Bennett (Levant Company), Nathan Wright (Levant Company), Benjamin Whetcomb (sic) (Levant Company), Anthony Pennyston (Levant), Richard Chambers (Levant), and William Tristram (Merchant Adventurer).
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 92, p. 103, p. 136.


1623: About 1623-1624 the newly-organised Dorchester Company is granted rights by the Council of New England to fish and trade; in 1626 this company, which included Puritans, established a settlement at Salem . Notions had arisen to create a "Bible Commonwealth". (Clarence L. Ver Steeg, The Formative Years, 1607-1763. London, Macmillan, 1965., p. 35).

1623: Sir Peter Proby, Lord Mayor of London and knighted in 1623. (See K. G. Davies, The Royal African Company. London, Longmans, 1960. (First published in 1957.) Note: Davies' book is unusual in that many names for reference are given only in the index. It appears that Davies or his editors wished that many names would not be placed in his text (?). (On Proby's descendancies, see GEC, Peerage for Rockingham; Burke's Extinct Baronetcies, p. 429.) Among Proby's descendants are included: Thomas Watson Wentworth (1693-1750) first Marquis Rockingham; and William Proby, active 1705, a Whig and an operator for the New East India Company at Surat, India.

1623: A ship named New Netherland sails from Texel with Dutch settler families for the Hudson River area of North America.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1624: In 1624 the founding father of St. Kitt's (St. Christopher in the Caribbean) was Sir Thomas Warner, a Suffolk man a friend of John Winthrop the founder of Massachusetts. Warner had tried and failed in Guiana, then tried again at St. Kitts, which he occupied in 1624. His situation was risky for six years; when the French arrived in 1625 he was so weak he agreed to share the island with them. (Large numbers of Caribbean Indians were massacred one night in their hammocks). The English-French were all attacked in 1629 by the Spanish. Some English held on. When the Earl of Carlisle became Lord Proprietor of islands in the Caribbean he appointed Warner governor of St. Kitts. There was later an Edward Warner a Lt-Gov of Nevis. (Richard S. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624-1730. London, Jonathan Cape, 1973., p. 119).

1619-1624: Dutch establish virtual monopoly of spice trade in Moluccas and other Indonesian islands.

1624: Virginia Company's charter stemming from 1607 declared vacant in 1624, Charles I had stepped in and Virginia (along with the Bermudas, (the Somers Islands) and New England, became England's first royal colony, and the local assembly, the House of Burgesses, became the first in the New World. and by 1619 the instinct on American soil for self government asserted itself very quickly, and by 1641 the colony was well established.

1624: The story from 1624-1627 about the Anglo-Dutch financier Sir William Courteen (died 1666) varies, but it seems he was double-crossed. By 1625 Sir Charles Courteen had noted that an English ship (said by some to have been connected to Warner mentioned above) had touched at Barbados, found it uninhabited, and possessed it in the King's name. Courteens later sent out ships and soon had up to 1800 people on the island, maintained by their employers. Courteens had begun useful cotton and tobacco plantations but the proprietorship of the island went into dispute whilst the slowness of Courteen's supplies threatened famine - a case of starving-in-Paradise, as later happened with the first British settlers at Sydney, Australia. Barbados however survived and by 1640 was exporting profitably, tobacco, cotton and indigo, not without the help of coerced labour.
(On Thomas Warner establishing Barbados in 1625, see C. P. Lucas, Historical Geography of the British Colonies. Vol. 2, The West Indies, Second Edn, Oxford. 1905., cited in Lillian M. Penson, The Colonial Agents of the British West Indies: A Study in Colonial Administration Mainly in the Eighteenth Century. 1924. London, Frank Cass and Co., reprint 1971., p. 8).

1625: The Dutch found New Amsterdam, later New York by 1664.

1625: Charles I had risen to the throne on 27 March, 1625, after the end of the reign of James 1 (1603-1625, (James VI of Scotland). James of course had hardened the penal laws against Catholics. The response was a great Catholic uprising, a plan to blow up James I and the Parliament on November 5, 1605, the plot (involving 36 barrels of gunpowder) being discovered and giving rise to the legend of Guy Fawkes. (Davies, The Early Stuarts, p. 48, p. 337).

1625: (G. Davies, Early Stuarts, p. 33, p. 48, accession of Charles I in 27 March, 1625, after end of reign of James 1. Ireland, chronology, see James 1 (1603-1625), as James VI of Scotland, finally became King of England, stiffened the penal laws against Catholics, and a response was a great Catholic uprising, a plan to blow up James I and the Parliament on 5 November, 1605. Plot discovered, hence the legend of Guy Fawkes, and 36 barrels of gunpowder discovered. Attitude of James I: James I personally loved peace, but he misunderstood the situation in Europe, he despised the Dutch because from the point of view of divine right of kings, they were "rebels".

1625-1627 Barbados: After 1625, Barbados suffered from early mismanagement. Sir William Courteen a wealthy Anglo-Dutch merchant, already experienced in the Caribbean trade, gets together a syndicate sponsoring first settlement in 1627, sending two shiploads colonists under command of John and Henry Powell. Courteen syndicate sank about 10,000 pounds into the venture, hoping for similar returns as the backers of privateers got in the 1590s. (Notes, Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 50). But as Dunn writes, unhappily for Courteen, an influential courtier, Earl of Carlisle, challenged Courteen's control of the island [in 1627] [although Dunn does not say what those grounds for argument were], and both Carlisle and Courteen had royal patents for Barbados and both sent out governors, settlers, supplies, and both their agents were banished for seized, one governor was executed, Carlisle did very little to advertise the island, Carlisle expected to distribute land to settlers who paid to set themselves up, nearly 40,000 acres went to 250 colonists from 1628 to 1630, some grants very generous, Gov Hawley had no arable land left after ten years, eg to Edward Oistin (a fishing village remains on Barbados named Oistin), William Hilliard (who later sold half share of an estate to Thomas Modyford for 7000 pounds, but many grants of 30-50 acres to the poorer folk, (Notes, Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, pp 49ff, p. 81). Modyford was a kinsman of the duke of Albemarle and a son of a Mayor of Exeter, and he came to Barbados as a young man in 1647 with money, connections and losing the fight in the civil war, he could pay 1000 pounds down and pay 6000 in next three years, operating with his brother in law, Thomas Kendall a London merchant, and Modyford soon muscled in on local politics., in 1660 he engineered himself with the Commonwealth as a governor of Barbados, but as he took office, Charles II restored, so he reverted to royalism but later lost his govship of Barbados, see 1664. (Sir William Courteen, Financier, death 1636.)
See Holden Furber, Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient, 1600-1800. Minneapolis, Univ. Minnesota Press, 1976.

Active circa1630s: Italian banker Flavio CHIGI of Siena.

1625: On Martin Noell: Martin Noell became influential in West Indies business. He was also a friend of William Courteen, the financier who had done much from 1625 to create the original establishment on Barbados. Noell appears to have been married to a Miss Thurloe as Thurloe was a brother-in-law of Noell. I assume this is the same Sir Martin Noel referred to in Pares, Merchants and Planters. Noell became a well-known financier and he acted as an agent for Shaftesbury, for Barbados. (Shaftesbury's brother George married a daughter of a London sugar baker, Mr. Oldfield - Shaftesbury remained interested in sugar and Barbados from 1646). Fraser, Cromwell, p. 534, suggests Noell was knighted by Charles II, but died bankrupt. There was a Thomas Noell, a planter of Barbados. I have assumed Thomas was a brother with the other Noell names; but this is not a known fact. There was also a John Povey, Virginia Merchant, who worked with Nehemiah Blakiston, 1699-1721 as agents; their banker was Micajah Perry. The planter name John Randolph, resident in Virginia, also arises in that context. Martin Noell, Jnr, active by 1647, is noted in Pares, Merchants and Planters. On Nehemiah Blakiston: Blakiston was a collector of customs duties on the Potomac and a leader of Charles County, Maryland. He was active by 1689. [A useful title would be Bernard C. Steiner, 'The Protestant Revolution in Maryland'. Report, American Historical Association, Annual Report for 1897, Washington, DC 1898., pp. 289ff].

Martin Noell: Sources: (Brenner, pp. 175ff.) Burke's Extinct Baronetcies, pp. 386ff, for Noel of Brook. Martin Noell and Povey are noted in Newton, Colonising Puritans. See also, K. H. D. Haley, The First Earl of Shaftesbury. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1968., p. 64; See also, Penson, Colonial Agents; Alison Olson, 'The Virginia merchants of London: a study in eighteenth century interest group politics', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 40, July 1983., pp. 363-388., here, p. 373.

The English historian, Brenner, has only recently outlined the career of a conspicuously successful seventeenth century London merchant, an early "expansionist" of the first founding of the British Empire, Maurice Thomson. [K. G. Davies mentions Thomson only briefly in Royal African Company]. Thomson seems almost the business manager of the extraordinarily energetic Puritan noble, Robert Rich (1587-1658), the second Earl of Warwick. In fact, Warwick's business manager was his kinsman, Sir Nathaniel Rich (1585-1636), so it is possible that Thomson answered to Sir Nathaniel Rich. Whatever the organisational details, Thomson and his brothers enjoyed remarkable commercial careers that have been insufficiently acknowledged in the earlier history of English colonisation.

1625: (G. Davies, Early Stuarts, p. 337), Sir Charles Courteen noted that an English ship had touched at Barbados, found it uninhabited, and possessed it in the King's name. Courteen soon sent out ships and soon had up to 1800 people on the island, maintained by their employer. Courteen began cotton and tobacco plantations. the proprietorship of the island went into dispute, Davies does not say how or why, and slowness of Courteen's supplies threatened famine. and the island survived, and by 1640 was exporting profitably, tobacco, cotton and indigo. Thomas Warner is establishing Barbados in 1625, (see C. P. Lucas, Historical Geography of the British Colonies. Vol. 2, The West Indies, Second Edn, Oxford. 1905, cited in Penson, Colonial Agents, p.8.

1626: In 1626, George Villiers in his essay On Plantations had vainly - and a little surprisingly - emphasised the shame of taking "scum of people" to plantations, which they "only spoiled". (Coldham, Emigrants in Chains, pp. 45-47). It appears Charles made an arrangement with the Earl of Carlisle (family name Hay) concerning proprietorship of certain Caribbean Islands including Barbados. The reverberations were to mean many years of political conflict (as to English arrangements that is) in the Caribbean Islands.

1627: More to come

1628: England: Harvey publishes a description of the circulation of the blood.

1628: Sir Thomas Warner, coloniser of Barbados, governor of Antigua (1575-1648-1649).
Jan Rogozinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean: From the Arawak and the Carib to the Present. New York, Facts on File, c.1992., p. 76.; Richard B. Sheridan, `The Rise of a Colonial Gentry: A Case Study of Antigua, 1730-1775', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 13, 1960-1961., pp. 342-357., here, p. 346. Newton, Colonising Puritans, p. 27. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 184. Davies, Royal Africa Company, index. Burke's Landed Gentry for Warner formerly of Framlingham.

1628: Sir William Courteen Senior (died 1636). He once devised a plan to settle Australia but failed to act.)
(Jan Rogozinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean: From the Arawak and the Carib to the Present. New York, Facts on File, c.1992., p. 68. George Mackaness, 'Some Proposals for Establishing Colonies in the South Seas', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 24, Part 5, 1943., pp. 261-280 with Sir John Callender's proposal given pp. 271ff. Newton, Colonising Puritans, variously. DNB entries, various. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 125, pp. 171ff. Williamson, Caribee Islands. Kenneth R. Andrews, Trade, Plunder and Settlement: Maritime Enterprise and the Genesis of the British Empire, 1480-1630. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1984., pp. 278ff, pp. 301ff. On Courteens, see Shafaat Ahmad Khan, The East India Trade in the Seventeenth Century (in its Political and Economic Aspects). London, 1923. Ian B. Watson, `The Establishment of English Commerce in North-Western India in the Early Seventeenth Century', Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1976., pp. 375ff. Griffiths, A Licence to Trade, pp. 82ff. Holden Furber, Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient, 1600-1800. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, c. 1976., pp. 39ff. Also, Holden Furber, `The United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies, 1783-1796', ECHR, 10, (2), November 1940., pp. 138-147. Holden Furber, John Company at Work. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1948. Andrews, Ships, Money and Politics, p. 183, Note 69. On Courteen's descendants, GEC, Peerage, Kent, p. 176; Hereford, p. 480; Maynard, p. 602; Valentia, p. 207.)


1628: By 1628, Barbados is already a thriving English colony, planting tobacco. In 1628 the Courteen House sent out more settlers, expanding the colony to 1600 people, "to strong for the Spaniards to challenge". Goslinga finds that the obscure history of the colonization of the Lesser Antilles is compounded by the fact that James I made his grants to rights to the Caribbean orally. Charles I later confirmed such grants with written documents, but was confused in designations to the Earl of Carlisle and the Earl of Pembroke. He writes, p. 259, "The Dutch firm of the Courteens also appears to have played a part in the general intrigue that renders inscrutable this entire episode". Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, 1580-1680, pp. 212ff.

1628: Earl Warwick takes over governorship of Bermuda Co. to make it a puritan project, in 1629 many of similar view backed the Providence Island Co, to be theirs exclusively, and in 1629 the Earl of Warwick, Sir Nath Rich, Lord Saye and Sele, another puritan the Earl of Lincoln, patronized the Mass Bay Co. so these puritan ports siphoned off religious exiles. large link up, finally, of merchants and puritans, each influencing the other. (Brenner, p. 273)

Unexpectedly, Digges and Morris Abbot and his archbishop brother about the time parliament dissolved in 1629, went to the side of the crown, Abbott as Gov of EICo probably tried to help the Levant Co. top men from further radicalising, and cooled the EICo, so annoying the colonising nobles, so the opposition nobles Lord Saye, earl of Warwick and Lord Brook launched March 1629 an attack on the elite merchant leadership of the EICo, to promote their own alliances, which consisted of some of their own smaller investors. The battle went on for years.

1628: North America: On 9 March 1628 the Earl of Warwick makes a grant of land in Massachusetts to establish the New England Company (first governor is Matthew Craddock of Levant Co., and operator of Mystic River), an unincorporated predecessor of the Massachusetts Bay Co. Warwick had got the land in 1623 from the Council for New England, of which he was president in 1628, and he gave it to Dorchester Company people, and East Anglian gentlemen. (Brenner, p. 276.)

21 June, 1628: England: Digges and Rich again put forward idea for an English West India company; Rich had a bill pre-written. Part of an idea is to "breed up mariners". Similar plans in late January 1629. In August 1628 the Dutchman Piet Heyn (sic) reportedly took a Spanish treasure fleet for £1,200,000. (Brenner, p. 267).

1629: The Dutch form a West India Company. See W. Walton Claridge, A History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti: From the earliest times to the commencement of the Twentieth Century. London, John Murray, 1915., p. 89.

1629: The English East India Company in London checks its books and is horrified to find it is more than £300,000 in the red. Clerical cost-cutting results.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1629: Colony of Massachusetts founded. In 1629, a new settlement at Salem includes six master shipbuilders.

1629: England: As early as 1629, a grant is made re the Carolinas, but no serious attempt to colonize till 1663, with eight proprietors, being Earl of Clarendon, Duke of Albemarle, Sir John Berkeley, Sir George Carteret, Earl of Craven, John Colleton, Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper (later Earl of Shaftesbury), and Sir William Berkeley. King only gave the Carolinas as this coalition was too strong to deny. most of these proprietors had other colonial interests, Colleton with Barbados, Sir Wm Berkeley as Gov. of Virginia, Carteret and John Berkeley involved with New Jersey. Carolina suitable for baronial estates. The Carolina system once the disgruntled Barbadians came provided a specialized plantation agriculture, promoted slave labour, reduced the flexibility of the existing local social system, articles of Carolina government drawn up by Ashley Cooper with help of John Locke, based on political ideas already outmoded in England itself. (Ver Steeg, The Formative Years, pp. 119-121.)

Essay by Dan Byrnes

1629: In 1629, many Englishmen with vehement Puritan views backed the Providence Island Company, to be theirs exclusively, and in 1629 the Earl of Warwick, Sir Nathaniel Rich, Lord Saye and Sele, and another puritan, the third Earl of Lincoln (Thomas Clinton, 1571-1619), patronized the Massachusetts Bay Company.
(Third Earl Lincoln: Who's Who /Shakespeare, p. 152. GEC, Peerage, Lincoln, p. 695, Clinton, p. 318.)

So, American puritan ports siphoned off religious exiles (and later, undesirables). There emerged a large network, finally, of merchants, puritans and nobles, each influencing the other, and most of them influencing trade.
(Titles consulted for this section include: Joyce Lorimer, (Ed.), English and Irish Settlement on the River Amazon, 1550-1646. London, The Hakluyt Society, 1989. Kenneth R. Andrews, The Spanish Caribbean: Trade and Plunder, 1530-1630. London, Yale University Press, 1978. See Chapter on Hawkins and the slave trade, Robert M. Bliss, Revolution and Empire: English Politics and the American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century. Manchester, Manchester University Press. 1990. Kenneth R. Andrews, Ships, Money and Politics: Seafaring and Naval Enterprise in the Reign of Charles I. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991. With some information on William Courteen, see R. H. Major, FSA, Early Voyages to Terra Australis, Now Called Australia: A Collection of Documents, and Extracts from Early Manuscript Maps, Illustrative of the History of Discovery on the Coasts of that Vast Island, from the beginning of the Sixteenth Century to the time of Captain Cook. London, For the Hakluyt Society, No. 25. M.DCC.LIX. First published in 1859. J. A. Doyle, The English in America: The Puritan Colonies. Part 1. New York, Ames Press, 1969. (Orig. published in 1887). Arthur Percival Newton, The European Nations in the West Indies.)

(In the late 1620s and early 1630s, a few Levant-East India Company men also dominated the Russia Trade, being Hamersley, Job Harby, William Bladwell and Henry Garway.)
(W. R. Scott, The Constitution and Finance of English, Scottish and Irish Joint-stock Companies to 1720. Three Vols. Cambridge, 1910-1912.)

Once again with the plan for a West Indies Company, the idea was to keep fifty ships stationed, and fifty as back-up. The Venetian ambassador thought any such plan would only keep the Dutch and English at each others' throats. Soon, by 1630, the Bermuda Company would be joined by John Pym, Rudyerd, Lord Saye, Lord Brook (either Fulke Greville or Robert Greville; Fulke the first Baron Brooke, Robert his cousin, second Baron Brooke), and Sir Richard Knightley - all of whom began to deal with Maurice Thomson and Thomson's many associates.

By 1634 there were 175 men trading with Virginia; by 1640 there were 330.
Here, Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, Chapter IV, The New-Merchant Class Leadership of the Colonial Trades, is particularly interesting. On debts, Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 129.

(And planter debts were to become a matter for comment.) By 1640, America trade was in great contrast to the East India Company's style of operation. In Virginia, a distinction between merchant and planter became blurred as planters dealt in trade, also as merchant-councilors appeared. A large name in the American trade continued - Maurice Thomson. Thomson was born around 1600, the eldest of five sons of a Hertfordshire family, father Robert.
On Thomson, see Andrews, Ships, Money and Politics, p. 6, pp. 57ff, p. 91, p. 183, pp. 195ff.

By 1623, Maurice Thomson had been in Virginia for six years. He had settled there in 1617, then became master of a 320 ton ship in which he took passengers and provisions for the Virginia Company and the Virginia colonists. He obtained a Virginia estate of 150 acres, and in 1623 his three brothers, George, William and Paul joined him in Virginia, with their brother-in-law, William Tucker, who covered costs. (Tucker had married a Thomson sister.) And in view of the many kinds of trade engaged by Thomson's associates, it may be more appropriate to view Thomson as something other than a merchant. He was more a prototype for a merchant banker with a determination to promote colonisation. He helped expand various forms of commerce - many of them later dependent on slavery.
Perhaps the fullest account of the mutuality of the interests of the Earl of Warwick and Maurice Thomson is given in Kenneth R. Andrews, Ships, Money and Politics: Seafaring and Naval Enterprise in the Reign of Charles I. Sydney, Cambridge University Press, 1991., p. 6, p. 13, pp. 36-37, pp. 146ff. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 1255ff treats Maurice Thomson's earlier career.

Sir William Courteen and the struggle for control of Barbados: the Earl of Carlisle and proprietary rights to the Caribbean:

NB: To the end of this chapter is a chronologised listing of the merchant associates of Maurice Thomson, the "merchant banker" who worked consistently for decades to promote the colonising interests of the second Earl of Warwick.

At this point in the narrative must be entered information on two more careers not fully detailed in history books - those of Hay, first Earl of Carlisle, and Sir William Courteen Senior. The Carlisle genealogy is short. Sir James Hay of Kingask, wife unknown, had a son, James Hay (1580-1636), first Earl of Carlisle, who married first Honora Denny (died 1614) who had a fortune; and secondly Lucy Percy (1599-1660) the daughter of the anti-Spanish Henry Percy, third Earl Northumberland.
(Henry Percy, third Earl Northumberland (1564-1632); GEC, Peerage, Halifax, p. 243; Northumberland, p. 734 and Note H; Romney, p. 83; Percy, p . 465.)


Honora Denny had a son, James (1605-1660), second Earl of Carlisle who married Margaret Russell (died 1676). The second earl's title became extinct.
(GEC, Peerage, Carlisle, p. 32; Denny, p. 187; Norwich, pp. 768-769; Manchester, p. 371. On Lucy Percy" Strickland, Lives of the Queens Of England, Vol. 5, p. 284. Lucy's sister Dorothy (died 1659) married the second Earl of Leicester, Robert Sydney (1595-1677). Robert's father was a member of the Virginia Company, the East India Company and the North West Passage Company. ) Who's Who of /Shakespeare, p. 39. Margaret Russell was daughter of Francis Russell (1593-1641), fourth Earl of Bedford, and Catherine Brydges (died 1656).)

James, first Earl Carlisle, became a favourite of Buckingham. It has been said that the Rich family (Earls Warwick) and the Hay/Carlisle family had bad blood due to a feud between members in Paris in 1624, and long squabbles over proprietary rights in the Caribbean do seem to bear out the existence of such enmity.

Sir William Courteen Senior (1572-1636) was the son of an émigré tailor, William, who had married Margaret Casiere. William's sister was Margaret, who married John, first Earl of Bridgwater. Another of Margaret Casiere's sons was Sir Charles Courteen. Sir William, a financier, married firstly a Dutchwoman with a fortune, named Cromling; and secondly, Hester Tryon. Tryon's son Sir Peter, Baronet (active 1623) married Jane Stanhope (died 1683) the daughter of Sir John Stanhope
(Jane Stanhope married as second wife to Francis Annesley, first Viscount Valentia. GEC, Peerage, Valentia, p. 207.)

Sir Peter's brother was the financier Sir William II Courteen, (died 1666), who married Catherine Egerton, daughter of John Egerton (1646-1701 and a First Lord of Trade, 1695-1699) the third Earl of Bridgewater.
(The third earl married as second wife, Jane Paulet, daughter of Charles Paulet, sixth Marquis Winchester. GEC, Peerage, Egerton of Tatton, p. 16 and note A; Bridgwater, p. 313.)

As noted in an earlier chapter, a daughter Anna of Hester Tryon married Sir Richard Knightley; and another daughter Mary (died 1643) married the MP, Henry Grey, Earl of Kent.
(GEC, Peerage, Kent, p. 176.)

The Courteen genealogy is imperfect. At Cologne was an unmarried Peter Courteen, merchant (1581-1631), but it is uncertain where to place him in the family.

The career of merchant Sir William Courteen Senior:

The capitalist settler of Barbados, Sir William Courteen Senior, was "an Anglo-Dutch financier finally bankrupted by his involvements with the Dutch East India Company".
(Titles generally useful for the preparation of this file included: Griffiths, A Licence to Trade; Furber, Rival; Brenner, Merchants and Revolution; , Ian B. Watson, Foundation. W. K. Hinton, `The Mercantile System in the Time of Thomas Mun', Economic History Review, Second Series, VII, 1955., pp. 277. D. C. Coleman, `Naval Dockyards under the Later Stuarts', Economic History Review, Second Series, VI, 1953-1954., p. 134. S. A. Khan, The East India Trade in the Seventeenth Century. London, 1923. P. J. Thomas, Mercantilism and the East India Trade. London, 1926. W. H. Moreland, From Akbar to Aurangzeb. London, 1923.)

Furber writes, Courteen had married a wealthy Dutch woman, Cromling (presumably a widow of a man well-connected with the Dutch East India Company?).
(Arthur Percival Newton, The European Nations in the West Indies, p. 157. Andrews, Ships, Money and Politics, p. 43, 51, pp. 200-201.)
(Griffiths, A Licence to Trade, pp. 82ff.)

Sir John Coke, as it happened in April 1625, set out a program for privately financed (£361,200) anti-Spanish piracy in the West Indies. Coke's plan seemed to be a project backed by the Earl of Warwick. Secretary Heath had a similar idea for attacking the West Indies by April 1625. Courteen was probably aware of such stirrings. It was at about this point that Warner "discovered" Barbados. But firstly...
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 257.)

It is possible that Courteens in the City of London had perhaps been given some expansionist inspiration after 1615-1617, since about 1617, the king allowed "the Cockayne project", promoted by George Cockayne, a plan which was protested in parliament as a pocket-liner. The project collapsed.
(Cokayne's project is noted in an earlier file.)

One source says the crown extracted £20,000 per year for granting a charter for the Merchant Adventurers, but treasurer Cranfield instead accepted a lump sum of £80,000 plus bribes and gifts to courtiers. By 1620, trade was in doldrums and calls for free trade (as from Sir Edwin Sandys) were growing. There were strong attacks on merchant privileges. Parliament in 1621 blasted all merchant companies. The issue, of course, was the promotion of royal monopolies and their restricting affect on traders with less respectable backing; monopoly versus free trade.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 211.)

Early on, the Courteens traded to Portugal; and with Spain in the salt trade. Courteens were creditors of the English king, and they also had many connections with illicit trade of the time.
(Peter (died 1631) the brother of Sir William Courteen Senior is named in Andrews, The Spanish Caribbean, pp. 233-244ff. Peter at Cologne apparently co-managed the European departments of Courteens as Anglo-Dutch merchants.)

Their training was in contemporary commerce, possibly in the cloth trade, in Haarlem. In time, Courteen's body of "adventurers" included influential personalities at the English court. These "influentials" tend never to be named, but it appears that through them, Courteen developed an association with the king.

By 1621, the East India Company was again criticized for exporting bullion. On 3 May, 1621 James I forbade the various company charters from being examined by parliament. A trade crisis peaked in 1622. Parliament did not dent the merchant companies till 1624, especially not the Merchant Adventurers. Some free-trade leaders were Sir Edward Sandys, Sir Edward Coke, Sir Dudley Digges and Sir Robert Phelips (sic), who also opposed the crown on issues of foreign policy and free speech. They entered into alliance with the Duke of Buckingham and Prince Charles (that is, the later Charles II), and they wanted a new (anti) Spanish foreign policy. Buckingham helped turn the tide. The Merchant Adventurers was opened up to new, fee-paying wholesalers. It seems unlikely such men would have ventured an anti-Spanish policy unless such a prejudice had not been heightened by the "Rich faction".

Some Merchant Adventurers of the old school were Sir John Savile, plus Sir Humphrey May, steward of the Duchy of Lancaster, Sir Francis Nethersole, diplomat to Germany, Sir Heneage Finch the recorder of London and a royal appointee, Sir Henry Mildmay the master of the Jewel House. The general hope rose of freeing up the Guinea and Muscovy companies, plus the Eastland Company with its monopoly on importing naval stores. (In time, American traders would become interested in naval stores.)
(Robert G. Albion, Forests and Sea Power: The Timber Problems of the Royal Navy, 1652-1862. Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1926. Incidentally, the sign used in North American colonies to designate timber set aside for British naval purposes in the eighteenth century was a broad arrow, meaning, naval property. This is the genesis of the "broad arrow" seen on the clothes of convicts around Sydney after 1788.)

There were to consider, the New England Company's newly-granted monopoly of fishing offshore England, and free fishing on the North American coast. The Commons upheld Sir Edwin Sandys, and Sandys' gentry party conducted its bitter fight with some of the City's great merchant leaders in the East India and Virginia companies. Sandys quarrelled with the Virginia trader Sir Thomas Smythe from 1618.

Oddly enough, by 1626, relatively early in colonisation business, George Villiers, First Duke of Buckingham, in his essay On Plantations vainly emphasised the shame of taking "scum of people" to plantations, which they only spoiled.
(Coldham, Emigrants in Chains, pp. 45-47. Davies, Early Stuarts, p. 340.)

It was an interesting remark, an objection to what became an English tradition lasting centuries, using colonies as genealogical sumps. Davies records, about 60,000 people left England, one third for New England, and between 1630 and 1643, nearly 200 ships carried 20,000 men women and children at an estimated cost of £200,000 - many emigrants being unwilling to submit to a "hateful government".
(Coldham, Emigrants in Chains, pp. 45-47. On the "pouring" of lower-class Englishmen onto Caribbean Islands by the Earl of Carlisle, see A. P. Newton, The European Nations in the West Indies, pp. 156-157. Davies, Early Stuarts, p. 340. Villiers (1592-1628, assassinated), Lord High Admiral, anti-Spanish, first honorary governor of the Guiana Company, married Katherine Manners, daughter of the sixth earl of Rutland. Roger Lockyer, Buckingham: The Life and Political Career of George Villiers, First Duke of Buckingham, 1592-1628. London, Longmans, 1981. Joyce Lorimer, (Ed.), Amazon, p. 85. GEC, Peerage, Chichester, p. 194; Denbigh, p. 178; Grandison, p. 76; Ros, p. 111; Buckingham, pp. 392ff. The sixth Earl of Rutland, Admiralty Lord Francis Manners (died 1632) was an investor in the East India Company and also took part in the 1620 Amazon adventure. GEC, Peerage, Rutland, pp. 261ff; Lennox, p. 610; Antrim, p. 175; Suffolk, p. 465.)

Buckingham and Charles wanted to resurrect the careers of the anti-Spanish Earl of Southampton and the Earl of Oxford, lately imprisoned by James.
(Thomas Wriothesley, fourth Earl Southampton (1607-1667) had three wives. He helped promote the Courteen plan to settle Mauritius. GEC, Peerage, Bedford, p. 81; Carbery, p. 8; Chichester, p. 194; Devonshire, p. 344; Digby, p. 354; Gainsborough, p. 599; Somerset, p. 78; Northumberland, p. 739; Molyneux, pp. 44ff; Holderness, p. 536; Southampton, p. 131.)

They welcomed William Fiennes, Lord Saye and Sele (probably first Viscount Say and Sele), and also the Earl of Warwick.
(William Fiennes (1582-1662) first Viscount Saye and Sele is "semi-forgotten": His own DNB entry. GEC, Peerage, Saye and Sele, pp. 486ff; Wimbledon, p. 743, Hibbert, Cavaliers and Roundheads, pp. 300-310, lists. John Kenyon, The Civil Wars in England. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1988., p. 261. Newton, Colonising Puritans, pp. 36ff, pp. 65ff. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 261ff. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 12.)

Republican-minded and anti-Spanish, Fiennes was eager for the settlement of Providence Island. He was a Presbyterian enemy of James I and Charles I, and interested in colonisation from about 1629. He led the Oxfordshire resistance to ship money, and once obtained land on the Connecticut River from the second Earl of Warwick; John Winthrop later helped govern that area.)

Also part of a newly growing network was the great Puritan minister, John Preston, linked to Calvinist ministry, who had tutored the Earl of Warwick's son, and who also had ties to Lord Saye, and the puritan Richard Knightley. Buckingham even managed to recruit the "mighty earl of Pembroke", who had hated Buckingham. A secretary of state and a Buckingham protégé was Sir Edward Conway, who attempted to turn James to an anti-Spanish position and to recover the Palatinate. A joint Anglo-Dutch move against Spain in the Caribbean was also mooted, although it is uncertain if Courteen was part of this. Certainly, the second Earl of Warwick was in an anti-Spanish mood.

Merchants and terra australis incognita:

Attention however now needs to be diverted further to a little known twist in the story of English interest in terra australis incognita, which might have been settled by "the Courteen Association" headed by Sir William Courteen Senior. What is extraordinary is that Courteen (or he and his association) had sufficient capital after they met Thomas Warner, the "discoverer" of Barbados, to sink £10,000 into the island from 1625, and to also manage shipping to the East in a way that remained a thorn in the side of the East India Company - prior to the spectacular Courteen bankruptcy.

Here, Brenner is helpful:
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 176.)

"The program of trade and colonization launched by the new merchants' East Indian interloping association found its origin in Sir William Courteen's interloping and colonial projects of the 1630s, as well as those of Arundel, Rupert and Southampton." They wanted to pursue Courteen's plans for the Far East, and also settle areas off Eastern Africa, or, Madagascar. So, in 1645, they sent Capt. John Smart to Madagascar. Some of these projecters were Maurice Thomson and his relatives, plus some of Courteen Senior's associates. And so an argument presents itself, that English interest shown in terra australis from 1625 was part of a grand commercial vision perceived by Sir William Courteen, or, the inheritors of his visions. These inheritors tended to be East India "interlopers". If memory of this persisted in London's commercial circles, it helps explain why the East India Company of 1786 was so negative to ideas of colonizing eastern Australia!

The English find Barbados:

In contrast with Virginia, Barbados in the West Indies, 166 square miles in size, had a "soft" founding, or origin, partly as it was originally uninhabited. Barbados' settlement is oddly similar to the founding of Britain's convict colony in Australia in 1788, respecting the number of people involved at least. Some 1420-1530 people were initially part of the First Fleet complement to Australia.
(Figures vary. See Mollie Gillen, The Founders of Australia: A Biographical Dictionary of the First Fleet. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1989. Furber, Rival, pp. 69ff. A London researcher, Gillian Hughes, has advised me thus: Calendar of State XC9452, Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, of the Reign of Charles I. 1625-1626, State Paper Dept., PRO, Edited by John Bruce, London, 1858., p. 206.)

Courteens involved a similar number of people in developing Barbados as were sent to New South Wales on the First Fleet.

In London, Courteen, Anglo-Dutch financier, was informed that an English ship had touched at Barbados, which was found to be uninhabited, and so had been claimed in the king's name. It is not yet clear when or why Courteen Senior first began to seem influential in London. Furber provides this... Sir William Courteen Senior was the son of an emigre Protestant clothier, and brother of an even lesser-known Sir Charles Courteen. There were two men named William Courteen, father and son, and it is not impossible that some historians have confused the biography of one with the other. William Senior died in 1636; Sir William Courteen the younger died in 1666.

By the mid-1620s, Courteen had many interests in Amsterdam and "along the wild coast of South America". Between 1610-1620, the Courteens of Middleburg used Trinidad for "illicit trade" in tobacco and were attempting to build a network of trade routes to the interior of South America. In 1619 Courteen Senior was involved in proceedings in the Star Chamber, accused of transporting "secretly seven millions of gold" from England. He was discharged about July 1620 with a fine of 20,000 l. for the "unlawful transporting of coin", with a general pardon of past offences.
(Letter from Gillian Hughes, 27 September, 1993, after she had searched information from 1619 to 1636 for the present writer.)

By 1625, "Sir Wm. freely lends his money for supply of the King's instant occasions, and that without interest of the old debt". Courteen's terra australis aspirations may not have been unrelated to the money Courteen had loaned to Charles I in 1625?. (While Courteen's links, if any, to the Dutch East India Company are never mentioned).

In 1625? We find, Item 33: Petition of Sir Wm. Courteen to the King:

"the lands in the South part of the world called Terra Australis Incognita, are not yet traded to by the King's subjects. The petitioner desires to discover the same and plant colonies therein. He prays therefore for a grant of all such lands with power to discover the same and erect colonies."

On the same original page as this is also mention of a case of concern over enriching the Kingdom, increasing shipping and employing the idle... (Employing the idle was to be a long-standing English pre-occupation, but it should be noted, "idle" came to mean not slothful, but insubordinate). Courteen had first wanted to settle "Australia", but could not, so he settled Barbados. We also find he invested in the Dutch East India Company, which "finally sent him bankrupt".
(Griffiths, A Licence to Trade, pp. 82ff. Furber, Rival, variously.)

We find, Courteen had been intriguing against the English East India Company since the late 1620s. It is generally unheard in Australia that Courteen wanted to settle terra australis incognita. Where this is mentioned, the information is hedged about with various other controversies about the discovery of Australia.
(Kenneth Gordon McIntyre, The Secret Discovery of Australia: Portuguese Ventures 250 Years before Capt. Cook. Revised. Sydney, Pan, 1977. For a modern view here on the origin of the "Papal Line", Oskar H. K. Spate, The Spanish Lake. Vol. 1 of The Pacific Since Magellan. Canberra, Australian National University Press. 1979-1988. [Vol. 2, Monopolists and Freebooters; Vol. 3.)

Various stories are told about Barbados and Warner. In one story, in 1622, Warner became interested in establishing a West Indies colony. He found capital from London merchant, Ralph Merrifield, and became interested in "undercover" West Indian trade. Warner got to St. Kitts by 1624.
(Arthur Percival Newton, The European Nations in the West Indies, 1493-1688. London, A&C Black, 1933., p. 143 on Warner and Courteen, p. 155.)

Another story has it that Capt. John Powell, sailing for Courteens, chanced on Barbados, uninhabited, and found that the island was rich in dye woods (known as logwood) used in the English textile trades. Powell claimed Barbados for James I and England, and then called at St Christopher (a haven for freebooters) to visit Thomas Warner, who had earlier been involved in Amazon adventures. (Some reports have it that Warner established Barbados from 1625, with little mention of Powell).
(C. P. Lucas, Historical Geography of the British Colonies. The West Indies. Vol. Two. Second Edn., Oxford, 1905., as cited in Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 8.)

By 1624, anyway, the founding father of St Kitt's (St Christopher's) became Sir Thomas Warner, a Suffolk Man and a friend of John Winthrop (the founder of Massachusetts).
(Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, pp. 50-51.

One early Courteen arrival on Barbados was Henry Winthrop, a "scapegrace second son" of the founder of Massachusetts John Winthrop, for £100 a year, but Winthrop's father very suspicious of such poor tobaccos coming from Barbados - Winthrop at one point switched loyalty from Courteen to Carlisle and one of 12 magistrates on island, but ended back in England. About 1630, an early arrival on Barbados, trying tobacco planting, was Henry Winthrop, a scapegrace second son of the founder of Massachusetts, John Winthrop. (One of Winthrop's motives for founding Massachusetts was to find better opportunities for his children; Winthrop had links in London with influential people such as some of the family of Emmanuel Downing (the Downings intermarried with the Winthrop family).

1624, circa: About 1624, Joshua Downing was a Commissioner of the Navy. Only a generation or two earlier, the Hawkins/Gonson family, with Hawkins as slavers, had helped managed the navy.
(Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, pp. 50-51. On Winthrop connections, see entries in American Dictionary of Biography. An early Leeward sugar planter was Samuel Winthrop of the same New England family, arrived in the Caribee by 1647, aged 20, who settled at Antigua. He was ruined by the French in 1666.)

Warner had tried and failed in Guiana, then tried again at St Kitts, which he occupied in 1624. Warner then returned to England (about a forty-day voyage) to find further merchant backing for a St Kitt's project; he returned to St Kitts by January 1624. When the French arrived there in 1625, Warner was so weak he agreed to share with them (large numbers of Caribbean Indians were massacred one night in their hammocks). All were attacked in 1629 by the Spanish - although some English held on. About then the Courteen Brothers, Sir William and Sir Charles of London and Middleburg were active. By 1624, before they decided on settling Barbados, Courteens had wanted to settle terra australis and promoted this Antipodean idea to James I.
(I am indebted to Edward Linn of Sydney for initial discussions about Courteen.)

Also interested here was Sir James Lancaster.
(On Lancaster: Griffiths, A Licence to Trade, p. 73 on Ralph Fitch and variously; Furber, Rival, p. 39. Lancaster's first voyage was form 1591, before the East India Company was formed.)

However, in another confusing story, the Earl of Carlisle, Lord Proprietor of the English Caribbean, made Warner governor of St Kitts. (There was later an Edward Warner a Lt.-Governor of Nevis.)
(Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 119. Newton, Colonising Puritans, pp. 29ff. G. Davies, Early Stuarts, p. 337. 1631: Massachusetts Bay Colony was administered by Gov. Winthrop and Lt.-Gov. Thomas Dudley. Ver Steeg, The Formative Years, p. 13, p. 41.)

Some say that before Warner had returned to St. Christopher by January 1624, having obtained financial support from Ralph Merrifield (who is heard of relatively little). Warner evidently did obtain the ear of the Courteen Brothers. By September 1625, Warner had again returned to England and with Ralph Merrifield obtained from the crown some letters Patent for the colony of St Christopher, and for the colonisation of Nevis, Barbados, and Montserrat. In 1625, Capt John Powell in William and John, with 30 settlers financed by Sir William Courteen, made the first permanent English settlement at Barbados, in which matter, it is said, one of Courteen's patrons was William Herbert, fourth Earl of Pembroke, (1584-1649/50). Merrifield and Warner meanwhile had gained the patronage of James Hay, first Earl of Carlisle. In what looks like a doublecross, in 1626 Carlisle obtained a grant of rights to the government of the whole of the Caribbean Isles. The Courteens, meantime, had begun cotton and tobacco plantations.

Courteen Senior will interest the historian of Barbados, of the Caribbean, or of slavery, since he was largely responsible for settling Barbados, the colonisation of which induced England to use, (rather than sell people into, as Hawkins did before 1600), the institution of chattel slavery.
(On the Asiento or, a highly capitalistic European organisation for the regular supply of slaves, circa 1518 with King of Portugal for supply of black slaves, and later developments, see pp. 62ff and pp. 226ff. of Arthur Percival Newton, The European Nations in the West Indies, 1493-1688, 1933, and p. 197, p. 209. Not till the 1650s did English planters rely on London-based capital, not capital from Middleburg or France.)

Courteen will interest the historian of the English East India Company since he interfered with the Company. And he will also interest the Australian historian, since Courteen Senior (and perhaps also, Sir James Lancaster), once with royal assistance from James I, planned to settle terra australis incognita, in ways which raise the bogey of discussion of the very sovereignty of Australia. Australians usually ignore information about such matters. The background to many scenarios is "Amazonian", as noted earlier.
(Even earlier, there had been a proposal that Francis Drake settle terra australis and be made life governor there. However, one has no clear idea if those listening to the Drake proposal had any later-arising links to anyone associated with Courteen.

Notably, Raleigh had predicted that the area would have a thin population - a view which influenced later Mercantilist views on the region. Raleigh wrote: "for if the title of occupiers be good in land unpeopled, why should it be bad accounted in a country peopled over thinly? Should one family or one thousand hold possession of all the southern undiscovered continent, because they had seated themselves in Nova Guiana, or about the straits of Magellan?"
(From, A Discourse of War in General, Sir Walter Raleigh, Kt, The Works of... Vol. 8. New York, Burt Franklin. Orig. 1829., p. 255.)

In yet another version of stories... Courteen had already gained experience in Caribbean trade, and he formed the syndicate sponsoring the first settlement of Barbados in 1627, sending two shiploads of colonists under the command of John and Henry Powell. The Courteen syndicate invested £10,000 in the venture, hoping for returns comparable to the returns made by the backers of the privateers of the 1590s.
(Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 50.)

Historians have consulted four lists of nearly 2000 people going to Barbados before 1640. The earliest list records 74 settlers with Capt John Powell in the ship Peter in 1627. Another count gives Courteens sending out Powell's brother, Henry, plus 80 colonists, from February 1627. There were no women in that party, and only six of this same party were still on Barbados eleven years later when there were 764 landholders. In contrast to the intentions of the Earl of Carlisle, who invested relatively less on Barbados, Sir William Courteen did not grant his original people any land; he had paid them wages and wanted to take all the results. By 1629, Courteens had up to 1800 people on Barbados.
(Arthur P. Newton, (Ed.), The European Nations in the West Indies, 1493-1688. London, Black, 1933., on Barbados, and Sir William Courteen, pp. 142, 145, 155, 156.)

In the period in question, further conflict had broken out in London as parliament sought to limit the power of the king, James 1. It had become convenient to seek the impeachment of George Villiers, first Duke of Buckingham. James' financial situation had not improved and he remained uneasy; by 1629 the royal debt was over one million pounds. It was about then that James 1 backed a rival to the East India Company, the Courteen Association, which from about 1625 abandoned the idea of colonising terra australis in favour of settling Barbados. Meanwhile, it seems that due to the actions of the Earl of Carlisle, what Courteen finally obtained as return from royalty was a bad title to Barbados.

Cartographic arguments:

It rather seems, what the British government later did for Sydney and New South Wales, Australia, just one firm, Courteens, did for Barbados. What of terra australis incognita in Courteen's day? This remains complicated. A proper view of the series of discoveries of Australia by European navigators entails discussion of the "Papal Line", which by fiat of Catholic or Vatican hegemony once divided the world into two spheres of interest subject to the Spanish and Portuguese; a proposition of course that England never accepted. So it might here be suggested, that an inability to fit the financial biography of Courteen Senior into nationalistic history, during an historical period involved with changes in English views of royal authority, goes hand in hand with an inability to fit Courteen's interest in terra australis into the Anglicized history of the discovery and settlement of Australasia. The people who might most be inclined to agree with this proposition might be cartographers?

An Australian historian, George Collingridge, tried to discuss these cartographic issues after 1859, but his views were chewed up in a separate controversy about Capt. Cook and the creation of maps of New Holland, or, New South Wales.
(Macintyre, Secret Discovery, pp. 3ff, p. 196. In his first volume of a trilogy, The Pacific Since Magellan. (Canberra, Australian National University Press, 1983.), Spate treats the "Spanish Lake" and (p. 56) illustrates the anti-meridian of the Papal line.
(Here, Spate, p. 27 discusses the Treaty of Tordesillas; and, p. 29, the Peak of Darien. On Balboa and "Darien", see Spate, Vol. 1, p. 32-34. In his second volume, Spate treats Dampier, pp. 160ff. In this second volume, Spate treats the Pacific Since Magellan, Monopolists and Freebooters, the Dutch, Priests and Pearlers, the Buccaneers, William Dampier; Anson sailing against Manila, Peru and California.)

(It is no accident that the present north-south eastern border of Western Australia coincides roughly with the "Papal Line", which, today, means these issues have vague connection to questions concerning sovereignty over Australia, and today's (1997) related issues of indigenous land rights).

Macintyre in his Secret Discovery of Australia mentions that Joseph Banks tried in 1811 to refer to this matter as he was writing an introduction to Matthew Flinders' book on his circumnavigation of Australia. Banks alluded to Holland's once-existing (theoretical?) right to colonise Australia, or parts thereof. Probably because of the hegemony then in European affairs exercised by Napoleon, especially over Holland, Robert Peel suppressed Banks' views so effectively, Banks withdrew in disgust and forgot about introducing Flinders' book.

Whatever, a historians' dispute on cartographic matters began in 1859. George Collingridge produced The Discovery of Australia: A Critical, Documentary and Historic Investigation concerning the Priority of Discovery in Australasia by Europeans before the Arrival of Lt. James Cook in the "Endeavour" in the year 1770. (Sydney, Hayes Bros., 1895. Also by George Collingridge, `The Early Discovery of Australia', Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Geographic Society of Australasia. Sydney, NSW, 1893.) Here, the preface makes reference to R. H. Major, Early Voyages to Terra Australis. London? 1859.)

A dissident historian, Major, had noted incorrectly, that Harley, the first Earl of Oxford and Mortimer (this might be Edward Russell, Lord High Admiral, Treasurer of the Navy, (1652-1727) Earl of Orford) when backing Dampier's voyage to Australia, had owned a copy of the Dauphin Map.
(Collingridge, p. 167: Earl Orford: His own DNB entry. GEC, Peerage, Orford, p. 78. Orford married his cousin, a daughter of William Russell, first Duke of Bedford and was second son of his father, and brother of the fifth Earl of Bedford and first Duke of Bedford.
Dampier on Jamaica worked for Helyars of Somerset, who were military compatriots of Modyford on Jamaica, who is mentioned variously in the essay. Collingridge's Discovery informs, (p. 270), in 1621 a treaty between the Dutch and English was signed, including provisions on trade to the Spice Islands. "It prevented war for a time, but did not put an end to the disputes or animosities of the rival English and Dutch Companies, which culminated in the well-known massacre of the English at Amboina (sic) in 1622." In all, Collingridge here seems confused between Earls Orford (Russell, then Walpoles), and Harley the first Earl of Oxford and Mortimer; not an earl of Oxford, as McIntyre states in his book, Secret Discovery. (This is discussed in a later file in more detail.)

However, it might be reasonable all the same to suggest that when Courteen or his men were looking at existing maps, wondering where terra australis incognita might be, they would have been aware of the existence of the Portuguese settlement at Timor (begun from 1514), rather south of the Spice Islands and the Straits of Malacca. Whether or not Dampier knew of a "Dauphin Map" or not, or cartographic arguments, it would be hardly surprising that Timor and nearby areas were on Dampier's itinerary.)

... The English notwithstanding continued to send out ships to [near?] the Australasian regions and in 1624 a petition for the `privilege of erecting colonies' in Terra Australis was presented to King James the First, by Sir William Courteen." (James 1 did not favour colonies or colonisation). But I can find no supportive information that Harley, even though he was a Whig, took any role in promoting Dampier's voyage!
(Collingridge then quoted from E. A. Petherick's publication, The Torch, March 1888, page 89.)

Collingridge, however, wrote further, (p. 270): "In the last year of his [James'] reign however, an eminent London merchant - probably the most enterprising English merchant of his time - Sir William Courteen, desiring to extend his trade to the Terra Australis, petitioned the king for the privilege of erecting colonies therein. Sir William, who was joint owner of more than twenty burden, employing four of five thousand seamen, already carried on an extensive trade on his own account to Portugal, Spain, Guinea, and the West Indies." The following is a copy of his petition now printed [by Collingridge?] for the first time:

'"... extract, (pp. 270-271) ..."that all the lands in ye South parts of ye world called Terra Australis, incognita, extending Eastwards and Westwards from ye Straights of LeMaire together with all ye adjacente Islands [etc] are yet undiscovered... Your petr ... humbly desires yr Maj to bee pleased to grante to him, his heirs and assigns all ye said lands, islands & territories, with power to discover ye same, to erecte Colonies & a plantation there..."

Petherick added the following:
"Having lent large sums of money to the King, Sir William Courteen had some claim upon His Majesty's consideration. But it does not appear that `All ye said lands & territories' were granted to him. He appears to have been satisfied with a bad title to the island of Barbados, where he sent (in 1626) fifty settlers, who built a fort (1627) and remained there till it was taken from them (1628). He then sent eighty men to the island and re-took it in the name of the [fourth] Earl of Pembroke. However, whichever story is attended to, it is still not clear, what interest the fourth Earl of Pembroke had in the Caribbean, except that Pembroke's interests were eclipsed by royalty's favouring of the courtier, the Earl of Carlisle. Sir William Courteen Junior died in 1666, having earlier inherited claim to his father's title to a Caribbean proprietorship. That proprietorship, as hinted at above, was not deemed a good one, and was apparently disallowed in 1660.
(The following may be relevant. There is also a Hakluyt Society publication, Late Tudor and Early Stuart Geography. And a publication of 1644, being "The Association" [Courteen's?] The East India Trade Stated, Anon, 1644, embodying some notes by a Capt. of John Weddell's fleet and noting events about 1637. Courteen (Jnr.?) also developed a case for trading to China, Canton.)

The entire matter has never been researched fully, but the implications of English dispute about the proprietorship of the Caribbean preoccupied matters from about 1630 to 1700, most of the century.

Discovering specific problems with the first Courteen title to Barbados is not easy. Some of the matters about which ignorance have reigned here may be due to any of the following:
(a) Some possible suppression in England of information on the struggle between Courteen versus the Earl of Carlisle for control of Barbados, with a little-known role for the Earl of Pembroke;
(b) An inability by scholars to accurately trace which explorers used or updated various maps, over various centuries, as Australia was "discovered";
(c) Secrecy of a national security nature which was endemic to all European nations with commercial fleets and an interest in improving navigation; (d) Distractions provided by the histories of pirates, the juvenile delinquents of maritime history;
(e) Losses of information by shipwreck;
(f) Perhaps, some suppression also of the history of the way England began using slavery in the Caribbean?
These are all linked questions.

Both Carlisle and Courteen had royal patents for Barbados and both sent out governors, settlers, supplies; both found their agents were banished or seized. One governor was executed. But when the Earl of Carlisle became "Lord Proprietor" of the Caribbean, he made Warner governor of St Kitts.
(Later, Charles I authorized a courtier, Endymion Porter, to fit out privateers for the Red Sea. There would be formed the Courteen Association, led by "a leading capitalist", Sir William Courteen Jnr., to trade in India where the East India Company had not gone. But this new company sent debased money to India and the East India Company suffered further loss of reputation. The king, in return for withdrawing the annoying patent, managed to extract a "loan" of £20,000 from the East India Company. Holden Furber, Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient, 1600-1800. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1976., p. 39.)
(Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 119. In about 1641 the profligate Hay, Earl of Carlisle, eloped with Lady Lucy Percy ("A Venus rising from a sea of jet"); Lady Percy was acting at the instigation of the infamous Countess of Somerset: Agnes Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England, Vol. 5, p. 284.)

But as Dunn writes, unhappily for Courteen, the Earl of Carlisle challenged Courteen's control of the island (although Dunn does not say what the grounds for the challenge were).
(A. P. Newton, European Nations, p. 156, writes of the "tortuous court intrigues" by which Warner's patron, James Hay, Earl of Carlisle, by 1629 had established his claims to a royal patent on Caribbean Islands, with the claims of Courteen and also the Earl of Pembroke entirely set aside. Carlisle's only interest was the easy profit of the absentee landlord, and otherwise he kept matters in the hands of his merchant associate, Marmaduke Roydon, of whom little is known.)

Carlisle did little to advertise the island, and expected merely to distribute land to settlers who paid to set themselves up. Up to nearly 40,000 acres went to 250 colonists from 1628 to 1630.

The granting of "the West Indies" to the Earl of Carlisle came under the terms of a proprietary patent of 1627. One link with Carlisle was Thomas Littleton, who in turn linked with Edward Thomas via Anthony Hilton's syndicate for the Leeward Islands. Hilton had obtained a licence from Carlisle, and began on Nevis in 1628, there linked with Edward Thomson, who was possibly a relative of Maurice Thomson (of the Rich faction in London - one Edward Thomson, ex-St. Kitts, was often a partner with Maurice). In 1627, having established his proprietorship, of all Caribbean Isles, Carlisle compelled partners to re-purchase from him and to pay for the right to export tobacco customs-free for ten years. In 1628 Carlisle obtained a redrawn grant.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 92, p. 128.)

The elite merchants and the puritan colonising nobles were two groups both damaged when Charles in 1627 granted the West Indies proprietary colony to Buckingham's follower, the Earl of Carlisle.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 265-270.)

On 17 April, 1627, Charles I meanwhile authorized the Earl of Warwick with a commission to plunder or colonize the king of Spain's possessions in Europe, Africa and the Americas. Buckingham via his spy Sir James Bagg tried to have Warwick's ship, intended to take the treasure fleet off Brazil, prevented from leaving Plymouth. The ship sailed, but Warwick was attacked by a superior Spanish force and barely escaped; this particular expedition was a complete failure. When, due to Carlisle's interventions, the proprietorship of Barbados came into dispute, the slowness of Courteen's supply lines threatened famine.
(In 1637, Peter and John Hay sailed to the Caribbean to help enforce the rights of the creditors of the Earl of Carlisle. But we are not told if any such creditors had any prior links with Courteen or Courteen associates; Bliss, Revolution and Empire, p. 33. Peter Hay had kinsmen Sir James Hay and Sir Archibald Hay who helped shore up the influence of the earl of Carlisle island as rents were collected. The new governor, Henry Huncks, once threatened Peter Hay with physical violence. Interestingly, the Hays however did understand colonial reluctance to bear with trade regulation if there was no share in colonial government - of course, such issues flared dramatically with the later outbreak of the American Revolution. In 1636, a servant ship with Thomas Anthony as supercargo carried 56 Irishmen and women from Kinsale to Barbados. The ship was originally bound for Virginia, but the servants had heard wages were more liberal on Caribbean islands. There were two other ships that year from Kinsale. Servants fetched 500 pounds weight of tobacco each. Their employers were?

By 1636, Carlisle's men included Peter Hay and James Holdip, while the merchant syndicate backing Carlisle included Marmaduke Roydon, William Perkins and Alexander Bannister. One aspect of Carlisle's proprietorship (he died 1636) was that he leased 10,000 acres of perhaps the best land in Barbados in St. George's Valley to his London syndicate - Roydon, Perkins, Bannister.
(See Ligon's map of Barbados. Notes, Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 49, Note 10, p. 50, pp. 55-57.)

Barbados' people however survived, and by 1640, after changing from diversified agriculture to using more rationalized, larger holdings, plantation-style, Barbados was profitably exporting tobacco, cotton and indigo. By 1645, the Barbados settlers would buy 1000 slaves in a year.
(Mintz, Sweetness, p. 53.)

Here, we are certain the complexities of the day have to be invoked. An Indian historian, Mukherjee, records Charles I as being in constant need of money, apparently the reason Charles backed the formation of Carlisle's association as a rival to Sir William Courteen. Mukherjee also suggests that a group led by William Courteen Junior also remained an irritant of the East India Company, if not a rival to it, with a result that the East India Company "fell into a state of disorganisation, from which it did not recover till 1657". Mukherjee strangely does not elaborate on this "disorganisation".
(Mukherjee, Rise and Fall, p. 79. More specifically (see John Bruce, Annals of the Honourable East India Company. London, Court of Directors of the East India Company, 1810. Vol. 1), p. 346, the Courteen Association wished to exploit a convention between Goa and Surat with a view to using Portuguese ports, an option not open to the English East India Company; pp. 337-362 on a royal licence for the Courteen Association, between 1636-1637 and later, as Courteen Senior died and his son inherited his projects. On the revocation for permissions given to the Courteen Association. (Bruce, Annals, Vol. 1, p. 362.)

But in 1627, when the English arrived on Barbados with ten Negroes and 32 Indians, chattel slavery was still a strange idea to "the narrowly ethnocentric English". These English gathered various tropical plants and seeds, including sugar-cane, from a Dutch outpost at Surinam, and 32 Indians helped them plant and cultivate. Dating the arrival of sugar on Barbados remains difficult, but it was found over time that the Negro was a more tractable worker than the Indian.
(Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, pp. 61-71.)


Control over Barbados and Providence Island:

Due to its location, control over Barbados was crucial in the strategic matter of exerting naval and commercial power in the Caribbean.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 92, p. 156.)

The Providence Island Company was founded in late 1629 as an offshoot of the Bermuda Company, with Capt Philip Bell under the patronage of the second Earl of Warwick; and it was the only major company chartered in or for the Americas after 1625. (Providence Island was off the Nicaraguan Coast.) In 1641, one Owen Rowe, a London silk merchant, became deputy-governor of the Bermuda Company; he was a relative of Susanna Rowe, the second wife of Earl of Warwick.
(Susanna Rowe was daughter of London Lord Mayor Henry Rowe who was active by 1607. GEC, Peerage, Warwick, p. 411. There may have been a link to Lord Mayor in 1568, Sir Thomas Rowe. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 155. Merchant Owen Rowe was involved in Virginia trade and the Massachusetts Bay Company. In 1641 he became deputy-governor of the Bermuda Company. He was of the radical parish of St. Stephen's, Coleman Street. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 281, pp. 527-530.)

Once told of the discovery of Providence Island, Warwick had formed a joint-stock company to exploit it, members being non-merchant nobles and godly gentry... Such as William Fiennes, "Lord Saye and Sele), Lord Brook (either Fulke Greville or Robert Greville, Fulke the first Baron Brooke, Robert his cousin, second Baron Brooke), and the radical John Pym.
(In 1636 the Company made "a private war" on Spain and wanted to move from Providence Island to form a new settlement on a Central American mainland. Later, Maurice Thomson dealt with the Providence Island Company.)

Further anti-Spanish activity:

By an enlarged commission of April 1627 the second Earl Warwick was authorized to invade or possess any of the dominions of the king of Spain or the archdukes of Europe, Africa or America. The court party disapproved, and adventures were mostly allowed due to the preparation for the Rochell expedition. Warwick with help from some London merchants fitted a fleet of eight ships and tried to capture the Brazil fleet. This failed; the ships barely escaped capture and ended losing money. In 1628 and 1629 Warwick sent out more ships which did take prizes from Spaniards and Genoese, but legal disputes arose. Other ships Warwick despatched were Earl of Warwick and Somers Island.
(Cited in this context is a letter from Capt. Bell. Rich led his own clan plus a group of powerful London merchants (whom Newton does not name), with Brooke and Lord Say and Sele aiding unions forming between Puritan Lords and commercial men.)

On 28 April, 1629, Sir Nathaniel Rich, an active member of the Somers Isle Company got from Captain Bell a letter, describing difficulties and faction fights. Bell was being blamed and could not defend himself, but Bell mentioned two ships, Earl of Warwick Capt. Daniel Elfrith and Somers Islands, now returning home. Elfrith had not taken his own ship as he had no crew. Capt Cammock had been left with 30 men on an island, St Andreas; there was mention of an island Catalina and (a mythical island), Fonceta (sic), of which Elfrith knew, or, Bell had sent Elfrith to discover it. (Bell it seems was marrying Elfrith's daughter). Bell wanted the Earl of Warwick to get a patent for Fonceta.

Carlisle by 1629 meantime had the upper hand over Barbados and became recognized as lord proprietor of all the English Caribees, the Leewards Islands as well as Barbados. In 1629, in a dramatic anti-Spanish move that might have been reported more forcefully in history, given its linkages between expansionism, trade and concerted aggression, a company of high-level English puritans including the Earl of Warwick, John Pym, first Lord Brooke, Fulke Greville and William Fiennes, first Viscount Saye and Sele sent colonists to occupy Providence Island, off the Nicaraguan Coast.
(Fulke Greville (1554-1628), first Baron Brooke, naval treasurer, Chancellor of the Exchequer, published Sydney's radical book, Arcadia. He was murdered by a servant. GEC, Peerage, Brooke, pp. 331ff; Willoughby, p. 690. Who's Who /Shakespeare, p. 98. There was also a Sir Fulke Greville (1575-1632) of Newton, of Thorpe Latimer who married Margaret or Mary Copley. He was a friend of Raleigh. Newton, Colonising Puritans; GEC, Peerage, Brooke, p. 333.)

Providence was to be a staging ground for raids against the Isthmus of Panama (the area of the Peak of Darien). In 1631 this same company sponsored another privateering base at Tortuga, off the coast of Hispaniola. All this would have continued the earlier Elizabethan "war" with Spain with typical English puritan vehemence.
(Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 12. That vehemence should not be underestimated. The "Five Knights case" prior to the Civil War involved Warwick, Saye, Rich, Pym, Rudyerd and Digges. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 265.)

As Lord of the English Caribbean, Carlisle was "an indolent absentee proprietor", interested only in collecting quit rents. He died in 1636 with a debt-entangled estate and his proprietary rights over Barbados came into dispute. In the 1630s, all effective government of Barbados went to Carlisle's governor, Henry Hawley, who levied poll taxes on the inhabitants. Hawley called a Barbados Assembly meeting in 1639, but remained largely a petty despot.
(Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, pp. 49ff.)

The murmurs of discontent expressed, and some of the issues raised, were of the kind which much later would fuel the American Revolution. For England, Barbados became an early-warning situation about many trends that were to be influential. (And in 1629, as Charles I made peace with France, England abandoned her efforts with Nova Scotia, where Scots enterprise had faltered).
(Davies, Early Stuarts, p. 326. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 252.)

It is from this point, however, that detail in history books fades, and confusions set in. Broadly, it does appear that Charles I profited from Carlisle's interest, while Charles also owed money to Courteen.

Essay by Dan Byrnes

Enter Willoughby of Parham:

In Penson's confused book on Caribbean developments, (for 17 February, 1646-1647) it is recorded mysteriously that "the authority of the proprietor of the Caribbean Islands was represented by the earl of Carlisle's lessee", Francis, fifth Baron Willoughby of Parham.
(Lillian M. Penson, The Colonial Agents of the British West Indies: A Study in Colonial Administration mainly in the Eighteenth Century. Orig. 1924. London, Frank Cass and Co., reprint 1971., pp. 21-22.

A pioneer of colonialism, fifth Baron Willoughby of Parham (1613/1614-1666), remarks Harlow, had an easily-provoked temper. He helped develop Carolina, the settlement of Surinam in 1651-1663 and first promoted planters being sent to Santa Lucia. "Lord Willoughby did more to extend the British Empire in West Indian regions that any other man of his time.", which cost him more than £50,000. He left colonial property to his daughters Frances, Lady Brereton, and Elizabeth, a later Countess of Ranelagh. Willoughby sided with Parliament in the Civil War, then the Royalists.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, index. GEC, Peerage, Ranelagh, p. 733; Wimbledon, p. 743, Note b; Winchilsea, p. 778; Willoughby, pp. 703ff; Coningsby p. 396; Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 50. See also various listings for Finch in DNB. Interesting genealogy on the Willoughby line concerning the Muscovy Company is available in Josef Hamel, England and Russia; comprising The Voyages of John Tradescant The Elder, Sir Hugh Willoughby, Richard Chancellor, Nelson and others, to the White Sea. London, Richard Bentley, 1854. (Translated by John Studdy Leigh))

Willoughby gained his authority from Charles, Prince of Wales in 1647. (The Earl of Marlborough may also have had a role here, but if so, this also has not been well explained). Willoughby got from the Earl of Carlisle a 21-year lease of the Caribee Islands, with a post of Lt-General. He was also appointed by Charles II as governor of Barbados.
(With the Restoration of 1660, Willoughby was again confirmed in his "possession" of the Caribees. He had a plantation named Parham at Surinam, which he had colonized in 1651, and later with Lawrence Hyde he was granted a patent over Surinam of 2 June, 1663.)

At some point, Carlisle and associated merchants despatched to St Kitts some emigrants, stores and ordnance (said to be from Scotland), and the first English colony in the Caribbean was launched. Courteen, not to be outdone, obtained the patronage of Lord Treasurer, James Ley, Earl of Marlborough, for the colony at Barbados, apparently unsuccessfully. But in 1627, a wholesale grant covering many islands had been bestowed on the lord chamberlain, Philip, Earl of Montgomery (the fourth Earl of Pembroke) and confusion resulted.
(This was James Ley, brother of John the Amazon explorer. The third Earl Marlborough continued the family's preoccupations with Caribbean adventures.)

To make matters worse, reports on Barbados' history have not been associated with reports on the Courteen bankruptcy, which was due to investment or involvements in the Dutch East India Company. Pembroke's grant of Barbados was revoked in 1629.

Little information exists on the Earl of Pembroke's role, but it is said that in 1627, Pembroke had failed to enforce his own claims in the Caribee against the claims of the Earl of Carlisle, and about 1643, Pembroke failed in a bid to colonise Tobago, Trinidad and Margarita, so Pembroke then gave all his rights (not including those over Barbados, which stayed with the Earl of Carlisle) to the second Earl of Warwick - which resulted in an intensification of rivalry between Warwick and the heirs of Carlisle. Warwick tried to settle plantations on Tobago and Trinidad at his own expense, but was unsuccessful, largely due to manpower problems resulting from the civil war. (During the civil war, Pembroke, as with Warwick, took the parliamentary side). At some point, the Courteen Brothers bankrupted, (that is, Sir William Courteen Senior) with their debts apparently linked to Dutch East India Company men. Remarkably, their debts were bought by the Earls of Bridgwater, the Egertons, seemingly for "family reasons". As a purchase of debts, this transaction seems unique in English seventeenth century history. John Egerton the first Earl Bridgwater had married Margaret the sister of Sir William Courteen Senior; and William Courteen Junior married Catherine Egerton, daughter of John Egerton, third Earl Bridgwater.
(GEC, Peerage, Bridgwater, pp. 311ff; Brackley, p. 272; Derby, p. 212; Exeter, p. 219; Bolingbroke, p. 204. DNB for Courteen Senior.

The third Earl of Bridgwater had taken up Courteen Senior's debts by about 1640. John Egerton (1579-1649), first Earl Bridgwater and second Viscount Brackley was the son of Thomas Egerton (1540-1617) Lord Chancellor and the first Viscount Brackley and Elizabeth Ravenscroft, and had married Frances Stanley (1583-1635) (daughter of the fifth Earl Derby Ferdinando Stanley and Alice Spencer of the Spencers of Althorp) and Margaret Courteen (sister of Sir William Courteen Snr). The first wife of John Egerton (1623-1686) second Earl Bridgwater was Elizabeth Cavendish. John, third Earl Bridgwater married as first wife, Elizabeth Cranfield (1647-169), a descendant of Lionel; Cranfield, ex-merchant and first Earl Middlesex, the Treasurer for Charles I (Rabb, Enterprise, p. 219). Part of the later extended family was Anthony Ashley Cooper (1621-1683), first Earl Shaftesbury, often mistakenly regarded as the founder of the Whig Party. By the 1640s, Anthony Ashley Cooper [some claim he invented the Whig party] was an investor on Barbados, but one biographer claims Cooper's role as a commercial promoter or entrepreneur has been overstated.

In May 1646 some Courteen factors at the Madagascar colony planted in 1645 had coated a batch of brass pagodas in gold, to the later "infinite embarrassment" of the East India Company in India. Specimens were sent home to embarrass the Courteens and their dishonesty. It is said, William Courteen Junior after his Weddell disasters had recouped money by marrying Catherine, the daughter of Earl Bridgwater, and he fled "penniless" to the continent in 1646.
(Meanwhile, many merchant names mentioned here, some found in Brenner's Merchants and Revolution, can be cross-checked with names listed variously in Rabb's book, Enterprise and Empire. Maurice Thomson here becomes a partner with William Courteen Jnr.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 110, p. 173.)

Maurice Thomson had already got into the business, and built a virtual empire in two decades.
(James Williamson, The Caribee Islands Under The Proprietary Patents. Oxford, 1926., cited in Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 13.)

With the English settlement of the West Indies dominated by the earls of Carlisle, proprietors failed to invest and simply milked by way of taxes and impositions. Only the Bermuda Company and the Providence Island Company could function effectively with gentry control and finance, but they also became outposts in the 1630s of Puritanism, and had been backed by the colonising faction of the second earl of Warwick.
(Newton, Colonising Puritans, variously.)

Presumably, the Earl of Egerton had saved his son-in-law, William Courteen Junior, by buying the Courteen debts. Inevitably, purchasing such debts involved Egerton/Bridgwater in fracas with the Carlisle interest over the Caribbean. It is from here one that might begin to discern more clearly the linkages which developed, between slaving interests and East India Company interests, which have gone too unremarked.
(Furber, Rival, p. 39. K. G. Davies, Royal Africa Company, index. Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 26-27.) On the manipulators of Caribbean politics, Povey and Modyford, see Bliss, Revolution and Empire, [on Cordell, p. 48] p. 39, pp. 66-67, pp. 76ff, pp. 98ff, p. 143.)

Courteen Junior's backers included John Dike, Thomas Ferrars, Humphrey Onby, and Thomas Briggs, and perhaps Peter Courteen at Cologne. In Andrews' book, Ships, Money and Politics, is a list of men in the Barbary trade overthrown by Courteen the Younger, who were associates of Maurice Thomson.
(Andrews, Ships, Money and Politics, p. 183, Note 69. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution.)

They were William Cloberry Senior and Junior, Oliver Cloberry Junior, George Fletcher, Humphrey Slaney Snr. And Jnr., John Fletcher, Thomas Fletcher, William Geere, Henry Janson, Samuel Crispe, Ellis Crispe, John Wood, Edward Russell, Robert Blake Junior. Several of these traded to North America.

The story of the Courteen/Bridgwater debts has remained unresearched, but these debts seem significant in the history of slavery, in terms of the role of slavery in the development of capitalism (English capitalism, at least). What is not clear is whether the arrangement kept Bridgwater in touch, financially or otherwise, with the Dutch East India Company in a way still unknown to nationalistic history? After the Egerton-Bridgwater interventions in the Courteen disasters, some questions appearing become involved with some history of English infighting in the Caribbean in the seventeenth century. And those questions become involved with many family outcomes of English civil war - and some of those family outcomes became involved with the institution of slavery.


In 1631, a new joint-stock East India Company had been formed. In December 1635, Charles I had granted a charter to Courteen Senior and his associates, a licence to trade from the coast of Africa to the Far East, on the grounds that the East India Company had "neglected the interests of England" and broken some conditions of its privileges. Sir William Courteen Junior was fated to continue his father's projects. Sometime in 1635, Sir John Penington wrote to the Council that,
"There is a great rumour there that Sir William Courteen is setting out ships for the South Seas, and that Capt Weddall goes chief commander of them: others say that he is stayed by a letter from the King to go along with our Custos Maris". Courteen appears to have been the treasurer for these "fishing adventurers".

But in August 1635 Capt John Weddell and Nathaniel Mountney, a former member of the East India Company's council at Surat, arrived home bringing news of a "truce". Both had grievances and turned to Sir William Courteen Senior as a way of furthering their own eastern ambitions.
(K. G. Davies, Royal Africa Company, index. Furber, Rival, p. 39, pp. 69ff. On Weddell here, see also, Austin Coates, Macao and the British, 1637-1842: Prelude to Hong Kong. Oxford University Press, 1988. Coates however makes no mention of Courteen.)

Sir William Courteen and another influential courtier plus another merchant who sometimes lent money to the king had put up a scheme to trade with Portuguese settlements in India, justifying the plan by alleging that the East India Company had neglected to establish fortified factories or seats of trade, to which the King's subjects could resort with safety. By 12 December 1635 this syndicate obtained a license to trade to all areas in the east not exploited by East India Company, and it also hoped to find a north-west passage. The syndicate claimed that the East India Company had failed to fortify, and so had forfeited strategic positions.

So, in 1635 Charles issued letters of patent to the Courteen association for a voyage to the east, assuring the East India Company that the association would not engage in trade in the Company's jurisdiction. Courteen's Association got up four vessels, poached East India Company's naval and mercantile servants as officers and supercargoes, and sent them east under Capt. Wendell (Weddell), says Griffiths.
(Sir Percival Griffiths, A Licence To Trade: The History of the English Chartered Companies. London, Ernest Benn, 1974.)

Two Courteen Association vessels plundered a dhow in the Red Sea and since the Moguls did not distinguish between rival Englishers, the President and Council at Surat were imprisoned. There was a fine of Rs 1,70,000, and English were obliged to take an oath not to further molest Mogul shipping.

By September 1635 the East India Company directors had stopped a payment on a man named Clement, suspicious of his private trade. At this time, Clement was also privateering with Maurice Thomson in the West Indies. Also involved meanwhile with Courteen was John Fowke, a little known Levant merchant, a man who squabbled with the East India Company for thirty years. Fowke was a partner with William Cloberry, yet another associate of Maurice Thomson. Cloberry was also a promoter of the Kent Island project. This network of merchants evidently fitted out their ship Dragon for Courteen's use in the East as part of an interloping fleet of 1635-1636.

Also in 1635, one of the most powerful of Charles I's courtiers, Endymion Porter (1587-1649), attempted to follow suit (in the East), with London men including Thomas Kynnaston the cashier to the government financier, Sir Abraham Dawes
(Dawes was treasurer of the Earl of Arundel's Madagascar scheme of 1639. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 170, p. 299.)

Two ex-employees of the East India Company were John Weddell and Nathaniel Mountney, who offered to trade to Goa, Malabar, China and Japan, contacting Endymion Porter via Sir William Monson and secretary Francis Windebank.
(An admiral, Sir William Monson, is noted in GEC, Peerage, Monson of Bellinguard, p. 67.)

The final partnership apparently involved Bonnell, Kynnaston, Porter, but was backed by Courteen, as well as by Paul Pindar (so also, it appears, by Sir Peter Pindar). Paul Pindar put in up to £36,000, and John Talbot, the Earl of Shrewsbury (probably the 8th Earl?) put in about £2500.
(W. R. Scott, The Constitution and Finance of English, Scottish and Irish Joint-stock Companies to 1720. Three Vols., Cambridge, 1910-1912, Vol., 2. Pindar is noted in the DNB entry for Sir William Courteen Senior. On Bonnell: Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 170.)

Samuel Bonnell had been an agent for Courteen Senior, who now conceived ambitions to exploit the Convention of Goa, which had opened up the Indo-Portuguese markets to the English. Porter sent two ships, the Samaritan and the Roebuck, under William Cobb, licenced to pirate on anyone not in amity with England. Roebuck plundered two Red Sea ships, so East India Company men who had noting to do with these insults were imprisoned, and/or forced to make reparation. It is probable that Courteen was linked to Cobb's endeavour. It is said, that with the truce with the Portuguese, some Englishmen wanted to break with the East India Company monopoly and become interlopers; "chief of them was Sir William Courteen", who troubled the Company's Surat factors.
(Furber, Rival, p. 69.)

After Sir William Senior's death in 1636, his son William and associates received a new charter of June 1637.
(K. G. Davies, Royal Africa Company, index. Furber, Rival.)

A first Courteen Junior expedition was sent in spring 1636, equipped at a cost of £120,000 and sent out under Captain Weddell with Mountney as supercargo. The voyage was a success, but they had also did the East India Company's reputation harm. Basically, it seems Courteen and his associates were generally interested in acquiring areas not yet touched by the East India Company. Here with English colonialism is noted the continual tussle between the old versus the new, with the new constantly reworking the fringes of older-exploited areas, till finally, English colonialism moved east, to China and Australia, beyond to Fiji. Piracy also acted (or was used?) as a spearhead at times. And so, the Courteen and other private traders assailing the East India Company were, so to speak, expanding the areas first explored by Ralph Fitch and his companions in the 1580s. It was this expansiveness of English traders, expressed as old versus new, which was finally to dominate not so much actual English interest in Australasia, as certain oddities in the writing of the history of English interest in Australasia - and the Pacific - as we will find with the work of William Dampier in due course.

As we found earlier, Courteen had secured "privileges" regarding Terra Australis Incognita (although Collingridge differs here). The Courteen Association's plans cited latitudes and longitudes. The Courteen plan was to sail basically north of New Guinea, east, to examine "Magellan's islands" and the Straits of Lemair. Courteen's men evidently suspected that an interesting area of land existed south of New Guinea, or south of known areas of the Indonesian archipelago. (A region known to some as Java Le-Grande.
(McIntyre, Secret Discovery of Australia, p. 50 and elsewhere.)

Even by 1650, the East India Company was accused of not being far-seeing enough regarding land possibly lying south of New Guinea.) By about 1637, Courteens also developed a case for trading to China and/or Japan.
(By 1637, Peter Hay was trying to collect proprietary rents for Carlisle. There would be a depression in England 1640-1650, a stimulus to exploitation in colonies as power struggles both in London and on island-colonies, not to speak of conflict with the French, Dutch and Spanish, and chattel slavery, which all led to conflict and turbulence in the Caribbean, making it a place of uncertainty and suffering amid natural beauty.)

(Meanwhile, from the early 1630s, some noted London pepper dealers became Daniel Harvey (of a Levant Company background) and a deputy-governor of the East India Company, Alderman Clitherow, Sir James Cambell (sic) and other Eastland merchants, plus John Langham.
(The Cambell family (who were not Scots Campbells Argyll or Breadalbane) are mysterious in that they rose from nowhere and died away after several generations. They became closely connected with the commercial name Abdy via a marriage of Abigail Cambell to London alderman Sir Anthony Abdy .
(Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, Abdy, p. 1; Burke's Extinct Baronetcies, pp. 98ff).

Family members included: London merchant and Lord Mayor Sir Thomas Cambell (1535-1613) married to Alice Bugle; his son Sir Robert Cambell London alderman; and Sir Robert's son, alderman and Levant Company merchant Robert; one of the Abdys also married Mary Corsellis. A Cambell daughter also married London Lord Mayor Christopher Clitherow. One Miss Corsellis also married Sir (Bart) Thomas Cambell of Clay Hall (died 1665).)

In 1639-1640 the East India Company sent pepper to the Levant, then to Venice and Leghorn, selling the balance of stock to the King, who sold it at a loss, as [but the connection is unstated]; the King was then helping to back the Courteen Association... Here, information tends to read as though the English king had exercised some long-standing but little-commented royal semi-monopoly on the English pepper market).

What it means is hard to say, unless the information below is helpful.

In 1640 a fourth East India Company joint-stock was made; the third joint-stock had foundered in the troubles with the Civil War. Charles issued a more comprehensive patent to Courteen's son, and promised to revoke the licence if the East India Company could raise new and substantial stock, but the Company could not raise such stock. Charles I in 1640 bilked the East India Company of an advance of its pepper stock, valued at £63,000. Charles never repaid this money.
(Ian B. Watson, Foundation, pp. 35-36.)

After Courteen Senior died, his son William took on East India ventures hoping to receive half-profits; Endymion Porter got one quarter, and Kynnaston, Captain John Weddell (finally drowned at sea) and Nathaniel Mountney got the balance. Charles I had been secretly bribed with £10,000, and he granted the full royal patent in June 1637 to Courteen Junior and his associates - the Courteen Association. The group seems to have had no official title however, and it turned out a miserable failure. About this time, also, another interloping voyage set off for Madagascar, which the East India Company had used for years as a stopover.

Matters on the West African coast need attention. A name of interest is Sir William St John.
(Sir Percival Griffiths, A Licence To Trade, pp. 62ff.)

In 1618, this man and thirty others were incorporated as "a Company of Adventurers of London trading into the ports of Africa". Known as the Guinea Company, they could not raise fresh capital, so they granted licences to private traders, who can be referred to as interlopers. One prominent interloper here was Sir Nicholas Crispe, who is said to have built the first permanent English settlement at Kormantin. In 1631, Crispe and his partners were issued with a patent giving them a monopoly for 31 years of trade on the entire west coast of Africa, and prohibiting all others importing Africa goods into England. In 1649 a formal protest was lodged against this company with the Council of State. A need for forts was seen, (infrastructure cost), and a monopoly was renewed till 1651, though limited to about Sierra Leone and Kormantin. Thus, the patentees survived the Puritans. But finances worsened, so in 1657 they sold Kormantin to the East India Company, which was glad of the calling point.
(On Kormantin: Mukherjee, Rise and Fall, variously. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 163ff, p. 174. K. G. Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 9.)

Crispe had been active in the Africa trade from 1625. On 22 November, 1632, Charles 1 gave Crispe and five others an exclusive right to trade to the Guinea coast, for 31 years patent. Crispe got redwood from Guinea and had a sole importation right. The wealth Crisp got from slaving and other business in 1640 enabled him to contract for two large customs farms, "the great and the petty farm", and on that security he and his backers gave the king use of £253,000. Crispe was knighted on 1 January, 1639-1640. Remaining a loyalist during the civil war, Crispe in that time had fifteen ships at sea. He had a house in Bread Street, many puritan relatives; he again farmed the customs. He advanced £1500 for the re-conquest of Ireland, and welcomed the return of Charles II. In May 1661 his son obtained post of collector of customs for the port of London. He was notable in developing brick-making. His great-grandson Sir Charles Crisp died in 1740.

Between 1655 and 1665 one Thomas Crispe was in dispute with Denmark over land near Cape Coast Castle. In 1662 the Royal Adventurers Trading into Africa had one determination - to oust the Dutch in the slave trade.
(Clark, Later Stuarts, pp. 63, p. 332.)

They were the third English-Africa Company, and took over a former English East India Company base, Cape Coast Castle, a few miles east of a Dutch station, Elmina, on the Gold Coast. One of Crispe's backers was that powerful and also under-rated commercial name of the seventeenth century - Maurice Thomson. Crispe's depositions stated that in 1649 he was the chief factor on the Gold Coast for Rowland Wilson, Maurice Thomson, John Wood and Thomas Walter, whom he called The Guinea Company (of London).

The original site of Cape Coast Castle, said Crispe, had been given to English, then taken by the Swedes. It was re-taken by the English in Crispe's time on the coast.
(K. G. Davies, Royal Africa Company, pp. 40-41, 215, 282.)

That is, Thomas Crispe claimed he'd established what became the prime English slaving depot. He once deposed that he had bought the site of Cape Coast Castle for goods worth £64 (in the small coastal kingdom of Fetu). That is, he claimed he'd bought freehold. (James Island had been occupied since 1651 by the Courlanders. or, men in service of Duke of Courland. Later it passed into English hands).
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 119.)

Meanwhile, the English East India Company had not fully colonised Madagascar, disliking the expense, in contrast to the Dutch taste for creating fortifications.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 170-172. Porter, a groom of the royal bedchamber, entered the service of Buckingham and married Olivia Boteler, a niece of Buckingham. Porter's descendancy includes tenth Baron Teynham; GEC, Peerage, Teynham, pp. 684-687; Strangford, p. 359. Roger Lockyer, Buckingham: The Life and Political Career of George Villiers, First Duke of Buckingham, 1592-1628. London, Longman, 1981., p. 74.)

(In 1637, Prince Rupert had wanted part of Madagascar, but he went instead to fight in Europe.) In May 1638 the government gave a trade monopoly to Morocco to a group led by Sir Nicholas Crispe, who already had the Guinea patent. Hostility erupted, and a leading opponent of the Morocco patent was William Courteen with Samuel Bonnell, plus Nathaniel Andrews; and Thomas and Nathaniel would link with more interloping against the East India Company. Oliver Cloberry was also against the Crispe-Morocco deal, and Cloberry was trying with Maurice Thomson to horn in on Guinea trade. Courteen for his part wanted Morocco and Guinea products for trade in the east.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 174.)

By June 1638 the English Crown is going to war with Scotland, trying to mend its fences with the City, renewing its charter, which cost the City its Irish lands, plus £12,000. The crown also aided the Merchant Adventurers, but in 1639 the Courteen project was halted. Courteen was ordered to send only ships to bring back what he had sent out. The City was reluctant to help with war with Scotland.
(Meanwhile, on Barbados by 1638 was Thomas Verney, son of Sir Edmund Verney (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 12). On St. Kitts in 1639 arrived penniless one Phance Beecher, a kinsman of the clerk of the Privy Council, regarded as a trashy, saucy upstart, who later led "a rebellion" against Governor Warner. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 120.)

By 1639, of course, a chief of the interlopers working against the East India Company is Sir William Courteen, who "troubled the Surat factors" working for the East India Company. Courteen's men at Surat had found themselves "hampered" by being held responsible for some misdeeds committed by "other English", but the East India Company had the same view of the misdeeds committed by men of the Courteen association. Earlier, Methwold of the Company presidency at Surat had been imprisoned for two months respecting piracy by two English ships in the Arabian Sea - one of those ships had audaciously been flying the colours of England's royal navy. One employer of one such ship was certainly in Courteen's employ (it is thought).
(William Methwold (1633-1638), was bred in Norfolk and come to Bantam by 1616 and been apprenticed to a London merchant nine years, and spent five years in Middleburg. He became fluent in French and Dutch. From 1633 he was the East India Company president at Surat; he concluded a treaty with the Portuguese Viceroy at Goa in January 1635. Methwold had had to deal with the effects of an early 1630s famine and the effects of English interlopers. He was taken on as an East India Company factor, from 1618 to 1623 he was agent at Masulipatam. He had to return to England 1622-1623 regarding charges of private trading, and did some writing. He was first Englishman to visit a diamond mine. In 1633 he was deputy sword-bearer to Mayor of London, then was asked to go out as President at Surat. When he came home in 1639 he was a director and later deputy-governor of the East India Company till he died in 1653.
On Courteen: Furber, Rival, pp. 67-69.

Charles I had given a patent to a group of merchants headed by Courteen and a royal favourite, courtier Endymion Porter, to trade where the East India Company had not yet established factories.

It has been suspected that the king had remained annoyed, the East India Company in 1628 had not let him become an adventurer. (It will be remembered, that the first Company had formally decided, it would not deal with "gentlemen", that is, the aristocratic capitalists of the early 1600s). Weddell and Mountney sent ships east again in 1639, with much richer cargoes, worth perhaps £150,000, but their ships foundered (Methwold barely survived). Courteen's men's behaviour had been quite obnoxious in China and at Golconda. Courteens however managed to send out one or two ships per year; their factors at Surat and elsewhere drove up prices, their fortunes at home slid due to recklessness abroad and Civil War at home.

By early 1639, a leading government financier was Philip Burlamachi, who found the East India Company short of new capital for a new issue. Perhaps linked to Courteen's plans, a new company for joint stock for eastern trade was appearing.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 289.)

By 1639, the East India Company at Surat owned a few country ships (regional traders only, not necessarily beholden to Company authority), and they in various ways saved the Company money. In early 1639 the East India Company was appalled as the Earl of Arundel with the king's backing wanted to get to the east; his plan resembled the Earl of Southampton's venture to settle Mauritius. And that idea simply revived an abandoned project of Prince Rupert.
(Earl Arundel: This was Thomas Howard (1585-1646), fourteenth Earl Arundel, Earl Norfolk. Mary F. S. Hervey, The Life, Correspondence and Collections of Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel. Cambridge University Press, 1921. Kraus Reprint, New York, 1969; genealogical tables. Lorimer, (Ed.), Amazon, p. 194, Note 3. GEC, Peerage, Arundel, p. 255; Norfolk, pp. 624ff.)

The fourth Earl of Southampton had a similar plan for a colony on Mauritius. This Earl of Southampton was Thomas Wriothesley (1607-1667) also Earl2 Chichester; his third wife was Frances Seymour, who appears in the descent of Sir Francis Walsingham and Ursula St Barbe.

Charles I called a halt to plans for Mauritius in 1639 in response to calls from the East India Company, but he could not back anything up, so Courteen Junior proceeded, though Courteen was in deep financial trouble. This apparently meant that by the early 1640s, Courteen was drawn into linkage with Maurice Thomson. Thomson may have been drawn into such eastern business via Gregory Clement, who by 1631 was in trouble for interloping against the East India Company.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, 134.)

Brenner finds direct evidence that by 1641-1642, Thomson and his partners was working with Courteen. For example, Jeremy Blackman was captain of ship William owned by Richard Bateson, Simon Turgis and Thomas Cox - sent out by Courteen.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 175.)

Notes on "the Courteen debts" and on Maurice Thomson, business manager for the Earl of Warwick:

By 1642 Courteen Junior was bankrupt and he repaired to the Continent, leaving his East India Company matters in hands of his partners. Brenner divides these partners into four categories:
(1) the remarkably busy Maurice Thomson, William Pennoyer, Robert Thomson, Edward Thomson, Richard Bateson, Jeremy Blackman, Martin Noel, Nathan Wright Samuel Moyer, Thomas Andrews and his son Nathaniel;
(2) Foreign merchants in London who were friends of Courteens, including Joas Godschalk, John La Mott, Derrick Hoast, Adam Laurence, Waldegrave Lodovicke and John Rushout.
(Notes on Godschalk's family background are contained at the end of this file.)
(3) John Fowke;
(4) New recruits from the merchant community including John Dethick, Stephen Eastwicke a haberdasher, James Russell of the Spanish trade and the Merchant Adventurers, a Southwark sea captain William Ryder, plus a west country merchant, Thomas Boone.

(Some of these names turn up in a 20-man 1649 list on Adventurers in a "Second General Voyage", which included Nicholas Corsellis (who had married Maurice Thomson's daughter and who dealt in lead with Thomas Deacon). There were also in the 1649 list of Courteen's men, names including: James Houblon, John Casier, William Boene and Ahaseurus Regemont (whose widow married Jeremy Blackman).

Between 1642-1645, Maurice Thomson was linked with the Earl of Warwick and William Pennoyer with Capt Jackson's second raid on the Spanish West Indies. By 1640, Thomson was linked George Snelling and Edward Thomas, also Samuel Vassall and William Felgate, in Virginia and with West Indies tobacco and provisioning business. In 1647-1648, Brenner reports, men in the Guinea gold trade, owners of a ship Star, were Maurice Thomson, Rowland Wilson Senior, Rowland Wilson Jnr, John Wood and Thomas Walter.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 192.)

In the 1640s, Maurice Thomson and the second Earl of Warwick became involved with the Guinea Company.
(GEC, Peerage, Warwick, p. 406. Davies, Royal Africa Company, index, Burke's Extinct Baronetcies, pp. 441-442. See his son's DNB entry, his own DNB entry, and DNB for his father.)

About 1645-1647 arose an ambitious plan to settle the Indian Malabar coast with an investment of £80,000; and in 1645 Maurice Thomson led interlopers and sent an expedition with Capt. John Smart, to settle the east coast of Africa to create a provisioning base for eastern shipping; and also to produce sugar, indigo, cotton, tobacco, much like Barbados, which they themselves "owned". Smart went to St Augustine Bay, Madagascar, with 140 colonists (Mauritius and Assada were also in view). But illness among other matters Smart forced to withdraw. The interlopers also wanted their port to handle trade of the Indian subcontinent, and had retained Courteen's long-held idea of integrating regular trade with Guinea with regular trade to the East; they were already active with West Indian and slave trade, and wished to use African gold to pay for Eastern trade.

The Assada project was attempted under Colonel Robert Hunt, a protégé of Lord Brook, (probably the second Baron Brooke). In 1636, Hunt replaced Philip Bell as governor of Providence Island.
(Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 12, Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 299. It was probably the "republican" Robert Greville (died 1642-1643) second Baron Brooke. The records seem unclear as to which Baron Brooke was involved. Also see Kenyon, Civil Wars, p. 253. Newton, Colonising Puritans, p. 66. GEC, Peerage, Brooke, p. 333.)

They also began a second project on Pulo Run, an island in the East Indies seized by the Dutch but legally owned by the English.

By then the English East India Company was on the verge of dissolution, and Parliament, since the King would not control the Courteen Association, had acceded to the request of Maurice Thomson, alderman Thomas Andrews, Samuel Moyer and James Russell for liberty to trade to the East, in April 1645. It was decided by March 1647 not to renew the old East India Company charter. The Company had to re-finance and mount a "Second General Voyage". By that time, new merchants had been interloping privately in the east, presumably profitably.

The Company's Second General Voyage involved sixteen special directors, with £1000 each in the venture, including Thomas Andrews, Nathan Wright, Maurice Thomson, Samuel Moyer, Jeremy Blackman and Capt. William Ryder, who all faced old-stock men of the East India Company. This arrangement lasted till 1649.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 176ff.)

Scattered Courteen ships still sailed to the east, which might have been stopped by an Act of Parliament in 1647-1650.
(Furber, Rival, p. 75.)

But in 1648, fortunately for the East India Company, Courteen Jnr. was short of money, and he gave up the struggle. Still, in 1649 some of Courteen's associates proposed to form a settlement at Assada an island off coast of Madagascar, to extend operations to India, thus infringing on East India Company trade. A long wrangle ensued.
(Griffiths, Licence to Trade, variously.)


1629: On 4 June, 1629 the Dutch ship Batavia goes down off the coast of Western Australia, leaving her legacy of bizarre tales of shipwreck followed by mutiny, murder, rape and retribution. (Also leaving today's Aboriginals of the area with a rare genetic anomaly originating in Holland which was being examined by scientists in 1991-1992).

1629: In 1629, Britain abandoned her pretensions on Nova Scotia, when Charles I made peace with France. (See Godfrey Davies, The Early Stuarts, 1603-1660. The Oxford History of England. OUP. 1959).

1629: Nova Scotia had been given attention by Scots colonists in 1620, but in 1629, Britain has abandoned her efforts on Nova Scotia as part of Charles I' peace plan with France. (Otherwise, Englishmen regularly entertain fantasies of sending convicts to Nova Scotia until after 1788). (Davies, Early Stuarts, p. 326.)

In 1630 Samuel Vassall failed to settle South Carolina, helping Huguenots, in territory granted to Sir Robert Heath. Emigrants for there were mistakenly landed in Virginia. Vassall often worked with Richard Bateson and Edward Wood, who were Maurice Thomson's privateering partners. Also linked was Richard Cranely, a Levant man, an American sea captain who worked Virginia and the West Indies with one Mr. Thomson (possibly the "founder" of Nevis, Edward Thomson); plus Nathan Wright, a Levant Company man trading with New England and an interloper in both the Greenland and Newfoundland trades, before he began with America in the late 1630s.)

Between 1600 and 1630 then, it appears that the following happened: by about 1624, the Warwick circle, and some privateers, entered conflict with Sir Thomas Smythe and City magnates, who led the Virginia Company and East India Company, plus other operations. This conflict encouraged the lesser Sandys faction. Rich's circle otherwise sent out two vessels to the Red Sea with a privateering commission from the Duke of Savoy, and attempted to plunder a great ship belonging to the queen mother of the Great Mogul.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 100.)

The East India Company had just secured trade privileges from the Moguls and were worried. Several Company ships interrupted Rich's vessel and so bad feeling developed between Rich and the East India Company. Then Smythe and his friends frustrated Warwick's attempts to have his protégé, Nathaniel Butler, appointed governor of Bermuda. Smythe's son married Warwick's sister, Isabella.
(Isabella Rich; GEC, Peerage, Holland, pp. 538ff, Newhaven, p. 539.) ... of which Smythe Senior disapproved.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 216. Isabella Rich; GEC, Peerage, Holland, pp. 538ff, Newhaven, p. 539.)

By the 1630s, a new group or generation of Levant traders, whether or not they remained interested in the East India Company, were also becoming interested in Virginia/American trade, though not necessarily in Caribbean or West Indian trade. This disposition in trading groups would probably have remained, had not Thomas Warner discovered Barbados, the matter which prompted Sir William Courteen Senior to invest in settling Barbados.
On Caribbean dealings between Warner and Maurice Thomson, Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 127.

1620: Puritans, the Mayflower and other matters:

The Puritans' Mayflower had sailed in September 1620, landing at Plymouth, an area later annexed to Massachusetts, in 1691, after failing to find Virginia. The Scottish colonisation of Nova Scotia about the same time gave some stimulus to English trade (as we shall see, via Maurice Thomson's interests), but Britain in 1629 abandoned her efforts on Nova Scotia, when Charles I made peace with France. Meanwhile, in 1620 occurred the first known exploration of the African interior, up the Gambia River. A factory was established at the river mouth and later a fort was acquired at James Island. The English probably also visited Sierra Leone and Sherbro River.

An Englishman on one such expedition is said to have been offered slaves, but he magnanimously declined to deal in human beings. Unfortunately, things changed, although it should be emphasised, when chattel slavery began to be used on Barbados, the institution was initially unfamiliar to the English there. On Barbados, a "code" had to be drawn up, in which situation of course, the Negro had no voice, such was the voice of what would become Imperialism! This became the Barbados slave code, later exported to Jamaica, then to Virginia.
(K. G. Davies, The Royal African Company. London, Longmans, 1960., p. 9, p. 15, p. 42. I have leaned heavily here on the use of Davies' lists of investors in the slave trade, as given in his index, in order to link names with other information on men involved in the English slave trades from the 1640s.)

(Ends this essay section by Dan Byrnes)

1630 and earlier: Follows a list of earliest EICo names, to about 1630: Sir John Banks (1627-1699) (no relation to the later botanist Sir Joseph Banks), Edward Christian (see Glynn Christian, p. 23 on family of Bounty mutineer Fletcher Christian, Thomas Cordell (died 1612, linked to William Garraway and William Holiday plus privateer George Clifford, Earl3 Cumberland in 1594; see Brenner, p. 18), William Methwold, mariner James Lancaster, Richard Bateman, London Lord Mayor Ralph Freeman (also Russia Co., and from 1624 he was linked to the Rich faction in control of the VA Co.), Robert Bowyer active by 1620, Thomas Mustard active by 1634, John Williams active by 1634, Capt. Weddell active by 1610, Sir Francis Cherry, Edward Sherburn a secretary to Earl of Salisbury and also to Lord Keeper Bacon, William Parker Lord Monteagle (also Va. Co.), Capt. Richard Swanley, Paul Bayning Visc1 Bayning of Sudbury.

By 1630 the Spanish government agreed to market its American silver in London instead of Genoa, gold otherwise got from the Netherlands, so in all the EICo tended to be dependent on Spain as a silver supplier.
(K. N. Chaudhuri, The English East India Company: The Study of an Early Joint-Stock Company, 1600-1640. London, Frank Cass, 1965., p. 136. From about 1630 the East India Company in India was deeply reliant on Indian financiers, the shroffs, e.g., Tapi Das, just as a new joint-stock Company formed. Griffiths, Licence to Trade, p. 84; in 1631, a new joint-stock company being formed.)

1630: Indian port Surat: Famine strikes. And in other parts of India.

date?: 1630+?: (Morse, p. 228), First English ships to carry on trade with China were those of the Courteen Association, Byrnes notes that Courteen had links with Dutch VOC which have never been specified. (See Horsea Ballon Morse, 'The provision of funds for the East India Company's trade at Canton during the Eighteenth Century', Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, April 1922, Part 2. pp. 227ff. MF 950.05/Roy at Dixson Library, UNE.

1630: By 1630 the East India Company has 12,000 employees. (Alison Olson, Making The Empire Work: London and American Interest Groups, 1690-1790. Harvard Univ. Press, London, Harvard. 1992., p. 17).

1631: James I had granted in 1618 a charter for a Guinea Company to Sir Robert Rich later Earl Warwick and some merchants. In 1631, the next Guinea Co. arises for England, .... . with charter from Charles I to Sir Richard Young, Sir Kenelm Digby, Nicholas Crisp and Humphrey Slaney and others.
W. Walton Claridge, A History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti: From the earliest times to the commencement of the Twentieth Century. London, John Murray, 1915., p. 89.

1630: Some 900 Puritans under John Winthrop settle on the Boston Peninsula of New England coast, and at Charlestown, Medford, Watertown, Roxbury and Dorchester. Within a year they are trading with Virginia, later with Maryland.

1632: More to come

1633: More to come

1634: New England, America (Portsmouth, New Hampshire, begins to send masts of local timber for English navy, which does not use them till the Dutch War of 1652-1654 cuts off naval supplies carried by the Baltic trade. A mast sells for £95-115 or even up to £1600 for an extra-large one.

1635: H. B. Morse, The Chronicles of the East India Company Trading to China, 1635-1834. (Five Vols) 1926-1929. *

1636, Foundation of Harvard University in North America.

1637: June: Yorkshireman Capt. John Weddell, calls at Macao as sailing for wealthy London merchant Sir William Courteen. Courteen's organisation had earlier settled Barbados in the Caribbean. Weddell's expedition is only partially successful, carrying sugar, green ginger, cloves, gold and porcelain.

1637: June: Yorkshireman Capt. John Weddell, calls at Macao as sailing for wealthy London merchant Sir William Courteen. Courteen's organisation had earlier settled Barbados in the Caribbean. Weddell's expedition is only partially successful, carrying sugar, green ginger, cloves, gold and porcelain.

The earliest-recorded American slaving ship is Desire of Salem, which transports 17 Pequot Indians for sale in West Indies and brings home some Negro slaves.
K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways.. University of South Carolina Press, 1988., p. 43

1638: On Barbados by 1638 is Thomas Verney son of Sir Edmund Verney. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 12.)

1638: Japan: Shimabara-no ran (Riot at Shimabara) 40,000 Christians and farmers stayed in the island and fought against 100,000 of the government soldiers about 4 months. Protestants (Dutch) helped the government from the sea to seize the riot.

1638-1639: England: February: the Sheriff of Surrey receives a warrant to deliver to one William Flemmen [Fleming?] of London, Gent, some convicts for Virginia. (Wilfrid Oldham, Britain's Convicts To The Colonies. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1990., pp. 5-6).

1639: India: English acquire Madras from a local dealer.

Late 1630s: (G. Davies, Early Stuarts, p. 335), depression in England in the late 1630s, reached a crisis when Charles I seized bullion in the tower, and though it was restored, confidence had been undermined. He also proposes to debase the coinage. A depression went on 1640-1650.

<--! blut for copy still in mercs file 6a-->
More to come More to come
More to come more to come

1639: Japan closes its coasts to foreigners.

1640: Founding of Montreal in Canada.

1640: English East India Co establishes Fort St George at Madras.

In 1640: Charles harms the East India Company, buying a lot of pepper, selling it at a loss and depreciating the future market; he anyway never repaid the Company. (See William Foster, 'Charles II and the East India Company', English Historical Review, xix, pp. 456-463). Other companies had similar grievances with the Crown as the depression advanced through 1640-1650.

1640: (G. Davies, Early Stuarts, p. 286-287), rapid spread of the joint-stock company, as with EICo from 1600, writers begin to contrast the moneyed interest with the landed interest, no specialized bankers yet exist, spare coin is no longer stored in the Tower, but Charles I in 1640 has threatened to seize bullion there, so merchants used the strong rooms of goldsmiths for "banking".

1640: From the early 1640s, an English settlement at Bengal. From India came calico, spices, raw silk, indigo and saltpetre for gunpowder, pepper, cloves and nutmeg. English exports to India included textiles, tin, lead, and coral from the Mediterranean. It was always necessary for East India Company ships to carry bullion, as imports exceeded imports. During the 1640s, a risk arose that the EICo settlements might have to be abandoned. The Company experienced trouble with the Covenanters and the Civil Wars, and trouble also with the Courteen Association. Matters however improved during the Commonwealth, and a new arrangement was made with the Courteen association. Cromwell gave the East India Co. its first government support. A debate arose concerning joint-stock or shipowners supplying their own capital and ships. (See Davies, The Early Stuarts).

1640: English East India Co. establishes Fort St George at Madras.

1640: English occupy Hooghly, India. All English settlements and factories brought under control of Fort St. George at Madras.

1640: From about 1640, Barbados notables included Edward Cranfield and Edward Shelly, Capt. George Martin. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 17).

1641: Dutch capture Malacca on the Malay peninsula.

1642: ... and political repression was giving victims to the English notion of transportation. (Irish Records, Transportation, Belfast, PRO, T.429, Letter from R. West to the Deputy of the Isle of Man and court decree concerning the transportation of rebels from County Down in 1642. Copies from the Rushen Papers in the Manx Museum).

1642: English Civil War.

1642: Dutch mariner Abel Tasman discovers Van Diemen's Land - Tasmania.

1643: Re New Netherland/New York, in 1643 the New Englanders help form the New England confederation, for defense, competition with the Dutch at New Netherland, and in 1664 a new effort to subdue New Netherland, as it was encroaching on English holdings, so the king decided to grant the area to his brother James, the Duke of York, as a proprietary province. James' deputy was Richard Nicholls who sailed for New Netherland from Boston, and Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered in September 1664, colony renamed New York. New York's staple of trade was fur, part of the New York territory included what would become New Jersey, and James Duke of York here favoured his friends Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, two defenders of the Stuarts during the Puritan Cromwell period. and in 1665 they established a government for the area, but New York protested at this as it clashed with their own interests, there were Finns and Swedes then on the Delaware River, and in 1674, Lord Berkeley sold his New Jersey interests to two Quakers, John Fenwick and Edward Byllynge. And these Quakers used trustees including William Penn. (Ver Steeg, The Formative Years, pp. 115-116.)

1642-1643: (Morrell, p. 13ff), The Dutch are dominant on the Indonesian archipelago, and never really challenged Spanish claims in the Pacific. Van Diemen is an ambitious Gov.-general in the Dutch East Indies who plans a voyage for Tasman and his pilot, Major Visscher in 1642-43, the circumnavigation of New Holland, whose western and north-western coasts the Dutch East India Company's pilots had already been mapping. Tasman thought New Zealand was part of a great southern continent. (The Dutch also sent Roggeveen into the Pacific in 1721-1722, but found his work unprofitable. Morrell writes, "The disinterested curiosity of the 'age of reason' brought a new, more scientifically oriented motivation into play in regard of the Pacific."

1643: Evangelista Torricelli invents the barometer.

1644: China: The Manchu state (led by Nurhaci), captures Peking-Beijing. Later, Nurhaci's son Abahai moves from being Khan of Manchuria to Emperor of China.

1644: Toricelli's barometer explains puzzle re pumping out mines.

1644: China: Ming Dynasty succumbs to foreign invasion, from the Manchus, descendants of the displaced Jurched. Manchus establish the Ch'ing Dynasty.

1644: The last Ming emperor of China hangs himself. His apology: "Now I meet with Heaven's punishment above, sinking ignominiously below... May the bandits dismember my corpse and slaughter my officials, but let them not despoil the Imperial tombs nor harm a single one of our people".

1644-1645: Later the New Model army was formed by Parliament, and a decisive battle at Naseby, June 14, 1645, which lost the Midlands to the Royalists. Later king surrendered to the Scots, and Oxford surrendered in June 1645. Army discontent becoming radical and etc., and looked as though a second civil war might begin. Cromwell had to suppress the Scots at Preston 17 Aug, 1648, as the Covenanters felt the Covenant had been broken. King tried for treason and Charles I beheaded on 30 Jan., 1649. Also, the Presbyterian domination was overthrown. The Queen (of Charles II) later regarded as regicides, Okey, Walton, Scroop, Norton, Pride, Whaley, Edwards, Tichbourne, Lambert and Blackwell, who now had "patriotic possession of large portions of the queen's dower":

1645: "The first identified American vessel to import slaves from Africa is Rainbow." She brings to Boston two slaves been kidnapped, not purchased. Puritans are offended and set them free, then sent them home.
See K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways.. University of South Carolina Press, 1988., p. 43.

1646: More to come

1647: More to come

1648: More to come

In 1649 a new London group headed by Lord Fairfax, with some old associates of Courteen, challenged the East India Company monopoly yet again, and wanted colonies on Assada, off the coast of Madagascar, and in the Indies. Here, the Fairfax name can be linked to the aristocratic Fairfaxs who were so influential in the history of Virginian tobacco planting.
(Thomas Fairfax (1612-1671), third Baron Fairfax, also Lord of the Isle of Man, in 1645 was commander of the New Model Army, although he later aided the Restoration. Hibbert, Cavaliers and Roundheads, p. 299. GEC, Peerage, Colepeper, p. 365; Vere of Tilbury, p. 257, Note b; Fairfax of Cameron, pp. 229ff. Thomas Fairfax (died 1709-10), fifth Baron Fairfax, was governor of Virginia, 1675-1682. In 1702 by the influence of the London-America merchant, Micajah Perry, Colonel Robert "King" Carter (1663-1732) of Virginia became agent for the Fairfaxes; Greene, Carter Diary, Vol. , p. 67, p. 80. The sixth Baron Fairfax was owner of much of the Northern Neck of Virginia. On related colonials, Fairfax of Virginia, see Stella Pickett Hardy, Colonial Families, p. 321, pp. 519-527.)

The friend of Courteen was Thomas, third Baron Fairfax, a Puritan Lord and general, Thomas Fairfax (1612-1671) who had as tutor to his daughter Mary, the excellent poet, Andrew Marvell.
(GEC, Peerage, Vere of Tilbury, p. 257; Fairfax, p. 230; Buckingham, p. 395.)

The Privy Council wanted this group to join with the existing Company with one joint-stock, but everyone now knew that the private traders had virtual impunity. Cromwell tired of all this. In January 1650, the House of Commons decided there should be a united joint stock Company to take over factories in India, leaving Courteen's associates only with their Assada factory, which was shortly abandoned.
(Furber, Rival, variously. Griffiths, Licence to Trade.)

In June 1651 the Company's activities were at quite a low ebb, and it was almost impossible to raise new capital. So the Company issued licences to private traders, but this only meant paying higher prices in India and getting lower sale prices at home. In 1654-57, the East India Company sent out 17 ships, while private traders sent out 38 ships. In 1656 an audacious rump of East India Company shareholders wanted to sell Company privileges and factories in the east to private traders, for a mere £14,000, with a proviso that the (Old) Company could continue in the trade. Outraged, the Company in October 1656 petitioned Cromwell for support. Cromwell put matters in the hands of a sub-committee headed by his friend, Colonel Philip Jones, who was impressed with the success of the Dutch joint-stock East India Company (VOC). Cromwell's role in negotiations is unclear, Jones remained the main negotiator, but it is said the Cromwell also spoke with the Earl of Bridgwater, which would not have been surprising.

Annoying Spain was one motive for England to attempt to further dominate West Indian islands. Without a base in Barbados, England might not later in 1655-1656 have captured the prize of Jamaica, during the time of Cromwell's "Western Design", which intended to bring proper (Puritan) religion to the New World. Regarding the East India Company, by October 1657 it was thought that a permanent joint-stock would replace the older system of successive joint stock operations. The Charter given by Charles II when he arrived was very near to this; the East India Company would have power to repatriate interlopers, make war, and so on. Yet the Council of State hung back from such a form, so in January 1657 the Company voted to sell unless they got a decision within a month.

The name Willoughby of Parham appeared again on the Caribbean scene. By 9 July, 1660, Francis Willoughby (1613/1614-1666), fifth Baron Willoughby, was married to Elizabeth Cecil. Willoughby took a 21-year Caribbean lease from the Earl of Carlisle. The king directed Lord Willoughby to take up as governor of Barbados and other Caribbee islands, in view of Willoughby's position as lessee of the Earl of Carlisle's Caribbean rights. Soon, interested persons in London protested, and in July and August 1660, one protestor was Sir William Courteen Junior (who died 1666). Another protestor was a Mr. Kendall. They went to law. The decision was for Willoughby.

Bombay came to the English in 1661-1663, and one rather feels that if the Mogul rulers of India made serious tactical mistakes in dealing with the English, as they did, they did so during Cromwell's time, which was also during the "Courteen phase" of England's eastern trade. In the East, after 1660-1668, the Moguls fail entirely to note the rise of the Whigs in England. The Whigs became a most aggressive group, economically speaking.
(K. G. Davies, Royal Africa Company, index.)

Much depends on linkages, if any, between men engaged in Eastern trade and slaving business.

Further notes on the trading activities of Maurice Thomson:

NB: A chronological listing of the merchant associates of Maurice Thomson, the "merchant banker" who seems to have worked consistently for decades to promote the colonising interests of the second Earl of Warwick.

By 1626 Maurice Thomson was a figure in the St. Kitts plantation and tobacco and provisioning trade. Alison Olson sees Thomson as active in the Canadian fur trade, sending provisions to New England, with a monopoly on the Virginia tobacco crop, as an interloper in East India Company trade, and one of the Guinea Company.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 126-127.)

Thomson was quite prepared to leave London on serious business matters. In April 1626 he went to Southampton for about six days, regarding deals regarding St. Kitts, with one Thomas Combes of there, which later went sour. Combes had a plantation on St. Kitts; having been linked to Capt. Thomas Warner, the "original settler" of St. Kitts. Thomson agreed to put in £4000 capital. In April-May 1626, Thomson and Combes sent three ships with sixty slaves to St. Kitts. A new man joined the syndicate, Thomas Stone, of a Lancaster family, been apprenticed into the Haberdashers, London. He was in Cateaton Street, London, had a nephew in Virginia, one W. Stone, and also had links to Holland. By 1627 Thomson and Stone were re-exporting tobacco to Middleburg, Flushing and Amsterdam.

By the 1630s, Thomson was is in partnership with Humphrey Slaney in Newfoundland and Guinea business and the American tobacco trade. By 1631 he is also with the Kent Island project. By 1631 both Thomson and John de la Barre are interlopers in the Canadian fur trade. By 1631 Thomson was also involved with the Kent Island project.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 184ff.)

By 1634 Thomson's factor in Virginia was one Thomas Stegg. For 1632-1633, Thomson dealt with William Tucker and Thomas Stone in a syndicate given a right to market the entire Virginian tobacco crop. From 1636-1640, Thomson was in partnership with Roger Limbrey in the St. Kitts tobacco trade. To the 1640s, Thomson was in trade to Massachusetts Bay with Nicholas Trerice (sic) and Joshua Foote (sic). By 1637-1638, in partnership with the Virginia tobacco and provision trade with William Harris, Thomas Deacon and William Tucker.

William Tucker had arrived in Virginia in 1610 aged 21. Born then 1589, he later married a sister of Maurice Thomson, Mary. Tucker was originally a sea captain, but by 1616 he was active with several Londoners in founding a Virginia plantation, one being Elias Roberts, whose son Elias married Dinah Thomson, another sister of Maurice. Another participant was Ralph Hamor (sic), who became a Virginia magistrate and politician. By 1619 Tucker had become a major figure in Virginia by 1621. Tucker and Ralph Hamor went to London to see Parliament for Virginia's case in opposing the tobacco contract proposed by Sir Thomas Roe and others.
(On Roe's career: Joyce Lorimer, (Ed.), Amazon, p. 37, p. 149 on his visit to Mogul India.)

Later Tucker went off fighting Indians; he lived at Kecoughtan, or, Elizabeth City. By 1625, Tucker was one of only 15 men in Virginia who had ten or more servants. By 1626 Tucker had been appointed to the Virginia Council.

About 1638, Thomson was in partnership in trade to an unnamed area with William Tucker, George Thomson and James Stone. By 1638-1641, Thomas was involved in Capt. Jackson's raiding voyage to the Spanish West Indies with William Pennoyer, Thomas Frere and possibly William Tucker. By 1638, Thomson was involved in an attempted interloping voyage to Guinea with Oliver Cloberry, Oliver Reed and George Lewine. By 1638-1641, Thomson was involved in Capt. Jackson's raiding voyage to Spanish West Indies with William Pennoyer, Thomas Frere and possibly William Tucker.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 158 has it that Capt. William Jackson was once an apprentice of William Tucker in the London Clothworkers Company. )

By 1638, Thomson had probably become a "general business manager" for the Earl of Warwick, presumably answering to Sir Nathaniel Rich. Thomson here also became a partner with William Courteen Jnr. Brenner for the late 1630s-1650 has a list of East India interlopers and promoters of an Assada plantation, including Maurice Thomson, William Pennoyer, Robert Thomson, Edward Thomson, Richard Bateson, Jeremy Blackman, Martin Noel, Nathan Wright, Samuel Moyer, Thomas Andrews, Nathaniel Andrews, John Fowke, Stephen Estwicke, James Russell, William Ryder, Thomas Boone, Joas (sic) Godschalk, John La Mott, Derrick Hoast, Adam Laurence, Waldegrave Lodovicke and John Rushout.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 118, p. 173ff, pp. 192-193.
This Godschall is presumably of the Godschall-Johnson family, which descent produces a governor of Victoria, Sir Charles Hotham (1806-1855). Burke's Landed Gentry for Barnard of Hotham. Davis McCaughey, Naomi Perkins and Angus Trumble, Victoria's Colonial Governors, 1839-1900. Melbourne University Press, 1993.)

By 1638, Thomson was involved with the Providence Island Company which had plans to use a silver mine in the Bay of Darien. Thomson in the late 1630s was also linked to the Anglo-Dutch-American trader, Nicholas Corsellis, and with a lead mine in Cardigan, Wales, the Mines Royal.
(Nicholas Corsellis a Virginia trader was son of Nicholas Corsellis Senior and married a sister of Maurice Thomson. Also, Sir Thomas Cambell of Clay Hall married a Miss Corsellis. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 89-90, p. 176. One does not however read of commercial links between Maurice Thomson and these Cambells. Burke's Extinct Baronetcies, pp. 98ff.)

Joshua Foote an ironmonger was busy with an ironworks in Tancready, Ireland; then with Robt Houghton, William Hiccocks and John Pocock he opened up the Massachusetts iron works at Braintree.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 160ff.)

In 1638 at a meeting of the Providence Island Company, apparently, a Mr. Samuel Border told John Pym, that the patron of Benjamin Rudyerd was the Earl of Pembroke; Lord Mandeville may also have been involved here with the Earl of Warwick. There was a large silver mine at the Bay of Darien.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 301ff.)

Some of these men sent to see Maurice Thomson, who led an expedition to this mine personally in 1639. Thomson anyway provisioned for this company.
(Newton, Colonising Puritans, p. 3, p. 67.)

Otherwise, in matters probably linked, in May 1638, following the failure of the Kent Island project, Claiborne in Virginia had got a commission from the Providence Island Company to start a settlement on island of Ruatan (Rich Island) off the coast of Honduras.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 157.)

About 1638, Thomson was in partnership in trade to an unnamed area with William Tucker, George Thomson and James Stone. By 1639, Thomson was linked with William Pennoyer in a patent for a fishery at Cape Anne, from the Massachusetts Bay colony. By 1639-1641 Thomson was linked with the Providence Island Company, in provisioning Providence Island itself. In 1639, Thomson was linked with William Claiborne, Samuel Matthews, George Fletcher, William Bennett and the Bermuda Company regarding a great land grant encompassing territory between the Potomac and Rappahanock rivers - but plans here failed to eventuate. And generally, it is beyond belief that Thomson dealt on such a large scale in his own right - but the ambitions of his backers have been poorly described to date.

The second Earl of Warwick was outspoken against Charles I's ship money tax, and would become Parliamentary lord high admiral by 1643. By 1642-1643, London-based merchants had part-control of the navy. Shortly, privateers operated as naval forces. This revamped navy helped win the civil war. One man benefiting personally from this, (Andrews writes), was "that ubiquitous entrepreneur", Maurice Thomson.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 195ff.)

George Thomson, later linked with the Kent Island project, by 1635 was also involved in the founding of colony on Montserrat and in the tobacco and provisioning trade, probably in partnership with Anthony Briskett. Maurice's sister Mary married William Tucker of the American trade, while sister Dinah married Elias Roberts of the American trade.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 195, p. 328.)

Brenner also conveys that William Thomson married Elizabeth Warner, daughter of Samuel Warner, a link then with Thomas Warner of Barbados.

Matters on Barbados:

In the 1640s and again in the 1690s, thousands of Barbadians died from yellow fever, called Barbados distemper or bleeding fever. The patient vomited and voided blood. To the 1640s, the Barbadians had been a simple group of peasant farmers on the first port of call for Caribbean-bound ships. The most populous and most successful of islands, it was never invaded by the French or Spanish.
(Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 18.)

By 1639 the members of the later Barbados elite included Allyn, Bulkley, Codringtons (who became immensely wealthy). And James Drax, a militia captain with an Anglo-Dutch background, who made the first-ever sugar fortune.
(This Sir James Drax does not appear to be of the family listed in Burke's Landed Gentry for Sawbridge-Erle-Drax. Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 17. He was linked politically with Sir Thomas Modyford of Barbados and Jamaica.)

Drax brought from Holland a model of a sugar mill - a small instance of technological transfer indicating the breadth of Mintz's view on the revising of capitalism, seen as originating in the Caribbean. By 1680 Drax was said to ship home £5000 worth of sugar. Other notable Barbados names were Frere, Huy, Hothersall, Pears, Yeamans. Dunn notes, many of these names had commercial backgrounds in London. Later came names such Gibbs, Fortescue, Sandiford, Read, Hothersall and Berringer. From about 1640, Barbados people included Edward Cranfield and Edward Shelly, Capt. George Martin.
(Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 17. See Ligon's map of Barbados. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 49, Note 10, p. 50, pp. 55- 58, p. 190.)

Capital and technology told. It was similar on Barbados, where the original "peasants" were done for. Dunn lists the newcomers who renovated the Barbados economy, including John Colleton, Samuel Farmer, Thomas Kendall, Peter Leare, Thomas Modyford, Daniel Searle, Constantine Silvester, George Stanfast, Timothy Thornhill, Humphrey Walrond, Francis Lord Willoughby. Here, some names were those of agents, some names had links to Dutch merchants, some were eager to harvest sugar business. Some, as Dunn puts it, were the younger sons of English gentry who had fought in the civil wars and now wanted, or rather needed, fresh endeavour.

Dunn lists among the newcomers who renovated the Barbados economy - John Colleton; James Colleton, Sir Peter, Thomas; James on the Barbados assembly to 1700.) Samuel Farmer, Thomas Kendall, Peter Leare, Thomas Modyford, Daniel Searle, Constantine Silvester, George Stanfast, Timothy Thornhill, Humphrey Walrond, Francis Lord Willoughby. The newcomers quickly helped consolidate "the Barbados aristocracy."
(Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 115 on planters Colleton. On the Beckfords, see Richard Pares, Merchants and Planters. Cambridge at the University Press, Published for the Economic History Review, 1960.)

Notes on the genealogy of "Godschalk":

NB: Notes on the probable family background of Joas Godschalk, "a friend of Courteen" and also a connection of Maurice Thomson:
Godschalk, or Godschall, is a rare Huguenot name. Godschalls had first come to southern England about 1561.Their family trade was woolens or cloth. No family background can be found for this Joas, who was active about 1640.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 175ff, pp. 192ff. Contributing information on the genealogy of the Godschall-Johnson family and others as descended from Sir Thomas Warner, governor of Antigua, or linked to other families, is found from the following sources:
(Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Lucas-Tooth (of Kent) and for Payne-Galway. Burke's Landed Gentry for Bonar of Kimmerghame; Eyre of St John's Wood, Henderson formerly of Sedgwick Park; Thornton; Warner formerly of Framlingham. Information on the Tooth family is found in L. M. Mowle, A Genealogical History of Pioneer Families of Australia. Fifth edition. Sydney, Rigby, 1978; and in R. F. Holder, Bank of New South Wales: A History. Vol. 2, 1817-1850. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1970., pp. 37-373. ADB entries various on persons named Tooth. Other sources for Australian persons: Redcliffe. (Brisbane, Queensland), local municipal council, booklet, Redcliffe: 160 Years. Published, 1959. A. B. Paterson, Singer of the Bush. Works: 1885-1900. Sydney, Ure-Smith, 1991. Robert Darvall Barton (1843-1924), noted ADB, Vol. 5, entry for J. P. McCansh. DNB for Sir Philip Francis, possible author of The Junius Letters. A. P. Newton, European Nations, p. 243. On Antigua planter, Godschall Johnson (died 180) of London, an associates of J. J. Angerstein, husband of (1) Elizabeth Hedges and (2) Mary Francis, Close Roll, 25 Geo III, Part 10, No. 5. Godschall-Johnson sets of fiche being copies of Wills, etc., and other material held by family members in Sydney, Queensland, and in Armidale NSW. R. B. Sheridan, 'Colonial Gentry of Antigua', pp. 346ff. On Godschall-Johnson family members emigrating to Canada: Roy St George Stubbs, Four Recorders of St Rupert's Land. Canada, Pegus Publishers, nd?)

James Godschall (resident in England by 1560-died 1636) son of John (Jan) Godschall (died August 1587 and of a church on Threadneedle Street) and Margaret Unknown, had property in Essex, some land about St Botolph without Bishopsgate (the later site of Bedlam Hospital and also near two theatres used by Shakespeare et al). It seems John son of Jan also once gave the crown "a large loan".

Some descendants of John son of Jan had a house in the parish of St Mary Abchurch in an area once burnt in the Great Fire of London. A draper and Turkey Company merchant, John Godschall married to Bethia Charlton, had a son John (died 1725), a Turkey merchant of St Dunstan's in the East. John Jnr. He went to Antioch, Turkey and Syria on family business, such as buying rugs, and had a nephew, William Mann Godschall. (William Mann Godschall, an antiquarian and FRS, in 1787 wrote A General Plan of Parochial and Provincial Police, which plan was unsuccessful.)
(Joanna Innes, 'The role of transportation in seventeenth and eighteenth century English penal practice', pp. 1-24, in Carl Bridge (Ed.), New Perspectives in Australian History. London, Sir Robert Menzies Centre for Australian Studies, Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London, 1990.)

John Jnr. Son of Bethia Charlton had a brother, Nicholas (died 1748, also of St Dunstan's In the East, also in the Turkey Company. Nicholas married in 1727 to Sarah Onley (died 1750, of an Essex family. (See Savile-Onley, Burke's Landed Gentry. Sir Robert Godschall (died 1741), a wine merchant, a Portugal merchant, was son of the same Bethia Charlton and became a Lord Mayor of London by 1741.
(Valerie Hope, Lord Mayor, p. 112.)

Robert this Lord Mayor married Catherine Tryon, and Miss Lewin, a daughter of London Lord Mayor in 1717, Sir William Lewin. This Lord Mayor Robert of the Ironmongers Company seems also a Tory MP, a director of the Royal Exchange from 1729 till he died, and a brother-in-law of Sir John Barnard. Today, the Godschall-Johnsons have many family members in Australia and Canada, as two brothers split the family. One brother, Sir Francis Godschall-Johnson (1817-1894) became Chief Justice of Lower Canada; the other brother, Ralph Edward Godschall-Johnson, (1812)-1876) went to Australia where he became first clerk of the Queensland Parliament.
(On Ralph Edward, son of Captain Godschall-Johnson and Lucy Bisshopp, see a booklet, Redcliffe [Brisbane] 160 Years, published by the Town Council of Redcliffe, 1959.)

These two brothers were sons of a minor diplomat at Antwerp, Captain Godschall II Godschall-Johnson, 1780-1859 of Cavendish Square. It seems a genealogical accident that before 1779, Sir Cecil Bisshopp Bart7 (died 1779) had married Susanna Hedges (died 1791), daughter of an East India Company official, Charles Hedges of Finchley, Middlesex.
(Sir William Hedges was governor of Bengal 1681-1684 and then Sheriff of London, 1693-1694. GEC, Peerage, Zouche, p. 954.)

Charles Hedges had married Catherine Tate, daughter of Bartholomew Tate. This Bartholomew Tate happened to be one of the descendants of the Lords Zouche, a line which can be traced (although it had fallen into abeyance) earlier than Alan Zouche (died 1270) husband of Helen or Ellen De Quincy.
(GEC, Peerage, Zouche, variously.)

Sir Cecil Bisshopp Bart8 (1752-1828), became twelfth Lord Zouche. (He married Harriet Southwell (died 1839).)
(Sir Cecil Bisshopp Bart8, twelfth Lord Zouche of Haryngworth, (died 1828). Namier-Brooke, The History of Parliament: House of Commons, 1754-1790. Vol. 1, p. 93, Vol. 2, p. 94, p. 125. GEC, Peerage, Zouche, p. 954. Lord12 Zouche had a daughter Lucy Bisshopp (died 1823) who married a Captain Godschall-Johnson in 1802. Sir Cecil Bisshopp Bart5 (died 1778) of Parham Park, Sussex was a superintendent of foundries for the Ordnance Dept. GEC, Peerage, Maynard, p. 603; Cardigan, p. 16; Dorset, p. 428.)

In London by the 1780s, the Godschalls, who had lost touch with their kin in Flanders, had become intermarried with the name Warner, which had Caribbean plantations (Antigua) and the name Johnson.
( The descendants of Sir Thomas Warner (died 1649) the settler of Barbados and later governor of Antigua, and some of their linkages with the Godschall-Johnson family are given in Burke's Landed Gentry for Bonar of Kimmerghame; Eyre formerly of St John's Wood; Warner formerly of Framlingham; Thornton of Clapham. The Warner plantations on Antique, inherited by Godschall-Johnson names, were The Folly and Savannah. Newton, Colonising Puritans, p. 27. A Warner descendant, Colonel Ashton Henry Warner, 41st Regt., was governor of Hobart Goal. Joanna Innes, 'The role of transportation in seventeenth and eighteenth century English penal practice', pp. 1-24, in Carl Bridge (Ed.), New Perspectives in Australian History. London, Sir Robert Menzies Centre for Australian Studies, Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London, 1990. Jan Rogozinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean: From the Arawak and the Carib to the Present. New York, Facts on File, c.1992., p. 76. R. B. Sheridan, `Colonial Gentry, Antigua', p. 346. Newton, Colonising Puritans, p. 27. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 184.)

It seems by then, some family members had become involved in aspects of the slave business, possibly as dealers in slaves to the Caribbean, or, buyers of slaves.
(Godschall Johnson died 1800 a son of John Johnson (died 1775) and Elizabeth Ann Warner became a business associate of John Julius Angerstein in 1793-1794 in the matter of a loan to government. This Godschall Johnson also took the 1785 Lottery and in 1775 on his father's death inherited estates on Antigua; he married as first wife in 1779, Elizabeth Hodges and then in 1792, Mary Francis.)

From the 1780s, some Godschall-Johnsons lived about the present London borough of Lewisham, and they were on intimate family terms (in terms of god-parentage of various children) with the family of "the father of Lloyd's of London", John Julius Angerstein of Greenwich/Blackheath, who was a personal friend of George III), and also the Temple family (See re Viscount Palmerston).
(On John Julius Angerstein (1735-1823): D. G. C. Allan, `The Society of Arts and Government, 1754-1800', Eighteenth Century Studies, Vol. 7, 1973-1974, No. 4, Summer, 1974., pp. 434-452. Kynaston, City of London, p. 2 details Angerstein's career and early commercial connections. Also on Angerstein: The Listener, 24 September, 1987.)

Members of the extended family Godschall-Johnson came to Australia in two waves, with the second wave represented by the first clerk of the Queensland Parliament.

NB: I am grateful to Trin Truscett (nee Johnson) of Armidale, Nigel Johnson her cousin (also of Armidale), and John Godschall Johnson of Sydney, all descendants of this far-flung family, Godschall-Johnson, for much of the information given above.

Maurice Thomson as trader:

Between 1640-1660 the Barbados planters switched from tobacco and cotton to sugar, and from using white servants' labour to black slaves.
(Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 59.) </

1649: Russia: Recent laws fully establish serfdom in Russia, by when serfdom has virtually disappeared from Western Europe.

1649: Little is known, but it is thought Thomas Crispe in 1649 was the chief factor on the Gold Coast for Rowland Wilson, Maurice Thomson, John Wood and Thomas Walter, whom he called The Guinea Company. The original site of Cape Coast Castle had been given to the English, then taken by the Swedes, then re-taken by English during Crispe's time on the coast. Crispe claimed he had obtained the original site from the local natives. (Davies, RAC, pp. 40-41).

1649: Charles I of England executed after trial. See career of Cromwell.

1649: Trial and execution of England's King Charles I.

1649: Recent laws fully establish serfdom in Russia, by when serfdom has virtually disappeared from Western Europe.

1650: Year tea is first drunk in England as imported from China.
Meantime, on piracy, see George Wycherley, Buccaneers of the Pacific: of the bold English buccaneers, pirate privateers & gentleman adventurers, who sailed in peril through the stormy straits or pierced the isthmus jungle, to vex the king of Spain in the South Seas & the Western Pacific, plundering his cities & coasts & preying on his silver fleets & his golden galleons. London, John Long, 1929.



Further chronology notes for 1650-1675

1650-1700: Note: One of the most remarkable (and outrageous?) books ever written about English pirates is:
B. R. Burg, Sodomy and the Pirate Tradition: English Sea Rovers in the Seventeenth Century Caribbean. New York, New York University Press, 1995.
See also:
W. Jeffrey Bolster, Black Jacks: African-American Seamen in the Age of Sail. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, nd-recent/1990s?.

1650s: France sets up slave depots in Senegal, at Fort St. Louis and Goree Island.

About 1650: Olson finds, maybe later, colonial merchants included such as Maurice Thompson who figured in the Canadian fur trade and sent provisions to New England. Thompson was recommended by a governor of Virginia as one of three merchants who had a monopoly on the tobacco crop. Thompson was also said to be an interloper in East India Company trade. Another prominent merchant was Owen Rowe, active in Virginia trade, a leading merchant backer of development at Massachusetts Bay, a deputy governor of the Bermuda Company. The interlocking activities of men of the City of London were finding their shape. (Olson, Making the Empire Work, p. 15).

By 1650-1655: Thomas Povey was beginning to wield influence over the colonies. (About 1664-1666, the merchant and lawyer Povey was surveyor-general of the Victualling Dept.!). Povey dealt with the West India islands, and men such as Maurice Thompson. Martin Noell (sic) was a friend of Povey, "a barrister of Gray's Inn and a merchant with widespread interests, well known for exerting his influence". His brother Richard Povey was secretary and commissary general of Provisions at Jamaica and another brother was William Povey, provost-marshal at Barbados. (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 10-13.

Reference item: Colin Jack-Hinton, The Search For The Islands Of Solomon, 1567-1838. Oxford At The Clarendon Press. 1969.

1650 Circa: (Olson, Making the Empire work, p.21), about 1650, Cromwell's time, merchants worked with "head of the Admiralty", Thomas Scott, to build up the Commonwealth navy. London coffee houses date from 1650, and a Virginia-Maryland coffee house seems to have arisen near the Royal Exchange. About 1650, maybe later, colonial merchants included Maurice Thompson, in Canadian fur trade, sent provisions to New England, recommended by Gov. of Virginia as one of three merchants re monopoly on tobacco crop, an interloper in EICo trade, another prominent merchant was Owen Rowe, active in Virginia trade, leader merchant backer of Massachusetts Bay, deputy governor of Bermuda Company.

1650: From a Map of Barbados (p. 63 of Dunn) circa 1650 at beginning of a sugar boom, various names of property holders in no particular order, but on Leeward or non-Leeward areas of Barbados. Non-Leeward names, inland or non-Leeward, Stevens, Lee, Cole, Turner, Nolland, Mathews, Arnold, Bryce, Lewes, Ellis, Sayers, Chapman, Leonard, Lee, Lyd(e), Bowyer, Edward(s), Hetherolls, Alven, Newman, Royles, Smyth, Knott (a place, not a person's name?), Lacy, Southall, Trott, Battyn, Drax, Allen, Brome/Browne?, Milliard/Mulliard?, Royle(s), Buckley, Browne, Battyn, Allen, Marshall, Stringer. // Map of Barbados p 63 of Dunn circa 1650 at beginning of a sugar boom, various names of property holders on and near Leeward coast areas of Barbados. Laurence, Cater, Patrick, Mac? Terill, Ogle, Dutton, Wolfe, Bybjon, Powell, Walker, Slovens, Terill, Ogle, Curtis, Watters, Flutter/Fludyer?, Scriven, Yates, Brown, Sussex, Bushall, Steven, Weeks, Cook, Streton, Browne, Duke, Earl, Small, Gray, Hanniforth, Sandifords, Boston, Webb, Ware, Wright, Smyth, Walker, many illegibles, Powell, Russell, Marshall, Pearce, Smith, Holland, Woodhouse, Ball, Browne, Mutton, Watts, Cornelius, Read, Bix, Bowyer, Coverly, Andrews, Jurymen, Fyde, Morgan, Howard, Martin, Bally, Cox, Wincott, Lambert, Ashton, Eyers, Read, Buckley, Holdip (sic), Fisher, Perkins, Moris, Moss, Sanders, Nedham, Webb, Birch, Jones, Exeter, Wafer (VIP as Dampier's pal!), Hamond, Kitteridge, Hilliard, Taylors, Allen, Fryer, Royle, Baldwin, Byrch, Rose, Scrivener, Wetherell, Webb, Tommson (sic), Battyn, Knott, Trott, Webb.

1651, Battle of Worcester, End of English Civil Wars.

Before 1652: (Penson, Colonial Agents, p.21-22), the authority of the proprietor of the Caribbean Islands is represented by the earl of Carlisle's lessee, Francis Lord Willoughby of Parham... Willoughby gained his authority from Charles Prince of Wales in 1647.

1652: Transportation, Ireland, Egmont Mss: there hath been shipped for Spain, [i.e., transported], 7,000 [Irish people], Kilkenny, Sept. 25, 1652. (Hist Mss, Comm Rep. Egmont Mss, Vol. 1, 1905, p. 514).

1652: English merchants obtain letters patent granting them freedom of trade from Bengal. (In 1690, Job Charnock sets up factory and officially founds Calcutta.)


1652: Dutchmen led by Jan van Riebeeck land at what becomes Cape Town, South Africa/Cape of Good Hope, to establish a trading station.

1653: England bore its years of interregnum under a Commonwealth to 1653, and the Protectorate after that. In 1654, Cromwell sent Bulstrode Whitelocke to Stockholm to look into the Baltic trades, to stave off the influence of the Dutch, to see to the security supply of naval stores. (Albion, Forests and Sea Power, p. 167).

1654: Cromwell draws his "Western Design", a typical English piratical expedition into the Caribbean undertaken with blistering (and also self-punishing) self-righteousness. By mid-1654 Cromwell wanted to break the Spanish monopoly in the West Indies and Central America, rationalising this as "enlarging the boundaries of Christ's kingdom". But the enterprise was mismanaged, botched, ill-supplied. An attack on Hispaniola failed, and although a small colony was started on Jamaica it faltered. (John Gillingham, Cromwell: Portrait of a Soldier. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson. 1976., p. 135).

1654, Anglo-Spanish War.

1648-1654: The fall of Luanda to the Portuguese and the loss of New Holland in 1654 lead the Dutch to establish Curacao as a slave depot - quite a successful one. Goslinga says that Spanish officials, aware of the value of slaves to sugar production, are quite willing to accept bribes from foreigners in matters of slave handling. Before the Grillo-Lomelino asiento, there had been no official asiento granted for some time by the Spanish. Grillo-Lomelino intended to rely mostly on English and Dutch suppliers of slaves. Which meant, the Dutch West India Company is involved. (Goslinga, Dutch in the Caribbean, p. 353.) - Asiento chronology -

1654+: The brother-in-law of William Courteen was the Earl of Bridgewater. Bridgewater had taken on Courteen's debts after Courteen had bankrupted due to his speculations with the Dutch East India Company. Courteen had come to the attention of Oliver Cromwell after 1654, and it seems Cromwell tried to smooth things over regarding unstated problems with Bridgewater's estates - problems which were probably also linked to the Courteen debts. Charles had been indebted to Courteens but the Courteens' affairs in all are too-little discussed. (Antonia Fraser, Cromwell: Our Chief Of Men. London. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. 1973., p. 491).

1655, English conquer Jamaica.

1655: Stuart kings and DC's ancestors, In 1655, Jamaica was captured by the English Admiral William Penn and Robert Venables, and in 1670 was formally ceded to Great Britain by the Treaty of Madrid.

1655++: Sir James Modyford: Sir James Modyford (died 13 January 1675 at St. Andrews, Jamaica). Lt-Gov of Jamaica. He was married to Elizabeth Slanning, sole heir of Sir Nicholas Slanning, Knight, of Maristow in Devon; they had four daughters. Modyford by about 1655 was licenced to take circuit-convicted felons and those from the Old Bailey, who were to be reprieved to transportation to Jamaica. Modyford had been a celebrated cavalier commander in the Civil War. His estate went to a daughter, Grace, who married Peter Heywood; then to their grandson and heir, James Modyford Heywood, who died in 1798. [It is not impossible this Heywood was an early member of the family line of Peter Heywood, the Bounty mutineer]. Modyford brought settlers from Barbados to Jamaica after the success of Cromwell's Western Design (from 1654). His influence as a leader on Jamaica was significant and he therefore influenced some merchant activity.


1655: From 1655 after England acquired Jamaica, reports flooded back to England of suffering on the island. Cromwell considered sending Irish youngsters, or Highlanders, but he was warned such Scots might incite the island to rebellion. Soon Cromwell forced to suggest 1000 Irish boys and girls be rounded up to fill the empty island; no evidence this transportation actually occurred. Spanish king furious about the English "rape" of Jamaica, Notes from Antonia Fraser, Cromwell. Cromwell died 3 Sept., 1658.

1655: King granted a licence to Sir James Modyford to take all felons convicted on circuits and at the Old Bailey, then reprieved, to Jamaica.

1655: In 1655, Jamaica was captured by the English Admiral William Penn and Robert Venables, and in 1670 was formally ceded to Great Britain by the Treaty of Madrid. (Sir George Clark, The Later Stuarts, 1660-1714. Oxford History of England. Vol. 10. OUP. 1965., p. 340).

1655: In 1660, the most influential element in the West India interest were the merchants [whom Penson does not name] whose rise to power had been mainly caused by the share they took in the Cromwell western expedition of 1655. (Writes Penson, Colonial Agents, p.45.) Noell's interest declined. Povey's schemes disappeared with the decline of the Willoughby interest.

1655: Meanwhile, from 1655 (Eric Williams, p. 101, p. 114) Cromwell was to get rid of many inconvenient people by sending them to the West Indies. (England captured Jamaica in 1655). Cromwell sent 7000-8000 Scots from the 1651 Battle of Worcester to British plantations in the colonies. Cromwell's men voted in 1656 to send 2000 Irish men and girls to Jamaica, and in 1656 Cromwell ordered the Scottish government "to apprehend known idle, masterless robbers and vagabonds" for Jamaica. But there is no evidence the Irish transportation was actually conducted.

After 1655: (As in Penson, Colonial Agents, p.24, Cromwell's military governor on Jamaica was Colonel D'Oyley.

1656++: On Thomas Povey: Thomas Povey, lawyer, became a West Indian merchant. I have no information on his parentage. Newton mentions the "overtures" of Noell and Povey in 1656-1657, who were part of an important group of London merchants who advised Cromwell. Their ideas led to the first beginnings of a definite foreign colonial policy, and to the formation of a Select Committee for Trade and Foreign Plantations. Povey had wanted to form a privateering West India Company. About 1664-1666, Povey was surveyor-general of the Victualling Dept. Penson sees Povey as a Carlisle place man, a barrister of Gray's Inn. Povey's brother Richard was on Jamaica and another brother, William, worked on Barbados. Povey was friends with Maurice Thompson, Martin Noell, and Colonel James Drax of the Caribbean. Richard Povey was active about 1664. He became a Jamaica agent.
He may have been the Povey named as secretary for Jamaica mentioned in Frederick G. Spurling, Early West India Government: showing the progress of Government in Barbados, Jamaica and the Leeward Islands, 1660-1783. Palmerston, North New Zealand, self pub. nd.

William Povey, Provost Marshall of Barbados, brother of Thomas, was active by about 1664. Charles Povey's name is noted in respect of insurance in London; he was active by 1710. He was a wheeler-dealer, an inveterate entrepreneur, a dealer in property and newspapers. Povey founded the Sun insurance company. He probably had association with one Nicholas Barbon.

Povey: Sources: P. G. M. Dickson, The Sun Insurance Office, 1710-1960. London, 1960. Clive Trebilcock, Phoenix Assurance and the development of British Insurance. Vol. 1, 1782-1870. London, Cambridge University Press, 1985., p. 7. There is much information on Poveys and others of that generation in Pares, Merchants and Planters. Arthur Percival Newton, The Colonising Activities of the English Puritans: the last phase of the Elizabethan struggle with Spain. New Edition. Port Washington, New York, 1966., p. p. 101, p. 325; Brenner on Maurice Thomson. Burke's Extinct Baronetcies, p. 70 in the section for Bond of Peckham.
Agnes Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England from the Norman Conquest. Vol. 5. Bath, England, Cedric Chivers Ltd., 1972., notes that one Thomas Povey was Mayor of Bristol in 1612 as Anne (of Denmark) visited that city. Antonia Fraser, Cromwell: Our Chief of Men. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1973., p. 534; K. G. Davies, Royal African Company, index. Maurice Thomson, Noel and others are mentioned in Shafaat Ahmad Khan, The East India Trade in the Seventeenth Century, in its Political and Economic Aspects. New Delhi, S. Chand and Co., 1971?.

1656: The governor of Antigua was Colonel Christopher Keynell. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 18).

1656: A list of planter names now on Jamaica or Barbados, and/or their backers, includes: the Earl Carlisle, James earl Marlborough an early grantee, Lord Willoughby. By 1658 Sir James Modyford (formerly in Charles' army) led anti-Carlisle Barbados factions. Modyford's ally was Peter Watson. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 15). Colonel Colleton (of a family early on Barbados) was a relative of Modyford suspended by a Barbados governor Daniel Searle (It remains uncertain who were Courteen supporters here? Courteen had a vigourous now). Power would go to General Monk when Cromwell died. Monk relatives included Modyford and Colleton, plus friends Peter Watson, Sir James Drax, Thos. Kendall, Jonathan Andrews, Tobias Frere, Edward Walrond. By 1759. Col. James Russell was governor of Nevis. Some of the Willoughby faction were Povey and Noell. Interested and anti-Willoughby was Kendall. The Royalist factions won some battles and Willoughby appointed Humphrey Walrond. One Capt. Lynch by 1673 became governor Jamaica, but he would be supplanted by Modyford. (A statesmen Sir William Morice was a kinsman of Monck).

1657: Governor Edward D'Oyley, Jamaica, in 1657 invited English buccaneers to Tortuga to transfer their headquarters to Jamaica. By the mid-1660s, a freebooting fleet manned by 1500 men operated from the new town of Port Royal, which, a mark of the decadence of the purposes preoccupying its residents, had no fresh water supply. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 24).

14 January 1657: Governor of English East India Company William Cockayne calls a conference on state of the Company, news is not good, and disaster is averted only since Cromwell and his men decide the Company needs to survive, be reordered more consistently, and be properly revived.

1658-1707: India: Emperor Aurangzeb is the last great Mogul emperor; after 1707 empire begins to break up.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.)

1658: Cromwell died on September 3, 1658, when the governor of St. Christopher was Capt. Philip Ward. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 25). Power fell into the hands of George Monck, leader of the forces occupying Scotland. In England arose strong reaction against Puritan supremacy, and when Monck got to London, opinion had already crystallised for recalling an exiled king.


1658: Gov. of St. Christopher, Caribbean is Capt. Philip Ward.

1659: More to come

Thomas /Foote/ Lord Mayor of London. d. 1687 - Acceded:21 Nov 1660 Lord Mayor of London. Thomas FOOT elected in 1649.
(Item, per Peter Western)

1660: A noted Barbadian was Capt. John Bayes, once treasurer on Barbados; he had been about the island since 1653. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 15.

1660, July 16: (Penson, Colonial Agents, p.27-28, authorities in London wanted instatement of Col. Modyford at Barbados, Modyford's friends in London wanting this outcome, friends here led by John Colleton and aided by favour of General Monk, both of whom were relatives of Modyford. The group of friends appears to have been Peter Watson, John Colleton, [Sir] James Drax, Thomas Kendall, Jonathan Andrews, Tobias Frere, Edward Walrond (sic), all concerned re their tenures re Lord Willoughby. all this group would later to 1671 dominate the actions of any agent for Barbados.

30 August, 1660: Dispute over Barbados continues, a committee had backed a decision of the king, as some rival claimants appeared, the heir of the earl of Carlisle and the representative of an earlier grant, James, Earl of Marlborough, and so Kendall, Colleton et al had again to press their case for a royal government of Barbados. [it seems, versus a [proprietary right].
Sept 1660: seemingly resolving the Barbados dispute, in Penson, Colonial Agents, p.31, Lord Willoughby with royal authorization designated Humphrey Walrond as present of council on Barbados, Modyford demurred but gave in, though he then led the opposition on the island over 1661.

1660: The commissioners of Treasury included Sir Edward Hyde, George Monck later duke of Albemarle, Sir William Morice. 1660 - England now with a base in the Caribbean - Jamaica - and Barbados, wanted goods from the west, logwood for dyeing, from an area with no fixed government, in the Bay of Honduras and on the Mosquito Coast. The Spanish held St. Eustatius about now as an entrepot. From Barbados came General Christopher Codrington, born in Barbados and succeeding his father as governor there. (Clark, The Later Stuarts, p. 325, p. 348).

December 1660: In London, some members of the Council for Foreign Plantations include Secs of State, others of Privy Council, some experts, Lord Willoughby, Earl of Marlborough, some west Indian planters and merchants, Sir Peter Leare, Sir Andrew Riccard, Sir James Drax, Thomas Povey, John Colleton [relative of Modyford], Edward Walrond, Martin Noell, Thomas Kendall, Thomas Middleton, William Watts. all worked together for five years with the board. Povey seems to have been linked to some letters to Virginia and New England. He maybe wanted to become agent all round. Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 34-35-37.) Earlier, Povey been more or less recommended by Willoughby to governors of Montserrat and Nevis, Col. Osborne and Col. Russell respectively, on concerns of the islands. By about 1663, Colonel Philip Froude was sec of the council for Foreign Plantations and he had support of Modyford's party, and Lord Bartlet and others, re the antagonist Povey.


1660: (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 26-27), July 9, 1660, Lord Willoughby was directed by the king to take up as governor of Barbados and other Caribbee islands, re his position as lessee of the Earl of Carlisle's rights, whereupon interested persons in London protested, and in July and August 1660, one protestor was the son of the first settler of Barbados, Sir William Courteen. Another protestor a Mr. Kendall. They had to go to law, as the decision was for Willoughby.

1660s: One reason for a sugar island to be dependent on food from Britain, Ireland and North America, was the price of sugar, the cost of land and profit from it. (Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 206). Between 1660 and 1685 (reign of Charles II, the king generally received more from each pound of Virginian imported leaf that the planter! With the Restoration, the East India Company directors gave gifts of their loyalty, and the king gave them a favourable charter and accepted loans over 16 years of £170,000. (Mukherjee, p. 75).

By 1660: England with base in Caribbean with Jamaica, also in Barbados, and in west, England too logwood for dyeing, with no fixed government, in Bay of Honduras and Mosquito Coast. Spanish held St. Eustatius about now as an entrepot. Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 325.)

1660, 9 July: Lord Willoughby was directed by the king to take up as governor of Barbados and other Caribbean islands, respecting his position as lessee of the Earl of Carlisle's rights. Whereupon interested persons in London protested and in July and August 1660, one protestor was the son of the first settler of Barbados, Sir William Courteen. Another protestor was Mr. Kendall. They had to resort to law as the decision was for Willoughby. (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 26-27).

1660: 16 July: Certain authorities in London wanted the instatement of Modyford at Barbados. Modyford's friends in London also wanted this outcome, a coalition led by John Colleton and aided by favour of General Monk, both of whom were relatives of Modyford. The group of friends appears to have included Peter Watson, John Colleton, [Sir] James Drax, Thomas Kendall, Jonathan Andrews, Tobias Frere, Edward Walrond (sic), all here apparently concerned about their tenures with Lord Willoughby. To 1671, all this group would later dominate the actions of any agent for Barbados. (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 27-28).

1660 - 30 August: Dispute over Barbados continued. A committee had backed a decision of the king as rival claimants had appeared, the heir of the earl of Carlisle and the representative of an earlier grant, James, Earl of Marlborough. And so Kendall, Colleton et al had again to press their case for a royal government of Barbados.

1660: September: Seemingly resolving the Barbados dispute, Lord Willoughby with royal authorization designated Humphrey Walrond as present of the council on Barbados, Modyford demurred but gave in, though he then led the opposition on the island during 1661. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 31).

1660: (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp.26-27, July 9, 1660, Lord Willoughby was directed by the king to take up as governor of Barbados and other Caribbee islands, re his position as lessee of the Earl of Carlisle's rights, whereupon interested persons in London protested, and in July and August 1660, one protestor was the son of Sir William Courteen, the first settler of Barbados. Another protestor a Mr. Kendall. They had to go to law, as the decision was for Willoughby.

1660: By 1660, "the most influential element in the West India interest" were the merchants [whom Penson does not name] whose rise to power had been mainly caused by the share they took in the Cromwell western expedition of 1655. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 45). Noell's interest declined. Povey's schemes disappeared with the decline of the Willoughby interest. But none of this is adequately explained.

1660: 28 November: Two members of the army on Jamaica were Capts Thomas Lynch (later the governor of Jamaica by 1673, and Epinetus (sic) Crosse (sic). With the Restoration, both had returned to London on their own concerns and regarding general business of the island. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 18).

1661, June: Jeremy Bonnel and Co. of London petitioned the King to have delivery of prisoners to ship to Jamaica on their ship Charity. Bureaucracy ruined the overtures, but more pardons were issued on conditions of transportation, whereupon the sheriffs of London complained of the costs of keeping reprieved prisoners. (But the City could reimburse itself by selling its felons!). (Coldham, Emigrants in Chains, pp. 50-51.)

1661: June: Povey's old friend William Watts was in command of government of St. Christopher, while Povey's brother Richard was on Jamaica where the new governor was Lord Windsor. Povey's pro-Willoughby influence abated from 1663 as the ruling party on Barbados remained anti-Willoughby. About 1664-1666, Povey was surveyor-general of the victualling dept. (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 35-38).

1661: September 25: The naval administrator Samuel Pepys noted in his diary the first time he ever drank tea. (Misra, p. 21). (Joseph M. Walsh, Tea: its history and mystery. Philadelphia, Coates and Co., 1892.

1661: Discussions ensued on the Carlisle patent respecting Barbados. Francis Lord Willoughby, (who had a brother William Lord Willoughby) referred to the actions of a group of planters and merchants in London who "resisted the imposition of proprietary government" for [their own] private ends. By 1667 these were thought to include Peter Colleton, Peter Leare, Mr. Ferdinando George [Gorges?]. These were all absentee planters continuing the work of Kendall and Colleton, working against the development of an agency by Povey. (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 40-41).

1661: 29 March: Walrond on Barbados decided Kendall and Colleton were really working for the reinstatement of Modyford on Barbados. Willoughby sailed to Barbados by 1663 and there found considerable intrigues. (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 32-33).

1661: A Scots Council of Trade had formed during the interregnum of 1661-1685. Scots merchants began trading to North America, despite English provisions against such activity.

1661: Bank of Stockholm issues world's first banknotes.

1662: And later. On the development of the joint-stock company in England, (Davies, Early Stuarts, pp. 24ff). (K. G. Davies, RAC, pp. 22ff, p. 32), lists joint-stock companies such as Muscovy, Mines Royal, Mineral and Battery Co., Levant Co., East India Co., New River Company (half of its capital belonged to the crown), Royal Fishery (interesting the Duke of Monmouth; Charles II invested 9000 pounds in the RF), Royal Adventurers, Royal African Co., Hudson's Bay Company, Bank of England.

1662: In 1662 the Royal Adventurers Trading into Africa had one prime purpose, to oust the Dutch in the slave trade. It was the third English-Africa Company, and it took over an East India Company factory, Cape Coast Castle, a few miles east of a Dutch station, Elmina, on the Gold Coast. Prince Rupert maintained an interest as a shareholder. The Duke of York invested with the Hudson's Bay Company. By 1663 there appeared the Company of Royal Adventurers of England Trading to Africa, which in 1663 told Charles II, the very being of the plantations depended on the supply of Negro slaves. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 332). (Eric Williams, pp. 136-137)

1662: In 1662, prior to the granting of an asiento to Domingo Grillo and Amrosio Lomelino (who were Genoese), future profits for slave trading promise to be large. Spain in 1662 makes an asiento with Grillo-Lomelino, for 24,000 Negroes in seven years and they would obtain slaves from Dutch West India Company and the English Royal African Company, and resell them. They put an agent on Curacao. This time around, Spain had varied its practice, as Grillo-Lomelino had won an exclusive right to procure and sell slaves in the Spanish colonies in America. Spanish colonists are appalled at the arrangements and prices charged for slaves and protest to their government, which tries to convince Grillo-Lomelino to obtain slaves direct from Africa. They refused. In 1668, though Grillo-Lomelino were becoming insolvent, they contracted to supply 3500 slaves annually to the Caribbean, subcontracting with the Dutch West India Co. for the delivery of 2000. (Goslinga, Dutch in the Caribbean, pp. 353-362.) - Asiento chronology -

1662: Dutch are driven from Taiwan (called Formosa by the Portuguese, meaning "beautiful").

1663: Sir George Smith of EICo instrumental in interest in tea import to London, with Henry Page at Bantam consigning tea to Smith in ship London by 1663. (See Sir Percival Griffiths, The History of the Indian Tea Industry. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1967., p. 17)

1663: In 1662, Charles II married the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza, who was very fond of tea. Sir George Smith of the East India Company had been instrumental in promoting tea import to London; Henry Page at Bantam was consigning tea to Smith in the ship London by 1663. (Sir Percival Griffiths, Indian Tea Industry, p. 17).

1663: About 1663, England acquires New York and New Jersey.

1633: In 1663, with formation of Royal Africa Co., e.g. Prince Rupert a shareholder, and Duke of York invests with Hudson's Bay Co.

1663: An Anglo-Dutch War. Capt. Robert Holmes (who ended in causing a war that changed the history of the Caribbean! So who sent him?) spent the 1663-1664 winter on the west coast of Africa in winter with a squadron to support the Royal Africa Company against Dutch encroachments. Holmes took the island of Goree, north of the Gambia River and Cape Coast Castle on the Gulf of Guinea, the Gold Coast. Other Anglo-Dutch conflict began elsewhere. the war lasted 30 months (as in London the Great Plague raged, the worst since the Black Death of 1348, almost 7000 deaths in one week). (Clark, The Later Stuarts, p. 63).

1664: England: A mere two pounds and two ounces of tea are imported from China. (Frank Welsh, A History of Hong Kong.)

1664: English capture New Amsterdam (New York).
1664: One summer's day, "four English frigates swoop on New Amsterdam to change it to New York".

1664: Thailand: Dutch force king of Thailand to give them monopoly of deerskin exports and seaborne trade with China.

The end of 1664: The Dutch admiral de Ruyter with 12 ships recaptured African possessions - a battle fleet under the Duke of York and Prince Rupert made prizes of Dutch ships in the Channel. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 65).

1664: Holmes established Fort James up the Gambia River. (Clark, Later Stuarts, pp. 332ff).

1664: Formation of a French East India Company, wishing to take what the Dutch had not yet taken. (Glen Barclay, A History of the Pacific: From the Stone Age to the present day. London, Sidgwick and Jackson, 1978., p. 38).

1664: The name John Colleton reappears. In 1664 - Charles II granted a licence to Sir James Modyford to take to Jamaica all felons convicted on circuits and at the Old Bailey, then reprieved. (Oldham, p. 5).

1664: Holmes established Fort James up the Gambia River for the English. Clark/Oxford p332ff, In 1664 Capt. Holme's expedition founded Fort James about 20 miles up the Gambia River, after cleaning out the Dutch, as a new base for British operations. There followed a confusing series of British-Dutch capture and recapture.

1664: Modyford, "a planter become a governor" as he boasted, was removed from Barbados to Jamaica, but this did not destroy the anti-Willoughby faction on Barbados that Modyford had built up to hinder first Searle, then Willoughby. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 39). Modyford shortly laid down on Jamaica an evil document, the Barbados slave code, which was later exported to Carolina and Virginia in North America.

1664: English capture New Amsterdam (New York).

1664: November. Charles II told the sheriffs that Sir James Modyford would ship felons to his brother on Jamaica. But in 1665, a similar licence was given Thomas Bennet, and in 1668, Peter Pate was given an exclusive trade in Newgate convicts. Till 1707, the London officials had to play round robin to find which colonies found transported prisoners most acceptable, for which reasons, or not, for which excuses.

1664: England: A mere two pounds and two ounces of tea are imported from China. (Frank Welsh, A History of Hong Kong.)

1665: Newton "discovers" gravity.

1665: Second Anglo-Dutch War.

1665: A "purely commercial" Anglo-Dutch war began, stemmed again from conflict on the African west coast, Capt. Robert Holmes took Goree north of the Gambia River, and Cape Coast Castle on Gulf of Guinea. Capt. Nicolls meanwhile took the New Netherlands (New York) from Gov. Peter Stuyvesant. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 63). The name Carteret would reappear. In 1643 the New Englanders had helped form the New England confederation, for defense. A staple trade item was fur. In 1664 came a new effort to subdue New Netherland, as it was encroaching on English holdings. So Charles II decided to grant the area to his brother James Duke of York, as a proprietary province. James' deputy was Richard Nicholls who sailed for New Netherland from Boston. The Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered in Sept 1664, the colony was renamed New York. Part of the New York territory included what would become New Jersey. The Duke of York here favoured his friends Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, two defenders of the Stuarts during the Puritan Cromwell period. In 1665 these proprietors established a government for the area, but New York protested as this clashed with their own interests. (Finns and Swedes were then on the Delaware River). In 1674 Lord Berkeley sold his New Jersey interests to two Quakers, John Fenwick and Edward Byllynge. and these Quakers used trustees including William Penn. (Ver Steeg, The Formative Years, pp. 115-116).

Sept 1665, another pro-Willoughby agent in the wings was John Champante, a clerk in the Grand Excise office. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p.38,

1665: The Dutch attacked Barbados. Gov. Lord Willoughby perished in a hurricane that took his fleet and England no choice but to base defence on the very buccaneers they'd earlier been trying to suppress. England gained St. Eustatius, and Tobago. There followed the Peace of Breda in 1667. England regained Nova Scotia, the Dutch never recovered their dominant position in West Indian trade. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 327). At this time, the commentator on Mercantilism, merchant-cum-political scientist Josiah Child, dominated the East India Company. There was later a firm, Coutts and Child. Sir Josiah Child as political economist helped develop the outlook of Mercantilism.

1665 - With the connivance of the governor of Jamaica, three British captains including Henry Morgan made their way upriver and sacked Granada, capital of Nicaragua. Other parties later pillaged the Pacific coast. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 328).

1665: The Dutch come to Ceylon, British power showed in 1796 and complete British control by 1817.

1665: (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 63), a purely commercial war Anglo Dutch, stemmed from conflict on African west coast, Capt. Robert Holmes aggressive there winter of 1663-1664, he took Goree north of Gambia River and Cape Coast Castle on Gulf of Guinea - and Capt. Nicolls took the New Netherlands.

From 1665-1671: Gov. Modyford of Jamaica sending out Henry Morgan as pirate, and finally after 1671, Charles II thought it had gone too far and recalled Modyford and set to suppress the buccaneers. (Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p 156), the Gov. after Modyford, is Lynch, a planter man who wished to dispense with the buccaneers.

1665-1670: Charles II made attempts to obtain the contract for the supply of slaves to the Spanish, the Asiento, which was not granted to Britain till the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 328).

1665: The plague of 1665 took 100,000 Londoners, spreading from St. Giles and Drury Lane, to the City, then Stepney, Rotherhithe and Deptford, until 4-5000 deaths occurred per week. The distress lasted in all from summer 1664 to the Great Fire. (Burke, Streets of London, p. 38).
1665: The plague of 1665 took 100,000 Londoners, spreading from St. Giles and Drury Lane, to the City, then Stepney, Rotherhithe and Deptford, until 4-5000 deaths occurred per week. The plague lasted in all from summer 1664 to the Great Fire. Pro-Catholic Stuart kings remained hateful of the Protestant Dutch, there was fighting over supplying slaves to Catholic Spain. Further commerce was being designed. 1665 - A purely commercial Anglo Dutch war occurred, stemmed from conflict on the African west coast, where Capt. Robert Holmes remained aggressive over the winter of 1663-1664; he took Goree north of the Gambia River and Cape Coast Castle (Crispe's earlier creation) on the Gulf of Guinea. Capt. Nicolls took the New Netherlands (New York?) Burke, Streets of London, p. 38). (Clark, The Later Stuarts, p. 63).

1665-1671: Gov. Modyford of Jamaica began sending out Henry Morgan as pirate till finally, after 1671, Charles II thought it had gone too far and recalled Modyford and set to suppress the buccaneers. (Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 156). The governor replacing Modyford, Lynch, a planter man, wished to dispense with the buccaneers.

1666: Sept.: The Great Fire of London, an accidental fire on London Bridge, in four days 13,000 houses destroyed, plus larger buildings in between, value of property was 7-10 million pounds, no insurance as fire insurance a thing of the future, and in the country, riots due to unemployment and high taxation. There were many disasters, but Britain did gain New Amsterdam, New York.
1666: September. The Great Fire of London. Hillaby writes of "the blitzed but still glorious shell of St.-Dunstan-in-the-East, near Love Lane and St. Clements. The Great Fire of London started in a bake house about Monument Street and Pudding Lane, taking a day and a half to really take hold. Pepys had buried his valuables in the garden of his house in Seething Lane. The king had given permission to tear down houses to deprive the moving fire of fuel. The fire raged for five days, taking 436 acres, about 13,000 houses and 89 churches. (Hillaby's London, pp. 86-87).

1667: Josiah Child dominates EICo, about time of Treaty of Breda ending Dutch War in 1667.

1667: Sir Peter Colleton had visited Barbados, then returned to London with a petition to the king respecting a risk of war with France. Barbados' governor then was Sir Jonathan Atkins. Disputes arose over island defence. Barbados agents became Colleton and the pro-Modyford, anti-Willoughby Colonel Henry Drax died 1683. (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 54-56).

1667-1668: William Lord Willoughby had sailed to the Leeward Islands. On his return to London he was granted a renewal of his commission as governor of all the Caribbean Islands. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 43).

1667-1669: Act 18 Car II c. 3 empowered judges to exile for life the border brigands of Northumberland and Cumberland to any of the American colonies. This act expired in 1673.

18 April, 1667: Holland and England: Treaty of Breda. The small Island of Run of the spice islands, Indonesia, source of nutmeg, is swapped for Manhattan. Manhattan later becomes a giant city, New York, and Run is forgotten, drops off maps, and is not noticed again until Giles Milton writes Nathaniel's Nutmeg.
(Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000, p. 364.)

1668: An advance in the art of economic reasoning, England begins to collect statistics.

1668: A new council of trade was established. In 1670 a council for the colonies was established, which in 1672 became a council for trade and plantations, with its secretary after 1673 John Locke. This body advised the Privy Council on co-ordinating policy, but the innovation was dropped by 1675, till Parliament grew dissatisfied.

1668: Barbadian agitators against Lord Willoughby include Sir Paul Painter and Ferdinando Gorges. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 48).

1668: Capt. Henry Morgan with 400 men seized Port Bello, the port from which Spanish silver fleets sailed, returning with 250,000 pieces of eight. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 328).

From 1669: The Scots name Campbell begins to appear on Barbados, in parishes such as St. Michael, St. Philip, St. Lucy, St. Peter in 1780, St. Joseph, Christ Church; in 1675 at Christ Church Barbados. In 1677 a Susan Campbell lived on Barbados. Culpeper and Campbell married in June 1774 at St. John. In 1664 was mentioned Mary Campbell at St. John. Campbell married Jordan at St. Lucy in 1763. Campbell and Armstrong were linked by 4 March, 1753. The names Campbell and Joseph Nurse were linked at St. John's. (IGI). After 1672 the name Nurse appeared as a dealer with the Royal African Company.

1669: Turks conquer Crete.

1670: After 1670: The Bahamas became subject of a grant to certain of the proprietors to whom the province of Carolina was also granted in 1670. (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 99-103; citing CSP iii, No. 311, pp. 132-133, November 1, 1670).

1670: In 1670, due to the Grillo-Lomelino insolvency, the Spanish asiento goes to a Portuguese, Antonio Garcia, for five years, with 4000 slaves supplied each year, he to get his slaves from the Portuguese-controlled areas of Africa. But Garcia buys his slaves from the Dutch WIC at Curacao. Garcia temporarily loses his business to the resurging Grillo-Lomelino team, but regains it two years later, and continues buying from the Dutch. (It is even possible, says Goslinga, p. 362, that Dutch capital had been involved earlier re the Garcia asiento of 1675, and so the Dutch interest won out internationally in the slave trade.) At one time, Grillo-Lomelino had placed several thousand guilders in trust at Willemstad on the island of Curacao. Goslinga writes that during the Garcia concession, two Amsterdam merchants, Balthasar and Joseph Cooymans acted as bankers and representatives of the asiento for Garcia. Later, Balthasar Cooymans got the asiento for himself. Goslinga does not elaborate on a later Balthasar Cooymans asiento, except to say that it was "colourful". (Goslinga, Dutch in the Caribbean, pp. 353-362.) - Asiento chronology -

Circa 1670? Concerning London Lord Mayor Sir Samuel Starling
Descendants of Garford
2. Tallow Chandler Richard Garford
sp: Miss Notknown
3. Mary Garford wife2 (d.1700)
sp: George Villiers Visc4 Grandison (b.1617;m.14 Nov 1764;d.16 Dec 1699)
sp: Sir, London Lord Mayor Samuel Starling nd


1670: Incorporation of the Hudson's Bay Company. Notions persisted of finding the fabled north-west passage, but most activity was engaged in the fur trade. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 340).

1670 - The Spanish entreated England to try to discipline the buccaneers. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 328). Over the winter of 1670-1671, Apt Morgan with 1800 men again took Granada, Porto Bello and Providence Island, then went across the Isthmus and took Panama, Old Panama was never rebuilt, the Spanish were never recompensed for their losses. Morgan was later knighted and became Lt.-governor of Jamaica.

After 1670: (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 99-103), the Bahamas were subject of a grant to certain of the proprietors also to whom the province of Carolina was granted in 1670, [citing CSP iii, No. 311, pp. 132-133, Nov 1, 1670 -

1670: After 1670: In London, wealthy West Indian planters began to meet at a tavern, and by 1674 had come into existence the Jamaican Coffee House, and so was aided the institutionalisation of West India absentee landlordism.

1670: Sir Thomas Modyford says in 1670 the council and assembly of Jamaica is modelled on the high court of Parliament. (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 4-5, and Modyford led the factions of Barbados, when Daniel Searle the official governor of Barbados for the Commonwealth. and in 1658, Searle suspended from judicial duty a relative of Modyford, Colonel Colleton, member of a family on Barbados quite early. p . 15. [So, is Colleton maybe a Courteen supporter?]

1670 - In dealing with the French regarding Barbados, Willoughby found support from some of the Barbados planters and merchants in England such as Sir Peter Colleton and Edward Drax. But a Leeward Islands interest triumphed. For whatever reason, in January 1670/71, Sir Charles Wheeler was appointed first governor-general of the Leeward Islands. He was succeeded by Sir William Stapleton, in office till 1685, "a man of powerful personality". (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 430.)

By 1670: In need of supplies, Charles II proposed to lay a tax on commodities including sugar. William Lord Willoughby in England still, dealing with Champante, also less so with Povey, processed claims put forward by the Leeward Islands. He also wanted grant of the petitions given him by the Barbados assembly in 1668. Willoughby had little success, so in 1670 the assembly wrote to both Willoughby and London merchants, as Modyford had earlier done, in November 1670. Various merchant and planters remained worried about taxes and regulations, and they wanted agents in London to see to their affairs, the agents to be responsible not to London but to the island assembly, which was regarded as an innovation. (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 46-49ff).

1670: Sir Thomas Modyford says in 1670 the council and assembly of Jamaica is modelled on the high court of Parliament. (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 4-5, and Modyford led the factions of Barbados, when Daniel Searle the official governor of Barbados for the Commonwealth.

1671: London's sugar refiners had been intriguing regarding import duty on sugars from Barbados. The New England traders were at this time evading the Navigation Laws, trading for example with the French sugar islands. The Royal Africa Company as a supplier of slaves remained worrying due to its "narrow interests". (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 116-119).

Jan-Feb 1671: A former Barbados colonist, Col. Edward Thornburgh (a crony of Povey) was being considered for attending to the affairs of Barbados by the assembly there, but letters were crossing in the mail. Ferdinando Gorges for a time was rival to Thornburgh, who obtained the position, only to be replaced by Thomas Hinchman. By 1672, Willoughby decided to leave everything to the planters, who were divided over Hinchman. (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 51-53, p. 116).

1672: Guericke's "Experimenta Nova Magdeburg." vacuum pump, static electricity.

1672: By 1672 there were 70 sugar works on Jamaica (which is total of 3,840,000 acres), in 1752, only 2,133,336 acres cultivable, and in 1752, cultivable land measured at 633,336 acres - in 1754 there were 1620 planters with an average holding of 1000 acres, and much land not used for sugar was left idle, despite the island's potential for greater self-sufficiency in food production and urgings it become more diversified in production, and also - to keep production down propped up the price, and Eric Williams (p. 127) says Jamaica could easily have had three times the number of sugar plantations it did have), producing 760 tons of sugar, 200,000 acres had been granted to 717 families, about 280 acres per family. Sugar islands became increasingly parochial in outlook, was this due to monoculturalism? (Eric Williams, pp. 114-115.) Cultivating one acre of cane in the WI required [about] 172 days of human labour.

1672: British Royal African Co. formed in 1672 with a monopoly.

1672: Royal African Co. founded in 1672, then its monopoly from 1689 was broken by private traders, by 1712 the private traders gave the Co. a 10 per cent commission, to fund operation of the forts, from 1712, the British slave trade became free, after 1712 the Co. itself made only insignificant supply of slaves. this is how Bristol and Liverpool became ports so dependent on slavery, especially Liverpool.

1672: The African Adventurers Company had been ruined by its losses. After 1672 it was replaced by the Royal Africa Company, which ambitiously set up six forts on the Gold Coast and one on the slave coast, while the French built north of the Gambia in Senegal.

1672: The Treaty of Dover.

1672: England: The Cabal's public finances had been disastrous. By 1672 the government owed two millions, one million to bankers to whom government stopped paying interest. "Five considerable bankruptcies" resulted. The king began to sell fee-farm-rents. In 1672, Clifford became treasurer, soon succeeded by Danby till 1679 (Danby who relied on the advice of Sir William Temple had wanted to plan the marriage of William and Mary. Thomas Osborne or Danby was related to Lady Temple.

1672: Charles II of England charters the slave-gathering Royal Africa Company. Among the subscribers are 15 Lords of the realm and the "philosopher of Liberty", John Locke.

1672: Outbreak of Dutch War. Also in 1672, France founds port of Pondicherry in India.

1673: The Royal Africa Company Listings - Assistants to the Company included: Sir John Buckworth, Deputy-Governor 1672-1673. Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury, Sir John Banks, Jarvis Cartwright, Thomas Farrington, Sir Samuel Dashwood, Ferdinando Gorges, Sir Edward Hopegood, John Jeffreys, Sir Andrew King, Samuel Moyer, Sir Gabriel Roberts, Sir John Shaw, Benjamin Skutt in 1682-1684. Also associated, Thomas Vernon, Sir Robert Vyner, Sir Joseph Williamson, Edward Rudge, Sir John Robinson, William Roberts, Sir Arthur Ingram, Thomas Crispe, William earl of Craven, Roger Chappell, John Bull, Sir Robert Vyner.

About 1673: The English crown attempts unsuccessfully to install Lord Culpeper and Lord Arlington as significant new landlords in Virginia. (Ver Steeg, The Formative Years, p. 136).

1673: Governor of Jamaica is Sir Thomas Lynch, who tries and fails to have an assembly formed.

1673: French build Kuthi at Chandannagar. French take over Pondicherry.

1674 Circa: Names of interest on roads out from Barbados Bridgetown by Carlisle Bay, in no particular order, (From Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 94, from a Barbados map dated about 1674. Hawley, Scot(t) Sherland, Eyton, Carter, Kisbrook, Peat, Clements, Morris, Child, Young, Codrington Jnr, Turton, Cecill, Elegant, Newbold and Prideaux, Willoughby, Cole and Mellors, Gregory and Prideaux, Ridgway, Pellard, Osborn, Robinson, Witham and Green, Wolverston, Bulklay, Sutton Snr, Kandye, Perkins, Davis, Pointz, Morgan, Silvester, Stroud, Finchbrok; Neal, Bright and Salter, Newell and Guy, Gayton (maybe links to the Gaytons who relatives of Arthur Phillip?), Bu Lett, Barnes, Marcell and Claypole, Holdip (sic) Evans and Cade, Grant, Sharpe, Thompson and Prideaux, Heywood, Chester, Lane Jnr, Lane Snr (are these linked to the later Lane Son and Fraser?), Dean, (See Frost on Gov. Phillip of NSW, p. 4,5. old connections between Phillip, Lanes, Gaiton and Everitts, Lane Son and Fraser acted as bankers to Michael Everitt and Arthur Phillip, Phillip close to John Lane and Eleanor Everitt, In the late 1780s, after Michael Everitt died (Phillip been with him on ship Stirling Castle), Elizabeth Gaiton Everitt lived close to her daughter in Nicholas Lane, about time she commissioned the portrait of A. Phillip now in National Portrait Gallery, which she later gave to Isabella Phillip, who later gave it to Eleanor Lane "of Peckham", and in later C19th, the Lane house at Peckham passed to the Gaiton family. See notes in Dunn on Caribbean planters, notes from maps, re Lanes and Gaitons on Barbados before 1688.

1649:

An impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor 1649-1650 Sir, Thomas FOOT Bart and his unknown wife
Sir Thomas Foot Bart (c.1649/1650;d.12 Oct 1687) sp: Miss Notknown
2. Rose Foot wife1 sp: Sir Arthur Onslow, Bart2, MP
2. heir Mary Foot sp: Sir Arthur Onslow, Bart2 MP
3. Sir Richard Onslow Sir, Bart3, MP, Baron1 Onslow (b.23 Jun 1654;d.13 Dec 1717) sp: Elizabeth (Suicide) Tulse (b.1660/1661;d.25 Nov 1718) (Daughter of a London Lord Mayor, see elsewhere) 4. Thomas Onslow Baron2 Onslow (b.Nov 1679;d.5 Jun 1740) sp: Elizabeth Knight a fortune of Jamaica (m.17 Nov 1708;d.19 Apr 1731) 5. Richard Onslow Baron3 Onslow, Whig MP (b.1713;d.8 Oct 1776) sp: Mary Elwill (m.16 May 1741;d.20 Apr 1812) 4. Elizabeth Onslow sp: Thomas Middleton Of Essex 5. Mary Middleton Of Essex (d.12 Aug 1766) sp: John Molesworth Visc2 Molesworth of Swords (b.4 Dec 1679;m.Sep 1718;d.17 Feb 1725/1726) 3. Levant trader Foot Onslow MP, Excise official (d.10 May 1710) sp: Susanna Anlaby 4. MP, Speaker House of Commons, Arthur Onslow Rt Hon (b.1691;d.17 Feb 1768) sp: Anne Bridges 5. Coloniser, George Onslow, Earl1 Onslow, Baron4 Onslow (b.13 Sep 1731;d.17 May 1814) sp: Henrietta Shelley (b.Feb 1730/1731;m.26 Jun 1753;d.27 May 1809) 4. EICo, Gov. Fort William, India, Lt-General Richard Onslow (b.1697;d.1760) sp: Pooley Notknown 5. Lt-Col. George Onslow MP (b.1731;d.1792) sp: Jane Thorp sp: Rose Bridges 5. Elizabeth Onslow sp: Rev George Hamilton
2. Sarah Foote sp: Sir John Lewis, Bart of Co. York (c.1660) 3. Elizabeth Lewis wife1 (b.1654;d.24 Dec 1688) sp: Theophilus Hastings Earl7 Huntingdon (b.10 Dec 1650;d.30 May 1701) sp: Denzil Onslow MP sp: Miss Notknown
2. Rose Foot wife1
2. Mary heir Foot wife2
2. Sarah Foote

1650: More to come

1650-1700: Note: One of the most remarkable (and outrageous?) books ever written about English pirates is:
B. R. Burg, Sodomy and the Pirate Tradition: English Sea Rovers in the Seventeenth Century Caribbean. New York, New York University Press, 1995.
See also:
W. Jeffrey Bolster, Black Jacks: African-American Seamen in the Age of Sail. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, nd-recent/1990s?.

1660: Reference item: For a detailed and more insightful account of the East India Company's activities and relationship with European rivals in Bengal see N.K. Sinha, Economic History of Bengal - From Plassey to the Permanent Settlement. (Calcutta, 1956)

1660: Possible origins of The Hope Diamond, which is "possibly cursed". It came from the Golconda region of Andrha Pradesh, southern central India, into the possession of French adventurer, Jean Baptiste Tavernier. It was "bluer in colour", uncut, large and about 112-3/16th old carats, or 110.5 modern carats, about 22.1 grams weight. In 1668 Tavernier was granted an audience with Louis XIV, the Sun King of France, who bought about 1000 gemstones from the adventurer, including what became The Hope Diamond. It was stolen during the French Revolution, but turned up, recut, 20 years and one day after its theft in London, to then be "squabbled over by greedy British aristocrats". At one point it was held by London jeweller Daniel Eliason. In 1824 it was sold to Henry Philip Hope, heir to a banking fortune (from Hopes of Amsterdam, a firm bought out by Barings) who was born in Holland, and who renamed the diamond. His sister-in-law, Louisa Hope, would wear it at soirees she hosted. Hope died in 1839 and left the diamond to his three nephews, one of whom was Henry, a failed politician. In 1861, Henry's daughter Henrietta married the Earl of Lincoln ("he a gambler, and from a family of drunks, drug addicts, layabouts and the odd transvestite"). In 1884 the diamond went to the Earl's second son by Henrietta Hope, Lord Francis Pelham-Clinton Hope, a playboy-peer who by the 1890s was in serious debt. He married music hall actress May Yohe (Madcap May), daughter of a saloon keeper from Pennsylvania. She took up an affair with a US dry-goods millionaire, Putnam Bradlee Strong. Lord Francis's debts reached $5 million, but he had won a right to sell The Hope Diamond. It was bought by Simon Frankel, a New York dealer. Later it was perhaps in the hands of Selim Habib, a Paris dealer, then a French syndicate, then in 1910 it was sold to Parisian jewellers, Cartier Brothers. (May Yohe once starred in a silent movie serial, The Hope Diamond Mystery and produced a book, The Mystery of the Hope Diamond.) Cartiers sold The Hope Diamond to Evalyn Walsh McLean, a daughter of Irish migrants who'd struck it gold-rich in the 1890s Colorado goldfields. She married Ned McLean (d.1941), heir to newspaper, Washington Post, whose debts became so large the newspaper had to be sold. The diamond was found stuck in the back of Evelyn's bedside radio when she died, then stored in a bank vault. In 1949 The Hope Diamond was bought by New York jeweller, Harry Winston, who in 1958 donated it to Smithsonian Institute, which has had care of it ever since. (See recent book, Hope: Adventures of a Diamond. Simon and Schuster, 2003. Several other large and famed diamonds are the Sancy, Koh-i-Noor (Mountain of Light) and Star of Africa.)

1675: More to come

1676: Time of civil unrest with servants generally in Virginia.

1676: (Penson, Colonial Agents, p.71), Jamaica, records seems confused re agents for Jamaica, annoyingly, but a ref to one John Bindloss agent to Sir Henry Morgan. and in 1677 was appointed Sir John Griffith agent to Jamaica, no details on him, but by 1680 existed a circle of merchants and planters Jamaica in dispute at Lords of Trade with the Royal Africa Co. and by 1682 Jamaica merchants wanted regulation of transportation of servants to the islands.

1676: The Royal Africa Company lists include: Sub-governor, Sir Andrew King, William Allington, Sir Thomas Bludworth, Francis Dashwood, John Gardiner (Gardner?) (William Gardner, separate trader, see Davies); Capt. Abraham Holditch, Sir Benjamin Newland, Sir Henry Tulse, John Morice, Thomas Murthwaite (sic), Sir John Banks, Sir Edward Hopegood, Sir Gabriel Roberts, William Warren, Sir William Turner, John Searle, Tobias Rustat (sic), John Mead, John Bancks. (Davies, RAC).

Merchants and Bankers families - Lists:
From Little London Directory 1677 by J. C. Hutton, reprinted in The Handbook of London Bankers F. G. Hilton-Price, 1876
Goldsmiths keeping running cashes in 1677:
John Addis and co, at the Sun Lombard St, London, John Bolitho and Mr Wilson, at The Golden Lion , Lombard St, John Ballard at The Unicorn, Lombard St, Job Bolton at The Bolt and Tun, Lombard St, Robert Blanchard and Child at The Marigold Fleet, St (? Richard Blanchard), Thomas Cook and Nicholas Cary at The Griffin, Exchange Alley, Mr Cuthbert, Cheapside, Mr Coggs, Kings Head, Strand, Mr Churchill, Strand, Charles Duncombe and Richard Kent at The Grasshopper, Lombard St, John Ewing and Benjamin Norrington at the Angel and Crown, Lombard St, Mr East, Strand, Thomas Fowles, Black Lion Fleet St, Joseph and Nath Hornboy the Star, Lombard St, John Hind and Thomas Carwood Exchange Alley, Cornhill, Benjamin Hinton at the Flower de Lys Lombard St, James Herriot, James Hore, James Johnson, Thomas Kiborne and Capill, Kenton, Ketch, Henry Lamb, James Lapley, John Mawson, Henry Nelthorpe, Thomas Price, Peter Percefull and Stephen Evans, Thomas Pardo, Thomas Rowe and Thomas Green, Humph. Stocks, John Sweetaple, John Snell, Michael Shrimpshaw, Richard Stayley, John Temple and John Seale, John Thursby, Bar. Turner and Samuel Tookie, Major Joh. Wallis, Peter Wade, Peter White and Churchill, Thomas White, Thomas Williams, Robert Ward and John Towneley.
From Little London Directory 1677 by J. C. Hutton, reprinted in The Handbook of London Bankers F. G. Hilton-Price, 1876

1677: William of Orange marries Mary.

1677: Sheriffs of London and Middlesex were directed to deliver malefactors to William Freeman, merchant of London for transportation.

1677: Sheriffs of London and Middlesex were directed to deliver malefactors to William Freeman, merchant of London. The next most active merchant involved in convict transportation was Jonathan Forward, from about 1714.

1678: On Nevis by 1678 were planters Sir James Russell and Col. Randolph Russell, each an owner of 150 slaves. The Russells, Pym, Keynall, Winthrops and Baijers (sic) seem, to have arrived in the 1640s and 1650s. The name appears, of William Byam of Surinam, and one suspects Nordhorf and Hall, authors of a book on Bligh and the Bounty of the 1930s, named their character Roger Byam from this family name. (Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, pp. 128-130).

1678-1680: Links are forming between merchants who built ships, supplied timber to the navy, the East India Company, and presumably the users of ships for slaving. Many issues arose for discussion. One wood monger was a Westminster JP, Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, "not so creditable", a friend of Pepys, who was also friends with another wood monger, Warren. By 1680, Sir Joseph Williamson received mail on a lack of English ships being built; the timber merchant Thomas Papillon claimed ship-users had preferred taking prize ships to using the timber trades. (Davis, Rise of the English Shipping Industry, p. 53; Clark, Later Stuarts, pp. 93-95)

1678: The Lords of Trade appointed a new governor for Jamaica, the Earl of Carlisle, whose efforts were repelled by powerful planters Samuel Long and William Beeston. One of Carlisle's aides was Major-General Sir Francis-Watson. Opposition on the island was led by Colonel Samuel Long, already from one of the most famous families on Jamaica. In 1679-1680 charges were laid against Long who had to stand before the Lords of Trade. In their politics, the Jamaicans insisted they wanted "the Barbados model". (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 72-73).

1678: New governor of Jamaica is Lord Carlisle, he also had little success with organising the assembly of Jamaica. one of his aides was Major-General Sir Francis-Watson. Opposition on the island led by Colonel Samuel Long, already one of the most famous families on Jamaica, and in 1679-1680 charges were laid against Long, and he had to stand before Lords of Trade. (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp.72-73.) The Jamaicans wanted "the Barbados model".

1678: The Royal Africa Company lists include: Sir Gabriel Roberts; Sir Benjamin Newland, Deputy-Gov. 1678-1679 and Sub-Governor RAfCo. 1680-1681; Sir Benjamin Bathurst, Thomas Belasyse (sic) Viscount Falconberg, Sir Peter Colleton, Lawrence Du Puy (sic), Nicholls or Niccols (sic), John Mead, Sir William Turner, William Warren, Sir Thomas Bludworth, Roger Chappell, William earl of Craven, Edward Rudge, Thomas Vernon also an Benjamin Skutt, Africa company's agent in Barbados; Sir John Banks, Sir Samuel Dashwood, Sir Edward Hopegood, Deputy-Gov. 1674-1675; Sir Andrew King, Sir Peter Proby, Richard Mountney, Nicholas Mead, Sir John Mathews, Peter Joye (sic).

1679: England: Treasury commissioners included Hon Laurence Hyde later earl of Rochester, and Sidney Godolphin.

1679: England is distracted by the Popish plot.

1680: K. G. Davies, The North Atlantic World in the Seventeenth Century. Minneapolis, 1974.

1680: James D. Phillips, Salem in the Seventeenth Century. Salem, 1933* Also, Salem in the Eighteenth Century. Salem, 1937*., and Salem and the Indies. Boston, 1947.*

1680: During the 1680s begins a small Scottish trade with the American tobacco colonies - carried on illegally. (Davis, Rise of the English Shipping Industry, p. 28, Note 1.)

1680: The Royal Africa Co. lists included Sir Benjamin Newland, Deputy-Governor, Sir Benjamin Bathurst, Deputy-Gov. RACo., 1680-1681, Court of Assistants to the Royal Africa Co. 1672. Members were John Ashby, William Fawkener (sic), Sir John Verney, James Ward, Apt Francis Wilshaw, Peter Joye (sic), Sir John Mathews, Nicholas Mead, Richard Mountney, Tobias Rustat (sic), John Morgan, William Stevens, Sir Henry Tulse, Lord George Berkeley, John Morice, John Bull, Edward Rudge, Samuel Moyer, Sir Gabriel Roberts, Robert Williamson, William Moyer, Jacob Lucy, (sic), John Cooke. (Davies, RAC).
Between 1680-1688 the Royal African Company supplied 46,396 slaves to the West Indies, about 5155 annually, and at 300 per ship, about 17 ships annually. And between 1680 and 1688 the Royal African Company supplied 46,396 slaves to the West Indies, about 5155 annually, and at 300 per ship, about 17 ships annually. ...Williams p. 99-100 says, "Besides the white indentured servants, convicts and malefactors provided a second source of white labour. If the existence of a contract gave a semblance of legality to the system of white indentured labour, convict labour was also surrounded with the aura of the law by the commutation of sentences involving death or imprisonment to transportation and servitude in the colonies for a term of years. The crime was extended to fit a punishment which contributed to the solution of the colonial labour problem, and a veritable system in this regard was developed in Bristol, where magistrates and judges were connected, directly or indirectly, Williams says, with the Caribbean sugar plantations."

1680: Some Barbados parishes were Bridgetown, Christchurch and Sts Michael, James, Thomas, George, Philip, John, Joseph, Peter, Andrew, Lucy. (Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 88).

1680: December 16: Some accommodations regarding Jamaican politics were being reached between the Earl of Carlisle, Col. Long, Mr. Beeston and others merchants and planters to Jamaica, [There was a Cool William Beeston also]. Jamaicans wanted an ability to raise money to solicit the affairs of the island. This all received royal assent in October 1682. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 73).

1680 from 1676: (Penson, Colonial Agents, p.71), Jamaica, records seems confused re agents for Jamaica, annoyingly, but a ref to one John Bindloss agent to Sir Henry Morgan. and in 1677 was appointed Sir John Griffith agent to Jamaica, no details on him, but by 1680 existed a circle of merchants and planters Jamaica in dispute at Lords of Trade with the Royal Africa Co. and by 1682 Jamaica merchants wanted regulation of transportation of servants to the islands.

1680: English pirates abused the 1680 Anglo-Spanish treaty and went across Isthmus of Panama to pillage the Pacific coast, returning by Cape Horn in 1682. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 329).
And between 1680 and 1688 the Royal African Company supplied 46,396 slaves to the West Indies, about 5155 annually, and at 300 per ship, about 17 ships annually. ... then Williams pp. 99-100 says, "Besides the white indentured servants, convicts and malefactors provided a second source of white labour. If the existence of a contract gave a semblance of legality to the system of white indentured labour, convict labour was also surrounded with the aura of the law by the commutation of sentences involving death or imprisonment to transportation and servitude in the colonies for a term of years. The crime was extended to fit a punishment which contributed to the solution of the colonial labour problem, and a veritable system in this regard was developed in Bristol, where magistrates and judges were connected, directly or indirectly, Williams says, with the Caribbean sugar plantations."

1680: English apothecary, Thomas Sydenham, introduces Sydenham's Laudanum, a compound of opium, sherry wine and herbs. His pills along with others of the time become popular remedies for numerous ailments.
From website based on book: Opium: A History, by Martin Booth Simon and Schuster, Ltd., 1996. e-mail info@opioids.com

1680 approx: The Dutch agent-general on Curacao of the asiento is Balthasar Beck, Lt-governor of the island under Stuyvesant. (The Curacao slave market operates under terms set by the Amsterdam Chamber, which made contracts with the asentistas). Goslinga, Dutch in the Caribbean, pp. 353-362. - Asiento chronology -

1680: In Virginia, it is now regarded as a non-felony to kill a Negro. By 1681-1685, slave society in Virginia depends legally on slavery, with slaves regarded differently to indentured servants.

1681: The English Royal Africa Co. lists include: Sir Benjamin Newland, Sub-Governor RAC 1680-1681, Sir Benjamin Bathurst, Deputy-Governor RAC 1680-1681, John Cooke, John Ashby, William Fawkener (sic), Sir John Verney, Apt Francis Wilshaw, Richard Mountney, John Mead, Sir William Turner, William Warren, John Morgan, Sir Henry Tulse, Lord George Berkeley, John Morice, Samuel Moyer, Sir Gabriel Roberts, Sir Dudley North, Sir John Lethuillier (sic), Edward Colston, Sir Robert Clayton. (Davies, RAC)

1681-1689: An Englishman Cornelius Hodges tries to explore up the Gambia River, looking for gold-mining areas. The French are now also exploring into Senegal seeking gold. Richard Jobson also sailed up the Gambia on similar mission. (K. G. Davies, RCA, p. 216).

1681-1682: William Penn, earlier a friend of James II, interested in investing in America, was obliged to discharge a crown debt to his father. Charles II granted him proprietary rights on what became Pennsylvania, capital Philadelphia. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 340). Penn Jnr had inherited a large financial claim against the king, £16,000 sterling. (Ver Steeg, The Formative Years, pp. 117-119).
(Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 340), William Penn earlier a friend of James II, mother a Dutchwoman, interested in investing in America, his father an admiral who commanded in Cromwell's "western design", he dealt early with New Jersey, in 1681-82 Penn had to discharge a crown debt to his father, Charles II granted him what became Pennsylvania, proprietary rights, capital Philadelphia,

1682: Jamaica agents to be Sir Chas Littleton and Cool William Beeston. Beeston may still have been agent in 1687. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 75), supplies for Jamaica now rendered more secure.

1682: (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 336), re [Bermuda] Somers Island Company disbanded in 1682.

1682: The RAC lists include: Sub-governor, Sir Benjamin Bathurst, Deputy-Governor, Sir Dudley North, Edward Colston, Sir John Lethuillier (sic), Thomas Belasyse (sic) Viscount Falconberg, Nicholls or Niccols (sic), John Mead, Sir William Turner, William Warren, John Morgan, Sir Benjamin Newland, William Stevens, Sir Henry Tulse, John Bull, William earl of Craven, Thomas Vernon, Benjamin Skutt, and an Africa Company's agent in Barbados; Sir Samuel Dashwood; Sir Gabriel Roberts, Capt Hopefor Bendall. (Davies, RAC).

1682: The agents for Jamaica agents are to be Sir Charles Littleton and Col. William Beeston. Beeston may still have been agent in 1687. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 75). Supplies for Jamaica are now rendered more secure.

1682: 22nd year of reign of Chas II. Contracts were made for the removal of English felons by William Nevett and Thomas Walsh. (Oldham).

1682: August: Jeaffreson left as governor of a Caribbean island to return to his English estates. He attempted to see Blathwayt, secretary to the Lords of Trade, and being delayed and given difficulties he found it necessary with waiting on officials to pay heavy gratuities and fees for anything to be done. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 65).

1682-1687: Jamaica agents are Charles Littleton, William Beeston, Ralph Knight.

1682: Twelve Quakers, including William Penn, bought East Jersey. In 1702, New Jersey united and became a royal colony, by which time Penn had established Pennsylvania. Wm Penn's father was Admiral Sir William Penn, who remained close to the Stuarts even though he'd assisted the Puritans. Penn Jnr inherited a large financial claim against the king, some £16,000 sterling, so he obtained the grant of Pennsylvania, in 1681. In 1682 Penn arrived in America, to found Philadelphia. (Ver Steeg, The Formative Years, pp. 117-119.)

1682: John Scarlett a merchant of the Eastland Co. (Westerfield, Middlemen, p. 399).

An impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor 1683-1684 Sir Henry Tulse,
1. Lord mayor Sir Henry Tulse (c.1683) sp: Elizabeth Notknown
2. Elizabeth (Suicide) Tulse (b.1660/1661;d.25 Nov 1718) sp: Sir Richard Onslow Bart3, MP, Baron1 Onslow (b.23 Jun 1654;d.13 Dec 1717)
3. Thomas Onslow Baron2 Onslow (b.Nov 1679;d.5 Jun 1740) sp: Elizabeth Knight a fortune, of Jamaica (m.17 Nov 1708;d.19 Apr 1731) 4. Richard Onslow Whig MP Baron3 Onslow (b.1713;d.8 Oct 1776) sp: Mary Elwill (m.16 May 1741;d.20 Apr 1812) 3. Elizabeth Onslow sp: Thomas Middleton Of Essex 4. Mary Middleton Of Essex (d.12 Aug 1766) sp: John Molesworth Visc2 Molesworth of Swords (b.4 Dec 1679;m.Sep 1718;d.17 Feb 1725/1726)

1683: The RAC lists include: Sir Benjamin Bathurst, Sir Dudley North, Apt Hopefor Bendall, Edward Colston, Sir John Lethuillier (sic), Peter Joye (sic), Sir John Mathews, Thomas Belasyse (sic) Viscount Falconberg, Sir Peter Colleton, Nicholls or Niccols (sic), John Mead, Sir William Turner, William Warren, Sir Benjamin Newland, William Stevens, John Bull, William earl of Craven, Thomas Vernon, Benjamin Skutt, also an Africa Company's agent in Barbados. Davies; Sir Samuel Dashwood, Stephen Pitts, Sir Peter Paravicini (sic) or Paravisin, William Jarrett, Sir William Hussey, Abraham Hill, Thomas Heatley. (Davies, RAC).

1683: Agents for Jamaica are Beeston and Littleton. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 152).

1683: The directors of the East India Company considered a new charter provided by James II. The directors would soon adopt Keigwin's more aggressive policy for activity in India. (See Clark, Later Stuarts, pp. 350-351, citing Ray and O. Strachey, Keigwin's Rebellion. 1916.
1683: Richard Keigwin for British takes stronger measures to protect EICo outposts, he had re-taken St. Helena, he got aggressive, though the Co. at London wanted economy, not adventures. Keigwin is recalled home, but returned to Bombay, and in 1683 the garrison mutinied against the EICo quietist policy, Keigwin took control of government and wrote the king Chas he was holding Bombay for him. Chas put the matter to the CO, which sent out in 1683 or later some navy plus Co. ships. Keigwin let off. He died in 1690 landing in the West Indies.

1683: (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 152), agents for Jamaica are Beeston and Littleton.

1683: Manchus of China take control of Taiwan-Formosa as a province.

1684: (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 61, Duke of York first Gov. of Royal African Co. and in 1684 bought £3000 of EICo stock. His mistress then wife was Anne Hyde, to horror of her father Clarendon.

1685: France: Repeal of Edict of Nantes (on religious freedom/tolerance in France), inducing Protestants (Huguenots) to flee France.

1685: Navigation: Johannes Loots publishes his Chart of the East Indies with Voyages of Tasman, Pelsaert and de Chaumont.

James III is King of England, deals with The Monmouth Rebellion.

1685: West African slaving depot Cape Coast Castle is taken over for the English by Capt. Henry Nurse and renamed Fort Royal.

1685: By 1685: Secretary to the Lord of Trade is William Blathwayt (sic) and Barbados men fearful of more duties on sugar. An an agent in London for the Gov. of Barbados is one Thomas Robson. (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 57-58), and some interested merchants in London seem to be Edward Littleton, John Gardner, Sir John Bowden, and these included some of the largest merchants involved to Barbados. Soon, James Kendall to be appointed Gov. of Barbados, the first planter-gov since Modyford.

1684: The RAC lists include: Sub-governor Sir Dudley North, Col. John Pery (sic) also secretary, Thomas Heatley, Abraham Hill, Sir William Hussey, William Jarrett, Sir Peter Paravicini (sic) or Paravisin, Stephen Pitts, Peter Joye (sic), Sir Benjamin Bathurst, Sir Peter Colleton, Nicholls or Niccols (sic), Sir Benjamin Newland, William Stevens, Lord George Berkeley, John Morice, John Bull, William earl of Craven, Thomas Vernon; Benjamin Skutt also an Africa Company's agent in Barbados. Davies; Sir Samuel Dashwood, Sir William Langhorne, Sir Jeffrey Jeffreys, also separate trader p372. Davies; Richard Craddock, Roger Bradyll (sic), George Boun (sic). (Davies, RAC).

1684: The Duke of York, first governor of the Royal African Company, buys £3000 worth of East India Stock in 1684. He also succeeds Prince Rupert as governor of the Hudson's Bay Company. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 61).

1685: Africa Co. Gov. James II (Duke of York) = Governor of Royal Africa Co. 1672-1688. Davies; Sub-governor / Deputy-Governor / Court of Assistants to the Royal Africa Co. George Boun (sic), Richard Craddock, Sir Jeffrey Jeffreys, Sir William Langhorne, Thomas Heatley, Abraham Hill, Sir William Hussey, William Jarrett, Sir Peter Paravicini (sic) or Paravisin, Stephen Pitts, Sir Dudley North, Peter Joye (sic), Sir Benjamin Bathurst, Sir Peter Colleton, John Morgan, Sir Henry Tulse, Lord George Berkeley, John Morice, Sir Gabriel Roberts, John Short, Sir Jeremy Sambrooke, [See also Samuel Sambrooke. Davies]; William Ivatt (sic), Francis Hopegood,

1685: One of the greatest merchants of his day is James Houblon (sic) From R. Davis, Rise English ship industry, p.130).

1685: Edward Randolph appointed as surveyor of pines and timbers in Maine for naval use, salary of £50, and by 1691 Randolph is surveyor-general, deals with Jahleel (sic) Brenton or Ichabod Plaisted - Plaisted an influential provincial judge timber getting for John Taylor naval mast contractor). by 1700, Gov. of New York Richard Coote Lord Bellomont complaining neither Randolph nor Plaisted done any work of use. John Bridger also worked the colonists, trying to supervise matters and Bridger did much for the "broad arrow policy" to 1696. Albion, Forests and Sea Power, pp. 242-243, p. 260).

1685: England: Smugglers had begun to feel persecuted. By 1685 the illegal running of goods was already considerable. The forbidding of wool export meant that cloth workers had wool growers at their mercy. In 1717, wool smuggling is made punishable by transportation.

Before 1686: Major William Barnes acts as agent for Antigua, acting in concert with Christopher Jeaffreson. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 68).

1685 - Royal Africa Company associates include: George Boun (sic), Richard Craddock, Sir Jeffrey Jeffreys, Sir William Langhorne, Thomas Heatley, Abraham Hill, Sir William Hussey, William Jarrett, Sir Peter Paravicini (sic) or Paravisin, Stephen Pitts, Sir Dudley North, Peter Joye (sic), Sir Benjamin Bathurst, Sir Peter Colleton, John Morgan, Sir Henry Tulse, Lord George Berkeley, John Morice, Sir Gabriel Roberts, John Short, Sir Jeremy Sambrooke, [See also Samuel Sambrooke. Davies]; William Ivatt (sic), Francis Hopegood. (Davies, RAC).

1685: England has instituted in the New England area its "broad arrow policy", which meant that authorities blazed trees suitable for naval stores, preserving it from other use. (Albion, Forests and Sea Power, pp. 242-243, p. 260).

1685: The secretary to the Lords of Trade was William Blathwayt. Barbados men remained fearful of more duties on sugar. An agent in London for the governor of Barbados was one Thomas Robson. (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 57-58). Some interested merchants in London were Edward Littleton, John Gardner, Sir John Bowden, and these included some of the largest merchants involved to Barbados. Soon, James Kendall would be appointed Gov. of Barbados, the first planter-governor since Modyford.

1686++: (From Lynch on Bourbon Spain): From 1686, European merchants are re-exporting from Spain (Seville/Cadiz), assisted by Spain's own merchants, the French did well out of this.

1686: The English East India Company sends an expedition to take Chittagong and make war on the Mogul emperor. Britain finally took St. Helena, which the crown granted to the Company.

1686 - A French force captures all but one of the Hudson's Bay Company forts. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 341).

1687: Sir William Turner had begun making loans 1672 to 1693. In 1687 he was owed £3700 by Sir Arthur Harris, £3500 by the Earl of Berkeley, £1000 by Lady Williams. Other loans made several thousand pounds, mostly all at six per cent. Turner invested little in ships, no more than 1/30th of his capital. (Davies, RAC, pp. 50-52, citing City of London Guildhall Library, MS 5105).

June 1688: (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 54, p.133, p. 180), Louis of France warned James of his danger, as William corresponding in plain terms with his backers in England such as Arthur Herbert, (Danby was principal minister until 1695), another Russell sailor, Henry Sidney was Lord Romney and backed William, Lumley, the rich Whig Shrewsbury was Charles Talbot, Devonshire, Halifax not for William, the Tory Nottingham not for William. William Russell, Lord Russell.

1687: Newton produces his Principia, a masterwork on mathematics, explaining how gravity works.

1687: Turks defeated by the Russians.

1687: English settlers arrive at Sutanati.

1688: William III brings England its Glorious Revolution.

1688: Ralph Knight acting as an agent for Jamaica. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 127).

1688: One of Britain's notable exports is ... people, people turned into commodities - units of labour value.. In 1654-1685, it has been estimated, 10,000 indentured servants sailed from Bristol alone to North America and the Caribbean; about half went to Virginia. and E. Williams (p. 137) says that in 1688 it was estimated that Jamaica alone needed about 10,000 slaves annually.

1689: England: Parliament declares that king Charles II has abdicated.

Mid-July 1689: Both William & Mary wish Russell to take command of naval fleet, and their judgement was correct, but Russell reluctant, he was friends with Lord Shrewsbury, the ex-minister, and W&M wanted Haddick, but Russell hated Haddick, Russell refused to take part in two recent naval defeats, he wanted two partners, one Lord Shrewsbury the ex-minister and one an unnamed seaman. Queen did not object to Shrewsbury, but she and William III insisted on Haddick, but Russell hated Haddick, and the lords of admiralty thought fit to oppose the queen on these issues, Sir Thomas Lee a leading admiralty man also hated Haddick, and Russell hated Lee as much as he hated Haddick, so finally the lords admiralty refused to sign a commission for the purpose, and so Carmarthen saw the Queen, he in a rage, and Stricklands feel it odd that Shrewsbury should be wanted by king, as he was not bred to naval profession, and English fleet degraded by "harpies of corruption", civilians concerned in finding stores, ammunition, provision and pay, all pilferings, none of James II;'s naval men wanted to proceed to fight, Mary upset at insolence of Sir Thomas Lee. (Strickland, Lives of Queens of England, Vol. VII, p.282-293ff.

1689: The Royal African Company monopoly from 1689 is broken by private traders, who by 1712 gave the Company a 10 per cent commission to help fund the operation of the forts. (Orlando Patterson, pp. 127ff).

1690s - 1750: Peter Du Cane says he is a merchant with most income from land and fund holding, a typical C18th passive investor in shipping, his grand father had made a fortune in financial operations with Wm III's wars, and by 1750, Peter Du Cane was a director of EICo with large investments in EICo stock, he dabbled unsuccessfully in marine insurance in 1740-41. (See E. Ward, The London Spy, Dagmar 3, 1698, edited by R. Straus. 1924. (From R. Davis, Rise English Shipping Industry, p.106.)

After 1688-89: William III's friend Schomberg is made Master of Ordnance, Clark, Later Stuarts, p.180.)

During the 1680s: London has up to 2000 overseas merchants. Several hundred traded independently to America, to Virginia, or New York. By 1690 the leading American merchants formed a core group of nine men, led by Richard Perry, the older Micajah Perry and their partner, Thomas Lane. Chesapeake Merchants gathered about Tower Hill, Pennsylvania around Gracechurch Street, newer Carolina merchants about north and west London. Information on colonial conditions became a tool of politics. (Olson, Making the Empire Work, pp. 27-28, pp. 52-57. Olson cites Perry, p. 209, Notes 19, 25, and p. 220, Note 37; p. 221, Note 41).

1689: 14 November: A merchants' petition to the House of Commons "proved" 100 merchant ships worth 600,000 l were lost for want of convoys, or, by corruption of naval captains. Capt Churchill's conduct was such that he was expelled from the house four days later. (Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England, Vol. 7, p. 300, Note 2).

1689: Mid-July: Both William and Mary wished Russell to take command of the navy. Their judgement was correct but Russell reluctant. A dispute arose over the appointment of Haddick. The English fleet was degraded by "harpies of corruption", civilians concerned in finding stores, ammunition, provision and pay; much pilfering. (Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England, Vol. 7, pp. 282-293ff).

1690: Whaling history: Whaler Ichabod Paddock from Cape Cod moves to Nantucket Island to teach on the techniques of mainland whaling - especially on harpooning .
K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways.. University of South Carolina Press, 1988., p. 231.

1690s++: Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor nd? Sir Francis Child.
Descendants of Clothier Robert Child of Wilts, ... sp: Miss Notknown
2. Goldsmith-Banker, Whig, Sir Francis Child (b.1642;d.4 Oct 1713) sp: Elizabeth Wheeler, cousin (b.1652;m.2 Oct 1671;d.1719)
3. MP, Banker, Samuel Child (b.1684;d.1740) sp: Agatha Edward
4. London banker, Robert Child (b.1739;d.1782) sp: Sarah Jodrell 5. Sarah Anne Child wife1, heiress (b.28 Aug 1764;d.9 Nov 1793) sp: John Fane Earl10 Westmoreland, Privy Seal (b.1 Jan 1759;d.15 Dec 1841) 6. John Fane Earl11 Westmoreland (b.2 Feb 1784;d.16 Oct 1859) sp: Priscilla Anne Wellesley-Pole (m.26 Jun 1811) 7. Ernest Fitzroy Neville Fane Lord Burghersh (b.7 Jan 1824;d.22 Jan 1851) sp: Augusta Selina Locke (b.6 Jun 1833;m.17 Oct 1849;d.4 Nov 1906) 7. Francis William Fane Earl12 Westmoreland (b.19 Nov 1825;d.3 Aug 1891) sp: Adelaide Ida Curzon-Howe (b.12 Jul 1835;m.16 Jul 1857;d.23 Mar 1903) 6. Child's banker, heiress, Sarah Sophia Fane sp: George Villiers Earl5 Jersey (b.19 Aug 1773;d.3 Oct 1859) 7. George Augustus Frederick Child-Villiers Earl6 Jersey (b.4 Apr 1808;d.24 Oct 1859) sp: Julia Peel (m.2 Jul 1841) 6. Lady Maria Fane (b.11 May 1787;d.19 Mar 1834) sp: John William Ponsonby Brn5 Bessborough, Earl4 Bessborough (b.1781;m.16 Nov 1805;d.1847) 7. John George Brabazon Ponsonby Earl5 Bessborough (b.14 Oct 1809;d.28 Jan 1880) sp: Frances Charlotte Lambton wife1 (b.16 Oct 1812;m.8 Sep 1835;d.28 Jan 1880) sp: Caroline Amelia Gordon-Lennox wife2 (b.18 Jun 1819;m.4 Oct 1849;d.30 Apr 1890) 7. Frederick George Brabazon Ponsonby Earl6 Bessborough (b.11 Sep 1815;d.11 Mar 1895) 7. Walter William Ponsonby Earl7 Bessborough, Baron8 Bessborough (b.13 Aug 1821;d.24 Feb 1906) sp: Louisa Susan Cornwallis Eliot (b.17 Dec 1825;m.15 Jan 1850;d.15 Jan 1911) 7. Augusta Lavinia Priscilla Ponsonby sp: William Thomas Petty-Fitzmauric Earl Kerry (m.18 Mar 1834) sp: Hon. Charles Alexander Gore 7. Maria Jane Elizabeth Ponsonby sp: Charles Frederick Cooper Ponsonby Brn2 de Mauley 6. Augusta Fane (b.17 May 1786) sp: John Parker Baron2 Boringdon, Earl1 Morley (b.3 May 1772;m.20 Jun 1804;d.14 Mar 1840) sp: Rt Hon. Sir Arthur Paget (b.1771;d.1840) 7. Laura Caroline Paget wife1, cousin (b.24 Oct 1816;d.9 Dec 1871) sp: Henry Spencer Chichester Baron2 T? (b.14 Jun 1821;m.3 Aug 1842;d.10 Jun 1906) sp: MP Francis Reynolds-Moreton, RN, Baron3 Ducie (b.28 Mar 1739;m.10 Oct 1774;d.19 Aug 1808) 4. MP, London banker, Francis Child (b.1735;d.1763/1764) 3. Banker, Alderman, Sir Robert Child (d.1721) 3. London Lord Mayor, Banker, Sir Francis Child (b.1684;d.20 Apr 1740) sp: Miss Notknown 4. Banker Francis Child 3. Banker Stephen Child (d.1762) 3. Elizabeth Child sp: Alderman Tyringham Backwell
4. Banker Barnaby Bank Backwell at Child's Bank 4. Banker William Backwell at Child's Bank

1680s-1690s: A noted slaving merchant is John Cary of Bristol, England.

1690: Ireland, Battle of the Boyne.

1690: King's absence and 3 June, 1690, Queen Mary brought to council, nine privy councillors, appointed by William to assist her, president Danby now Marquess of Carmarthen, who bribed the English senate, with Lord Pembroke, Lord Devonshire, Lord Nottingham, Lord Godolphin, Lord Marlborough, Lord Monmouth, Admiral Russell and Sir John Lowther. (Strickland, Lives of Queens of England, Vol. VII, p. 238, Admiral Russell rough and savage temper, perpetual grasping after money and profit, often taking affront, p. 244.)

After mid-1690: Battle of the Boyne, 1690, (p. 266 William had a troop of 30,000 regular troops, good artillery, Boyne won by a furious charge of cavalry) and Mary had her father's standards carried in triumphant processions and later hung in St. James chapel, her father's old friends were outraged, and later Charles Montague, earl of Halifax, wrote a poem panegyric of William's exploits at this battle, without naming the antagonist, James II. (Strickland, Lives of Queens of England, Vol. VII, p.26-2670ff.

1690+: John Prebble, The Darien Disaster. London, Secker and Warburg, 1988.

1690-1692: Job Charnock establishes Calcutta. East India Co. receives English royal charter giving it monopoly of Eastern Trade for 15 years.

1692: India: Calcutta and the death of Job Charnock of English East India Company:

On August 4 2001 (sent to the India Mailing List)
. -----Original Message----- From: achintyarup Ray: aray0@rediffmail.com
To: INDIA-L@rootsweb.com - INDIA-L@rootsweb.com
Date: Saturday, 4 August 2001 3:46 AM
Subject: [India-L] Calcutta History
Dear Listers, Following is a legal story the Hindustan Times is carrying today on the history of Calcutta. Thanks, Achintyarup Ray, Calcutta

PIL filed against Charnok myth
HT Correspondent
Kolkata, August 3

CALCUTTA HIGH Court today admitted a public interest litigation challenging that Job Charnok, agent of East India Company, founded Kolkata about 300 years ago.
A two-judge Bench, headed by Chief Justice Asoke Kumar Mathur, asked the petitioner to serve notice on the State Government and held that the matter would be heard again after a month.
Presently, August 24 is being celebrated as the city's birthday as Charnok is believed to have anchored his boat in the Hooghly off Sutanity on that day in 1690.
The petitioners -- Sabarna Roy Chowdhury Parivar Parishad (SRPP) and some city-based historians -- claimed that Kolkata existed long before Job Charnok arrived in India and the name "Kalkata" may be traced even in books like Manasa Vijay and Ain-e-Akbari, written in 1494 and 1596 respectively.
SRPP, founded by members of Sabarna Roy Chowdhury family, which originally owned Kolkata, said Charnok landed at Sutanuti, a marshy fishing village on the bank of the Hooghly on August 24, 1964 and lived there till he died on January 10, 1692.
"Charnok only concentrated towards some trade and was among hundreds other Europeans and Indians who traded at Sutanuti", said counsel Smarajit Roy Chowdhury, who appeared for SRPP before the Division Bench this afternoon. Roy Chowdhury, who is also a descendant of Sabarna Roy Chowdhury, said it was long after Charnok's death that East India Company obtained the "Right to Rent" of the three villages - Kalkata, Sutanuti and Gobindapur -- on which the city of Kolkata now stands. Charnok died six years before the deal was signed.
The deed, singed at Bangladesh's Barisha, was, however, found to be illegal as two minor of Sabarna family signed it out of a plan, formulated to resist the British, Roy Chowdhury pointed out.
SRPP also said no individual can be regarded as the founder of the city and it was Lakshmikanta, predecessor of Sabarna Roy Chowdhury, who got the ownership right of eight villages, including the three ones, from the Emperor Akbar as a token of appreciation of his services.
Roy Chowdhury said a copy of the "Right to Rent" also proved that Charnok was founder of the city, August 24 was its birthday.
The case was filed "to set right a wrong fact and reconstruct the history of Kolkata, which is almost unknown to the world".
///////////Ends this item //////////

Mid-1690, Mary Stuart is worried as she is expecting a battle between her father and her husband William III forces in Ireland, and wants William's directions for command of the fleet, Lord Monmouth claimed the command, Torrington (a Jacobite) had been deprived of it, Russell refused to take it, so Sir Richard Haddick and Sir John Ashby were proposed by Council, but Haddick wished perhaps Duke of Grafton (soon killed as it happened at siege of Cork), as he'd been brave at Beachy Head, Mary rather thought of Shovel. (Strickland, Lives of Queens of England, Vol. VII, p.261ff.

Mid-1690: William III protests that Mary has transferred Admiral Russell from his post in Council to superintend a disabled fleet, an ill success at sea, Lord Torrington to come to trial (for what?, but acquitted and it seems when William III came with ships, Torrington in command of them, ships out of condition, Torrington withdrew in disgrace to obscurity, and when he died, the title of Torrington was given to Admiral Byng, a commander whom James II had drawn from obscurity) Russell seemingly loyal to Torrington. (Strickland, Lives of Queens of England, Vol. VII, p. 256-258.

Mid-1690: English Navy in a poor state, and suspicion of (Herbert) Lord Torrington, Mary desired to interfere in his business as an Admiral, Navy felt want of a royal admiral, corruption in provisioning of the navy, Torrington insecure re his ability to defend England, Lord Monmouth wanting command of a ship of the line, as he had been ok in navy under James II, James had wanted naval men to have had a naval life, Mary did not follow this policy, Monmouth wanted most of the navy, but Mary doubted his fidelity, there are secret letters passed about now to Mary written in lemon juice (Mary later aware this "lemon juice" is disinformation provided by Monmouth's man Major Wildman). (Strickland, Lives of Queens of England, Vol. VII, p.252-255-261.)

1690: (Kellock's article, pp. 131-132), Lane, Son and Fraser was founded by John Lloyd (1656-1730), of 11 Nicholas Lane, Lombard Street. Portugal trade, then with the New East India Company. Friends with one Peter Godfrey. Thomas Lane came into the firm in 1735. Lane accumulated debts in America during the Seven Years War. fix After 1690, the firm Lane, Son and Fraser was founded by John Lloyd (1656-1730), of 11 Nicholas Lane, Lombard Street. The firm was in the Portugal trade, then with the New East India Company. Peter Godfrey was a friend of the firm. Thomas Lane came into the firm in 1735 and he accumulated debts in America during the Seven Years War. (Katharine A. Kellock, 'London Merchants and the pre-1776 American Debts', Guildhall Studies in London History, Vol. 1, No 3, October 1974., pp. 131-132).

1690: Some Lords Privy Seal were Sir John Knatchbull, Sir William Pulteney, in 1691 Thomas earl of Pembroke, in 1713 William earl of Dartmouth.

1690: Note that penal settlements for convicts were West Indies and North American colonies. (Strickland, Lives of Queens of England, Vol. VII, p. 244.)
See Carl and Robert Bridenbaugh, No Peace Beyond The Line: The English in the Caribbean, 1624-1690. New York, 1972.

1690: On Virginia Merchants: Olson notes that by 1690, leading [London] American merchants had formed a core group of nine men led by Richard Perry, the older Micajah Perry and their partner, Thomas Lane; and probably a younger Micajah Perry. By Walpole's time, one of the Perrys had become "dean of the American lobbyists". Perry the younger finally bankrupted, partly as he spent so much time engaged in mercantile politics. [See Robert G. Albion, Forests and Sea Power: The Timber Problems of the Royal Navy, 1652-1862. Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1926., p. 445; Also, Alison G. Olson, Making the Empire Work, pp. 27-28, pp. 52-53, p. 103]. During the 1680s, London had some 2000 overseas merchants, and several hundred were independently trading to America. Chesapeake Merchants gathered about Tower Hill, Pennsylvania around Gracechurch Street, newer Carolina merchants about north and west London.

1691: Edward Littleton and William Bridges were chosen to transact business for Barbados, John Gardner who had unofficially represented Barbados being overlooked. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 58).

1691: August. Queen Mary ordered the arrest of Bishop of Ely and Lord Dartmouth. She remained an enemy of William Penn, trying to stop to his philanthropy to Pennsylvania. (Strickland, Lives of Queens of England, Vol. 7, p. 327, pp. 335-336). Admiral lord Dartmouth was committed to the Tower by Queen Mary, later to die of "grief and regret". Mary meanwhile desired to add the French colony of Canada to her domain, and she invaded Quebec, unsuccessfully. France held Canada for another 50 years [See the later careers of Wolf and James Cook].

1691: As Mary and William fought in Flanders they found a great slaughter of English troops, no victory. Corn was at famine prices, the gentry and merchants sank under the weight of taxation never heard of before in Britain. The fleet had returned in disgrace, seamen had "horrible provisions and worthless ammunition" as provided by a corrupt ministry. Lady Russell sought the auditorship of Wales for her son, Mr. Vaughan. Jacobites remained active. (Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England, Vol. 7, pp. 336-337).

1691: Sir Josiah Child (of the East India Company) and seven others owned more than 25 per cent of Royal Africa Company stock, and voted their own way, accordingly. (Davies, RAC, p. 156). It is probable that regular financial linkages were maintained from now between East India Company investors and those with interests in profiting from slaving.

1692: As the outrage over the Campbell massacre at Glencoe persisted, there the Scottish Darien Company which helped lead Scotland to the Union of 1707. In 1654, the Highlanders failed in a rebellion against Cromwell.

Sept 1692: Mary's errors in law, Strickland says her intellect was brilliant, but she had a cannon-fodder view of the populous, temptations of new gin shops, the thief-takers after blood money, executions under the reward-conviction system as supported by Parliament became 40 victims per month in London alone, "murderous traffic of false witnesses", her grievous system lasted till 1816. and here, amazingly, Stricklands, two women writers of 1852 and earlier, here cite Apt Maconochie of Norfolk Island off Australia, his work on "penal science", and regard his views as result of Mary's and her cabinet's bad edict of Sept 13, 1692 Maconochie said, "To set a price on the head of a criminal, or otherwise on a great scale to reward the information of accomplices, is the strongest proof of a weak or unwise government ..... (Strickland, Lives of Queens of England, Vol. VII, p. 391-392.)

13 September, 1692: Queen Mary issued an edict by proclamation offering 40/- per head for the apprehension and conviction of any burglar or highwaymen. This became known as "blood money", and it got a terrific number of convictions and executions, while the evil(s) Mary wished to end, only increased in number. Many abuses here continued to the reign of Ego I, Strickland says, and all this gave rise to the thief takers, their informers, the gaolers, evils not subdued till the police of 1829 and later, Stricklands writing later after 1829, "a long retrospect of human calamity [was] thus opened up in one terrific error in legislation" from Mary, "a prison discipline formed after the nearest idea of the dread place of future perdition", not likely to cure her people of crime. She did not refer anything here to Parliament. "Much of the crime and sorrow of the present day," writes Strickland, "and, indeed, the greatest national misfortune that ever befell this country, originated from the example given by William III and his Dutch courtiers as imbibers of ardent spirits. In fact, the laws of England, from an early period, sternly prohibited the conversion of malt into alcohol, excepting a small portion for medicinal purposes." ... p. 390 "The consummation of all injury to the people, was the encouragement that King William III was pleased to give to the newly-born manufactories of spirituous liquors." [an earlier English prejudice against gin]. (Strickland, Lives of Queens of England, Vol. VII, p.388-389-390.)

Sept 1692: Mary's errors in law, Strickland says her intellect was brilliant. a cannon fodder view of the populous, temptations of new gin shops, the thief-takers after blood money, executions under the reward-conviction system as supported by parliament became 40 victims per month in London alone, "murderous traffic of false witnesses", her grievous system lasted till 1816. and here, amazingly, Stricklands, two women writers of 1852 and earlier, here cite Apt Maconochie of Norfolk Island off Australia, his work on "penal science", and regard his views as result of Mary's and her cabinet's bad edict of Sept 13, 1692 Maconochie said, "To set a price on the head of a criminal, or otherwise on a great scale to reward the information of accomplices, is the strongest proof of a weak or unwise government ....."Strickland, Lives of Queens of England, Vol. VII, p. 391-392.)

1692: Lord Orford as Admiral Russell became victor at Cape La Hogue.

1692: A severe earthquake on Jamaica destroyed the notorious Port Royal. The French continually raked the coast, but the buccaneers were gone.

1692: William Beeston (forced to resign the agency of Jamaica in 1698 with the Free Trade Act) was appointed governor of Jamaica and also agent for the Royal Africa Company. Edwin Stede (much accused after his retirement) was Barbados RAC agent for 20 years. On Barbados he was also provost marshal, deputy secretary, collector of customs, councillor and secretary, and 1685-1690 he was Lt.-Governor, acting governor. A similar situation existed with Hender Molesworth on Jamaica. (Davies, RAC, variously).

1692: September 13: Queen Mary issued an edict by proclamation offering 40/- per head for the apprehension and conviction of any burglar or highwayman. This became known as "blood money", and obtained many convictions and executions, while the evil(s) Mary wished to end only increased in number. (Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England, Vol. 7, pp. 388-390). The reckless bands of well organised smugglers in Kent, Sussex and Hampshire were also products of bad laws, "a vicious system" with its origin with William III's time with its need for revenue. (Teignmouth and Harper, The Smugglers, Vol. 1. 1973. [Orig. 1923]. pp. 11-12).

1692: 1692-1724, (Penson, Colonial Agents, p.226), remarks re West India agents bribing officials for expedition with business!

1692: Charles Montague later Halifax, lord of treasury in 1692, first lord 1697-1699, in 1714 he again became first lord. Charles Montague later Halifax, born 1661, lord of treasury in 1692, first lord 1697-1699, in 1714 he again became first lord. 1692 - Clark, Later Stuarts, p.172, the corsairs of Tripoli had declared war on France and assisted British forces, Orford appeared on the Tripoli coast, a famous French privateer at this time is Jean Bart. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p.133.)

1692, Lord Orford as admiral Russell victor at Cape La Hogue in 1692.

1692: Severe earthquake on Jamaica.

1693: (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp.180ff. as yet, not enough absentee planters from Jamaica to organiser affairs, till a coffee house situation arose near the Royal exchange. Jamaica Coffee house in St. Michael's Alley, from 1674. Jamaica agents, 1693-1704, Bartholomew Gracedieu. Gilbert Heathcote, see Penson.

1693: From 1660, Danby had used cash bribes in the City in various East India Company matters. The Duke of Leeds who had received 5500 guineas was impeached. (Clark, The Later Stuarts, p. 85).

1693: William Paterson the later promoter of the Scottish Darien Company (who may have known Dampier in the "silent period" of Paterson's life in the West Indies) appeared before a committee of the House of Commons on behalf of a mercantile group with a scheme for credit on Parliamentary Security. The Bank of England was formed in 1694 on that basis. Paterson resigned from the new bank in 1695. For a time, Paterson was entangled with the City of London orphan's fund. Then he promoted the Darien project with Sir Robert Christie, the Lord Provost of Edinburgh, and Lord Belhaven. Vast enterprises were envisaged. (John Prebble, The Darien Disaster. London, Secker and Warburg, 1988., pp. 1-3ff, pp. 11-13).

1693: As yet, there were too few absentee planters from Jamaica able to organise affairs, till a coffee house situation arose near the Royal exchange, Jamaica Coffee house in St. Michael's Alley, from 1674. An Act was passed with the agents for Jamaica being three Jamaica merchants, Gilbert Heathcote (1693-1704), Sir Bartholomew Gracedieu MP (1693-1704) and John Tutt. Sir Gilbert Heathcote (1651-1733), a founder of the East India Company in 1693, Lord Mayor 1710-1711. (Melville, South Sea Bubble, p. 123). (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 180ff, p. 75).

1693: Re Jamaica (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 180ff,) an act passed with agents for Jamaica being three Jamaica merchants, Gilbert Heathcote, [Sir] Bartholomew Gracedieu MP and John Tutt. 1693: As yet, not enough absentee planters from Jamaica to organiser affairs, till a coffee house situation arose near the Royal exchange. Jamaica Coffee house in St. Michael's Alley, from 1674.

1693: Ships husband Joseph Herne on June 24, 1693 writes to ships master Mr. Edward Mathews of ship Expedition, re merchant names Heneage Fetherstone, (sic), of Alicante, Mr. John Bancks (sic) of Exon - (R. Davis, Rise English ship industry, p. 169.) Jamaica agents, 1693-1704, Bartholomew Gracedieu. Gilbert Heathcote, see Penson. Melville, South Sea Bubble, p123, Sir Gilbert Heathcote 1651-1733, a founder of the EICo in 1693, Lord Mayor 1710-1711.

1693, Sir John Somers is keeper of the Great Seal.

1693 - Allegations arose of heavy bribery of ministers by the East India Company regarding its new charter. The Duke of Leeds (Danby) was later impeached. There were few Whigs in the Company at the time. By 1695, dissension broke out, which assisted the Scottish Company. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 85, p. 352).

Mid-1690: William III protests that Mary has transferred Admiral Russell from his post in Council to superintend a disabled fleet, an ill success at sea, Lord Torrington to come to trial (for what?, but acquitted and it seems when William III came with ships, Torrington in command of them, ships out of condition, Torrington withdrew in disgrace to obscurity, and when he died, the title of Torrington was given to Admiral Byng, a commander whom James II had drawn from obscurity) Russell seemingly loyal to Torrington. (Strickland, Lives of Queens of England, Vol. VII, p. 256-258.)

1693: Re Jamaica (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 75), an act passed with agents for Jamaica being three Jamaica merchants, Gilbert Heathcote, [Sir] Bartholomew Gracedieu MP and John Tutt. 1693: (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp.180ff. as yet, not enough absentee planters from Jamaica to organiser affairs, till a coffee house situation arose near the Royal exchange. Jamaica Coffee house in St. Michael's Alley, from 1674.

1693: Jamaica agents, 1693-1704, Bartholomew Gracedieu. Gilbert Heathcote, see Penson.

1693: (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 352), heavy bribery of ministers by EICo re new charter for EICo, Duke of Leeds/Danby later impeached, few Whigs in Co. at time. and by 1695, dissension broke out, which assisted the Scottish co.

1690s: India: Bengal. English East India Company official Job Charnock founds the city of Calcutta (aided by local people), on a swamp by the Hooghly river in Bengal, North-Eastern India.

1694: Founding of The Bank of England, as suggested by the well-travelled Scotsman William Paterson.

1694: Wm III been detained by the French Fleet, but he arrived at Margate on Nov 12, he opened Parliament next day, voted thanks for Mary's firm administration, Parliament proceeded to impeach her favourite prime minister, then Duke of Leeds, for the "infamous corruption of his government", and the late speaker of the house, Sir John Trevor, for himself receiving bribes, and distributing them in HOC, and some of the Queen's staff were here compromised, and as journals of House of Lords indicates, Sir Thomas Cooke, chairman EICo had sent a bribe from EICo to lord president of Mary's cabinet in council, Carmarthen, by Sir Basil Firebrass. and among people suspected here were Lord Nottingham, the queen's lord chamberlain, one Colonel Fitzpatrick [he soon died] re 1000 guineas a pal of Nottingham, Lady Derby mistress of the robes, Strickland, Lives of Queens of England, Vol. VII, p. 431ff.

Mid-1690: English navy in a poor state, and suspicion of (Herbert) Lord Torrington, Mary desired to interfere in his business as an Admiral, Navy felt want of a royal admiral, corruption in provisioning of the navy, Torrington insecure re his ability to defend England, Lord Monmouth wanting command of a ship of the line, as he had been ok in navy under James II, James had wanted naval men to have had a naval life, Mary did not follow this policy, Monmouth wanted most of the navy, but Mary doubted his fidelity, there are secret letters passed about now to Mary written in lemon juice (Mary later aware this "lemon juice" is disinformation provided by Monmouth's man Major Wildman). (Strickland, Lives of Queens of England, Vol. VII, p.252-255-261.

1694: 28 Dec: Queen Mary dies aged 33 having kindly removed her servants from dangerous proximity, having had "dreary hallucinations", with a popish nurse one hallucination, mention of Jacobite DR Radcliffe p 442, did she have scruples re her father James II? day she died, Wm III swooned twice, moves spied on by a ghoulish roaming Jacobite Catholic priest, Lord Jersey a secret Catholic, priest sent messages to James II, a French observer said she was more bitter against her father than her husband Wm III, did Wm III have affair with Elizabeth Villiers? Strickland by way of an amazing demolition job views her as p. 453 as "an unnatural daughter and a cruel sister", she had Greenwich and Virginian endowments. (Strickland, Lives of Queens of England, Vol. VII, pp. 443-453-454.

1694: John Stevens published a translation of Faria y Sousa's book Asia Portuguese, probably for the first time introducing British to story of how Portuguese discovered the world, dedicated to Catherine of Braganza, the Portuguese princess now Queen of England.

Danby used some cash bribes, Danby or duke of Leeds in 1694 so he was the one bribed by the EICo? (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 85.)

1694: Sir William Trumbull is one of the commissioners of Treasury,

In 1694: is published in England Robinson's book, An Account of Several Late Voyages & Discoveries to the South and the North, in which Tasman's voyage of 1642 was translated. this book helped revive British and Dutch interest in the still-unknown Terra Australis. (Australian Encyclopedia).

1694: (Fox Bourne, English Merchants, pp. 253ff), in 1688 at Amsterdam, then Hamburg, brief interlude with New River Company to get fresh water into London. became a talker on collection and arrangement of public loans, so helped found the Bank of England in 1691, one objection to it being that the monarch could no longer debase the coinage, the Bank was established from 27 July, 1694, then Paterson left the Bank and was entangled for a time with the City of London orphan's fund, then to the Darien project with Sir Robert Christie the Lord Provost of Edinburgh and Lord Belhaven, vast enterprises envisaged, by 1697 had £400,000 subscribed, needed to build ships at Edinburgh and Leith, offices of Co. at Milne Square, Edinburgh, Paterson went off to get stores at Hamburg and Amsterdam, left money with a London merchant James Smith, but £8000 went missing, Paterson took the blame on himself, got references from Edinburgh merchant Robert Blackwood and William Dunlop the Principal of Glasgow College, who was an: eminent scholar, accomplished antiquary, shrewd merchant, brave soldier, able politician, zealous divine and an amiable man". Paterson deposed as Darien manager by July 1698 and then the Darien madness entered in, Paterson tried to correct bad management but failed. [sense the Dariens did not know what they were doing] Expedition one landed on a watery morass, in six months, about 2/3rds of the expedition dead, some 1200 people, Paterson so devastated he sank into a kind of second childhood, or early dotage, but recovered.

1694: The French invaded and almost took Jamaica. London sent 1000 troops at a cost of £50,000. From 1682 to 1702 the governor was Sir William Beeston. It was during Beeston's period that the first Campbells arrived on Jamaica. The military governor of Jamaica 1701-1711 was Thomas Handasyd, an army brigadier, followed by Lord Archibald Hamilton a naval man. Jamaica was now again a garrison colony and soldiers quickly died.

1694: William III had been detained by the French Fleet, but he opened Parliament on 13 November. Parliament proceeded to impeach Mary's prime minister, then Duke of Leeds, for the "infamous corruption of his government"; and the late speaker of the house, Sir John Trevor, for himself receiving bribes, and distributing them in the House of Commons. Some of the Queen's staff were here compromised. Sir Thomas Cooke, chairman of the East India Company had sent a Company bribe to the lord president of Mary's cabinet in council, Carmarthen, by Sir Basil Firebrass. Among people suspected were Lord Nottingham, the queen's lord chamberlain, one Colonel Fitzpatrick [he soon died]. (Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England, Vol. 7, pp. 431ff).

1694: John Stevens published a translation of Faria y Sousa's book Asia Portuguese, introducing the English to the story of how the Portuguese had discovered the world. Also in 1694 was published in England Robinson's book, An Account of Several Late Voyages & Discoveries to the South and the North, in which Tasman's voyage of 1642 was translated. This book helped revive British and Dutch interest in the still-unknown Terra Australis. (McIntyre, Secret Discovery of Australia, p. 5).

1694: Danby used some cash bribes, Danby or duke of Leeds in 1694 so he was the one bribed by the EICo. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 85.)

1694: Sir William Trumbull was one of the commissioners of Treasury.

1694: Wm III had been detained by the French Fleet, but he arrived at Margate on Nov 12, he opened Parliament next day, voted thanks for Mary's firm administration, Parliament proceeded to impeach her favourite prime minister, then Duke of Leeds, for the "infamous corruption of his government", and the late speaker of the house, Sir John Trevor, for himself receiving bribes, and distributing them in HOC, and some of the Queen's staff were here compromised, and as journals of House of Lords indicates, Sir Thomas Cooke, chairman EICo had sent a bribe from EICo to lord president of Mary's cabinet in council, Carmarthen, by Sir Basil Firebrass. and among people suspected here were Lord Nottingham, the queen's lord chamberlain, one Colonel Fitzpatrick [he soon died] re 1000 guineas a pal of Nottingham, Lady Derby mistress of the robes, (Strickland, Lives of Queens of England, Vol. VII, p. 431ff.

John /Houblon/ Lord Mayor of London Lord Mayor of London 1695 Sir John Houblon elected in 1695.
(Item, per Peter Western)

Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor of 1695 Sir John Houblon, son of a Flemish merchant dealing to Spain:
2. Gov Bank of England, Lord Mayor London Sir John Houblon (c.1695;d.1724) sp: Miss Notknown
3. Arabella Houblon sp: Richard Mytton
4. Richard Mytton (d.27 Feb 1730) sp: Letitia Owen 5. Anna Maria Mytton (d.Aug 1750) sp: Sir Charles Charlton Leighton, Bart3 (d.5 May 1780) 4. John Mytton sp: Mary Davenport 2. Whig MP, Dir New EICo, James Houblon (c.1695) (with other brothers).


1695: In Queen Anne's reign, fear of the "mob" had arisen. In April 1695 there were riots in London about Tooley, who ran a debtor's prison in Holborn and was suspected of kidnapping recruits for the army.

1695: Established, the Bank of Scotland, with capital of only £100,000 sterling. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 265, p. 284.) Clark says that in 1695, the Darien Co. "infringed" rights of the Bank of Scotland,

1695: French forces sent onto Jamaica but were ejected by settlers. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 330), the British got sent an expedition to Jamaica with two regiments of foot, but it was rendered useful by disease and mismanagement, there was later an outburst of piracy, so home got licensed Apt William Kidd in privateer the Adventure Galley in which some of the leading Whigs were shareholders. Kidd later hanged. Kidd's backers include Bellomont the gov. of NY organises backers for Kidd, including Sir John Somers, Shrewsbury, Russell the First Lord of Admiralty and Earl Orford, and Lord Romney the head of Ordnance. and one Mr. Harrison. All these men are also backers of William III.

1695: William III anticipated action of 1695 Scots Parliament by appointing a regular commission of inquiry. As a result of its excellent report, Dalrymple had to resign and spend the rest of his time in private life. Earl of Breadalbane charged with high treason but never brought to trial. Clark writes, "The general execration of the deed helped to build up the British sense of justice and humanity"...."never again were the worst methods of frontier warfare combined with the worst methods of secret police". That Parliament then went on to the Darien Scheme. (Clark, Later Stuarts, pp. 280-281.

1695: Fear of "the mob" had arisen. In April were riots in London about Tooley, who ran a debtor's prison in Holborn and was suspected of kidnapping recruits for the army.

1695: 26 June: Partly due to William Paterson's efforts, in the Scots Parliament was passed an Act for a Company (The Darien Company) trading to Africa and Indies, wanting a monopoly to trade with Asia and Africa for all time and with America for 31 years. (Some London merchants were Scots, says Clark, The Later Stuarts, p. 282) London directors discussed fitting a Scots ship for the East India Company trade, but the Company fought this in London. The Darien Company retreated to Edinburgh. Paterson had obtained an old manuscript copy of Lionel Wafer's journal of travels on Isthmus of Darien. Wafer was a friend of Dampier and both gave advice to the Darien Company.
1690+: See Clennel Wilkinson, William Dampier. London, John Lane, 1929.
Other books on Dampier: W. H. Bonner, Captain William Dampier, buccaneer-author. Standford, 1934. P. K. Kemp and C. Lloyd, The Brethren of the Coast. London, 1960. J. C. Shipman, William Dampier, sea-man scientist. Kansas, 1962.

1695: To prevent frauds in ships, John Bland wrote "Trade Revived" and proposed registration of ownership of shipping. (See Godolphin about 1702) (Davis, Rise of the English Shipping Industry, p. 108).

1695 Circa: The governors of Christ's Hospital included Arthur Baron, Adrian Beyer, Col. James Boddington, Sir William Coles, Sir James Collett, Peter Godfrey, Samuel Jackson, Robert Knight, Thomas Lockington and Micajah Perry; significant merchant names all. (See A. L. Bier and Roger Finlay, London, 1500-1700: The Making of the Metropolis. 1986., p. 276).

1695: An act of 1695 constituted the Company of Scotland Trading to Africa and the Indies, capital at £600,000 sterling, half subscribed in London, half in Scotland. William Paterson the main mover here, he had been in the West Indies, made money in the City of London, had been in at the foundation of the Bank of England, a director for the first year, then sold out. At the time,the stock of the EICo was dropping, it was natural it should protect its monopoly. the shit hit the fan for many reasons, the English subscribers dropped the whole thing. Scotland tried much to help the company, promised £400,00 and raised £200,000 from over 1300 persons. and what Paterson had chosen for a site for operations was the Isthmus of Darien, south of the Mosquito Coast, hence, the Darien Scheme. (Clark, p. 263), "The period which begins with the Restoration has been called the most pitiful in the history of Scotland."

G. Pratt on Darien p. 89, an echo here for Phillip at Port Jackson in 1788, the Darien men reckoned they had found a harbour "capable of containing 10,000 sail of Shipps". When it is simply a matter of mariners supremely enjoying the spectacle of a snug spot likely to be a good safe harbour!

1695: August: The Russell and Howland families become more interested in the East India Company. In August 1695 a spate of corrupt activities was discovered, such as forgery of banknotes. William Kidd was born in Scotland between 1645 and 1660, and by about 1695, he owned land in New York, including sections of Wall Street, prime property. He had a connection with Mr. Livingston. Kidd as a New Yorker had backed the installation of William III. In 1695, Kidd began seeking a naval position, at a time when Americans are also engaging in Madagascar piracy which was linked to "Red Sea men" which were also harassing English East India Company ships, annoying London merchants. Various strands of concerns were brought together by Livingston who was promoting Kidd. England needed to suppress American piracy and encountered William III's idea to licence pirates. Bellomont the governor of New York organised backers for Kidd, including Sir John Somers, Shrewsbury, Russell the First Lord of Admiralty, Earl Orford, and Lord Romney the head of Ordnance, plus Mr. Harrison. All these were backers of William III.

1695: A noted Bristol shipowner was John Cary. (BM Add MSS 5540-120, cited in Davis, Rise of the English Shipping Industry, p. 109).

1695: December: After London left the Darien Company alone from December 1695, between February and August 1696 Scotland in an extraordinary effort pledged £400,000, though less than half was ever paid; 1300 persons and more signed their names, many risking all they had. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 282).

1695: French forces sent onto Jamaica were ejected by the occupants. Troops sent by Britain were rendered by disease and mismanagement. There was later an outburst of piracy, so the home government licensed Apt William Kidd of New York as a privateer in Adventure Galley. Some of the leading Whigs were shareholders in the venture. Kidd was later hanged. Bellomont the governor of New York helped organise Kidd's backers, including Sir John Somers, Shrewsbury, Russell the First Lord of Admiralty and Earl Orford, and Lord Romney the head of Ordnance,plus one Mr. Harrison, all of whom were backers of William III. (See Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 330).

Aug 1695: Russells and Howland families become more interested in EICo. In Aug 1695 a spate of corrupt activities discovered, e.g., forgery of banknotes, William Kidd born in Scotland between 1645 and 1660, about 1695, Kidd owns land in New York, including sections of Wall Street, prime property. He has a connection with Mr. Livingston. Wm Kidd as a New Yorker had backed installation of William III. Livingston wishing to blacken the name of Gov. Fletcher of New York. In 1695, Kidd seeking a naval position, at a time when Americans are also engaging in Madagascar piracy which is linked to "Red Sea men" which are also harassing British EICo ships, so London becomes upset. Various strands of concerns brought together by Livingston who is promoting Kidd. England needs to suppress American piracy and encounters William III's idea to licence pirates.

December 1695 and later: (Clark, Later Stuarts, p.282), when London left the Darien Co. alone from Dec 1695 as the EICo in trouble, between Feb and Aug 1696 Scotland in an extraordinary effort pledged £400,000 though less than half was ever paid. 1300 persons and more signed their names, many risking all they had,

See S. G. Checkland, Scottish Banking, 1695-1973. 1975.

1695: Circa: Carteret - Admiralty family from before 1700, proprietary owners in colonies Carolina, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. During the 1690s, noted mercantile names included Carteret - an Admiralty family from before 1700, proprietary owners in colonies Carolina, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Sir John Lambert, dealt throughout Europe (Westerfield, Middlemen, p. 361). Sir Thomas Gresham was "renowned and philanthropic" but his business methods were none too honourable; there were allegations of fraud, usury and high finance (Westerfield, Middlemen, p. 399). Sir John Eyles, Sir Gregory Page, Sir Nathaniel Mead, the Earl of Tilney (Westerfield, Middlemen, p. 403). "Merchant money was democratizing" the peerage and gentility. (D. W. Jones, 'London Merchants and the Crisis of the 1690s', in Clark and Slack, (Eds.), Crisis and Order).

1695 Circa: Sir John Lambert, nd? dealt all around Europe, see Westerfield, Middlemen, p361. Sir Thomas Gresham, renowned and philanthropic, business methods none too honourable, fraud, usury and high finance. (Westerfield, Middlemen, p. 399.) splendid homes of Sir John Eyles, Sir Gregory Page, Sir Nathaniel Mead, the Earl of Tilney, Westerfield, Middlemen, p403, by way of merchant money democratizing the peerage and gentility.
D. W. Jones, London Merchants and the Crisis of the 1690s, in Clark and Slack, (Eds), Crisis and Order.

1696-1699: English fortify Calcutta.

1697: Bernard and Lotte Bailyn, Massachusetts Shipping, 1697-1714. Cambridge, Mass, 1959.*

1697: Pollexfen in England wrote on colonies: the usefulness of the labour of Blacks and [white] vagrants. (Sidney W. Mintz, Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History. New York, 1985., p. 236).

From 1697: Years after Modyford had died, most English convicts transportable were directed to the West Indies. On July 2, 1697 the Lords Justices ordered 50 convict women sent to the Leeward Islands. [Wilfrid Oldham, Britain's Convicts to the Colonies. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1990., p. 5] There is record of an answer from Micajah Perry of London. [See John M. Hemphill, Virginia and the English Commercial System, 1689-1733, p. 259, citing on Perry, Elizabeth Donnan, "Eighteenth-Century English Merchants: Micajah Perry", Journal of Economic and Business History. Four Vols. Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1928-1932. iv 1932., pp. 70-98.] These women must have been conspicuous, as they are also mentioned in Peter Linebaugh, The London Hanged: Crime and Civil Society in the Eighteenth Century. London, Penguin Press, 1991., p. 59. See Coldham, Emigrants in Chains, p. 55. Oldham, Britain's Convicts to the Colonies, p. 5 on 50 women convicts.

1696: (G. Pratt on Darien p. 1), in 1696, London agents for Co. of Scotland to Africa/Indies, appoints Messrs James Smith and James Campbell of London their agents, merchants and directors of the Co., plus Alexander Stevenson in Edinburgh and James Gibson in Glasgow. Darien connections p. 4 with Honble John Erskin, son of Lord Cardross the Gov. of Stirling Castle. John Haldan, Baron of Gleneagles, Messrs William Paterson and James Smyth, directors, with Lt. Col. Erskin. deal also with Scots at Hamburg, Rhode Island, Sec of Darien Co. is Trumbull, at Hamburg is a link man Sir Paul Ricaut. p. 48, Whitehall June 30, 1697, meeting of HM Comms for Trade and Plantations, re Scotch EICo, ordered that Mr. [William] Dampier who hath lately printed a book of his voyages - Dampier and Mr. Wafer - re queries on Isthmus of Darien. Dampier and Wafer attended again on July 2, 1697, answering re Spaniards at Panama east to River of Chipelo and an island named Chipelo, follows a description of Darien. part III of book is Wafer's description of Darien, surgeon Lionel Wafer, by now, sec of Darien Co. is Roderick Mackenzie.
G. Pratt on Darien p. 50, Surgeon Lionel Wafer in London met Dampier, met in a London coffee house with agents of the Darien directors and th

1696: (G. Pratt on Darien p. 1, in 1696, London agents for Co. of Scotland to Africa/Indies, appoints Messrs James Smith and James Campbell of London their agents, merchants and directors of the Co., plus Alexander Stevenson in Edinburgh and James Gibson in Glasgow. Darien connections p. 4 with Honble John Erskin, son of Lord Cardross the Gov. of Stirling Castle. John Haldan, Baron of Gleneagles, Messrs William Paterson and James Smyth, directors, with Lt. Col. Erskin. deal also with Scots at Hamburg, Rhode Island; Sec of Darien Co. is Trumbull, at Hamburg is a link man Sir Paul Ricaut. p. 48, Whitehall June 30, 1697, meeting of HM Comms for Trade and Plantations, re Scotch EICo, ordered that Mr. [William] Dampier who hath lately printed a book of his voyages - Dampier and Mr. Wafer - re queries on Isthmus of Darien. Dampier and Wafer attended again on July 2, 1697, answering re Spaniards at Panama east to River of Chipelo and an island named Chipelo, follows a description of Darien. part III of book is Wafer's description of Darien, surgeon Lionel Wafer, by now, secretary of Darien Co. is Roderick Mackenzie.

1696: (Olson, Making the Empire work, p.10), in 1696, William III set up the Board of Trade, and its members obtained information from interest groups, as William's government tightened control on the colonies.

1697AD: Hungary: A final victory of the war, the battle of Zenta in 1697, is followed by the Treaty of Karlovitz [Karlóca] in 1699, which, with the exception of a small region, frees all Hungary from Turkish occupation.

1697: William Dampier in Aust ADB. (1652-1715). published his books in 1697 and 1699, and the admiralty consulted him. so he sailed with the rank of captain in Jan 1699 in HMS Roebuck, and on Aug 6 1699 he anchored at the inlet he named Shark Bay. his 1702 court martial declared him unfit to command a HM ship, in 1708 and 1711 he sailed with Apt Woodes Rogers. In 1707 Dampier published his "unfortunate account" of the 1703 fiasco, Apt Dampier's Vindication of his Voyage to the South Seas in the Ship St. George. (London, 1707). entry concludes, "The discovery and settlement of eastern Australia may be viewed as the indirect but none the less real conclusion of Dampier's work. See also, L. R. Marchant, 'William Dampier', JRAHS, 6. 1963.

1697: The (Scottish) Darien Company by 1697 had £400,000 subscribed, and needed to build ships at Edinburgh and Leith. Its offices were at Milne Square, Edinburgh, Paterson went off to get stores at Hamburg and Amsterdam, left money with a London merchant James Smith, but £8000 went missing, Paterson took the blame on himself, got references from Edinburgh merchant Robert Blackwood and William Dunlop the Principal of Glasgow College, who was an: eminent scholar, accomplished antiquary, shrewd merchant, brave soldier, able politician, zealous divine and an amiable man". Paterson deposed as Darien manager by July 1698 and then the Darien madness entered in, Paterson tried to correct bad management but failed. [sense the Dariens did not know what they were doing] Expedition one landed on a watery morass, in six months, about 2/3rds of the expedition dead, some 1200 people, Paterson so devastated he sank into a kind of second childhood, or early dotage, but recovered.

From 1697, the main stream of convicts transportable is directed to the West Indies.

1697-1699: Montague at Royal Society had introduced Dampier to Lord Orford, Lord Admiralty, and about now, Dampier had realised possibilities of Australian continent, saw Aust as "a country likely to contain gold". So he put a proposal to Admiralty that a king's ship explore the coast of New Holland, mentions other places to be visited with good advantage, he had been commissioned by as early as spring 1698. deciding to round Cape Horn, go to Australian east coast, to go north to New Guinea, which meant he would have got in before Cook. but delayed till September. (Clen Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 155-156.

1697: Charles Montague later Halifax, lord of treasury in 1692, first lord 1697-1699, in 1714 he again became first lord. 1697, Pelham one of commissioners of Treasury.

1697, 2 July, Lords Justices orders 50 convict women sent to the Leeward Islands. - (Oldham, British Convicts, p. 5.)

1698: The French develop a new company to trade in the Pacific, Compagnie de la Mer de Sud, sending four vessels by Cape Horn which return in 1701. Callao becomes a favoured port for French trade ships.

1698: Steam Engine: Born 1698 (Died 1930). Inspired by a pressure cooker, military engineer in 1698 patents the first steam engine. In 1712, blacksmith Thomas Newcomen invented a better engine which used steam to build a vacuum within a cylinder that drove a piston via atmospheric pressure. James Watt by about 1761 invented an even better model.

1698: 18 Chas. II, c3. Act 22 Chas II c.5 and Act 22 23 Chas II c.7. continued all this, transportation being to America of Northumberland (?). London Guildhall records show that the contract system with merchants transporting convicts is in existence by now.

1698: The scientific movement. 1698 Peter the Great of Russia is at Deptford studying shipbuilding and navigation.

1698: Ideas in English Whig circles to form the New or English East India Company, granted its charter in September 1698.

1697-1699: Montague at The Royal Society had introduced Dampier to Lord Orford, Lord of the Admiralty, and about now, Dampier had realised possibilities of the Australian continent, seeing it as "a country likely to contain gold". He proposed to Admiralty that a king's ship explore the coast of New Holland, and mentioned other places to be visited with good advantage. He was commissioned by as early as spring 1698, deciding to round Cape Horn then visit the Australian east coast, to go north to New Guinea. (Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 148-149, 155-156).

1698: July: Dampier was ordered to appear before the Council of Trade and Plantations to be "examined as to the design of the Scotch East India Company to make a settlement on the Isthmus of Darien" under William Paterson. Lionel Wafer was another witness. Dampier's friends now included Sir Robert Southwell, diplomatist and president of The Royal Society, 1690-1695. and Sir Hans Sloane, patron of men of science and founder of the British Museum, secretary of The Royal Society in 1693 and succeeding Isaac Newton as president in 1727. (Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 150ff).

1698-1707: The profits of the slave trade. A ship the King Solomon of the Royal Africa Company in 1720 carried a cargo of slaves worth £4252. Some 296 Negroes are sold in St. Kitts for £9228, a profit of 117 per cent. The profit on the company's exports 1698-1707 was about 66 per cent. (Eric Williams, From Columbus to Castro: The History of The Caribbean, 1492-1969. London, Andre Deutsch, 1970., p. 147).

1698: September: There were ideas in Whig circles to form the New or English East India Company, granted its charter in September 1698. The New EICo would trade normally with India in competition to the already-established EICo, but other schemes such as the Darien scheme of the Company of Scotland and the piratical adventures of Capt. Kidd to Madagascar had provided inspiration. The Darien Company cast of characters included William Dampier as a minor advisor, his two patrons, Lord Charles Montague later Earl of Halifax, Chancellor of Exchqr, and Earl of Orford, First Lord of the Admiralty. Both of these were involved in Darien scheme and Capt. Kidd's piracy to Madagascar, So any later findings by Dampier may have gone to Orford and the New East India Company?

1698: The 10th Earl of Argyll a large subscriber to the Darien Co., subscribed £1500, his brother James put in £700, and 22 gentlemen and merchants of allegiance to Argyll put in a total of £9400. There is mention of more Campbells in Darien Co. pp. 102-103, one Major Thomas Drummond was with the Campbells at the massacre at Glencoe, under command of Robt Campbell of Glenlyon. so, "the Glencoe gang" - which disappeared into the destructive vortex of Darien events.
List of the principal Darien characters including: Capt. Robt Alliston was a buccaneer and friend of William Paterson, Argyll 10th Earl, Col. Alexander Campbell of Fonab, Capt. Thos. Drummond of the massacre at Glencoe and brother of ship Capt. Robert Drummond, commander of the ship Caledonia of Darien Expedition 1, later commander of Speedy Return on an African voyage, and sailed to Africa with Robert Drummond. Capt. Thomas Green of Worcester later charged with piracy against the Darien Co's ship Speedy Return, Tweeddales also in Darien Co., Sir Robert Christie the Lord Provost of Edinburgh and Lord Belhaven, needed to build ships at Edinburgh and Leith, offices of Co. at Milne Square, Edinburgh, Paterson went off to get stores at Hamburg and Amsterdam, left money with a London merchant James Smith, but £8000 went missing, Paterson took the blame on himself, got references from Edinburgh merchant Robert Blackwood and William Dunlop the Principal of Glasgow College, Paterson deposed as Darien manager by July 1698 and then the Darien madness entered in, Paterson tried to correct bad management but failed. Col. Alexander Campbell of Fonabb (sic), one of Darien link men re proposed Colony of Caledonia on American continent. In 1696, London agents for Co. of Scotland to Africa/Indies, appoints Messrs James Smith and James Campbell of London their agents, merchants and directors of the Co., plus Alexander Stevenson in Edinburgh and James Gibson in Glasgow. connections with Honble John Erskin, son of Lord Cardross the Gov. of Stirling Castle. John Haldan, Baron of Gleneagles, Messrs William Paterson and James Smyth, directors, with Lt. Col. Erskin. deal also with Scots at Hamburg, Rhode Island, Sec of Darien Co. is Trumbull, at Hamburg is a link man Sir Paul Ricaut. A Darien Co. link man re America is Martin Gregory in Amsterdam. Glasgow merchants Walter and Patrick Buchanan, Dr. John Munro, re medicine, voyage of Capt. Richard Long at time Sir William Beeston is Lt. Gov. of Jamaica, in Dec 1698.
(See Spate Vol. 2, p. 169 re Scots and Darien), first Darien Co. directors were 20, 10 in London and seven in London were Scots, great need for privacy re views of the EICo charter, and secrecy, Darien to be a colony with 2500 people .. ships Caledonia and Unicorn reached New York with Thos. Drummond, losing 275 men on the way, Feb. 1700, Caledonia on Darien saved by the arrival of Campbell of Fonabb, and straight to a fight with the Spanish, p. 178, Rising Sun and her consort later to Charleston in South Carolina, to be overwhelmed by a hurricane, and of 1300 people here, 950 died. nb: Pratt-preserved ledgers mentions perhaps only one merchant of Glasgow named Campbell. ledger mentions goods in 1699 from John Sumervil, [1718 - born Colin Somerville son of John Somerville, a Commissioner of General Assembly. James Somerville was an uncle of young Colin. William Somerville was a provost of Beufrew.] and John Munro, Glasgow merchants Thomas Calder, many merchants mentioned, tho few Campbells. Costs from William Arbuckle merchant of Glasgow, outlaid for Speedy Return Capt. John Baillie, for Caledonia. Arbuckle laid out £1415/14/9 and one-third pennies, on or by 23 Dec., 1699.
Pratt on Darien, Carolina colony originally to be a refuge for Scots. Later sailed the Darien ships Speedwell owned by Robert Blackwood Jnr a merchant of Edinburgh, Capt. Jn Campbell and supercargo Robt Innes, to Macao. Speedwell left Batavia in July 1701 for Macao. Speedwell later wrecked. Other Darien Co. ships Speedy Return and Caledonian, sent out. In Scotland, a plan to send next ship, the Annandale, which was seized by English revenue men. Another Co. ship Content, Capt. Stewart to India. p. xx, claims re the "legalised murder" of Capt Green of ship Worcester, tensions surrounding helped leading to the Union of 1707, this writer claims. Mr. Alexander Hamilton is link man for Darien Co. interests in American colonies.
Capt Thos. Drummond of the massacre at Glencoe and brother of ship's Capt. Thos. Drummond, commander of Caledonia of Expedition 1, later commander of Speedy Return on an African voyage, and sailed to Africa with Thos. Drummond. Capt Thomas Green of Worcester later charged with piracy against the Darien Co's ship Speedy Return.
Capt. Robert Drummond was later commander of Speedy Return on an African voyage, and sailed to Africa with Thos. Drummond. Capt. Thomas Green of Worcester is later charged with piracy against the Darien Co's ship Speedy Return, and the murder of the Drummonds, hanged on Leith Sands). The first Darien expedition comprised five ships, 1200 men and provisions, in ships including Caledonia, Unicorn, and St. Andrew. About July to November 1698 was made the remark: "This harbour ... capable of containing a thousand sail" (a maritime cliché repeated by Arthur Phillip in 1788 regarding Sydney Harbour). Don Juan Pimienta, Governor of Cartegena, attacked and won the second Darien colony by land and sea. Tweeddales also invested in the Darien Company, Tweeddales also in Darien Co., Sir Robert Christie the Lord Provost of Edinburgh and Lord Belhaven, needed to build ships at Edinburgh and Leith, offices of Co. at Milne Square, Edinburgh, Paterson went off to get stores at Hamburg and Amsterdam, left money with a London merchant James Smith, but £8000 went missing, Paterson took the blame on himself, got references from Edinburgh merchant Robert Blackwood and William Dunlop the Principal of Glasgow College, Paterson deposed as Darien manager by July 1698 and then the Darien madness entered in, Paterson tried to correct bad management but failed. Col. Alexander Campbell of Fonabb (sic), one of Darien link men re proposed Colony of Caledonia on American continent. in 1696, London agents for Co. of Scotland to Africa/Indies, appoints Messrs James Smith and James Campbell of London their agents, merchants and directors of the Co., plus Alexander Stevenson in Edinburgh and James Gibson in Glasgow. connections with Honble John Erskin, son of Lord Cardross the Gov. of Stirling Castle. John Haldan, Baron of Gleneagles, Messrs William Paterson and James Smyth, directors, with Lt. Col. Erskin. deal also with Scots at Hamburg, Rhode Island, Sec of Darien Co. is Trumbull, at Hamburg is a link man Sir Paul Ricaut. a link man re America is Martin Gregory in Amsterdam. fix G. Pratt on Darien p221, Darien Co. trying for Surat and a link man re America is Martin Gregory in Amsterdam. fix Glasgow merchants Walter and Patrick Buchanan, Dr. John Munro, re medicine, voyage of Apt Richard Long at time Sir William Beeston is Lt. Gov. of Jamaica, in Dec. 1698. See Spate Vol. 2, p 169 re Scots and Darien, first Darien Co. directors were 20, 10 in London and seven in London were Scots, great need for privacy re views of the EICo charter, and secrecy, Darien to be a colony with 2500 people .. ships Caledonia and Unicorn reached New York with Thos. Drummond, losing 275 men on the way, Feb 1700, Caledonia on Darien saved by the arrival of Campbell of Fonabb, and straight to a fight with the Spanish,
p. 178 Rising Sun and her consort later to Charleston in South Carolina, to be overwhelmed by a hurricane, and of 1300 people here, 950 died.

1698: 25 March: Dampier is given a silly ship, "Jolly Prize", as Lord Orford pleased with this idea of exploration, but by July 1698 Dampier felt vessel unfit, so Roebuck got up, 12 guns, crew of 50 men and boys, provisioned for 20 months.

July 1698: Dampier continually called to London to advise government, council of trade and plantations wanted to know if he had heard of any proposals or bribes offered to Lionel Wafer by the Scotch East India Co.? Dampier July 1698 replied he had not, adding, Wafer unlikely to be able to offer any great service to Scotch East India Co. [Citing, Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, America and the West Indies]. Clennel Wilkinson, Dampier, p.156.)

July 1698, Dampier ordered (why ordered?) to appear before Council of Trade and Plantations to be "examined as to the design of the Scotch East India Company to make a settlement on the Isthmus of Darien" under William Paterson. Lionel Wafer another witness. note re fantasies of gold mines as worked by slave labour. but Wilkinson feels Dampier and Wafer can have given Council much encouragement to proceed. Dampier's friends now include Sir Robert Southwell diplomatist and president of Royal Society, 1690-1695. and Sir Hans Sloane, patron of men of science and founder of British Museum, sec of Royal Society in 1693 and succeeded Isaac Newton as president RS in 1727. (Clennel Wilkinson, Dampier, pp.150ff.)
Dampier told Orford he was disappointed at smallness of Roebuck crew, among whom were Jacob Hughes master, Lt. George Fisher a gentleman and an enthusiastic Whig later an enemy of Dampier, Philip Paine gunner, mates were R. Chadwick and John Knight. Doctor was Scot William Borthwick and captains clerk James Brand. (Clennel Wilkinson, Dampier, pp.157-158, p. 247 and Dampier as scientist referred to problems of the variations of the compass.

1698 Circa: (G. Pratt on Darien, p. 107), a Mr. Alexander Hamilton is link man for Darien Co. interests in American colonies. [note, throughout, is constant note in documents, the Darien men did not know what they were doing]. Second Darien expedition, ledger kept at Glasgow by Peter Murdoch re ship's outfitting.
G. Pratt on Darien p. 55, Apt James Gibson in Darien Co. ship, Rising Sun, Mr. Cragg interested in making salt. connections include Mr. Paterson, Mrs. Woodrop and Mr. Robt Blackwood, a Darien Co. ship also named Dolphin.

1698: (G. Pratt on Darien p. 172), Glasgow merchants Walter and Patrick Buchanan, G. Pratt on Darien, p. 166), one John Campbell of Woodsyde, mention of Dinwidie.
G. Pratt on Darien p. 97), voyage of Apt Richard Long at time Sir William Beeston is Lt. Gov. of Jamaica, in Dec 1698.
G. Pratt on Darien p. 221, Darien Co. trying for Surat and a link man re America is Martin Gregory in Amsterdam.
G. Pratt on Darien p188, Re Alexander Campbell of Fonabb (sic), one of Darien link men re proposed Colony of Caledonia on American continent.

1698: 25 March: Dampier was provided a ship he found useless, Jolly Prize since Lord Orford was pleased with his ideas for exploration. But by July 1698 Dampier felt the vessel unfit, so Roebuck was provided, 12 guns, crew of 50 men and boys, provisioned for 20 months. Dampier told Orford he was disappointed at the smallness of Roebuck crew, among whom were Jacob Hughes master, Lt. George Fisher a gentleman and an enthusiastic Whig later an enemy of Dampier, Philip Paine gunner, mates were R. Chadwick and John Knight. Doctor was Scot William Borthwick and captains clerk James Brand. and Dampier as scientist referred to problems of the variations of the compass. (Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 157-158, p. 247).

1698: July: Dampier was continually called to London to advise government. The council of trade and plantations wanted to know if he had heard of any proposals or bribes offered to Lionel Wafer by the Scotch East India Company? Dampier in July 1698 replied he had not, adding, Wafer was unlikely to be able to offer any great service to Scotch East India Co. (Wilkinson, Dampier, p. 156, citing, Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, America and the West Indies).

1698 Circa: (G. Pratt on Darien, p. 107), a Mr. Alexander Hamilton is link man for Darien Co. interests in American colonies. [note, throughout, is constant note in documents, the Darien men did not know what they were doing]. Second Darien expedition, ledger kept at Glasgow by Peter Murdoch re ship's outfitting.

In Amsterdam, a Darien contact is one Martin Gregory, p. 226, his brother is Jonas Gregory. (Spate, Vol. 2, The Pacific Since Magellan. ANU Press, Canberra, 1983 re Monopolists and Freebooters, Dutch, Priests and Pearlers, the Buccaneers, Dampier and Darien p 160ff, Anson sails for British, Manila, Peru and California. p 169 re Scots and Darien, first Darien Co. directors were 20, 10 in London and seven in London were Scots, great need for privacy re views of the EICo charter, and secrecy, Darien to be a colony with 2500 people,
p. 173 better stock of provisions than given to Botany Bay in 1788 . 1200 sailed for Darien on July 14, 1698, St. Andrew landed? in Jamaica, Caledonia and Unicorn reached New York with Thos. Drummond, losing 275 mane on the way, callous leadership, July 1698, Darien expedition 1 with three vessels, gave up within a year, (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 285.)

1698: 27 September: Dampier called again to council of trade and plantations re advising on fitting out a squadron against pirates to east of Cape of Good Hope. ship voyage from Madagascar to England. (Wilkinson, Dampier, p. 156-157).

G. Pratt on Darien p. 62, in 1698, a link man is Lord Ruthven. Ship Rising Sun is part of second Darien expedition. p64, a Darien director is Rt. Hon John Marquess of Tweeddale.

G. Pratt on Darien p57, (Dr. Hill Bunton's Darien Papers. p. 59), a Dr. John Munro, re medicine. p. 61. Early 1698: Principal of College of Glasgow, William Dunlop been contacted to recommend a minister to go out to Darien.
Thomas Calder, Glasgow merchant helping fit out Darien expedition.

1698 Circa: EICo Capt. Thomas Bowrey (died in 1713) came ashore with a few thousand pounds, invested in a china shop and a small group of ships he managed, about 1700 he put these in the temporarily free EICo trade, e.g. Rising Sun, Mary Galley, Macclesfield, Trumball Galley, Horsham, Prosperous, and Rochester. He also was husband for the Worcester re Capt. Green and end of the Darien Co. disasters. see R. C. Temple, The Tragedy of the Worcester. 1930.

1698: The Act 18 Chas. II, c3. Act 22 Chas II c.5 and Act 22 23 Chas II c.7. continued the custom of transportation. London Guildhall records show that the contract system with merchants was in existence by now. (Wilfrid Oldham, p. 4).

1698: The scientific movement: 1698 Peter the Great of Russia was at Deptford studying shipbuilding and navigation. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 372).

1698: 21 Nov.: Dampier wrote to Lord Orford on proposed voyage, he had drawn up his own instructions, now too late to get about Cape Horn (Bligh said the same in late 1787), so he'd have to sail via CGH. wanted a gratuity for his men, aware he is insecure in ways of dealing with superiors. His formal instructions came on Nov. 30. to go to CGH and stretch to New Holland, steer any course, wanting a discovery of value, hoping for advantages to nation. internal squabbles braked the expedition, Lt. George Fisher a regular naval officer had been a leading light re expedition had appeared re the board's deliberations. He was later Dampier's enemy. Fisher kept a note book, in 1689 Fisher had served with distinction on William III's fleet at Londonderry. (Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 158-162).

1698, 25 March: Dampier given a silly ship, Jolly Prize, as Lord Orford is pleased with this idea of exploration, but by July 1698 Dampier felt vessel unfit, so Roebuck got up, 12 guns, crew of 50 men and boys, provisioned for 20 months.

July 1698, Dampier continually called to London to advise government, council of trade and plantations wanted to know if he had heard of any proposals or bribes offered to Lionel Wafer by the Scotch East India Co.? Dampier July 1698 replied he had not, adding, Wafer unlikely to be able to offer any great service to Scotch East India Co. [Citing, Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, America and the West Indies]. (Clen Wilkinson, Dampier, p.156.)

July 1698, Dampier ordered (why ordered?) to appear before Council of Trade and Plantations to be "examined as to the design of the Scotch East India Company to make a settlement on the Isthmus of Darien" under William Paterson. Lionel Wafer another witness. note re fantasies of gold mines as worked by slave labour. but Wilkinson feels Dampier and Wafer can have given Council much encouragement to proceed. Dampier's friends now include Sir Robert Southwell diplomatist and president of Royal Society, 1690-1695. and Sir Hans Sloane, patron of men of science and founder of British Museum, sec of Royal Society in 1693 and succeeded Isaac Newton as president RS in 1727. (Clen Wilkinson, Dampier, pp.150ff.)

Re Argyll's trading to America, if so by when? One Argyll brother perhaps? There is an Argyll brother mentioned re Darien in The Old Scots Navy (?).

Dampier told Orford he was disappointed at smallness of Roebuck crew, among whom were Jacob Hughes master, Lt. George Fisher a gentleman and an enthusiastic Whig later an enemy of Dampier, Philip Paine gunner, mates were R. Chadwick and John Knight. Doctor was Scot William Borthwick and captains clerk James Brand. (Clen Wilkinson, Dampier, pp.157-158, p. 247), and Dampier as scientist referred to problems of the variations of the compass.

1698: 27 September: Dampier called again to council of trade and plantations re advising on fitting out a squadron against pirates to east of Cape of Good Hope. ship voyage from Madagascar to England. (Clen Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 156-157.)

1698: There were ideas in Whig circles to form the New or English East India Company, granted its charter in September 1698.

Jan 1699: Wm sent a circular letter to Govs of English colonies ordering them to refuse all aid or countenance to the Darien colonists. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 284.)

1699: G. Pratt on Darien p. 138, VIP nb: the ledger mentions perhaps only one merchant of Glasgow named Campbell. ledger mentions goods in 1699 from John Sumervil, and John Munro, Glasgow merchants Thomas Calder, many merchants mentioned, no Campbells.
G. Pratt on Darien, p. 89, echo here for Phillip, Darien men reckoned they had found a harbour "capable of containing 10,000 sail of Shipps".
G. Pratt on Darien, p. 193, 20 Oct, 1699, costs from William Arbuckle merchant of Glasgow, outlaid for Speedy Return Capt. John Baillie, for Caledonia. no Campbell's were suppliers, Arbuckle laid out £1415/14/9 and one-third pennies, on or by Dec 23, 1699.

1699: The Tories were impeaching about 1699 the Whigs Somers, Portland, Orford and Halifax. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 186, p.195), Montague as Halifax - member of junto p., 225, 27, 381, info being that 186, in 1697 Montague succeeded Godolphin as First Lord of Treasury.

January 1699: Roebuck ready to sail with Dampier aboard. a king's ship. more Dampier books in hands of the printers. and Dampier wrote from Downs to Lord Orford, First Lord of Admiralty, unable to send Orford a copy of book(s), and this volume the second made Dampier even more famous. [Wilkinson p. 154 complains Dampier is damned with faint praise in British DNB]. (Clen Wilkinson, Dampier, p.152.)

1699: 14 January: Roebuck sailed from Downs, master Hughes. Met at Tenerife, English Captain Travers of the Experiment. Fisher thinks Dampier has put an assassin aboard to kill Fisher, Fisher put off boat, then for Cape Verde by Feb 11. Aug 6, Dampier sees WA then makes for Timor arriving Sept 22. Wilkinson feels Dampier felt he was making a mistake in leaving. Seeing south coast New Guinea Jan 1, 1700. [Byrnes feels he must have been testing the winds]. Dampier lost his ship off Island of Ascension Feb 22, 1701 by a leak, Dampier lost his papers. (Clen Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 162-181.)

1699: "The Kidd affair" as it became known. 1699, a ship was sent out to get Kidd but it was driven back by a storm, allegations Kidd's backers wanted plunder at home and abroad, admiralty got a percentage from [licenced] pirates. King's grant (William III) for backers of Kidd, a Royal Patent. with dummy names disguising "great names" i.e. the names of Kidd's backers. 1701, Apt Kidd back in London, a furore on his activities and queries on who were his backers? HOC listens to argument and allegations. If Kidd claims, as he did, he is innocent, then he also exonerates his backers.

December 1699, Lt. Fisher off Dampier's ship long back in England and laying in wait with a prosecution. enemies been busy for some time. (Clen Wilkinson, Dampier, p. 182.)

(G. Pratt on Darien, p. 77, p. 271); Darien Manuscripts in Archives of the Royal Society. Dr. James Wallace sailed with Darien Fleet and gave an almost-official record to the Royal Society, if Capt. Pennycook's voyage, Royal Society printed it in 1700-1701 as part of its transactions.

Sept 1699: Third Darien expedition four ships, even beat of an enemy attack, but gave up when enemy returned with stronger force, and evacuated, not one ship returned home of the four, and Wm found the Scots like "raging madmen". (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 285.)

1699: January: Roebuck ready to sail with Dampier aboard. More books by Dampier were in the hands of printers. (Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 152-154).

1699: January: William II sent a circular letter to the governors of English colonies, ordering them to refuse all aid or countenance to the Darien colonists. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 284).

September 1699: Third Scottish Darien expedition, four ships, Scots even beat off an enemy attack, but give up when enemy returns with stronger force, and evacuate; not one ship returned home of the four, and William III found the Scots like "raging madmen".
(Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 285.)

1699: Presidents of Council formerly Thomas earl of Danby till 1698, in 1699 was Thomas earl of Pembroke, in 1708 John Lord Somers, in 1711 John Duke of Buckinghamshire.

About 1700: Some governors of Christ's Hospital in London included Arthur Baron, Adrian Beyer, Col. James Boddington, Sir William Coles, Sir James Collett, Peter Godfrey, Samuel Jackson, Robert Knight, Thomas Lockington and Micajah Perry. (A. L. Bier and Roger Finlay, London, 1500-1700: The Making of the Metropolis. London, Longman, 1986., p. 276.)

After 1700: More so with the advent of the Hanoverians, England produced the stereotyped image of portly John Bull. Insensitive and jingoistic, not bright at all, despising the French and the Irish, wanting "the Scotch" kept under the foot, and the fruits of an expanded empire. Often a Whig.

1700: An associate of the Thomson brothers was an emigrant to Virginia, William Claiborne. Claiborne's son, (or, grandson?) was one Colonel Leonard Claiborne, who had two daughters, one, untraced, ? and another, Catherine, who was of a marriageable age by 1700, died 1735. [I am grateful to Virginian genealogist John Dorman for information on the Claiborne family of Virginia]. Catherine married a Scot who by 1700 had left the second or third unsuccessful expedition of the Scottish Darien Company to the present area of the eastern outlet of the Panama Canal, one John Campbell. John Campbell after his disappointing Darien adventures remained in a state of high dudgeon, declaring he would not return to an England or a Scotland which had sabotaged the Darien Company.


The Asiento:

As American silver flowed to Europe, as Europe learned to cope with inflation due to the intake of Spanish silver, there arose a role for the Asiento, or, a market for silver exchange devoted to slaving business. The question of satisfying the supply of and demand for slaves was plugged irrevocably into international business and commerce of the time.

Supplies of ultra-cheap labour for colonies were guaranteed as luxuries (food spices, sugar, tobacco) become more available to the upper classes, then the middle classes. "Capitalism" was corrupted in respect of many factors; the costs of labour, the elasticity of the supply of labour, the operating costs of plantations, the sale price of the final products; all while the Mercantilist attempted to buy cheap and sell dear as a matter of course.

A commercial role for the romantic figure of Prince Rupert should not be forgotten.
(Prince Rupert Wittlesbach (17 Dec. 1619-29 Nov. 1682), FRS: there is a legend that Rupert invented a gunpowder ten times more powerful than existing supplies.

Rupert's father was Frederick Wittlesbach, his mother was Elizabeth of Bohemia. Rupert was linked romantically with Frances Bard and the actress, Margaret Hughes. Rupert became a patentee of the Royal African Company on 10 January 1663, and got involved in that Company's squabbles with the Dutch. He had planned by August 1664 to take 12 ships to the African coast to harry the Dutch. He was upset in 1665 when command of this fleet went to the Earl of Sandwich (Edward Montagu (1625-1672 and not himself.
(GEC, Peerage, Sandwich, p. 432, Mount Edgecumbe; p. 315.)

By 1668 he had a devised a scheme with Monck, the Duke of Albemarle for discovering a passage from the Great Lakes to the South Sea, In June 1668 two ships went to seek the north-west passage; one of the ships was the Eaglet ketch, loaned by Charles II. The expedition had been proposed by a Frenchman, Groseilliers, and the commander was a man from Boston, Zacariah Guillam. A charter of 2 May, 1670 was given to Rupert and others for the Hudson Bay Company. The third Dutch war broke out in March 1672, and on 15 August, 1672, Rupert was appointed vice-admiral of England. By 1673 Rupert was intimate with Shaftesbury.
[K. H. D. Haley, The First Earl of Shaftesbury. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1968., p. 229].)

Rupert became partners with Sir Thomas Cicheley and first Earl Shaftesbury, and they hoped the navy would buy guns they manufactured, but this arrangement went bad and they let their rights to one John Browne of Horsmonden, Kent. But Browne soon died and his widow and one William Dyke soon owed money to Rupert, Earl Shaftesbury and Chicheley.

By 1636 or later Rupert had a wild scheme to colonise Madagascar, of which his mother disapproved; Rupert (and/or Charles) asked the advice of the East India Company. Later, an expedition of Rupert's was commanded by one Sir William Batten. Rupert had old grudges against Lord Colepeper. By 1650 Rupert was operating as a pirate against the English and down to Cartagena, and he wanted to use Barbados as a base. His flagship this time was named Constant Reformation. He once took some prizes from the Gambia. Rupert by 1653 came under the influence of the lord-keeper, Sir Edward Herbert, and Rupert was hand in glove with Lord Jermyn and Lord Gerard (Charles Gerard, (died 1694/95) first Baron Gerard of Brandon, first Earl Macclesfield).
(GEC, Peerage, Macclesfield, pp. 328ff; Hamilton, p. 269). From 1654, Rupert spent six years in Germany. [See DNB entry and Eliot Warburton, Memoirs of Prince Rupert and the Cavaliers including their private correspondence. Three Vols. London, Richard Bentley, MDCCCXLIX., Vol. 3, p. 489). Rupert bought the house of Sir Nicholas Crisp at Hammersmith, which had cost £25,000 to build. [On Rupert's son, Dudley, see Warburton, Vol. 3, p. 466; also Warburton, p. 461, p. 446. Earl Dartmouth, William Legge was a friend of Rupert by 1660. [Haley, Shaftesbury, p. 231] regarding Rupert and the Hudson's Bay Company, with shareholders including Cooper, also the Earl of Craven, Sir Paul Neile (sic) and his business partners, although Shaftesbury made little profits from Hudson's Bay. [GEC, Peerage, Bellomont, pp. 106ff.].

Rupert dealt with the Earl of Craven (William Craven, (1608-1697, first Earl Craven, a proprietor of Carolina, a son of William Craven, Lord Mayor of London in 1610-1611)) in some business deals.
(GEC, Peerage, Craven, pp. 500-502. Bliss, Revolution and Empire, p. 209. Warburton, Memoirs of Prince Rupert, p. 441. Haley, Shaftesbury, pp. 158ff and variously.

Shaftesbury's commercial involvements included Dorset estates, mining, money lending, shipping, colonial proprietorship. He joined the Africa Adventurers in 1663-1666, and put dependents into East India Company employ. By 1646 he had a Barbados plantation and a ship Rose regular on the Guinea slave coast. He also dealt with the financier and Caribbean operator, Martin Noell.
(Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, Shaftesbury. Bliss, Revolution and Empire, p. 209 on proprietors of Carolina. Israel, (Ed.), The Anglo-Dutch Moment, variously. J. R. Jones, The First Whigs: The Politics of the Exclusion Crisis, 1678-1683. London, Oxford University Press, 1961. Shaftesbury's brother George married a daughter of Oldfield, a London sugar-baker. (Haley, Shaftesbury, p. 64; and on Shaftesbury as a Whig, pp. 234-235). A note is given below on the founder of the Whig Party, Henry Wriothesley, third Earl of Southampton.)

Rupert was friends with Anthony Ashley Cooper (1621-1683), first Earl Shaftesbury, often regarded, incorrectly, as "founder" of the English Whigs.
(Much could be made of Shaftesbury's lineage in terms of themes already outlined here: anti-Spanish feeling, furthering colonisation, family connections with earlier privateers, and interloping against the East India Company. In Shaftesbury's background was MP and secretary at war, Sir Anthony Ashley (1551-1622), who married Dorothy Wroughton (died 1616). She had also married MP Carew Raleigh, a privateer and brother of Sir Walter Raleigh. Shaftesbury's second wife was Frances Cecil, daughter of David Cecil (third Earl Exeter), and Elizabeth Egerton, a daughter of John Egerton, first Earl Bridgwater, by Frances Stanley (1583-1635, daughter of Ferdinando Stanley (1559-1594), fifth Earl Derby; that is, John Egerton otherwise married to Margaret Courteen. Shaftesbury's third wife, married in 1655 was Margaret Spencer, daughter of William Spencer (died 1636), second Baron Spencer of Wormleighton, and Penelope Wriothesley (1598-1667), daughter of Henry Wriothesley (1573-1624), who is more properly viewed as founder of the English Whig party. GEC, Peerage, Spencer of Wormleighton, p. 160, Shaftesbury, p. 646.)
(Henry Wriothesley: Who's Who /Shakespeare, p. 234. GEC, Peerage, Craven of Ryton, p. 507; Drogheda, p. 436; Bedford, pp. 80ff; Southampton, pp. 128ff. Hervey, Arundel, pp. 42ff. Joyce (Ed.), Amazon, p. 204, Note 1. He is known in literature as a patron of Shakespeare. He once went on an expedition to the Azores, and was variously involved with anti-Spanish sentiment, the Virginia Company, the East India Company, Bermuda, the North West Passage Company, New England, the "Sea Plan" of 1622, and he helped govern Ireland under Essex. By 1603 he had a farm of Sweet Wines. He came undone as he aided Essex's "insurrection".

Rupert in older age developed a gunpowder ten times more powerful than anything earlier known! It would be surprising if the revised market for gunpowder did not give a strong filip to the demand for saltpetre from India, carried in East India Company ships. By 1650, Rupert was vigourously pirating against English parliamentary ships, although his own fleet had no more than five ships.

1681, Berkely Castle for English EICo sails homes, reputed the richest ship ever went out on Madras Roads, cargo worth £80,000, half its tonnage being not-so-valuable saltpetre, much bullion.
(Davis, Rise of the English shipping industry, variously. Bal Krishna, Commercial Relations between India and England, 1601-1757. 1924.)

By 1651, Rupert was cruising the Guinea coast. His brother Prince Maurice was destined to be lost in a storm at sea by September 1652. Rupert was interested in Barbados and was there by summer 1652, after Ayscue had returned the island to the obedience of Parliament. Rupert did not bring home great prize money, nor political advantage from his sea war with the Dutch. Soon he came under the influence of Sir Edward Herbert, the lord keeper.
(Herbert: Attorney-General 1641-1645. GEC, Peerage, Portland, p. 587; Torrington, p. 784ff.)

Rupert was also close to Lord Jermyn, and Lord Gerard, who all wished to overthrow Hyde.
(Lord Gerard was lieutenant-general of all the forces in 1678-1679, admiral and a Royalist Whig, Charles Gerard (died 1694/95), first Baron Gerard of Brandon and first Earl Macclesfield. Hibbert, Cavaliers and Roundheads, lists, p. 300. GEC, Peerage, Macclesfield, pp. 328ff; Hamilton, p. 269.)

In search of profit, on 10 January, 1663 Rupert became one of the patentees of the Royal African Company of the day, and there followed disputes with the Dutch. By 1668 with others including the Duke of Albemarle he took up the search for the supposed North-west passage via Canada to the South Sea. (The Hudson's Bay Company was chartered on 2 May, 1670). Rupert was first lord of the admiralty between July 1673 and May 1679. By about 1670, the Hudson's Bay Company set out to exploit several million square miles of Canada, with a capital of only £10,500.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 32.)

About then, princes, ministers and the high of society invested in joint-stock companies. James the Duke of York, lord high admiral, was the first governor of the Royal African Company, he bought £3000 worth of East India Stock in 1684; and he succeeded Prince Rupert as governor of the Hudson's Bay Company.
(Sir George Clark, The Later Stuarts, 1660-1714. Oxford History of England. Vol. 10. Oxford University Press, 1965., p. 61.)

It is not surprising, with such men having such commercial interests, conflict broke out with other cross-channel commercial powers.


There has been insufficient serious study of the Asiento, and if the names of all the merchants involved in it were known, the study of slavery could easily become more specific, especially where English involvement is concerned. In 1663, the Asiento arrangements took the form of a contract to supply the agent of the Asiento with 3500 Negroes a year. This could only be done by starving the English colonies of slaves, and anyway this contract delivered few slaves. It is intriguing to inspect what Prince Rupert might have overseen when he (or anyone else of high rank) took any interest in slaving business.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 43, p. 327.)

By 1663, the English slavers had delivered 3075 slaves to Barbados, but war had fretted the supply and the Barbados colonists were enraged at higher costs and other issues related to the Asiento.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 43., p. 327.)

In 1662, the Asiento was granted to two Genoese merchants, Grillo and Lomelin, who were given permission to sub-contract to any nation friendly to Spain. Grillo and Lomelin were soon talking to the Dutch East India Company and English Royal Adventurers. English dealers would now compete with the Dutch for this Spanish trade in slaves. The English developed absurdly optimistic hopes, reflective of their ignorance, in fact. The Grillo Asiento ended in 1671 - one English participant had been Richard (Ricardo) White.

Soon the Asiento was taken up by Garcia, a Madrid businessman, the Consulado of Seville, and a sub-contractor, Don Juan Barrosso, who relied greatly on the Dutch, by about 1671.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, agents lists.)

Some Englishmen involved included Captain Joseph Bagg, agent-general at Cape Coast Castle, John Balle, agent for the Africa Company in Jamaica, Sir William Beeston, nd, governor of Jamaica, agent for Africa Company, Thomas Belchamber, nd, agent for the Africa Company at Nevis, John Booker, agent in Gambia, Colonel Spencer Boughton, nd, agent-general at Cape Coast Castle, Capt Nathaniel Bradley, nd, agent-general at Cape Coast Castle, (Bradley was an agent at Cape Coast Castle in June 1680). John Chidley (a rogue), was agent in the Gambia. Thomas Corker, nd, was agent of the Africa Company at Sherbro. Thomas Crispe was agent in 1655 and 1665. (He has been treated in some detail earlier.)

Other Asiento agents included: Thomas Crispe (sic) agent or factor on the Gold Coast, Thomas Croaker (sic) agent for Asiento, Howsley Freeman, chief agent and merchant at Cape Coast Castle, John Freeman, slave agent at Sherbro (sic), Stephen Gascoigne, the Royal Africa Company's agent in Barbados, Juan Genes, agent of Asiento, Abraham Gill, agent of Asiento. John Hanbury, agent for slaves in Gambia. Robert Helmes (sic) the Africa Company's agent at Nevis, Giles Heysham, an Africa Company's agent at Barbados.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, pp. 40-41, p. 298.)

Also, William Hicks was an agent or chief merchant at Cape Coast Castle, Capt Ralph Hodgkins was an agent-general for the Africa Company at Cape Coast Castle. John Chidley, an agent in Gambia. Thomas Corker, nd, agent for the Africa Company at Sherbro. Thomas Croaker (sic) was an agent for the Asiento. Asiento Howsley Freeman, agent or chief merchant at Cape Coast Castle, John Freeman, slave agent at Sherbro (sic), Stephen Gascoigne, Royal Africa Company's agent in Barbados, Juan Genes, agent of Asiento, Abraham Gill, agent of Asiento, Henry Greenhill, agent-general at Cape Coast Castle, John Hanbury, agent for slaves in Gambia, Robert Helmes (sic) Africa Company's agent at Nevis, Giles Heysham, Africa Company's agent at Barbados, Joseph Holmes, agent and slaver factor in the Gambia, William Hicks, agent or chief merchant at Cape Coast Castle, Captain Ralph Hodgkins, agent-general for the Africa Company at Cape Coast Castle, William Hicks, chief merchant at Cape Coast Castle, Captain Ralph Hodgkins, agent-general Africa Company at Cape Coast Castle, John Kabes agent of Kommenda, John Kastell, agent and slaver for the Africa Company at the Gambia.

Lists can continue. The genealogist will wish to know: were any interesting family names listed here, perhaps also connected with other businesses mentioned by English historians of commerce? Hender Molesworth, lieutenant-governor of Jamaica and Africa Company's agent.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, pp. 241ff, pp. 297, 330ff.)

Thomas Mellish, agent-general Africa Company at Cape Coast Castle in 1673; Meulanaer and Magnus, (sic) Africa Company's agents at Amsterdam; John Mildmay (sic) agent factor at Ophra; Alexander Oliver, agent of Asiento, at Ophra (also known as Ardra); Josiah Pearson, factor slaver at Anomabu, also agent or factor at Whydah; Charles Penhallow, Africa Company's agent at Jamaica; Edmund Pierce, slaver agent in Sierra Leone. Nicholas Porcio.

More? Maybe an Asiento agent, Rowland Powell, Africa Company's agent in Jamaica.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 297.)

Zachary Rogers an Africa Company agent at Sherbro and accused of helping interlopers; William Ronan, chief merchant or agent of the Africa Company at Cape Coast Castle and accused of helping interlopers; Walter Ruding, Africa Company's agent in Jamaica. (Note: Sherbro was also known as York Island). Sir Edwin Stede, governor of Barbados. An agent of the Africa Company, John Thurloe at Sekondi (sic). A factor slaver or agent at Sekondi was Thomas Thurloe. An agent slaver in the Gambia, Richard White; agent of Asiento, John Whitfield, factor or agent at Anomabu; Richard Willis, agent or slaver factor at Whydah.

In London, the practice arose of contracting for Negroe slaves, in syndicates, which, as agreed in advance with the Royal Africa Company, bought cargoes or fractions of cargoes at a fixed price payable in London. Syndicates or their representatives then became consignees of such slaves and had disposal of them. This seems to have been the normal way of supplying the colonies before 1672. Then the company encouraged contractors to get the slaves. Fractions might be 1/20th of a cargo. By 1713, England carried out the slave trade by an asiento (ie, a silver exchange)
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 294, p. 328; Pierre Vilar, A History of Gold and Money, 1450-1920. London, Verso, 1991., p. 221.)

Some pre-1672 merchant adventurers to Africa were Sir John Lethuillier, James and John Banckes, Godfrey Lee, Francis Boynton. Sir William Turner (Lord Mayor, MP for London), paid £325 in 1671 to buy a 32/nd share in an East India Company ship Golden Fleece, which made six voyages to the east. Turner had about 1/20th of his wealth in the Royal Africa Company.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 36, p. 159.)

Godfrey Lee of the Merchant Adventurers and the Royal Africa Company was an importer of copper, as was Thomas Vernon of the same Company. Mildmays is old and famous and illustrious Essex family, which died out by 1796. There was once a Mildmay a slave agent at Ophra, according to K. G. Davies' lists.
(Colley, Britons, p. 157.)

The Royal Africa Company of 1672 and the Asiento:

The African Adventurers Company was ruined by its losses and after 1672 was replaced by the Royal Africa Company, which was even more ambitious, which set up six forts on the Gold Coast and one on the slave coast, while the French built up north of the Gambia in Senegal.
(Clark, The Later Stuarts, pp. 332ff.)

Founded in 1672, the Royal African Company had its monopoly broken from 1689 by private traders; by 1712 the private traders gave the Company a 10 per cent commission to fund operation of the forts
(Orlando Patterson, Sociology, pp. 127ff.)

From 1712, the British slave trade became free, so the Company made only an insignificant supply of slaves. Slackness in the English trade allowed Bristol and Liverpool to become ports heavily dependent on slavery, especially Liverpool. Africa House was in Leadenhall Street, first mentioned by 1677. These premises were taken over by the East India Company and from 1766 the Africa Company offices were in Cooper's Court, and later, Cannon Street. (The charter was recalled in 1821 and the remaining possessions on the West African coast were given to Sierra Leone.)

By 1672 there were 70 sugar works on Jamaica (which is a total of 3,840,000 acres). In 1752, cultivable land was measured at 633,336 acres. In 1754 there were 1620 planters with an average holding of 1000 acres, and much land not used for sugar was left idle, despite the island's potential for greater self-sufficiency in food production and urgings that it become more diversified in production. To keep production down propped up the price, and Williams writes, Jamaica could easily have had three times the number of sugar plantations it did have. Producing 760 tons of sugar, 200,000 acres had been granted to 717 families, which is about 280 acres per family. Sugar islands became increasingly parochial in outlook, and, was this due to monoculturalism? Cultivating one acre of cane in the West Indies required [about] 172 days of human labour.
(Eric Williams, From Columbus to Castro, pp. 114-119, p. 127.)

After 1670, in London, wealthy West Indian planters began to meet at a tavern, and by 1674 arose the Jamaican Coffee House. So was aided the institutionalisation of West India absentee landlordism. On 27 September, 1672, the Royal Africa Company charter passed the Great Seal, and now it had legal recognition. It could seize the goods and ships of any who infringed its monopoly, it sought gold, silver and Negroes, could make war and peace with heathen nations, raise troops and execute martial law.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 97.)

But financially, matters were chimerical. On 16 December, 1712, an item in London Gazette noted agreements reached about finalising the Royal Africa Company, which then lapsed into sleepiness, and it appeared that since 1672, an original subscriber with £100 stock would have lost between £253 and £350. Its books at times seem to have been handled with criminal dishonesty, or, problems of ignorance, lack of experience in capital management, though one might well ask, could anything like slavery in fact be managed rationally? Davies writes: "The outrage to morality which the Middle Passage must always be should not obscure the fact that it was also an outrage to sound economics".
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 72, p. 96, p. 294.)

An original subscriber, John Bull, for £500, bought another £400 in 1674 and sold all the next eight months. He bought again in 1675 and 1676 and resold; the same, in 1679 and 1685. Others behaving in this way were the Earl Berkeley, John Cudworth, Nicholas Hayward, Thomas Hall. From 1672, more investors: Benjamin Newland bought goods at the company's sales. John Gourney, Thomas Aldworth, Thomas Nichols and Peter Proby supplied the RAC with goods for export as wholesalers.
(This Peter Proby is difficult to identify. Two men named Peter Proby, one Lord Mayor of London 1622-1623, were presumably dead by this period. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Proby of Elton, p. 429.)

Investors included Sir Humphrey Edwin as a company promoter, Sir John Buckworth a commissioner of the Mint, Sir George Waterman the City Auditor. Sir William Langhorne (ex-India with £19,000 in East India stock and £4000 in RAC stock). Sir Jeremy Sambrooke (ex-India with £18,000 in India Stock and £700 in the RAC). And Streynsham Master, ex-India. Old hands of the former Africa Adventurers were modest investors; Abraham Holditch, Henry Nurse former agents at Cape Coast Castle, and Alexander Cleeve a former agent on the Gambia. So, two-thirds of capital was in the hands of businessmen and most of these were overseas traders. Money was drawn from already-established branches of trade.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, pp. 66-69.)

By 1672, some small RAC investors were Tobias Rustat, Yeoman of the Wardrobe (and benefactor of Jesus College at Cambridge); Lawrence du Puy, keeper of the mall; William Ashburnam, cofferer of the royal household; Matthew Wren, secretary of the Duke of York; and Eusebius Mathews ; a few holders of minor civil service posts, some widows, some country gentlemen, a controller of prizes, a cashier to customs, two revenue officers, country men including Sir John Lowther of Lowther, Sir John Lowther of Whitehaven, Sir Anthony Craven of Buckinghamshire, Broom Whorwood of Oxfordshire, George Garth of Surrey, and Francis Farnaby of Kent. Lawrence du Puy, the King's barber. Dudley North, the noted Turkey merchant. joined the RAC to learn how to manipulate joint-stock, with which he was unfamiliar.

By 1672, the new RAC had a sub-contract with the Asiento and an oblique entry was made possible to Spanish colonial markets; gold and ivory would supplement trade in Negroes, and of course, sugar. The RAC would probably be favoured by Charles II, his court, and the Duke of York (who invested in both the East India Company and the Royal Africa Company), plus several ministers and prominent courtiers. But an accident of finance, a stop on the exchequer, poor national finances, debts to goldsmiths, all immobilized, and those who had left money with goldsmiths (by then lent to the crown?) were held up.

Moreover, with the "secret" treaty of Dover of 1671, Charles had gotten cash from France for an attack on the United Provinces. Since the Dutch were so important on the African coast, this was all important; the second Dutch war had been largely an outcome of rivalry on the African coast, and it was notable that many who knew of the "secret" Dover treaty subscribed to the RAC. Including, Clifford (died 1673 had £400 stock), Arlington (£500 stock), Buckingham (£500 stock died 1687), and Ashley (Shaftesbury); four of the five ministers in the Cabal, plus the Duke of York, Prince Rupert, Sir William Coventry and Sir Joseph Williamson (secretary of state, £500 stock, sold out in 1687). Plus, John Locke (philosopher interested in colonisation, £400 stock, sold in 1675). Sir George Carteret (£500 RAC stock - his family had a royal charter for Carolina, he was a Lord Proprietor of Carolina and a member of the committee of trade and plantations).

Sir Peter Colleton (large plantation in Barbados, £1000 RAC stock sold in 1675, down to £400). The Earl of Craven (£600 stock). Merchant Thomas Povey. Sir Edmund Andros (former governor of New York). Ferdinando Gorges (£1000 RAC stock, sold in 1679), whose family had estates in New England. Several such names had been associated with Ashley (Shaftesbury) in his earlier [unnamed] colonial schemes. Others were Lord Hawley, Lawrence du Puy and Matthew Wren, close to the Duke of York. Lord Berkeley had up to £1600 stock in the RAC but sold out in 1688. The king, James II, sold his RAC stock, £3000 on 10 January, 1689; James received in dividends £3480 and sold for £5730, with a total profit of £6210 over seventeen years. The Earl of Craven was not a large investor, nor was Lord Powis (£100 stock) or Lord Falconberg. Royalty and their circles never held more than one quarter of the RAC stock.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, pp. 60-67.)

By 1672, the primary problem of any African company was a shortage of liquid capital, and the RAC had raised too little. Turnover was slower due to long credit being extended to slave-buying planters. There was the infrastructure cost of fixing capital in forts, so the Company had to borrow heavily. It traded in gold, ivory, dyewood, hides and waxes for the English market and in buying slaves for the West Indies. The need arose to export English goods worth about £100,000 per year, including goods of non-English origin, such as cheap eastern textiles, Swedish iron, spirits such as French Brandy. Beads for Africa came from Venice. English manufacturers objected as their markets were limited, the sugar islands wanted more slaves than were supplied, free traders objected. K. G. Davies writes, the RAC spent up to £25,000 per year on hired shipping.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, pp. 44-46, and p. 175.)


The operation of the Asiento involved international speculators in currency, and Spanish, Flemish, Italian and French markets attracted speculators connected with the Crown by asientos. Silver was placed in the most profitable market.
(Vilar, A History of Gold and Money, p. 152.)

In 1674-1676, England renewed its interest in the Asiento and probably dealt with Garcia at Madrid. In 1674 Francis Millington, and in 1676, Peter Proby and various Royal Africa Company shareholders made overtures, such as with a deal for 250 slaves to be delivered to Cadiz. Apparently, regarding a Spanish ship, the Santo Domingo, Richard White, ex the Grillo Asiento, made overtures which the Royal Africa Company later rejected. (Later, Thomas Croaker went from Cadiz to Barbados in the Caribbean to buy slaves). Then Spanish interest switched to Jamaica, where the Spanish stationed a permanent agent.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 330.)

By October 1683, 336 slaves off Jamaica were sold to Abraham Gill, an agent of the Asiento Porcio, (which was a Spanish Asiento in conflict with the Dutch Coymans' Asiento) to Don Juan Genes and Co., and to Don Juan Espino. Later operating was Don Alexander Oliver, a representative of the Dutch Coymans Asiento. There were no more such sales after 1686. The Jamaicans enjoyed dealing in silver, the Royal Africa Company missed a prime opportunity here, but the Jamaicans were notoriously anti the Royal Africa Company monopoly. And in 1686, Molesworth twice complained about the lawlessness of the South Sea pirates. In June 1689, the former Porcio Asiento agent, Santiago Castille ("Sir James Castille") visited England to arrange a deal with the Royal Africa Company for slaves via Jamaica; this was rather an illegal deal which English authorities decided to overlook. War anyway made the deal impossible. Castille intended to sue; the Royal Africa Company claimed "restraint of princes", the outcome seems unknown. It appears anyway from 1693 that Castille had stung a group of Jamaican merchants for over 86,000 pieces of eight due to them (presumably for supply of slaves to Castille's Asiento agency).
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 334.)

The English on the African Gold Coast:

Thomas Crispe in 1655 and 1665 had disputed with Denmark about land near Cape Coast Castle and later made depositions. Crispe in 1649 had become the chief agent or factor on the Gold Coast for Rowland Wilson, Maurice Thompson, John Wood and Thomas Walter, whom he called The Guinea Company. The original site of Cape Coast Castle had been given to the English, was then re-taken by the Swedes, re-taken by the English, all in Crispe's time on the coast.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, pp. 40-41.)

But we do not know how many ships used the location. Interestingly, about 1670, a "slaver", Sir Nicholas Crisp sold his house near Hammersmith to Prince Rupert, for the use of Rupert's lover, a house which had cost £25,000. Crisp was active in the Africa trade from 1625.
(Warburton, Memoirs of Prince Rupert, Vol. 3. DNB entries.)

(NB: K. Chaudhuri has noted that Guinea was the long-cloth imported by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) from the Coromandel coast to be re-exported for the West Indies and African slave marts. Here, the English East India Company was not keen on business due to the "undeveloped" state of the pre-Restoration English slave trade. Guinea stuff was sold to Guinea Company but with little profit.)
(K. N. Chaudhuri, The English East India Company: The Study of an Early Joint-Stock Company, 1600-1640. London, Frank Cass, 1965., p. 201.)
Meantime, between 1660 and 1685, tempe Charles II, the king generally received more money from each pound of Virginian imported leaf that the planter.
(Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 206.)

In England itself, by 1660, any export of wool from Britain was again forbidden, and in 1662, smuggling wool as export (from Kent, Sussex and Essex), was made punishable by death. By 1671 there was abolition of tunnage and poundage as forms of customs duties, and then the "free traders" were styled as smugglers. The first organised English customs duties seem to stem from 1688, and smugglers began to feel persecuted by 1685, for their illegal running of goods was becoming considerable. "Export smuggling" was in wool, and the forbidding of wool export meant that cloth workers had wool growers at their mercy.
(Teignmouth and Harper, The Smugglers. Vol. 1, 1973. (Orig. 1923)., pp. 9-12, p. 21, p. 28, pp. 46-40.)

By 1717, wool smuggling was punishable by transportation. Further penalties were added in 1746, and Dr Johnson thought customs officers were a lower species than smugglers, By the mid-eighteenth century, bands of smugglers were well-organised in Kent, Sussex and Hampshire, and gangs ran such as the Hawkhurst Gang, headed by Arthur Gray, who was said to be worth £10,000, whose residence with sweet irony was a site later built on by Lord Goschen, at one time Chancellor of the Exchequer! Also, smugglers using great numbers of horses, a trade in its own right, but Teignmouth and Harper regard them as products of bad laws, a vicious system with its origin tempe William III. Teignmouth and Harper also suggest, p. 14, pp. 60-61, p. 69, p. 75, on 17 Nov., 1747, the gaol at Maidstone was broken open by 12 men and smugglers were released; "robustious days". By 1749, smugglers were conspiring to kill the turnkey of Newgate. By 1787, there were "1425 articles liable to duty"... "very many of them taxed at several times their market value", bringing in revenue of £6 million per year... "in 1797 the customs laws filled six large folio volumes... a total number of Customs Acts before 1760 was 800, by 1813 there were 1300 more added, till Sir Robert Peel tried to re-order the chaos.)

By 1660, commissioners of the Treasury included Sir Edward Hyde, George Monck later duke of Albemarle, Monck's kinsman Sir William Morice, Lords high admirals, and James, Duke of York. By 1660, England had Caribbean bases on Jamaica and Barbados. England found logwood for dyeing in an area with no fixed government, in the Bay of Honduras and on the Mosquito Coast. The Spanish held St. Eustatius which was becoming an entrepot.
(G. Davies, Early Stuarts, p. 301; Clark, The Later Stuarts, p. 325.)

Cromwell and commercial developments:

In all colonial administration, Cromwell was personally influenced by a group of London merchant advisors. He placed them on committees, especially Martin Noell (sic) and Thomas Povey. By about July 1656, there had been many complaints to Cromwell from merchants such as Povey and Noell, and so a standing committee was set up. Noell had much influence on Cromwell. Noell was from humble origins in Stafford, but he became a "great capitalist", an alderman of London by 1651, a member of the East India Company, and he also had many West Indian connections. Noell was first heard of, trading to Monserratt and Nevis, by 1650. He had acted as a contractor for the Western Expedition, and was an agent for the army out there, so he received a large land grant on Jamaica. His brother Thomas was prominent at Surinam and Barbados. Noell flourished as shipowner, importer, a landowner in the West Indies and Wexford, merchant, contractor, money lender.
(Fraser, Cromwell, pp. 533ff.)

To Povey is owed a great deal, for he made the beginnings of a definite colonial policy. English merchants by 1656 had gone a long way with continuing the former anti-Spanish tradition of piracy, and they proposed that parliament incorporate a West India Company to attack Spanish towns, to interrupt the Spanish treasure fleet and to drive Spaniards from control of the West Indies and South America.
(Newton, Colonising Puritans, pp. 325ff. Povey's papers are in the British Museum, E.g., 2395, folios 89-113, and 202-237. Povey's Letter book is: Add. MSS, 11411.)

By 9 December 1654, as the Western Design was firming, Daniel Searle was made governor of Barbados at a council meeting. Venables, Penn, Winslow and Butler were all being named in a commission, but it had not been understood in London that Barbados had developed its own unique way of life (and for example, was developing its own slave code which was later exported to Jamaica, then to Virginia).

About 1654, Jeremy Sambrooke examined the financial behaviour of the East India Company.
(K. N. Chaudhuri, The English East India Company: The Study of an Early Joint-Stock Company, 1600-1640. London, Frank Cass, 1965., p. 208.)

By 1657, the East India Company's directors were seriously considering selling the Company's factories and rights, but the general court (shareholders) overruled them. At this point, Cromwell came down seriously in favour of continuing the Company as a capitalistic enterprise, but oddly enough, no copy of the charter issued by Cromwell in 1657 still exists. The charter which was issued is thought to have resembled the charter of 1609.
(Ian Bruce Watson, Foundation for Empire: English Private Trade in India, 1659-1760. New Delhi, Vikas Pub. House, 1980.)

After 1657, more shareholders were let into the East India Company, and the newly-chartered Company bought all the properties of the Old Company. Dividends would be paid in cash, not in commodities as had earlier been the case. Cromwell's charter was later abridged by a charter Charles II issued in 1661. By 1659 or so, Charles II's new Company charter had five important features; it allowed the company:
(1) to acquire territory;
(2) to coin money;
(3) to command troops and fortresses;
(4) to make alliances (5) to exercise civil and criminal jurisdictions.
(Newton, Colonising Puritans, variously. In 1659 with business bad in the City of London, many merchants were not attending for lack of employment, poor families were in danger of perishing and wards found it difficult to support them with the Poor Rate. Also in 1659, a treaty demonstrated that Spanish power on the wane, leaving some ways open for British adventure.)

The Restoration and commercial developments (not including Barbados):

With the Restoration, West India merchants in London persuaded Charles II to retain Jamaica as a royal colony, and later came the appointment of Sir Thomas Modyford, royal governor of Jamaica 1664-1671. Modyford promoted agricultural development and attacks on the Spanish, which got him personally £1000 per year from buccaneers, and he wanted liberal land grants and Barbadians to join him. Modyford himself had 22 parcels of land in eight parishes.
(Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, pp. 154ff.)

By 1660 and later, with the Restoration, some independence was lost on Barbados, with the Navigation Act which tied sugar islands to English interests. Barbados' planters became subject to London's mercantilist policies. Charles agreed to annul the Carlisle claims to the island and confirmed earlier Barbadian land purchases. So in some senses, Charles assumed direct control, following which he sent out Francis Lord Willoughby as first royal governor. Willoughby had already been governor 1650-1652. By 1660, Peter Watson had brought to London the petitions of Modyford and others in the Barbados assembly.
(Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 45-48.)

By 9 July, 1660, once Lord Willoughby was directed by the king to take up as governor of Barbados and other Caribbee islands, respecting his position as lessee of the Earl of Carlisle's rights, of course, the Courteen interest protested, as noted earlier. Lord Willoughby, had cause to refer to the actions of a group of planters and merchants in London who resisted the imposition of proprietary government for [their own] private ends.
(A "governor of the Caribbean" was William Willoughby (1616-1673), sixth Baron Willoughby. Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 32-33. GEC, Peerage, Bellomont, pp. 106ff; Willoughby, p. 709ff.)

By 1667 these men were thought to include Peter Colleton, Peter Leare, Mr. Ferdinando George. These were all absentee planters continuing the work of Kendall and Colleton, and they worked against the development of any agency by Povey.
(Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 26-28, pp. 40-41.)

By 1660, the most influential elements in the West India interest were the merchants whose rise to power had been mainly caused by the share they took in the Cromwell western expedition of 1655, writes Penson. Noell's interest declined. Povey's schemes disappeared with the decline of the Willoughby interest. By September 1665, another pro-Willoughby agent in the wings was John Champante, a clerk in the Grand Excise office.
(Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 38.)

In effect the island was cheated by the king. But the Barbadians shrugged their shoulders, and it was from about now that some Barbadians were knighted, becoming "sugar-coated knights" in partial recognition of their gentry status. These included Sir Thomas Modyford, Sir James Drax, Sir Peter Leare, Sir John Colleton, Sir John Yeamans.
(Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 80.)

Also with Charles II and the Restoration, the East India Company directors gave gifts of their loyalty, and the king gave them a favourable charter and accepted loans over 16 years of £170,000.
(Mukherjee, Rise and Fall, p. 75.)

In a different trading sphere, by about 1660, more than half of the beneficiaries of the capital in the Royal Adventurers to Africa were peers or members of the Royal Family; including the Duke of York, Princesses Maria and Henrietta, Prince Rupert (who withdrew), the dukes of Albemarle and Buckingham, the earls of Bath (who withdrew before capital had been fully paid up), Lord Hawley (who withdrew) Ossory, Pembroke, St Albans and Sandwich. Commoner investors included some of the greatest mercantile figures of Restoration London; Sir Robert Vyner, Edward Backwell, Sir John Robinson (Lord Mayor, London MP, deputy-governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, and director, East India Company), Sir Philip Frowd, Sir Andrew Riccard, Sir William Coventry (withdrew).
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, pp. 64-65. [See C. T. Carr, Select Charters of Trading Companies. Selden Society. nd.])

By 16 July, 1660, as Penson writes, authorities in London wanted Colonel Modyford installed at Barbados. Modyford's friends in London wanted this outcome. Friends here being led by John Colleton and aided by favour of General Monk, both of whom were relatives of Modyford. The group of friends appears to have been Peter Watson, John Colleton, [Sir] James Drax, Thomas Kendall, Jonathan Andrews, Tobias Frere, Edward Walrond (sic). Given the views of Lord Willoughby, these all remained concerned about their tenures. By 1671, this group would dominate the actions of any agent for Barbados. By 30 August, 1660, as disputes over Barbados continued, a committee had backed a decision of the king, as some rival claimants appeared, the heir of the earl of Carlisle and the representative of an earlier grant, James, Earl of Marlborough, and so Kendall, Colleton et al had again to press their case for a royal government of Barbados, versus, it seems, any proprietary right.


Blah blah Redevelopment for convict transportation:

By 1660, there arose also a petition stating that the prisons were sanctuaries for the rich and able debtors, but murdering dens of cruelty for the poor. The Fleet debtors' prison then was in use; the warden had to make a living and pay his assistants from extorting the inmates, much as depicted in Henry Fielding's novel, a century later, Amelia. But at least the ordinary criminal was fed. Meantime, the city was full of various kinds of rogues, cheats and con-artists, more so at the end of the civil wars.

During the civil war, Scots, Irish and English enemies of the commonwealth were transported mainly to Barbados and Virginia. And since it was difficult to induce enough emigrants, a regular trade grew up in kidnapped persons. Transportation of the vagrant and the criminal appealed to authorities as an easy way out. (James in 1617 had ordered that notorious malefactors be transported to Virginia, or be put as soldiers into wars.)
(G. Davies, Early Stuarts, p. 321.)

London's poor law administrators were vexed by wanderers from the country, so they promoted an act of 1662 enabling them to remove to their place of origin anyone who became chargeable. This limited the freedom of movement of the poor, and of labourers, as a disciplinary measure, and the law for punishing vagrants was also strengthened. About 1667-1669, Act 18 Car II c. 3 empowered the judges to exile for life the border brigands of Northumberland and Cumberland to any of the American colonies. This act expired in 1673. (See Eris O'Brien, Foundation, p. 124.)

There was an increase in new types of workhouses (factories), houses of correction or bridewells, prisons under another name, but the Quakers set up their own bridewells, such as Clerkenwell in London in 1701; and a poor-law system was set up where corruption could as easily be conducted as genuine charity and helpfulness. (See Clark, The Later Stuarts, pp. 52-53.)

Charles II arrived in London on 29 May, 1660. So arrived the Restoration of the Stuart Family. A new parliament, the Convention Parliament, was royalist, and Charles persuaded on condition that he promised amnesty to former enemies of the House of Stuart. He paid the army arrears and guaranteed religious toleration. Military power went to the Cavaliers and policy arose from the group known as the Cabal (made from their initials). The Cavalier parliament assembled in 1661, restoring a militant Anglicanism, and Charles considered re-asserting absolutism, though the crown remained still dependent on Parliament for revenue.
(Clark, The Later Stuarts, p. 107.)

All over Europe during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, autocratic monarchy was receiving resistance from two sectors - aristocracies and privileged corporation. One might wonder, could this in any way by put down to population pressure and economics? Absolute monarchy could not manage a system enabling increasing populations to live at a sufficient standard.

Moves between Barbados and Jamaica:

By December 1660, in London, some members of the Council for Foreign Plantations include Secretaries of State, others of the Privy Council, some experts, Lord Willoughby, the Earl of Marlborough, some west Indian planters and merchants such as, Sir Peter Leare, Sir Andrew Riccard, Sir James Drax, Thomas Povey, John Colleton (a relative of Modyford), Edward Walrond, Martin Noell, Thomas Kendall, Thomas Middleton, William Watts. These latter merchant names all worked together for five years with the board. (Povey seems to have also been linked with events in Virginia and New England). Maybe, Povey had ambitions of becoming an "agent-all-round" ?
(Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 34-37.)

Earlier, Povey had been more or less recommended by Willoughby to the governors of Montserrat and Nevis, colonels Osborne and Russell respectively, on concerns of the islands. By about 1663, Colonel Philip Froude was secretary of the council for Foreign Plantations, and he had the support of Modyford's party, and Lord Bartlet and others, regarding the antagonist Povey.

By December, 1660, a charter arose for the Royal Adventurers into Africa, which by now had very shaky finances, and in Davies' view was more "an aristocratic treasure-hunt than an organized business". By January 1663 there was a rethink, a revised charter, and specific mention of the slave trade as a company objective. Capital was about £120,000, one seventh of which was never paid, including £6000 promised by the king.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 41.)

With this 1660 founding of The Company of Royal Adventurers to trade to West Africa, there was apparently little no connection with the Caribbean. All this followed the 1588 endeavours of the Senegal Adventurers, which had only eight original members and was not incorporated; they had a monopoly to trade to Senegal and Gambia for ten years. No next development happened until 1618.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 39.)

By 1661 too, the East India Company had a revised charter, which allowed it to maintain forts and raise troops for their defence. So began its new era with paid-up capital of £370,000, permanent joint-stock.
(Mukherjee, Rise and Fall, p. 75.)

In 1665 began a purely commercial war, Anglo-Dutch, which stemmed from conflict on the African west coast. Captain Robert Holmes was aggressive there over the winter of 1663-1664.
(In 1664 Capt. Holme's expedition founded Fort James about 20 miles up the Gambia River, after cleaning out the Dutch, as a new base for English operations. There followed a confusing series of English-Dutch capture and recapture.
(Clark, Oxford, pp. 332ff.)

Holmes took Goree north of the Gambia River and Cape Coast Castle on the Gulf of Guinea. Captain Nicolls took the New Netherlands (New York).
(Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 63. Anglo-Dutch Wars continued, of 1652-1654, 1665-1667 and 1672-1674. Notes, Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, pp. 20-22. Anglo-French wars continued of 1666-1667, 1689-1697 and 1702-1713 were very destructive to the Caribbean, more so than North America.)

In 1661, Robert Holmes for the Royal Adventurers into Africa expelled the Courlanders (Latvians) from the mouth of the Gambia River, and James Island was occupied by the English. There was trading to Sherbro and Sierra Leone, but the Dutch placed obstacles, so in 1664 Holmes captured Dutch settlements at Cape Verde. De Ruyter then in 1665 swept out the English from all areas but Cape Coast Castle.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 42.)

The king decided to grant New Netherland to his brother James, the Duke of York, as a proprietary province. James' deputy was Richard Nicholls, who sailed for New Netherland from Boston, and Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered in Sept 1664. New York's trade staple was fur. Part of the New York territory included what would become New Jersey, and James, Duke of York here favoured his friends Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, two defenders of the Stuarts during the Puritan Cromwell period. In 1665 they established a government for the area, but New Yorkers protested at this as it clashed with their own interests. In 1674, Lord Berkeley sold his New Jersey interests to two Quakers, John Fenwick and Edward Byllynge; who later used trustees including William Penn.
(Ver Steeg, The Formative Years, pp. 115-116.)

By 29 March, 1661, Walrond on Barbados had decided Kendall and Colleton were really working for the reinstatement of Modyford on Barbados. Willoughby got himself to Barbados by 1663 and found considerable intrigues there.
(Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 32-33.)

By June 1661, Povey's old friend William Watts was in command of the government of St Christopher. Povey's brother Richard was then on Jamaica, and Jamaica had a new governor, Thomas Lord Windsor.
(Thomas Windsor (Hickman) (1627-1687), seventh Baron Windsor and first Earl Plymouth, appointed governor of Jamaica in 1661. He disbanded the Roundhead army on Jamaica and cancelled commissions to privateers.
(His DNB entry. GEC, Peerage, Plymouth, p. 560; Windsor, p. 800.)

Povey's influences abated however from 1663. In the years after the Restoration, Povey's influence declined as he was linked with Willoughby, and the ruling party on Barbados was anti-Willoughby. About 1664-1666, Povey was surveyor-general of the victualling dept. in London.
(Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 10-13, pp. 35-38.)

English merchant and lawyer Thomas Povey first became active about 1650-1655. By about 1664-1666, Povey was surveyor-general of the Victualling Dept. and dealt with West Indian islands. Maurice Thompson and Martin Noell (sic) were friend of Povey. Thomas Povey, a barrister of Gray's Inn and a merchant with widespread interests, was well-known for exerting his influence; his brother Richard was secretary and commissary general of provisions at Jamaica and another brother was William, provost marshal at Barbados.)

In 1662 the Royal Adventurers Trading into Africa also had one purpose, to oust the Dutch in the slave trade. The East India Company had leased as a calling place, Cormantine (Kormantin), a few miles east from the Dutch Cape Coast Castle. By now this was the third English-Africa Company, and it took over an East India Company factory, Cape Coast Castle, a few miles east of a Dutch station, Elmina, on the Gold Coast. Breda gave Cape Coast Castle back to the English.
(Clark, The Later Stuarts, p. 332.)

The Duke of York was apparently involved here, as he put £3600 more into the Africa Company, which surrendered its charter in 1663 and had a new one issued, to The Company of Royal Adventurers of England Trading into Africa. This charter mentioned slaving specifically, the idea being to supply slaves to the West Indies on credit. The new company took over Kormantin and Cape Coast Castle, but was soon troubled by the Dutch (the English ambassador to Holland then was Sir George Downing). A series of wars arose between Britain and Holland.
(Eric Williams, From Columbus to Castro, pp. 136-137.)


The deeper interests of the "proprietors of Carolina":

The granting of the "proprietorship of Carolina" south of Virginia, was not simply a sole-colonisation venture. It was one outcome of a large-scale, highly imaginative melding of many diverse strands of economic endeavour, with a view to keeping that endeavour in the hands of organisations bound largely to royal monopolisation. It is very likely that the outbreak of resentment in the 1790s, of merchants "interloping" against the East India Company, in the time of William III, was the expression of a London-based, long-held, Whiggish-minded resentment at what the "proprietorship of Carolina" might have come to, as is easily found from an examination of the interests of the Carolina proprietors. Those interests stretched from eastern Canada, south down the American coast, past Virginia, south to the Caribbean sugar islands, to Surinam, also to the West African coast, and around the Cape of Good Hope to India, via the financial interests of the East India Company, about the time that England gained Bombay. The scope of the interests held was enormous, since it embraced most of the earlier history of English colonisation, plus existing entry points into the Levant trade, as we find...

Carolina was intended to be the next jewel in the crown of colonisation, but its promoters already had extensive interests in all that had gone before... In a sense, Carolina represented a capture of the fruit of colonisation that the Stuarts had previously given too little attention. "The Carolina proprietors" in effect represented the start of a royally-controlled set of trading companies, with, potentially, enormous geographical scope and reach. As such, it embodied most English themes so far expressed in history, including, naturally, the continued occupation of Ireland. A first charter was issued on 24 March, 1663, a second charter in June 1665. (The Royal Africa Company was revivified from 1672.)

A grant had been made respecting the Carolinas as early as 1629, but no serious attempt was made to colonise till 1663, with eight proprietors, who received from Charles II a proprietary grant of Carolina. They were "many wealthy and most influential men in England". Waterhouse imparts in his first chapter, in 1663, the man who had initiated the entire affair, to be joined by the governor of Virginia, was Sir John Colleton, a rich Barbados planter. He was, with Sir William Berkeley and Lord Ashley, a member of the Special Committee for Foreign Plantations. Colleton was a relative of Jamaica's Sir Thomas Modyford.
(Ver Steeg, The Formative Years, pp. 119ff; Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 78, Note 62. Davies, Royal Africa Company, index.)

The Carolina proprietors became:

Sir William Berkeley (1606-1677), governor of Virginia in 1641.
(Bliss, Revolution and Empire, p. 209. Haley, Shaftesbury, pp. 230ff. J. T. Wertenbaker, Virginia Under The Stuarts, 1607-1688. 1914.)

And in the wings, his brother, Lord John Berkeley of Stretton (1602-1678), Commissioner of the Navy and member of the Privy Council. John, a friend of James, Duke of York, was a proprietor of New Jersey, a Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. John married Christian Riccard, daughter of Sir Andrew Riccard, some-time governor of the Levant Company and also of the East India Company. Christian Riccard also married Henry Rich, first Viscount Irwin, of the family of the Earls of Warwick.
(Ian B. Watson, Foundation, p. 72. GEC, Peerage, Berkeley, pp. 147ff; Warwick, p. 416.)

Cromwellian Lieutenant-General, George Monck (1608-1670), first Duke of Albemarle, Captain General.
(Bliss, Revolution and Empire, p. 209. GEC, Peerage, Albemarle, pp. 87-90. George Monck's son Christopher became the heavy-drinking governor of Jamaica known to Sir (Dr) Hans Sloane. Christopher married Elizabeth Cavendish who also married Ralph, first Duke Montagu, as his first wife. Ralph by his second wife had a son John, second Duke Montagu, earlier mentioned as "John the Planter", owner of St Lucia in the Caribbean.)

Edward Hyde (1608-1687), Earl Clarendon, Lord Chancellor, whose son, Lawrence (died 1711), first Earl Rochester, was a partner with Willoughby, the governor of Barbados, who also owned Surinam. Of course, Edward's daughter, Anne, had married the king's brother, James, Duke of York, governor of the Royal Africa Company, of Jersey, of the Hudson's Bay Company. Lawrence Hyde shortly before his death was governor of the Merchant Adventurers in London.
(GEC, Peerage, Clarendon, pp. 265ff; Rochester, pp. 49ff. Of particular interest here is the conjunction of interest possessed by both the Royal Africa Company and the East India Company in the strategic location on the African coast, Kormantin.)

Anthony Ashley Cooper, first earl Shaftesbury, Chancellor of the Exchequer, who had investments in the Guinea Trade and Barbados. He was distrusted by Royalists, so the others "came in to provide needed support".
(On Barbados, Carolina and slavery: Richard Waterhouse, A New World Gentry: The Making of a Merchant and Planter Class in South Carolina, 1670-1770. New York, Garland Publishing Inc., 1989. Especially, Chapter 1.)

Sir George Carteret (died 1679-1680), treasurer of the navy, member of the Board of Trade. He had been with Prince Rupert on Rupert's piratical adventures. Carteret was also a proprietor of New Jersey. His widow sold such rights to William Penn of Pennsylvania.
(Warburton, Memoirs of Prince Rupert, Vol. 3.)

William Craven (1608-1697), Earl of Craven, Lord Lt. of Middlesex, member of the Privy Council. At first sight, he does not seem to be anyone who might be involved!
(Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Whitmore. Burke's Extinct Baronetcies for Bond of Peckham on "colonist", London alderman William Bond; Kemeyes of Kenanmabley. R. G. Lang, `Social Origins and Social Aspirations of Jacobean London Merchants', Economic History Review, 2, V, 27, 1974., pp. 28-47. GEC, Peerage, Craven, pp. 500ff.)

Craven however was Master of the home of navigation, Trinity House; a commissioner of the government of Tangier. He brought in the useful interests of the families of recent Lords Mayor of London. Son of a Lord Mayor, he was also son of a daughter, Elizabeth, of the Lord Mayor in 1631, William Whitmore, Haberdasher. His brother, John (1610-1648), first Baron Craven, by his marriage may have brought in the family interests of the Spencers of Wormleighton/Althorp. So, the name Craven presumably contributed standing City interests, and very strong ones.

The king, it is said, gave the Carolinas to these parties, as in his view, "he could not deny the strength of this coalition".
(Ver Steeg, The Formative Years, p. 120.)

Was he such an unaware businessman, oblivious of such an array of geographically spread and lucrative interests? Most of these proprietors had sustained colonial interests. Colleton was engaged with Barbados, Sir William Berkeley had been a governor of Virginia. Carteret and John Berkeley were involved with New Jersey. Carolina was suitable for "baronial estates". Once the disgruntled Barbadians arrived in Carolina, the system there provided a specialised plantation agriculture, promoted slave labour, and reduced the flexibility of the existing local social system. Articles for the government of Carolina were drawn up by Shaftesbury with the help of the philosopher John Locke, and were based on political ideas "already outmoded" in England itself.
(Ver Steeg, The Formative Years, pp. 119-121.)

That is hardly any wonder. After some 55 years in power, the Scots Stuarts were simply beginning to realise where the future lay! And when they did realise, they overplayed their hand disastrously.

From 1663, when the most active Carolina proprietor was (so it is said) Shaftesbury, Sir Peter Colleton on Barbados, the eldest son of the Carolina proprietor, had joined forces with Sir Thomas Modyford, as some 200 Caribbean men were thinking of going to Carolina. After 1667, the first permanent Carolina settlement was made on the Ashley River, in 1670.

Dunn notes there had been some "aristocratic claptrap", of trappings dreamt up by Shaftesbury and Locke for the government of Carolina; its Fundamental Constitutions.
(Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, pp. 112-114. Ver Steeg, The Formative Years, speaks of "archaic, mediaeval ideas, outmoded in England itself", p. 121.)

Later, from 1672, into the 1690s, the only revenge a London or outport-based merchant could take on this royally-inspired takeover of up to half-the-known-commercial-world was to engage firstly in "interloping " activity about Africa, against the Royal Africa Company, and when that failed, in the 1690s, to go interloping against the East India Company, east of Africa. It is also hardly any wonder that when the Scottish Darien Company arose in the 1690s, it also tried to fulfill many of the dreams inherent in the model provided by the royally-backed plans of "the Carolina proprietors". And all this is in the late 1690s was where the "Caribbean pirate", William Dampier, a man very familiar with English themes-in-history, gained employment circa 1700 when he sailed by terra australis incognita.

A royal slaving company:

In 1663 the new royal slaving company told the king, Charles II, the very being of the plantations depended on supply of Negro slaves. Williams observes acidly, Europe was seldom so unanimous as in its view of its dependence on the value of Negro slave labour. Later, in 1672, the organisation was called The Royal Africa Company, and by 1680, (there was rising the lobbyists' dependence on the impressive statistic as a tool of trade), forts in Africa were estimated to cost £20,000 per year. There was a need certainly for private control of the Company, which like other slaving companies had enemies. In short the Company wanted a monopoly; and in 1671 the West India planters owed the Company £70,000 for slaves, for Jamaica alone.

By May 1671, after debate about failures, the Royal Adventurers were suggesting a new subscription of £100,000 and wanting the existing charter continued, with creditors to get 33 per cent plus old/new stock via a complicated formula. A new book for subscriptions opened on 10 November, 1671, then fresh plans arose, and a new company would buy all the old for £34,000. Between 10 November, 1671 and 11 December 1671, some 200 people underwrote stock to £111,600. Some original subscribers were John Locke and Shaftesbury. There were some delays in getting the capital in, caused by outbreak of a war with the Dutch, although in general the subscribers were keen to place their investment.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 59.)

But in 1698 (while free traders were also again assailing the East India Company in London and about India), the Parliament abrogated the Africa Company's monopoly and threw slaving open to free trade. Although, a duty was applied of ten per cent on all goods exported to Africa for the purchase of slaves. Such goods included woolens (also part of the triangular trade), iron bars, guns and brass goods including pans and kettles. By 1682 Britain exported about 10,000 bars of iron to Africa yearly.

Eric Williams has discussed statistics provided by the pioneer seventeenth century English economist, Charles Davenant, indicating that by about 1700, England's total profit from trade amounted to £2 million, with the plantation trade accounted for £600,000 of this, and the re-export of plantation produce bringing in £120,000. The triangular trade pattern represented 36 per cent of England's commercial profits. About 1700, Davenant added that every individual white or black in the West Indies was seven-times more profitable than an individual at home in England. (And in 1700, Bristol had only 46 ships in the West Indian trade.)

The Royal Africa Company dealt in fabrics, including perpetuanas, lighter than serge, durable, cheap, while serge came from Devonshire. The Company bought goods from an Exeter agent or a London intermediary, one of whom was William Warren, a Company shareholder.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, pp. 177-178; p. 183.)

Knives and swords came to Royal Africa Company (RAC) from Samuel Banner of Birmingham (400,000 knives and 7000 swords). Banner had earlier supplied the Hudson's Bay Company. Brokers used in London to deal with RAC imports included the prominent Robert Wooley, who paid the RAC 65,000 in ten years, although the destination of the goods since they left Wooley's hands has never been traced. On the lines of trade went; West India commodities going to London refiners, ivory to cutlers and furniture makers, dyewood to salters.

However, by January 1665 the Royal Adventurers owed £100,000, and supply reverted to private persons. There arose the Gambia Adventurers with a capital of £15,000, its shareholders being the members of the parent body, peers and courtiers, though by 1665 a number of prominent London merchants had entered the Company. It was too late, however, and by 1670 was talk of winding it up.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, pp. 43-44.)

The Royal Adventurers sent no slaves to Jamaica after 1665; Jamaica probably sent or used slaves made available by private traders under licence. The RAC did not supply slaves again till 1674 (in which year, William Dampier was about Jamaica!). Jamaica became a strong opponent to monopoly of slave supply.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, pp. 308-310.)

Meantime, themes anti-Spanish were not forgotten. In 1665 with the connivance of the governor of Jamaica, three British captains including Henry Morgan made their way upriver and sacked Granada, capital of Nicaragua, while other parties later pillaged the Pacific coast. In the winter of 1670-1671, Capt. Morgan with 1800 men again took Granada and Porto Bello, and Providence Island, then went across Isthmus and took Panama, Old Panama never rebuilt, the Spanish were never recompensed for these losses. Morgan was later knighted and became Lt-gov of Jamaica.
(Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 328.)


In September 1666 had blazed the Great Fire of London, beginning with an accidental fire on London Bridge. In four days 13,000 houses were destroyed, plus larger buildings in between, all to a property value of £7-10 million. Fire insurance was a thing of the future, and oddly enough, when fire insurance did come, various names in London's sugar business became conspicuous in promoting it. And in the country, there were riots due to unemployment and high taxation.
(For various other trade figures of the time, regarding sugar and tobacco providing employment in the East End and on the south bank, with the East India Company by the 1670s admitting it competed with the Levant Company in silk handling, see pp. 132-138, A. L. Bier and Roger Finlay, (Eds), London, 1500-1700: The Making of the Metropolis. London, Longman, 1986, citing E. S. Morgan, 'The First American Boom: Virginia 1618 to 1630', William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Series, 27, 1971. N. Williams, 'England's Tobacco Trade in the Reign of Charles I', Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 65, 1957.)

Neil Hanson: The Dreadful Judgement: The True Story of the Great Fire of London, 1666. Doubleday, 2001.

Iain Gateley, La Diva Nicotina: The Story of How Tobacco Seduced The World. Simon and Schuster, 2001, 403pp.


Progress of the English East India Company: By 1661 and later, with the Restoration, England did not own "one inch" of Indian territory.
(Clark, The Later Stuarts, p. 348.)

The East India Company held its factories as tenants to the native rulers, operating mostly at Surat (north of Bombay on India's north west coast), the principal port city on the west coast of India, side by side with the Dutch. (From 1668 the French also had a factory there). On the east coast the chief English factory was Fort St George, at Madras. The English also had some factories on the Coromandel coast, Masulipatam (on the mid-eastern Indian coast), and on the coast, Balasore (south of Calcutta), Orissa, Hughli (south of Calcutta on the west Ganges River delta).

Another East India Company factory was at Bantam in Java, another at Bencoolen in Sumatra. The Company leased some factories on the African West Coast as calling ports, and here lies a problem, since it is difficult to find reports on East India (or "slaving") trading occurring at these ports. Presumably, trade did take place, and if so, yet another nexus was formed enabling "East India" and "slaving" money flows to mingle, with the proceeds naturally amalgamating in London.

Meanwhile, the acquisition of Bombay in full territorial sovereignty from the Spanish as a wedding gift for Charles II provided many new opportunities. When the Duke of Marlborough had come to collect Bombay with five men o' war, the Portuguese governor was unhappy, and difficulties remained till 1665. Charles found Bombay all to expensive and gave it to the East India Company for a quit-rent in 1668. The Company thought well of Bombay and soon transferred their local headquarters to it from Surat.

This coincided with a change in tempo for East India Company activities. Initially, with disorder noted all over India, the Company in London remained quite cautious and unambitious, but on the spot in India, Company staff thought they could only survive by taking strong measures, and so they lead the Company by the nose.
(Clark, The Later Stuarts, p. 350.)

The Company's Indian garrison mutinied against the Company's pussyfooting attitude. (The Company also lost Bantam). Charters granted to the Company in 1661 and 1683 had given it the right to coin money, to exercise jurisdiction over English subjects, to make peace and war, and to enter into alliances with Indian rulers. Under James II the Company directors wanted the condition of a sovereign state in India, so that they would not be at the mercy of local rulers. Initially, the Company enjoyed prosperity under Charles II, but this lapsed, partly as English interlopers had reduced profits. (Those interlopers tend not to be named, unfortunately).

A remarkable interloper was Samuel White, about the time of the operations of the "association" of Sir William Courteen. The East India Company as well as interlopers or free traders were guided chiefly by lust for loot. Samuel White began as a Company employee, as trade was mostly in Indian cotton goods in exchange for cash or English manufactures. However, there was also arising the "country trade", the intra-Asian trade. Interlopers engaged in this enthusiastically, but Company staff did not; at least, "not officially". Country trade became an indirect source of revenue for the Company, and all was countenanced so long as the free traders stayed away from the London markets. This was the situation Samuel White met at Madras when he arrived in 1676. Samuel joined his brother George, already an interloper, at the capital of Siam, at Ayudhya. Samuel worked on Siam royal ships delivering elephants, and trading on his own account. He also found the Siamese preferred dealing with the French, and an idea was to keep English ships out of the Bay of Bengal.

White however was allowed to fit out armed ships, and he entered on piracy against Burma and Golconda, then to Sumatra and the Persian Gulf. In about two years he acquired about £150,000, and finally the Company in London got orders from James II that White be removed from the service of the King of Siam. White remained between a rock and a hard place, and he would not survive the intrigues of Siam. So in 1687 he sailed one of his ships to Madras, escorted by an East India Company ship with Weldon, come to fetch him. White's lies to the king of Siam cost about 80 English lives in the long run, but White arrived home, just as James II had just fled. William III was now on the throne, a time was ripening favourable for White and all interlopers, while misfortunes would settle on the shareholders of the Company. White brazenly decided that the best form of defence is offence, and so he would sue the Company. But he died in 1689 before any case came up.
(Mukherjee, Rise and Fall, pp. 79-83.)

White was not the only English aggressor! In 1686, an East India Company expedition was sent to capture and fortify Chittagong (on the east of the Ganges River delta). It was intended to make war on the King of Siam and to capture an island near Bombay from the Portuguese; but only the Chittagong project came off. The Mogul Indians besieged the English everywhere, and the English retreated down to the site of modern Calcutta (on the west of the Ganges delta, where Job Charnock prevailed). One English response was to blockade the progress of Moslem pilgrims to Mecca, which rather oddly led to an Indian backdown, and also had some bearing on the foundation of Calcutta.

In the later years of Charles II, the Company was troubled, and in 1693 it had to bribe its way with senior ministers for a new charter from the crown. Here, the House of Commons wanted no exclusiveness for any one company to India, and said all subjects had a right to trade to India unless prohibited by Act of Parliament. With such disputes, London Whigs later wanted to examine various accounts in the City, some of them, Company accounts. The bribes of 1693 were discovered, and the Duke of Leeds, who had received 5500 guineas, was impeached.

It appears, that William III simply auctioned the monopoly to the East. The New East India Company offered a loan to government of £2 million at 8 per cent, which was accepted despite a lower interest rate bid from the Old East India Company. So Du Bois of the Old Company bought heavily into the New. It was finally realised that the two companies had to merge. The (Old) Company averaged only 13 ships per year, but despite difficulties the United Company found an annual profit of £300,000 per year during the first four years of its existence. (In 1693 it was estimated that the Old Company spent £170,000 in "secret service money", bribing the Crown or its ministers and parliamentary contacts in return for a favourable new charter.) Later, the Duke of Leeds/Danby was impeached. There were at the time, few Whigs in the Company, and by 1695, dissension broke out, which assisted the Scottish (Darien) company - which will be discussed further in detail.
(Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 328, pp. 352-354. Ian B Watson, Foundation, p. 29.)

Earlier, some of the Eastern interlopers thought they might link with the Scottish Company trading to India, but this came to nothing. There was, however, yet another visitation of old-versus-new. There arose two English East India companies, the Old and the New. This produced intense rivalry in the East itself. The New Company at one point made a handsome loan to the government, the directors of the Old held to what they had, and acquired shares in the New. The New company had less an imperialistic attitude, day-to-day in the east, and by 1702 it only mattered when the New fused with the Old following "wise mediation" by Godolphin. There appeared the United East India Company, a final body which obtained most of the sea-borne trade of India, plus the imperial inheritance of the Mogul emperors.
(Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 43-48.)

The Caribbean: slavery and convict transportation:

In 1664, due to Sir Thomas Modyford, Jamaica lock-stock-and barrel adopted the slave code which had earlier been written on Barbados. With the aid of his kinsman Monck, Duke of Albemarle, Modyford in 1664 became the royal governor of Jamaica, and in 1664 he sold his Barbados property, got 20,000 acres in Jamaica for himself and relatives and soon owned a property, Sixteen Mile Walk, the grandest plantation on the island, with six hundred servants and slaves.
(Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p 82.)

Modyford boasted, he was "a planter become a governor" But Modyford's move to Jamaica did not destroy the anti-Willoughby faction on Barbados that Modyford had built up to hinder first Searle, then Willoughby.
(Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 39.)

To 1668, William Lord Willoughby had been out to the Leeward Islands, and when he got back home to London he was granted a renewal of his commission as governor of all the Caribbean Islands. By 1668, Barbadian agitators with Lord Willoughby had included Sir Paul Painter and Ferdinando Gorges.
(This was probably a merchant of St Bartholomew by the Exchange, active 1674, a colonist, and an investor in the Royal Africa Company according to K. G. Davies' lists; Hasler, History of Parliament, Vol. 2, pp. 206ff. Sir Ferdinando Gorges "the father of American colonisation", was proprietor of Maine in 1639-1647. His own DNB entry. Burke's Landed Gentry for Gorges of Wraxall. GEC, Peerage, Coningsby, p. 395; Southwell, Castle Matress, p. 149.)

A list of those who were restive with Willoughby's privileges begins to look like a list of London's earliest Whigs of the merchant classes; merchants less than enamoured of autocratic royalty.

Which is no accident. From the 1680s, London Whig merchants were to express themselves vigorously about royal monopolies, rights to free trade, new colonies (such as Carolina), and naturally, their financial interests were ranged around Eastern trade and slavery. London's Whig merchants who came to final prominence during the reign of William III only tightened earlier existing financial linkages which made the mutuality of slavery and East India Company business profitable, sophisticated in technique, more free in attitude - and as this happened, further development of the Virginia-London tobacco trade created new sources of profit. Incidentally, by 1681, most of the MP investors in the Royal Africa Company were Tories; between 1681 and 1702, 14 of 16 successful Tory candidates were interested in the Company, which may have reflected the influence of James II in the Company generally.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 104.)


Sir Josiah Child's management of the East India Company:

By 1630, the East India Company had some 12,000 employees in stable employment.
(Olson, Making the Empire work, p.17.)

Sir Josiah Child (died 1699) is regarded as "the father of Mercantilism". He placed his daughters in marriage well, to the Duke of Beaufort, Duke of Chandos, Lord Granville; and his own son became Lord Tilney.
(Westerfield, Middlemen, p. 402. Rudolph Robert, Chartered Companies and Their Role in the Development of Eastern Trade. London, G. Bell and Sons, 1969., treats Sir Josiah Child.)
(Some interesting contemporary and other titles of relevance here include: A. V., An essay for regulating the coin. 2nd Ed. 1696. A. Abram, An Abstract of the Grievances of Trade, etc. London, 1694. A. Abram, An account of some transactions .. relating to the East India Company. London, 1693. R. Allen, An essay on the nature and methods of carrying on a trade to the South Sea. London, 1712 B. E. A new dictionary of terms, ancient and modern, of the canting crew. London, circa 1696. W. R. Bisschop, The Rise of the London Money Market. London, 1910. J. S. Brewer, British Merchant; or, Commerce preserved. (C. Kind, Ed.). 3 Vols. London, 1721. Carry Jr., Case of Messrs. Brooke and Helier, circa 1700. Carry Jr., The Case of Richard Thompson and Company. London, 1678. R. Coke, Collection of the debates and proceedings in Parliament in 1694 and 1695, upon the inquiry into the late briberies and corrupt practices. London, 1695. Thomas Culpepper, Plain English ... concerning the deadness of our markets. London, 1673. (Following up Culpepper's 1641 tract against usury). F. W. Fairholt, Tobacco: its history and associations. London, 1859. W. Forbes, A methodical treatise concerning bills of exchange. 2nd edn. Edinburgh, 1718. E. Halley, Atlas maritimus et commercialis. London, 1727. W. C. Hazlitt, The Livery Companies of the City of London. London, 1892. W. Herbert, The History of the Twelve Great Livery Companies of London, etc. Two Vols. London, 1837. R. B. Westerfield, Middlemen in English Business: 1660-1760. Newhaven, Connecticut, 1915. [Reprinted, Newton Abbot, 1968]., p. 353, pp. 429 ff.)

Josiah Child as a young man left London for Portsmouth to make his fortune from vittling Cromwell's army. He returned to London in the 1660s and bought a brewery.
(Furber, Rival, p. 97.)

By 1664, Sir Josiah Child was warning that the North American colonies would become "prejudicial" because of their growing maritime strength.
(Albion, Forests and Sea Power, p. 245. Westerfield, Middlemen, p. 406.)

Child was broadly correct. During the 1690s Josiah Child labelled New England as "the most prejudicial Plantation to this Kingdom", and described the inhabitants as "a people whose Frugality, Industry and Temperance, and the happiness of whose laws and institutions, promise to them long life with a wonderful increase of People, Riches and Power."
(Philip S. Haffenden, New England in the English Nation, 1689-1713. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1974. Introduction, and p. 54. Also, See Michael G. Hall, et al (Eds.), The Glorious Revolution in America. Chapel Hill, NC, 1964.; Bernard Bailyn, The New England Merchants in the Seventeenth Century. Cambridge, Mass, Harvard University Press, 1955.; Thomas C. Barrow, Trade and Empire: The British Customs Service in Colonial America, 1660-1775. Harvard University Press, Cambridge University Press, 1966.; Curtis P. Nettels, Money Supply of the American Colonies. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. Wisconsin, 1934.)

By 1673, Child was the largest shareholder in the East India Company, as dissatisfaction was rising with returns from the Company, and interlopers were competing. The Company was split on how to deal with interlopers or not, and there was also debate over whether to exclude the King's brother, James, the Duke of York (later James II) from succession to the crown or not.

The opponents of the interlopers, including Child, were supporters of the King. Many of the pro-interlopers were exclusionists, and a pro-exclusionist was Thomas Papillon, an East India Company director since 1663, a pro-republican with Dutch financial interests. The opposing forces within the Company were matched equally till Child became Governor of the Company and Papillon became deputy-governor in 1681.
(K. N. Chaudhuri, Trade and Civilization in the Indian Ocean: An Economic History from the Rise of Islam to 1750. Cambridge University Press, 1989., p. 87. According to Furber, Rival, Sir Josiah Child was no relation to John Child who worked for the East India Company in India.)

On 11 November, 1681 Papillon moved to wind up the Company's joint stock in three years and open a new joint stock to interlopers. This was defeated. Papillon also wanted more parliamentary liaison for the Company. Later, Papillon and his supporters were ousted, so they sold out of the Company. Child meantime had judiciously distributed "presents". Papillon faced damages of £10,000 and fled to Utrecht. The rebels had to sell out their stock to Du Bois and withdraw to lick their wounds, Papillon was finally fined £10,000 by Lord Chief Justice Jeffreys for sedition and fled overseas. A small clique of about forty men closely connected with the court were left in control of the Company, and stockprices rose.
(Mukherjee, Rise and Fall, pp. 76-77.)

About 1684-85 arose a legal case, the East India Company versus Thomas Sandys. By 1683, a Company interloper, Thomas Sandys, gained a royal prerogative to create a monopoly of the Indian trade. Judge Jeffreys upheld the royal prerogatives but interloping continued. In 1691 the interloping group had a new society meeting at Dowgate, and they got a case to Parliament in 1694. In 1698 the New East India Company was set up. It gave a loan of two million to the state, but the Old Company bought out the new for £3.2 million, just as the Company was feeling greater need for permanence in India.

The king's right to use royal prerogative to create a monopoly whereby the Company could seize interlopers was upheld, and after the accession of James II in 1685, the Company could successfully prosecute interlopers. The Company obtained a new charter in 1686, although Company fortunes fell and, quite outrageously, and partly due to the work of Sir Josiah Child, the Company was waging war on the Mogul emperor, Aurangzeb, just as William III came to the throne in 1688-1689 - and as the pirate Samuel White had come home.

Abroad, Thomas Papillon noted the case of Samuel White, came home, and with others with a fund petitioned Parliament to throw open the Indian trade. A French war delayed matters. Governor of the Old Company, Sir Josiah Child, "father of Mercantilism", fought all this. The Company spent nearly £90,000 in bribes in one year to keep its exclusivity. An inquiry found it was the Company's usual practice to distribute bribes to great men; that in 1693 it had spent about £90,000 on bribery. The Duke of Leeds was charged with accepting a bribe of £5000 and impeached. Great men tried to smother the inquiry. Parliament was prorogued. Some £10,000 was traced to William III.

With William III installed, however, Papillon felt confident in returning from abroad. A war of pamphlets began in London. The interlopers rose again. Whig interests sought a new charter for the Company from William and the fight lasted eight years. Sir Josiah Child possessed enough influence to get bills through favouring the monopoly. Then the Company stupidly failed to pay a new tax and so forfeited its charter. A new charter was written by October 1693, although in 1694 the Parliament resolved that all subjects of England had an equal right to trade to the East unless prohibited by Act of Parliament.

So matters made for a standoff. As William III might have allowed the claims of the private (eastern) traders, then came the threat of the Scottish Darien Company, while in 1697 the weavers attacked East India Company House, and Child's house too. Child finally failed in efforts to restrict the stock ownership of the Company, so much so that he used two brokers to sell shares dear and buy cheap. But now it was Parliament, not the King, which granted charters for trading monopolies.

Sir Josiah Child, "autocrat of the East India Company," remained a favourite at the court of Charles II, since he made Charles many private loans. Charles in gratitude made him baronet. Child was a Whig who rose to Whig governorship of the East India Company. James II hated Child, but Child turned Tory for James, rather aggrandizing himself as part of the exercise.

It was this Toryism which led to revolt by the Company's Papillon faction. As Tory, Child fared badly with 1688 Revolution promoting William III, but power remained covertly in his hands. Child often gave bribes, and bribery and corruption with the Company reached "amazing proportions" from 1688 till later in Walpole's times. "To obtain and maintain the exclusive economic and political privileges in England, it (the East India Company) combined bribery with protestations of honesty, intrigues with outward submission, plunder of foreign lands for the small clique with declarations of serving the British interest of promoting trade, and, later, rapine of India" writes Mukherjee, along with the hypocrisy of the carrying of "the white man's burden".
(Mukherjee, Rise and Fall, p. 47. Maurice Collis, British Merchant Adventurers. London, William Collins, 1942. W. M. Torrens, Empire in Asia: How we came by it: A Book of Confessions. London, Trubner and Co., 1872.)

And in all, it could be said, that as a writer on trade and economics, Child may well have been too busy to notice that slavery existed, and that workers needed living wages. His writings were some of the early formulations which corrupted the heart of the capitalism of his day. There was indeed an ideological battle starting. A lesser-known figure, Sir William Petty, did however write on seamen's wages versus landlubber wages in the early 1670s.
(See: C. H. Hull, (Ed.), Economic Writings of Sir William Petty, as cited by Davis, Rise of the English Shipping Industry, p. 152.)

As for "business styles"... Before 31 July, 1691, stockjobber William Sheppard, the greatest of the stock jobbers of his day, was buying and selling £6000-9000 in Royal Africa Company stock, also dealing in other stocks, including for the Hudson's Bay Company and the East India Company. He ended with Company stock lots of £70,000.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 83.)

And in 1691, Sir Josiah Child and seven others owned more than 25 per cent of Royal Africa Company stock, and voted their own way, accordingly.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 156.)

Was it simply racism which made the writers of the day on economic topics overlook the fact that behind sugar and tobacco profits, behind slavery, was a violent, irrational, and institutionalised determination not to pay workers a sensible wage for their labour? If so, then it was partly racism which corrupted "capitalism" at the core, for the oversight affected notions on final sale prices for commodities. This oversight, and its affects in later commentary, helped to lay the basis for discussion on trade and economics. Whereas some historians are more prone to speak merely of the Mercantilists' fondness for "buying cheap and selling dear", or the difficulties of finding sufficient bullion to use in the East. As it was, "buying cheap" could also entail warfare.

The Royal Africa Company as supplier of slaves was also a worry, as it had "narrow interests". "The outrage to morality which the Middle Passage must always be should not obscure the fact that it was also an outrage to sound economics", as Davies writes.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 346.)

Davies calls the entire operation a failure as a capitalist organisation, due to wars, operating on three continents, under-capitalisation, structural defects, slow communications, as well as the inhumanity and immorality of the exercise.
(Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 294.)

Two men regarded as "political economists", Josiah Child and Dalby Thomas, were investors in Royal Africa Company slaving operations.
(Mintz, Sweetness, p. 155.)

Note: The fortunes of the Childs, the Riders and the Heathcotes might be measured in hundreds of thousands of pounds.
(Davis, Rise of the English shipping industry, p. 95.)

The large London timber merchants drew widely on London business circles to take shares in ships they built.
(Davis, Rise of the English shipping industry, p. 148.)

The usual trading rights for East India Company ships captains made them a fortune in four or five voyages. In the Africa trade, captains always and mates often could carry their own slave cargo separate and freight free.
(R. Davis, Rise of the English shipping industry, p. 87.)

The lists are long: Sir Josiah Child (the greatest shareholder and personality in the East India Company in the 1680s and 1690s); Sir John Moore (director of the Company and Lord Mayor 1681-1682 and MP for London in 1685); Sir Gabriel Roberts (Company director, deputy-governor of the Levant Company); Sir Samuel Dashwood (Company director, Assistant to the Levant Company, MP for London, Commissioner of Excise); Sir Robert Clayton (still in the rise of his fortune-making, "the great scrivener", MP for London, Lord Mayor, director of the Bank of England); Sir William Prichard (Lord Mayor 1682-1683, MP for London, Company director); Sir William Turner.

By 1665-1667, Sir Josiah Child was already eminent with Company as a director. In his view, trade with India was the most beneficial sort of English trade, although requiring over 25 of "the most warlike mercantile ships". In Bengal, the Moguls had resisted the first Portuguese, on the Hughli River.
(The name de Souzas can be found in J. J. A. Campos, History of the Portuguese in Bengal. London/Calcutta, Butterworth and Co., 1919., p. 189, p. 197, p. 157.)

The Portuguese about Bengal fell into piracy. But from about 1665, possibly from Chittagong, it was the Portuguese whose ideas probably gave the English East India Company its ideas when, in 1685, Child waged war on the Mogul emperor, Aurangzeb.
(More merchant names are in Campos, History of the Portuguese in Bengal, pp. 19ff, p. 126.)

"Sir Josiah Child [nd] as chairman of the East India Company Court of Directors writes to Governor of Bombay nd to crush countrymen (English) who had invaded ground of the Company's pretensions in India."

In 1681, Child had become governor of the East India Company. He soon became convinced the Company already had the power to make war on Indian politics, regarding the use of Fort St. George. Child was very concerned with revenue volumes, more so as overheads had to be paid.
(Ian B. Watson, Foundation, p. 3.)

Child's policies became very aggressive and expansionary, and he wanted to defray the overhead costs of infrastructure, (just as did the Royal Africa Company).
(Ian B. Watson, Foundation, p. 83.)

About when Child began thinking of making war on the Mogul emperor, Aurangzeb, Sir John Child in India (no relation to Sir Josiah, evidently), was admitting that the Company at Surat owed £281,250 to natives of Surat. It was inconvenient to pay even the interest here, and some way had to be found re such obligations.
(Tara Chand, History of the Freedom Movement in India. Vol. 1. New Delhi, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, 1970., p. 206.)

Mogul reactions were swift and drastic, moving against the English at Surat, Masulipatam, Vizagapatam. Bombay was attacked. The Emperor took English humility, and then came the firman of 1690, on condition the Company paid all dues to Indian merchants, gave compensation for losses inflicted on Empire, and recalled Sir John Child from India. So Bombay was evacuated and permits for trade on Indian west coast and Bengal were restored. Sir John Child, the Company, about 1681 had become exasperated by the behaviour of Mogul officials in Bengal and wanted to chastise Aurangzeb. The Company from London gave Child increased military and commercial powers, the same powers as the Dutchman Van Goens enjoyed at Batavia with VOC.

But the war went badly for Child, the west coast English reluctant to fight. Some Mogul pilgrim ships were seized, English ships brought in prizes, but costs included the imprisonments of some English at Surat and a siege of Bombay. The East India Company directors in January 1686, including Josiah Child had decided on war, but had no local knowledge. Their plan was naïve: to declare war on Aurangzeb from the west, cut off Mogul shipping, while in the east they would take Madras, evacuate Company servants from Bengal, seize Mogul ships as sea, and take Chittagong as a base for moving up the Ganges with forces led by Capt. William Heath, to try to take the Mogul viceroy's capital at Dacca. Only Job Charnock saved this absurd situation from complete disaster, and by-the-by he had established Calcutta by 1692.
(Furber, Rival, pp. 96-97.)

Child evidently brewed Company discontents after 1681 when he became Governor. He heeded Augnier's advice about conducting commerce with sword in hand, so he wanted the Company to save for this purpose, and also develop new sources of revenue at both Bombay and Madras. However, his idea to increase taxes at Bombay contributed to Keigwin's rebellion of 1683. Hearing of Keigwin's actions, such as imprisoning the Company's deputy-governor, Charles II appointed John Child Captain-General of all the Company's forces in West India and sent out a ship ordering Keigwin to surrender. Keigwin surrendered. In 1685, John Child was created Baronet.

Sir Josiah Child, becoming Company governor in 1681, had been slow to persuade, but he finally went for war on Indian polities. The infrastructure matter, the cost of fortifications, was a strong point. And by 1684 the Company wanted to strengthen Fort St. George, wanting like the Dutch to see a fort pay its way.
(Ian B. Watson, Foundation, p. 48.)

By 1700, Thomas Pitt in India was reporting to Child, about increasing English revenue while not upsetting the local government. The Company wanted to increase its revenues as well as its commercial trade, and relevant ethical questions were not addressed till Clive's time in 1765, when he was given diwani rights.

Memorably, Child once expressed contempt for the laws of England as "compiled by a few ignorant country gentlemen" who hardly knew how to make laws for the good of their private families, let alone regulating companies and foreign commerce. And although this remark of Child's seems contemptuous, an examination of the views of those he criticised here makes one suspect he was correct. Josiah Child helped appoint John Vaux as Governor of Bombay, in which context arose Child';s amazing remark, "the laws of England are a heap of nonsense".
(Ian B. Watson, Foundation, p. 36, p. 72.)

And Child did want his own increasingly aggressive orders carried out. In 1669, Child in his writings made remarks on the timber trade, at a time when 200 ships sailed for "Eastland", but England he feared was not building enough new ships for that trade. Child, of course, wanted only English ships to be used.
(Albion, Forests and Sea Power, p. 157. Davis, Rise of the English shipping industry, p. 53, p. 160.)

(Before 1713, it became convenient more so for the East India Company shipping interest to become associated with senior Company directors, partly as then, the shipowners could promise themselves that their own ships would be used, and men setting up this modified system included prominent Company members of the Company court such as Sir Josiah Child, Sir Jeremy Sambrooke, Richard Hutchinson and Charles Duncombe.

Endnote: After 1670, the Bahamas were subject of a grant to certain of the Carolina proprietors of 1670, [CSP iii, No. 311, pp. 132-133, 1 Nov., 1670. By 1775-1776, the Royal Governor of South Carolina was Lord William Campbell]. The proprietors of Bahamas made little provision for defence, and in 1704 the Bahamas had become depopulated (about 150 families were there) due to war. Salt was the chief product. The Bahamas became a stronghold of pirates, a situation not addressed again till 1715. By 1707, the collector of customs for 20 years on Bahamas had been John Graves.
(Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 99-103.)

For years the proprietors of the Bahamas had been resident of England, using an agent to see to their interests in dealings with the Board of Trade, one Thornburgh. By 1706, Graves was telling government that the Bahamas decayed due to neglect by the proprietors.

More on English trade from 1650

The Whiggish context of William Dampier's explorations:

WHEN the Tyrant of Distance who has had such ill effect on the writing of Australian history considered Dampier, he shore Dampier of his links with the Darien Company. So he shore the legend of the discovery of Australia of connections with Scottish Enterprise and/or the English New East India Company.

With reference to Australia per se, the history of Pacific exploration has been cast in terms of three main themes - European rivalries based on treasure lusts-plus-misinformation, versus a purer or more abstract interest in exploration, science and discovery, plus improvement in the arts of navigation. And thirdly, a sense of disappointment that such little of use was found, as with the Dutch ventures on the northern Australian coast. The Dutch ventures had more to do with hopes for an expansion of Mercantilism - and Dampier's voyage, even more so.

But a review of William Dampier's career should be given a preface, about piracy generally...

Where pirates from their own point of view can operate successfully, the waters they use are obviously not being successfully policed by any national power. What can any particular state do about this? If particular states cannot police given waters, the historical record seems to suggests that states react passively by not policing the waters themselves, and also by letting no other state police those waters. In this situation, maritime arenas become decontrolled, and no power can be properly exercised by any particular state. Pirates are virtually given free rein, though they become subject to land-based law if they are captured, or if they land.
(Australian Encyclopedia. In 10 Vols. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1958. Grolier Society. of Australia, 1962. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, cited earlier. G. R. Elton, England Under The Tudors. London, Methuen, 1955. Clennel Wilkinson, William Dampier. London, John Lane, 1929. George Wycherley, Buccaneers of the Pacific: of the bold English buccaneers, pirate privateers & gentleman adventurers, who sailed in peril through the stormy straits or pierced the isthmus jungle, to vex the king of Spain in the South Seas & the Western Pacific, plundering his cities & coasts & preying on his silver fleets & his golden galleons. London, John Long, 1929. (Found in the Bateson Collection of maritime history in the library of the Australian National Maritime Museum, Sydney.) Margaret Irwin (pseud), The Great Lucifer: A Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh. London, Chatto and Windus, 1966.

Given the anti-Spanish reputation of the British sailor-pirate, it remains to be asked why, after 1788, so few British ships ever bothered the Spanish in the Philippines before, say 1810? However, a colonel of the East India Company army who had commanded artillery for Clive of India at the Battle of Plassey, Robert Barker, visited the Philippines in 1762. (Valentine, British Establishment, Vol. 1, p. 48). In 1779, a Baron of the Scottish Exchequer, Sir John Dalrymple, suggested attacking Spanish colonies from the Cape of Good Hope or New Zealand. (Robert J. King, `"Ports of shelter and refreshment..": Botany Bay and Norfolk Island in British naval strategy, 1786-1808', Australian Historical Studies, Vol. 22, 1986., p. 202. Christopher Hibbert, King Mob: The Story of Lord George Gordon and the Riots of 1780. London, Longmans Green, 1958., p. 25.) An MP married to one of the New York Loyalist family, Susanna De Lancey, Sir William Draper, died 1787, once a colonel at Madras, led troops to capture Manila, finding a ransom for it of £one million which was never paid. Valentine, British Establishment, Vol. 1, p. 267).

In the 1790s, and by way of fulfilling an old tradition of English prejudices, the Enderby whalers of London wished to conduct punitive expeditions against South American coastal cities using convicts from Sydney. Here, the Enderbys may have had in mind such moves as the 1797 plan to conquer Manila in the Philippines. The expedition assembled at Penang, the later Duke of Wellington having had some hand in planning. The expedition was called off due to the need to fight Tipu Sultan of Mysore.
(This latter material is from the early chapters to D. G. Hall, Henry Burney: A Political Biography. London, Oxford University Press, 1974.)

For a period, as it were, the pirates do the policing. Meanwhile, normal trade becomes difficult or impossible; which suggests that trade routes are either stymied, diverted, created, or, recreated. The uneasy relationship between states, legal merchants and pirates becomes an unstable boundary for the exercise of state power... and this was all the political environment that amused and challenged William Dampier enormously - and a great many other pirates, including William Kidd. And, another pirate working in the East, already mentioned, Samuel White.

In the late 1690s, Dampier was leading up to his second voyage by north-western Australia. Earlier, arising from his first voyage to there, on Capt. Swan's ship Cygnet, in 1667-1668. Cygnet had sailed from Mexico to the Marianas, then to the Philippines, then to north-western Australia (had she sailed west through Torres Strait?), then to Christmas Island, past the Sumatran Coast to the Nicobars. Dampier arrived home from this trip in 1691. Once there, he wrote a negative report which, along with Dutch inability to make successful settlements in Northern Australia, conditioned European views on the usefulness of the Australian land mass till the late 1760s, before Cook sailed. Of the Australian Aboriginals he saw, Dampier wrote, "The miserablest people in the world. The Hodmadods of Monomatapa, though a nasty people, yet for wealth are gentlemen to these." The important word here is "wealth", of which the Aboriginals seemed to know nothing, because what interested Mercantilists was wealth. If inhabitants of Australia had no wealth, no thriving population, this was sufficient reason for Mercantilists to ignore the area. Dampier later tested this view on behalf of notable English Whigs.

As preamble also, two other points should be made. Firstly, from the Indian Ocean, or from South-East Asia, or from the Pacific Ocean north of the Tropic of Capricorn, that is, north east of Australia, maritime approaches to Australia were made difficult by wind patterns.
(Australian Encyclopedia, Vol. 3, pp. 183ff, Grolier edition, 1958. Yet another overview of European interest in Australasia is available in: J. M. R. Cameron, Ambition's Fire: The Agricultural Colonization of Pre-Convict Western Australia. Nedlands, Western Australia, University of Western Australia Press, 1981.)

These wind patterns deflected or deterred European approaches, let alone settlement. Even the Dutch landings made from Indonesia, around the Gulf of Carpentaria and Arnhem Land, where many Dutch place names survive on today's maps, proved relatively fruitless except in navigational terms. That is, navigators had to find a way to avoid such wind patterns; and this was part of Cook's achievement. If Australia's Aboriginal people were so long isolated from the rest of humanity, these wind patterns suggest the most useful explanations why. Asian and Arabic mariners were generally coast huggers. Successful approaches to Australia - and departures from Australia - needed the application of European-style, blue-water, star-gazing navigation techniques (and ship's discipline, which could be brutal).

Secondly, viewing matters retrospectively, from the time of Matthew Flinders' circumnavigation of Australia, we find that Europeans, including the English, took over 207 years to correctly map Australia. It should be recognised that Europeans had little incentive to bother with such expensive work - and Dampier's negative reports on north-western Australia had much to do with intensifying such feeling of disincentive.

As we have seen, Dampier had some influence on the Scottish Darien Company. It is partly in recognition of the maritime difficulties posed by the wind patterns north of Australia, across Torres Strait, that I have developed the following outlook on Dampier's career. He was not merely a buccaneer-navigator - he was a commercial espionage agent who relished operating in the political environments referred to above. It is also difficult to believe that Dampier was unaware of the long career of the second Earl of Warwick in promoting anti-Spanish activism, and colonisation. Dampier once spent time in Virginia; he probably knew a great deal about the influence of the Rich family, alone, in trans-Atlantic trade.

Dampier was romantic, flamboyant, observant, methodical in his movements, and one historian has called him a born travel writer. He had little patience with deliberated literary technique; he wrote more from his eye and his heart. During his time in the Caribbean, Dampier seems a ripe Caribbean pirate, but in that guise, he was often merely acting out English prejudice against the Spanish. Dampier was an action-man, but he was not malicious. We can take it from reports of voyages to the East, and about Australia, that while he was a gifted navigator, he was a poor commander.

If we assume that Dampier was always a poor commander, a new complexion is placed on his time in the Caribbean. He was not leading, nor exactly following: he was scouting. Dampier was a geographer, grasping the outlines and contours of water and land masses in terms of their strategic values in terms of the ambitions of the day. He interpreted the Caribbean, and the area around "Darien", both on its Pacific and Caribbean/Atlantic sides, in terms of the incursions the English might make and keep against Spanish hegemony. The "Darien area" was of supreme strategic value, and it still retains that value - a value the English would capitalise on greatly from the 1650s, after the capture of Jamaica. In advising the Scottish Darien Company, Dampier was giving vent to his observations in terms of those themes. For with the Darien Company - which cannot have escaped Dampier's notice - the Scots were wishing to act out all previously expressed English ambitions, prejudices and dreams in that region - and it cost them dearly. The Scottish Darien Company began to share almost-standard Mercantilist dreams about wealth drawn from the East.
(Holden Furber, Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient, 1600-1800. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, c.1976. Holden Furber, John Company at Work. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1948. On Dampier and Helyar, see Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, variously.)

Should those dreams of the East bear on interpretations of Dampier's reports on north-western Australia? The English Mercantilist from the 1690s wished and preferred to deal with an already large, industrious population who drew productivity and wealth from their natural resources in a well-organised way, as was the case with the African Gold Coast, India, and later, China. The English Mercantilist's policy was simple - buy cheap at the point of origin and sell dear at the point of sale, the difference going to the expected maritime transport costs, normal profit, and often, quite some greed. But like any state, the Mercantilist state was also vulnerable to piracy. This is partly why the misadventures of Captain William Kidd caused such an uproar with the Old East India Company of the 1690s, not so long after Samuel White's depredations around the Bay of Bengal. Kidd helped to keep the Red Sea region and the western reaches of the Indian Ocean, south to Madagascar, destabilised.
(During the mid-1690s, pirates Thomas Tew and Henry Every kept eastern seas in turmoil as Mogul shipping was attacked; the position of the East India Company further deteriorated in the 1690s. Around 1706-1707 and later, English pirates worked the Red Sea from Red Sea bases or Madagascar. Madras alone lost wealth of about £80,000.)

The Mogul Empire under Aurangzeb, and earlier emperors, was insignificant as a maritime power. The Moguls failed to appreciate the trends implicit in European voyagings from 1600 which were dangerous to them, and they did not react strongly to European piracy in their region until pilgrim ships to Mecca were interfered with. In the way they dealt with Europeans, the Moguls, in brief, made many errors of statecraft, among which were, as a massive mistake of political imagination, never sending any diplomats to inspect the home bases of the Europeans.
(For a list of English East India pirates of the 1690s, see p. 43 of E. Keble Chatterton, Ventures and Voyages. London, Longmans Green, 1928.)

Some notable traders of the day can be grouped into New versus Old East India Company categories. An "Old" Company servant was Thomas Pitt (1653-1716), governor of Madras 1698-1709, MP for Old Sarum, the progenitor of Pitt the Elder and Younger, prime ministers. At Bombay and Surat the New Company governor 1700-1708 was Sir Nicholas Waite, who took advantage of Aurangzeb's exasperation at the Old Company's breakdown of protection of Mogul ships against English pirates (Capt. Kidd?) especially on pilgrimage ships to Mecca.
(Ian B Watson, Foundation, p. 113; Peter Douglas Brown, William Pitt, Earl of Chatam: The Great Commoner. London, Allen and Unwin, 1978. Furber, Rival, p. 352 says the Mogul emperor, Aurangzeb took little note of East India Company servants, even their war, till pilgrim ships were attacked, then he reacted. Sir John Gayer, an Old East India Company governor, was sent to prison by Aurangzeb.)

The career of Capt William Kidd, pirate:

Captain William Kidd had the backing of four powerful men of the English government, plus some backing from William III. So, one wonders, what was the interest they had in destabilising the western Indian Ocean under the guise of attempting to control piracy by employing William Kidd? By setting a thief to catch thieves? During William III's reign in England, Whig energy was given more freedom. William had agreed to curtail the royal prerogative - and this had implications for any royally-chartered company such as the East India Company. From 1688, new traders with eyes on Eastern trade were harassing the Old East India Company. Some of these traders of the New East India Company of the 1690s will soon have to be named, but not before Kidd's backers are named.

Privateer Captain William Kidd was born about 1645 at Greenock, a Scot, and died hanged in May 1701. He has mixed reviews, as a faithful husband, devoted father, a convicted pirate and murderer. His wife was Sarah Oort, who had four husbands in all.
(Douglas Botting (Ed.), and the Editors of Time-Life Books, The Seafarers: The Pirates. Alexandria, Virginia, Time-Life Books, 1978., pp. 100ff on Kidd. On various other backers of pirates, see David J. Starkey, British Privateering Enterprise in the Eighteenth Century. University of Exeter Press, Exeter Maritime Studies, No. 4, 1990.)

Kidd comes to notice as a confidant of the governor of New York, Colonel Benjamin Fletcher, who was notorious for his dealings with the pirate, Tew. When Bellomont (Richard Coote), became governor of New York he tried to stem piracy from New Jersey to Maine.
(Lord Bellomont, Richard Coote, died 5 March, 1700/01.)

Government hoped to attack pirates in the east; but due to England's war with France, there were few spare ships, so, a "need" arose to employ privateers. Kidd had distinguished himself as a privateer captain in the King's service against the French in the West Indies in 1689, so well, that talk circulated in London, and a plan arose.

In London, Kidd met another New Yorker, Colonel Robert Livingston, who had a "grandiose scheme" for ending Red Sea piracy with profit. Kidd's backers became the new governor of New York, the Earl of Bellomont, who met Kidd in London in 1695, and offered him a privateer's commission to attack Red Sea pirates plus French traders. Powerful backers would stifle any problems.
(Kidd had property on corner of Pearl and Hanover streets in Manhattan, 86-90 and 119-121 Pearl St. and 52-56 Water Street and 25-29 Pine Street. Some property had come from his wife's two earlier marriages. They held a pew at Wall Street's Trinity Episcopal Church. A proportion of his property had been gained due to "normal" success as a merchant captain. Ironically, some of his pirate booty went into buildings now helping comprise the National Maritime Museum at Greenwich, London.)

Amongst the backers were Richard Coote, governor of New York, the unmarried Whig, Henry Sydney, Earl of Romney (1641-1704), (master general of ordnance, an Admiralty Lord); Admiral Edward Russell (1652-1727). (He was fourth son of the "colonist" Robert Sydney, second Earl of Leicester, and brother of the "republican" executed in 1683, Algernon. Henry was MP for Tamworth and a groom of the royal bedchamber. It has been said, he was "the great wheel" on which rolled the Glorious Revolution.
(GEC, Peerage, Romney, p. 84.)

Lord Orford; the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal;
(Identification of Earl Orford who backed Capt. Kidd and Dampier can be confusing. It is easy to confuse Orford with a contemporary, Lord Oxford. Orford was a Whig, Admiral, and Lord of Admiralty, Edward Russell (1652-1727), second son of his father, Edward Russell and Penelope Hill. Orford married his cousin, Mary Margaret Russell, daughter of William Russell , first Duke of Bedford, but had no children. Orford was second son of Edward Russell, a younger son of William Russell the fifth Earl of Bedford (Baron Howland who helped crown William III) and Anne Carr. Orford was a naval treasurer from 1689, and a commissioner of the navy. He was once accused of wholesale malversation in "conniving at the piracies of Capt. Kidd to whom he gave a commission and since he helped fit out Kidd's ship". He once made a fortune victualling the fleet in the Mediterranean. Orford was one of the seven signatories inviting William III to become King of England. GEC, Peerage, Bedford, pp. 79-80; Willoughby, p. 692; Bathurst of Battlesden, p. 30; Orford, pp. 77-81. Orford should not be confused with first earl Orford, Sir Robert Walpole (1676-1745), also a Whig and Admiralty figure, son of MP Robert Walpole and Mary Burwell, a First Lord of Admiralty, Paymaster of the forces for George I and known as "Brazen Face" for his dubious business practices.
(GEC, Peerage, Cholmondeley, pp. 203-204; Townshend, p. 805.)

Sir John Somers (1650-1716);
(Charles Talbot, Duke of Shrewsbury: Lord Mayor Craven was one of his forebears, via Percy Herbert, second Baron Powis. On his mother's side, some ancestors were Throckmortons. (GEC, Peerage, Shrewsbury, pp. 720ff.)

The backers invested in the venture, the king promised £3000, though he never paid up. In October 1695, Livingston, Bellomont and Kidd signed an Articles of Agreement. Bellomont had to find four-fifths of the costs, that is, £6000 of his own. Kidd and Livingston were to put up other money. The custom was, the first ten per cent went to the crown. If there was no booty, Livingston and Kidd had to pay back all money to their backers.

William III's commission for the venture was dated 1 December, 1695. Adventure Galley 278 tons, with 34 guns and 23 pieces for oars if becalmed, was launched at Deptford on the Thames in December 1695. Nearly all the 70 crew were married men; that is, reliable. Kidd's brother-in-law, Bradley, was also on the voyage. Kidd went out in Adventure Galley, only to be interrupted by a navy ship which took away some of Kidd's crew, leaving Kidd with ragtag men. Later, Kidd made the mistake of taking Quedah Merchant, which had an English captain, Wright, and Armenian owners, but French papers. The East India Company at Surat wrote home to the Lords Justices in England their accusations of piracy. It was decided to give a free pardon to all pirates east of the Cape, except Kidd, Kidd's associate, Avery, and one other pirate, as a means of trying to isolate Kidd. Kidd had for example been blockading both coasts of the Peninsula of India with squadrons, and even been down to Malacca.
(On Kidd: John Bruce, Annals of the Honourable East India Company. London, Court of Directors of the East India Company, 1810. Three Vols. Vol. 3, pp. 269-271, p. 301, regarding pirates on the west coast of India including Adventure Galley, Capt. Kidd, and Quedah Merchant, and p. 301, the establishment of Fort William. P. J. Marshall, East India Fortunes: The British in Bengal in the Eighteenth Century. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1974, 1976., p. 61. Daniel Defoe, (Edited by Manuel Schonhorn), A General History of the Pirates. London, Dent and Sons, 1972. Defoe supported William III's foreign policy, in 1706 -1711, and he enlisted public support in Scotland for the Union of the crowns in 1707.)

Kidd was outlawed entirely. When he got back to New York, he had sailed 42,000 miles. By 1699, "the Kidd affair" was being spoken of, and a ship was sent out to get Kidd, but it was driven back by a storm. There were allegations that Kidd's backers wanted plunder at home and abroad, that the admiralty got a percentage from [licenced] pirates. The King's grant for Kidd's backers was thought to be a Royal Patent with dummy names disguising "great names".

Kidd had landed in Boston on 2 July, 1699. He wanted an old friend in New York, lawyer James Emmott, to talk to Bellomont for him. Bellomont had received orders to arrest Kidd; and his own career was in the balance. Kidd's friend the Boston postmaster Duncan Campbell is mentioned as taking a message from Bellomont to Kidd. In typical pirate story ways, treasure was buried in the garden of John Gardiner on Long Island Sound, on Cherry Harbour Beach. Taken to London, Kidd languished in Newgate for a year, from around May 1700 before being interrogated March-May 1701. Kidd's view was that he had become the victim of perjurers; his prosecutors called him "Arch-Pirate and the common Enemy of Mankind".
(Later, his wife Sarah Oort married a prominent politician and lived another 43 years in New Jersey.)

During 1701, furore continued about Kidd's activities, fuelled by queries on who were his backers? The House of Commons listens to argument and allegations. If Kidd claimed, as he did, that he was innocent, then he also exonerated his backers.

Kidd's backers in government included:

(1) John Somers (1650-1716), unmarried, first Baron Somers. He assisted the Union of Scotland and England, was Chancellor 1697-1700 and Lord President of Council 1708-1710; one of the Junto, tempe Queen Anne.

(2) Admiral Edward Russell (1652-1727), Earl Orford, who also backed Dampier's voyage east in Roebuck. Russell had been one of the seven peers putting their signature to an invitation to William to rule England. Naval treasurer, Commissioner of Navy, First Lord Admiralty, Commissioner for the Union with Scotland.

(There is here a variety of Whiggish promotion of interference with the East India Company. Edward Russell (1652-1727), Earl Orford, was a grandson of the fourth Earl of Bedford, Sir William Courteen's patron in the matter of Barbados. Some Russell marriages meant linkages with the family of Henry Wriothesley, founder of the Whig Party. Earl Orford married his cousin, Mary Margaret Russell, daughter of William (1616-1700) the fifth Earl of Bedford. This fifth Earl, who helped crown William III, had married Anne Carr, daughter of Robert Carr (1585-1645), Earl Somerset, a sometime Treasurer of Scotland.)

(3) The first Duke of Shrewsbury, or, 12th Earl Shrewsbury, Charles Talbot (1600-1717/18) was married to Adelaide Paleotti, a lady of a royal bedchamber. Talbot's background is cast in terms of England's sailor-pirate tradition. On his father's side, he had ancestry arising with Lord Mayor William Craven (died 1618), whose son William, Earl Craven (1608-1697), was a Whig and a proprietor of Carolina. The maternal grandfather of Adelaide Paleotti was Carlo Dudley, titular Duke of Northumberland (1614-1686). Carlo's mother was Elizabeth Southwell (1586-1631), daughter of a privateer of Drake's time, vice-admiral Robert Southwell (died 1598)
(Andrews, Elizabethan Privateers, p. 29. Who's Who /Shakespeare, p. 236. GEC, Peerage, Carrick, p. 60; Northumberland, p. 727; Willoughby, p. 692.)

This Talbot/Paleotti background also included Lord Admiral Charles Howard (1536-1624), second Baron Howard of Effingham and first Earl Nottingham, joint commander of the Spanish Armada, who was married to Catherine Carey (d. 16020-1603), daughter of Henry Carey, (1525-1596) first Baron Hunsdon. Henry Carey was a son of Mary Boleyn, sister of Anne who had been beheaded by Henry VIII.

(4) The governor of New York, Lord Bellomont, Richard Coote, who died 5 March, 1700/1701, three months before Kidd was hanged after prosecution by the Admiralty Court. His wife was Catherine Nanfan. Bellomont died three months after Kidd. Bellomont was an early backer of William III.

(5) Colonel Robert Livingston, prominent in New York. Livingston with Bellomont inspired the entire scenario behind Kidd's activities. He also had a deal to split booty with Kidd.


And 1701, around the year Kidd was hanged, the names of the backers of Dampier's voyage east arise to also be listed. They included Admiral Edward Russell; and Lord Charles Montague, first Baron Halifax (1661-1715).
(Samuel Bennett, Australian Discovery and Colonisation. Vol. 1, to 1800. Milsons Point, Sydney, The Currawong Press, 1981. [Facsimile of the original edition by Hanson and Bennett, Sydney, 1865].)

Montague's first wife was Anne Yelverton. He was Chancellor of the Exchequer and a promoter of the New East India Company. He was son of Hon. George Montague, married to Elizabeth Irby.
(The New East India Company met at Skinner's Hall. See Bruce, Annals, various vols.) Montague, first Baron Halifax, married as second wife, Mary Lumley (1696-1726); she was daughter of the man said to have captured the rebel Duke of Monmouth, Richard Lumley, first Earl Scarbrough (1650-1721), one of the seven peers inviting William III to the throne of England (GEC, Peerage, Scarbrough, pp. 509ff).

Montague was chancellor of the Exchequer, "an able financier" and involved in confronting the "Old" East India Company with the New.
Montague/Halifax's first wife was Ricarda Saltonstall, but it remains difficult to know whether her family tree is linked with that of an original subscriber to the East India Company, founder of the Spanish Company, governor of the Merchant Adventurers, Lord Mayor of London 1597-1598, Sir Richard Saltonstall (died 1601). Sir Richard here had an interesting grandson, Wye Saltonstall, a witty writer who had some relatives sail in 1630 and later to assist the undertakers of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
(Andreades, History of the Bank of England, pp. 104ff. GEC, Peerage, Halifax, p. 245, Manchester, pp. 368-372. Andrews, Elizabethan Privateers, pp. 114ff. Newton, Colonising Puritans, pp. 78ff.)


More on Vulgar Trade - England after 1650

More on the backers of William Dampier:

The backers of both Kidd and Dampier were powerful men who were astute enough to spend resources on assessing the risks of exploiting areas subject at the time to the anarchy of piracy. This, as the Old East India Company was being destabilised by the increasingly concerted activity of new traders, many of them led by Thomas Papillon, a near-republican and a sometime commissioner of the victualling of the navy.
(Papillon (1623-1702), a proponent of the New East India Company, was MP for Dover. Burke's Baronetage and Peerage, for Papillon. Haley, Shaftesbury, p. 405. Bruce, Annals, Vol. 3, pp. 260ff, pp. 290ff. Ian B. Watson, Foundation, p. 73.)

And this was only a few years after Sir Josiah Child at the Old East India Company had unsuccessfully declared war on the Mogul Emperor, Aurangzeb. The Mercantilist's need to deal with a thriving population is partly why Dampier's first report on north-western Australia was so dismal. Beliefs about the fabled Java-Le-Grande south of South-East Asia were apparently a miserable chimera. That part of that land mass - north western Australia - had no industrious population and no apparently useful resources - a simple sweep of the eye would indicate that. But did any group feel it might be an idea to send Dampier out a second time? What might have been their motives.

Dampier's earlier life:

William Dampier (1651-1715) was born at East Coker, Somersetshire, on 5 September, 1651. Apparently his parents died and he wished to go to sea.
(Entry, Australian Encyclopaedia, 1958 edition.)

He undertook some voyages then joined the Navy in 1672. In 1674 so he said, he left the navy having been offered a position as manager of a plantation in the West Indies, and on the way he wrote a journal.
(Perhaps the best treatment of Dampier's employers on Jamaica, Helyars, is given in Dunn, Sugar and Slaves.)

The plantation was owned by Helyars of Somerset, who were old compatriots of Sir Thomas Modyford. (Incidentally, their plantation was not a long-term success and it ended up in the hands of the Heathcote family). Dampier tired of plantation life in six months, and joined a Jamaica coasting vessel, and in February 1676 sailed for Campeachy Bay in Yucatan and entered the logwood industry, a bay in Spanish territory with entry forbidden. At one time, Dampier spent a going-nowhere period in Virginia. He became a buccaneer, and this eventually took him to the South Seas. In October 1684 the buccaneers were joined by a Capt. Swan in a ship Cygnet (Signet), and in 1685 Dampier joined Swan's ship. Thus, Dampier gained his first impressions of a sector of the Australian land mass.

1697

By August 1697, Montague had arranged for Dampier to be a "land-carriage man" in the Customs. By the spring of 1697, Dampier was dealing with London publisher, James Knapton. The manuscript - A New Voyage Around the World - was submitted to friends for suggestions. Dampier's enemies said he had not written it, but had it ghost written.
(There is however, no remark on who Dampier's enemies were; they were anyway incorrect; Wilkinson also does not name Dampier's friends - and he regards Dampier as a poor controversialist.)

When Dampier's book was published, in 1697 - A New Voyage Round the World, it was immediately successful, and made Dampier famous. And it was dedicated to Charles Montague, ie, Halifax.
(Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 146-149.)

Dampier's friends now included the diplomat Sir Robert Southwell, also president of Royal Society, 1690-1695. And Sir (Dr.) Hans Sloane, Bart, who had earlier been on Jamaica when the hard-drinking Albemarle had been there, about when Dampier had been on Jamaica. Sloane was a patron of scientists, a co-founder of the British Museum, secretary of the Royal Society in 1693, and he succeeded Isaac Newton as president of the Royal Society in 1727.
(Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 150-162, p. 247. J. H. Parry, The Age of Reconnaissance. New York, Mentor/New American Library, 1963., p. 307. GEC, Peerage, Cadogan, p. 461.)

In brief, Dampier was sent to the East, by Australia, by a group of High Whigs in London who were endeavouring to outmanoeuvre the Old English East India Company. As well, part of the Scottish Darien Company disaster was in losing ships sent to the East. In sending those ships, the Scots Darienites were also modelling their ambitions on what was happening in London. And what was happening in London, in the City, was a concerted revolt against the royal monopoly held by the East India Company whilst William III let out new commercial spirits.

Various New East India Company men in London or in the East included: Thomas Papillon, William Gifford (died 1721 murdered), Gifford had links with Sir Stephen Evance of London, Thomas Papillon, Maurice Thompson of London, Elihu Yale of Madras (later a co-founder of Yale University in America).
(Ian B. Watson, Foundation, p. 73 and p. 333.)

Sir Streynsham Master: a director of the New East India Company, and an investor in the Royal Africa Company and the East India Company.
(GEC, Peerage, Coventry. K. N. Chaudhuri, Trade and Civilization in the Indian Ocean: An Economic History from the Rise of Islam to 1750. Cambridge University Press, 1989., p. 206. K. G. Davies, Royal Africa Company, lists of investors.)

Also Sir William Norris, the failed emissary of the New East India Company to the Mogul emperor;

Sir Edward Littleton (died 1707); a director of the New East India Company and a "consul" in India at the times of Norris' mission to the Mogul emperor.

John Dubois; Sir Nicholas Waite;

Sir James Bateman the father of William, first Viscount Bateman,
(Lord Mayor of London Sir James Bateman was active by 1702 with the New East India Company union with the Old, as trustee for the New. He was possibly the father of William, first Viscount Bateman married Anne Spencer, daughter of Charles Spencer (1674-1722), third Earl Sunderland, a first lord of Treasury for Geo I; this earl Sunderland had married Anne Churchill (died 1716) amongst whose forebears were George Villiers, an anti-Spanish lord high admiral, first Duke of Buckingham. John, second Viscount Bateman married Elizabeth Sambrooke, a granddaughter of Sir Jeremy Sambrooke and Judith Vanacker.
(GEC, Peerage, Bateman of Shobdon, pp. 13-14. The name Robert Bateman is found as a Chamberlain of London, as a "prominent merchant" involved with the 1620 Amazon adventure, as well as the original East India Company, the Levant Company by 1605, the Spanish Company in 1606, the Virginia Company in 1609, the North West Passage Company of 1612. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 384; Lorimer, (Ed.), Amazon, p. 215, Note 1.)

William Hedges a governor of Bengal and husband of Susanna Vanacker.
(Vanacker: Susan's sister Dorothy Vanacker married Sir Jeremy Sambrooke MP, of the East India Company. Their brothers were Turkey merchants. Burke's Extinct Baronetcies for Vanacker of London.)

First formlessly, then with more shape, there arose a "new" English East India Company, a loose consortium of interlopers, some of them with interesting family linkages. When Dampier sailed for the regions north of Australia, he sailed for men in government who were willing to assist those interlopers, those non-respectables. What Dampier did was relatively simple, and not really original. He retraced the paths of that earlier English explorer working before the first English East India Company was formed - Ralph Fitch.

And so, it having been suggested to Admiralty that a naval vessel be fitted out to explore the coast of New Holland, the job would be done.

Some of the "High Whigs" in administration, and often of a Royalist persuasion, prior to the late 1690s, were: Sir George Carteret the treasurer of the navy (died 1679);
(Carteret was a favourite of Buckingham, also a deputy-governor of Jersey, a Royalist, member of Privy Council. Burke's Extinct Baronetcies, p. 104. There may be some confusion on this person. An investor in the Royal Africa Company, listed thus by Davies, was one proprietor of East Jersey, of a family named on a royal charter for Carolina, a Royalist, a member of the Board of Trade, whose widow sold his interest in Jersey (America) to twelve Quakers including William Penn.)

Lord John Berkeley (1602-1678), Commissioner of Navy and Privy Council;
(First Baron Berkeley, married to Christian Riccard, daughter of Sir Andrew Riccard a governor of the East India Company. (Sir Andrew Riccard was of St. Olave's, Hart Street, noted in Ian B. Watson, Foundation, p. 72.) But Christian Riccard had also married Henry Rich (died 1659), first Viscount Irving, a descendant of the first Earl of Warwick.
(GEC, Peerage, Warwick, p. 416; Berkeley, p. 148; Holland, p. 548. For his role as a proprietor of Carolina, Bliss, Revolution and Empire, p. 209. He was friends with James, Duke of York, a proprietor of New Jersey and in 1670 one of the Lords Lieutenant of Ireland. GEC, Peerage, Berkeley, pp. 147-148; Warwick; p. 416. Holland, p. 540.)

Sir William Berkeley (died 1677);
(William Berkeley: He was a proprietor of Carolina and a governor of Virginia in 1641 and again in 1660, when he became "a tyrant" and interested in the fur trade. Bliss, Revolution and Empire, p. 209. Haley, Shaftesbury, pp. 230ff. T. J. Wertenbaker, Virginia Under The Stuarts, 1607-1688. 1914.)

Governor of Virginia; Sir John Colleton a rich Barbados planter, and as with Sir William Berkeley and Shaftesbury, a member of the Special Committee for Foreign Plantations. (Major's view is that Dampier was "selected" by "the Earl of Pembroke", who was presumably Thomas Herbert (1656-1732), a Lord of Admiralty. Herbert has no particularly Whiggish connections, although his father, the fifth earl, was a promoter of the Royal Africa Company, and the fourth earl had been the patron of Courteen in wrangles over proprietorship of the Caribbean.

Notions were, the New East India Company would trade with India in competition with the already-established or Old East India Company, but fresh schemes such as the Darien scheme of the Company of Scotland and Kidd's piratical adventures to Madagascar had provided other inspirations. Dampier's two chief patrons were Lord Charles Montague, Earl of Halifax, Chancellor of the Exchequer, and the Earl of Orford, First Lord of Admiralty?
(Here, we need also to be sure we refer to the Earl of Orford (Admiral Russell 1652-1727) and not the first Earl of Oxford and Mortimer. See McIntyre, Secret Discovery, pp. 72, 191, 195, noting that Robert Harley (died 1724) (not Edward Harley, as McIntyre states), first Earl of Oxford and Mortimer, had supposedly had a copy of the "Dauphin Map", which allegedly was made by 1536. McIntyre makes the point that by the Dampier's voyage, 1700, the long-settled Portuguese of Timor had long known about, and long ignored, the north-west Australian coast and hinterlands. There were no secrets.
(Australian Encyclopaedia.)

In 1724 when Robert Harley died, the Dauphin Map was stolen by one of his servants, and it went underground, amazingly to be later found by Dr. Daniel Solander, friend of Sir Joseph Banks' friend, and so it was acquired by Banks and was with Banks and therefore Cook for the 1768-1770 voyage by the Eastern Australian coast. The map is now in the British Museum.
(McIntyre, Secret Discovery of Australia.

Robert Harley (died 1724), by 1688 had helped his father raise a horse troop for the "Glorious Revolution. A noted book collector, he was a Whig who became a Tory finally suspected of Jacobitism by the Hanoverians. He was a founder of the ill-fated South Seas Company and an under-treasurer of the Exchequer.
(GEC, Peerage, Oxford and Mortimer, pp. 263ff.)

Which of these men had exerted influence on the Darien scheme, which were involved in what became Capt Kidd's piracy about Madagascar, which were interested in Dampier's voyage? It would appear that William III had been interested in all three matters. Presumably, any findings made by Dampier would have gone to Orford and the New East India Company as well?

By the later 1690s, Dampier had realised the possibilities of an "Australian continent", "a country likely to contain gold".
(Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 150-156.)

This led him to propose to the Admiralty that a king's ship explore the coast of New Holland. Dampier also mentioned other places to be visited with good advantage. He was commissioned by as early as spring 1698, and he decided to round Cape Horn, visit the Australian east coast, then proceed north to New Guinea, but was delayed till September.

By July 1698, Dampier was also continually being called to London to advise government, (the council of trade and plantations) if he had heard of any proposals or bribes offered to Lionel Wafer, Dampier's old Caribbean associate, by the Scotch East India Company?
(Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 353, p. 408.)

In 1698 the East India Company loaned government two millions, and were incorporated under the name General Society, a regulated Company, members traded individually, interlopers formed their Company, with joint stock company and till about 1708 with wise mediation by Godolphin the Old and New East India companies traded side by side, the old bought now the new. (The second earl Godolphin helped to establish British racing; turf and thoroughbreds.)

Dampier replied (possibly lying) that he had not. He said, Wafer was unlikely to be able to offer any great service to a Scotch East India Company.
(Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 156-157, Citing, Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, America and the West Indies.)

Little is known of Dampier's moves between 1691-1696. But Dampier's brother George sold a patent medicine, Dampier's Powder, which, curiously enough, by 1697-1698, William Dampier had formally made known to the Royal Society. Between 1697-1699, Montague at the Royal Society had introduced Dampier to Earl Orford, who was of the Russell family, also linked to the East India Company, and the Duke(s) of Bedford. Bedfords were the god-parents of Francis Drake. Walsingham had once proposed to Elizabeth I that terra australis be settled and that Drake be made life governor there. Where Dampier went, were English traditions aplenty.

Having been ordered (why ordered?) to appear before Council of Trade and Plantations to be "examined as to the design of the Scotch East India Company to make a settlement on the Isthmus of Darien" under William Paterson, Dampier found that Lionel Wafer was another witness. (Wilkinson feels Dampier and Wafer could have given Council much encouragement to proceed.) By 27 September, 1698, Dampier was called again to the council of trade and plantations to advice on a squadron being fitted out against pirates operating to the east of the Cape of Good Hope.
(Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 156-157, Citing, Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, America and the West Indies.)

1697: Dampier's book New Voyage Round the World appears in 1697, and brings matters into the purview of the more scientific speculators such as Campbell, Callender and Dalrymple in Great Britain, de Brosses in France: they all helped systematize existing knowledge.

By 25 March, 1698, Dampier is given a silly ship, Jolly Prize, as Lord Orford was pleased with this idea of exploration, But by July, Dampier felt the vessel was unfit, so Roebuck was got up, with 12 guns and a crew of 50 men and boys provisioned for 20 months. Dampier told Orford he was disappointed at the smallness of Roebuck's crew, among whom were Jacob Hughes master, and Lt. George Fisher, a gentleman and an enthusiastic Whig who later became Dampier's enemy. Plus Philip Paine, gunner, and mates R. Chadwick and John Knight. The ship's doctor was a Scot, William Borthwick and the captain's clerk was James Brand. Dampier as scientist would refer to problems of the variations of the compass.

About 21 November, 1698 Dampier wrote to Lord Orford on the proposed voyage. He had drawn up his own instructions, but it was now too late to get about Cape Horn. (Bligh on HMAV Bounty had the same problem of timing in late 1787). So, he would have to sail via the Cape of Good Hope. He wanted a gratuity for his men, and was aware he was insecure in the ways of dealing with the kind of superiors he now had. Dampier's formal instructions came on 30 November; he was to go to the Cape of Good Hope and stretch to New Holland, steer any course, wanting a discovery of value, hoping for advantages to the nation, etc. Internal squabbles slowed the expedition. Lt. George Fisher, a regular naval officer had been a leading light regarding the expedition and had appeared for the board's deliberations.

By January 1699, Roebuck was ready to sail with Dampier aboard with the rank of captain, as a king's ship. More manuscript from Dampier was in hands of printers, and Dampier wrote from the Downs to Lord Orford, unable to send Orford any copy of book(s). This second volume was to make Dampier even more famous.
(Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 152-154 complains Dampier is damned with faint praise in the English DNB.)

On 14 January, 1699, Roebuck sailed from Downs, master Hughes. Lt. Fisher began to imagine that Dampier had put an assassin aboard to kill him (Fisher), so Fisher was later put off the ship, at Brazil. Roebuck made for Cape Verde by 11 February. The west coast of New Holland (the north-western coast of Western Australia) was sighted on 30 July, 1699. By 6 August, Dampier was anchoring at Shark Bay. Some islands were named Dampier Archipelago. Dampier then went east, to the present Roebuck Bay, but the country wearied him, the crew had scurvy, so he went to Timor, (22 September), where Roebuck was cleaned. He sailed about Indonesia's coasts for three months, then along the northern coast of New Guinea, rounding New Ireland and New Britain, to discover the strait between the latter and New Guinea. The crew saw the southern coast of New Guinea by 1 January, 1700.

Was Dampier testing the winds in the difficult areas of Torres Strait? Did the English also want to find new ways to vault over the Dutch East India Company? Major's extracts of Dampier's writings informs us: that William III wanted new discoveries. (And here, should it be assumed that William was familiar with existing Dutch information on the region? Or not?). The Earl of Pembroke (specifically) selected Dampier for the voyage.
(R. H. Major, (Ed.), Early Voyages to Terra Australis to the Time of Captain Cook as told in Original Documents. Adelaide, Australian Heritage Press, 1963. The views of William III are given, p. lxvii, the contentious matter of the Dauphin Map is mentioned, p. xvi; otherwise see pp. 101ff.)

Dampier mentions he had touched at Brazil, not intending to go by the Cape of Good Hope, although he did go by the Cape, then set for new Holland, pondering East Indies winds south of the Equator. He pondered Timor, Java, Sumatra, the Straights of Sundy (Sunda) before he arrived on the West Australian coast, and wondered, is there an archipelago of Islands, is there a passage south of New Holland or New Guinea, to or in a great sea westward? He might have returned to New Guinea, but decided against it. He sought water vainly, saw whales, sent men ashore to maybe dig a well, saw 9 or 10 natives, (with their front teeth knocked out), saw few land animals, but did see [the] "largest whales I ever saw". There was little encouragement to go further and with his men scorbutic, he headed for Timor, an old Portuguese colony which had long ignored Australian coastlines. Dampier finally lost his finally leaking ship off Island of Ascension 22 February, 1701, and he also lost his papers.
(Wilkinson, Dampier, pp.162-181.)

So for the Mercantilist, the best commodity available about Western Australia was whale product. If the English had deciding on whaling, then, that did not necessitate large-scale land settlement.

According to Australian Encyclopedia, Dampier might have sailed on and anticipated Cook's discovery of Eastern Australia, but Roebuck was now leaking and the trade winds made sailing south dangerous. So he went to Batavia, then England, reaching St. Helena on 21 February, 1701, where Roebuck promptly sprang a leak and sank. Dampier when he got home was court-martialled due to manipulations brought about by his enemy-in-waiting, Lt. Fisher, and was found to be unfit for further command.
(Wilkinson, Dampier, p. 182.)

And having retraced many of Ralph Fitch's earlier steps, and gone beyond, Dampier might well have reported to the New East India Company - "I saw nothing new of any use that the Spanish don't already have locked up, militarily speaking, except for whales". Which would have suggested that the New East India Company had better make peace with the Old, because in the East, life was not going to be made easier by the Dutch or the Spanish. The entry on Dampier in the Australian Encyclopedia concludes, "The discovery and settlement of eastern Australia may be viewed as the indirect but none the less real conclusion of Dampier's work".
(Dampier, ADB entry.)

By 29 September, 1701 was an inquiry into Dampier's voyage. No verdict was recorded. Sitting were president of court-martial Sir Clowdisley Shovell, and Vice Admiral Hopson, on HMS Royal Souveraine at Spithead on 8 June, 1702. Later it was reported that Dampier would depart to the West Indies. He kissed a royal hand, was introduced to her royal highness by the Lord High Admiral. The War of the Spanish Succession had broken out, privateers were back in vogue, and the owners of St. George, 120 men, 26 guns, wanted Dampier as commander, official approval forthcoming. Dampier was to go out with the privateer Fame Capt. John Pulling, to war on the French and Spanish. Now, Dampier had a roving commission to do what he liked.
(Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 183-189.)

Dampier's 1702 court martial having declared him unfit to command a king's ship; in 1708 and 1711 he sailed with the policeman of pirates, Capt. Woodes Rogers. In 1707 Dampier published his "unfortunate account" of the 1703 fiasco, Capt Dampier's Vindication of his Voyage to the South Seas in St George. (London, 1707).

A 1703 fiasco? In 1702, Dampier had teamed with a shipowner named Price and been given command of a privateer, St George, with letters of marque. With St George was the ship Cinque Ports, its mate being Alexander Selkirk. After Selkirk was marooned on the island Juan Fernandez, his adventures later formed the basis of Defoe's novel Robinson Crusoe. Dampier now ended as a prisoner for a time in a Dutch East India settlements. He got back to England in 1707, to find himself distrusted, his reputation tarnished. In 1708 he embarked as pilot on Capt Woodes Rogers' privateer the Duke, which sailed in company with Duchess. This expedition was successful, went about Cape Horn, rescued Alex Selkirk on Juan Fernandez, raided Spanish towns, captured a vessel from the Philippines, crossed the Pacific to Batavia, went about the Cape of Good Hope and arrived to England by October 1711 with prizes worth £200,000. Dampier received only about £1300.

By 1714, Dampier's health had broken down, by September he was 63, living in the parish of St. Stephens, Coleman Street, near Old Jewry, looked after by his female cousin Grace Mercer one of his main beneficiaries. Some furniture was left with Capt. Richard Newton. Dampier died in early March, 1715.
(Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 239-241.)

He had beforehand published in 1700 A Supplement to the Voyage Round the World, Two Voyages to Campeachy; a discourse on trade winds. In 1703-1709 he published A Voyage to New Holland in the Year 1699. Both books were translated into French and Dutch.
(Ton Vermeulen, `The Dutch entry into the East Indies', pp. 33f, in John Hardy and Alan Frost, (Eds.), European Voyaging Towards Australia. Canberra, Occasional Paper No. 8, Highland Press in association with the Australian Academy of the Humanities, 1990.

26 January 1700: New research by 2007 indicates that on or about 26 January 1700, occurred (about 8.1 on the Richter scale) a major mega-thrust earthquake in the Cascadia subduction zone of the North America Pacific North-West Coast / Washington coast area. This set up a tsunami much like the one afflicting Indonesia on 26 December 2004. This tsunami left tree-ring evidence on the American coast, and written records still available in Japan indicate the date was 26 January 1700 when the tsunami arrived to Japan. There it was called “an orphan tsunami”, which was the name the Japanese gave to any tsunami not otherwise connected to an earthquake they happen to have known about. (According to a documentary screened on ABC TV Australia on 8 March 2007.)

The aftermaths of Dampier's voyages:

Did Dampier's voyages help his Whig backers at all?
(After 1700, backers of some of Dampier's voyages included Alderman Batchelor (Master of the Society of Merchant Venturers) of London, Thomas Goldney a Quaker merchant who invested in the St George venture; an ex-Mayor, the incumbent mayor, two future mayors, the London town clerk, James Rumsey/Ramsay.
(Christopher Lloyd, William Dampier. London, Faber and Faber, 1966.)

It seems, very little, except perhaps in a negative sense of indicating that with the exception of China, England's eastern traders could achieve little more than was already being achieved. Between 1700-1701, the Old and New East India companies amalgamated with hubbub and din. "Bribes flowed like water". There was a final amalgamation in 1702. Karl Marx long later wrote about it, bemusedly, that from then, the time of William III, the Whigs farmed the revenues of the British Empire.
(Mukherjee, Rise and Fall, pp. 86-87. Ian B. Watson, Foundation, p. 146.)

Before 1702, while the New East India Company had failed to make its way, their emissary, Sir William Norris, made a fool of himself at the Mogul Court of Aurangzeb, lacking both patience and sophistication, and barely escaped being murdered. The New Company found their employees could not surpass the wider experience of the Old Company's employees (a matter settled while London bubbled with gossip about the winner and losers of the South Sea Bubble - many New East India Company men were directors of the South Sea Company before it collapsed).

Dampier's biographer, Clennel Wilkinson, feels that Dampier's discoveries in Australia were important, "sensational", in 1700, but they did not disclose or solve the important problem, the Continent of Australia. However, one doubts that terra australis incognita was regarded as a pressing topic in England. Tasman had published on his visit to Tasmania in England in 1694.
(Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 154-155.)

But by the time Dampier died, there was nothing to suggest that whatever land lay south of Indonesia or New Guinea was useful to a Mercantilist from any European nation. That is why the "problem of Australia" was pushed into the realm of cartographic speculation, or "pure navigation, and left there - in the territory of which James Cook would become the master... later to become a home for convicts.

More to come here


Reference Item: See A. F. W. Papillon, (Ed.), Memoirs of Thomas Papillon, of London, Merchant. Reading, England. 1887., cited in Albion, Forests and Sea Power, p. 445.

Reference Items: H. R. Fox Bourne, English Merchants: Memoirs in Illustration of the Progress of British Commerce. 1886. London. Chatto and Windus. 1886. Copy at Newcastle Univ. Library.)

See Basil Williams, The Whig Supremacy, 1714-1760. Oxford Clarendon Press. 1952.
Anand C. Chitnis, The Scottish Enlightenment: A Social History. 1976.
William Robinson, The History and Antiquities of the Parish of Hackney. Two Vols. 1842.
1700s: John L. McMullan, The Canting Crew: London's Criminal Underworld, 1550-1700. New Brunswick. 1984.
1700s: Ralph Davis, The Rise of the English Shipping Industry in the C17th and C18th Centuries. 1962.
K. G. Davis, The Royal African Company. 1957.

Re Piracy in this timeframe: On "Jack Tar", the archetypal English sailor, see Marcus Rediker, Between The Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Merchant Seamen, Pirates and the Anglo-American Maritime World, 1700-1750. Cambridge 1987.

Reference item: William Robinson, The History and Antiquities of the Parish of Hackney. Two Vols. 1842.

England: The Old and New East India companies:

Some of the earlier-mentioned interlopers - the New East India Company - had once considered linking with the "Scottish Company" trading to India, but this came to nothing. For a time, the Old and New East India companies competed intensely in the East itself. Perhaps significantly, the New company, day-to-day, had a less imperialistic attitude in the east; but by 1702, anyway, the New had fused with the Old. (There had been mediation by Godolphin). So appeared the United East India Company, the body finally obtaining most of England's sea-borne trade from India, plus the "imperial inheritance" of the increasingly-disarrayed Moguls.

By this time, too, the East India Company usually chartered its ships, it did not own them. The reason was that the ships were built specifically for the trade. The ships "husbands" (mostly managing owners) and many captains owned stock in the Company, as did the shipbuilders, and so various interest groups appeared within the Company operations. In the east, cargoes were paid for in silver (often of a Spanish-South American origin) which was paid for at home by the issue of short-term bonds.

In part, pro-bullion Mercantilist arguments resentful of this export of "treasure" had helped promote the intra-Eastern country trades (local trades) in the East India Company's realms of trade, and sometimes, by engaging in the country trade, the ill-paid East India Company servants could add to their private fortunes in ways the Company could not possibly influence or adequately police. Sometimes, Company servants in India used their country trade profits to buy bills payable in London, which provided a different form of funds which they could possibly re-invest in official Company cargoes.

On use of the word "merchant":

The word "merchant" as used in these files is somewhat indiscriminate. It often refers to importer/wholesalers of bulk commodities. But from 1600, a "merchant" could have been a member of the mercantile classes, a scrivener or goldsmith, a bill-broker, moneylender, a manufacturer (including a shipbuilder), the manager of several self-owned ships, a speculator, or investor; and most notable London alderman were some kind of "merchant". There is no especially useful way to be discriminating about what "merchant" meant from era to era.


Meanwhile, many historians' treatments fail to inform that many merchants had simultaneous interests in several fields of trade, that is, they had multiple roles. Meanwhile, the transmission of commodity items to the individual consumer, the retailer, or even the smaller wholesaler, as a topic (or way of life?) is conspicuously absent in English economic history until the early nineteenth century, and English historians have remained curiously uncurious about retailing
(David Alexander, Retailing in England during the Industrial Revolution. London, University of London, Athlone Press, 1970.)

[This is seen also in Duncan Campbell's own letterbooks, which between 1758 and 1796 provide frustratingly little information on just whom he sold his tobacco or sugars to, so it remains difficult to examine his commercial networks] The great oddity of this is realised when one sees how, with the history of English contact with the East since 1600, generally, with the import of sugars, spices and tea, overviews of improvements to the English diet are seldom offered; one suspects that the English diet had been horribly drab for most people. However, the handling of commodities-only does suggest that links between merchants and aristocrats were financial, perhaps with the aristocrats providing some of the capital for a merchant's handling of bulk commodities.

Here are points also re argument on sugar - a great many merchants - including those with slaving interests of various kinds - dealt in several trades, simultaneously - the Levant trade, American trade, Eastern trade.
(Here could be named, across several eras: Sir John Banks (1627-1699), Eastern trade, financier, investor in Africa Company; Sir Benjamin Bathurst, governor East India Company, Africa Company investor (Davies, Royal Africa Company, index); Goldsmith Robert Chester, died 1729, lands in Antigua and Barbados, director South Seas Company (Carswell, South Sea Bubble, appendix); Sir Peter Colleton, active 1663, Barbados-Carolina interests, investor in Royal Africa Company (Haley, Shaftesbury, p. 231); Governor of Bengal, Richard Craddock, director of Royal Africa Company, (Carswell, South Sea Bubble, appendix); Draper Peregrine Cust (1723-1788), deputy-chairman East India Company 1769-1770, government financier and contractor in Bute's times, Bristol delegate to Africa Committee, Valentine, British Establishment, Vol. 1, p. 232; Daniel Hayes, Africa died 1732, merchant, director South Sea Company (Carswell, South Sea Bubble, appendix); Sir Gilbert Heathcote, Lord Mayor London 1710-1711, governor of Eastland merchants, co-founder of Bank of England, agent for Jamaica, West India interests, free trader with New East India Company (Christie, Non-elite MPs, p. 41, Davies, Royal Africa Company, index, Melville, South Sea Bubble, p. 123); Sir James Modyford, died 1675, governor Jamaica, Royal Africa Company figure, early career in Turkey trade (Davies, Royal Africa Company, Burke's Extinct Baronetcies for Slanning; MP Arthur Moore, died 1730, director Old East India Company, director of South Sea Company and Royal Africa Company, clandestine trader (Carswell, South Sea Bubble, appendix); Merchant William Paggen, tobacco and slaves importer to England , re-exporting both to Europe, circa 1695 (Earle, Middle Classes, p. 348, Note 70); MP Henry Parsons, brewer, provisioner to government, assistant to Royal Africa Company in 1728 (Christie, Non-elite MPs, p. 48); Hugh Raymond, shipbuilder, director London Assurance in 1720 (Carswell, South Sea Company, appendix); Lord Mayor Sir John Robinson, director East India Company, deputy-governor Hudson's Bay Co., noted in Davies, Royal Africa Company, index.)


Follows an impression of Heathcote family history
Descendants of Progenitor Ralph Heathcote-91715
1. Progenitor Ralph Heathcote-91715
See Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Heathcote.
sp: Ellen Thomson
2. Thomas Heathcote
sp: Miss Notknown
3. Gilbert Heathcote (c.1633;d.1634)
sp: Anne Dickens
4. Mayor of New York, Customs collector, Caleb Heathcote Colonel (c.1700)
sp: Patty (Martha) Smith
5. Anne Heathcote
sp: Acting-governor New York James De Lancey of the noted Loyalist family of New York - see his entry in Dictionary of American Biography (b.1703;m.1729;d.1760)
6. James merchant Horse racer De Lancey Junior (b.1732;d.1800)
sp: Margaret Allen (m.1771)
6. Miss De Lancey
sp: Contractor, MP, John Watts of New York (c.1775)
6. Julia De Lancey
sp: Capt. Robert Timpson(c.1775)
4. London Lord Mayor 1710-1711. Slaver as invests in Royal Africa Co? Sir Gilbert Heathcote (b.1651;d.25 Jan 1733). A London merchant, Gilbert is a self-made man from Chesterfield. Master of Vintners Co in 1700. He may have brother Edward and both may be involved in Royal Africa Co. Gilbert a native of Chesterfield in Derbyshire, London trader in Spanish wines, agent for Jamaica, trade to Jamaica, West Indies, and East Indies, died in 1733, reckoned a very wealthy commoner. Gilbert had a fortune estimated at £700,000; lived in St Swithin's Lane, St Dunstan's In the East. A Whig, he is large to Jamaica, remitting money to troops there, in EICo trade; a founder of the revamped EICo; in 1693 re his ship Redbridge he wished to become a free trader to EICo, told House of Commons so, later Commons declared against EICo monopoly. Gilbert put £10,000 into New EICo. In 1720 Gilbert is Gov. of Eastland merchants; he once addressed Peter the Great of Russia in High Dutch re import of tobacco to Russia. He helped found Bank of England in 1694, was elected to its board of directors; he became gov. of Bank of England, alder of Walbrook Ward, Lord Mayor about 1710-1711. In 1732 he is one of the Commissioners for Georgia, and FRS. Known as a highly parsimonious man.
See his own DNB entry; Melville, South Sea Bubble, p. 123. Davies, Royal Africa Company, index. His nephew George is Lord mayor in 1742 in V. Hope's book. See Christie, non-elite MPs, p. 41. His daughter in Burke's Extinct Baronetcies for Sloane of Chelsea. Andreades on Bank of England, pp. 112ff. (Lt-Col Shakespear had incorrectly mentioned this Heathcote Lord Mayor of 1710 as William, not Gilbert.) See V. Hope on London Lords mayor, p. 187, lists.
sp: Hester Rayner (b.1682;m.1682)
5. Anne Heathcote
sp: Steelmaster, South Sea Co., Sir Jacob Jacobson, (German origins)
5. John Heathcote Sir, Bart2
sp: Miss Notknown
6. Hester Heathcote wife2
sp: Archibald Edmonstone (b.10 Oct 1717;m.Apr 1778;d.1807)
5. Hesther Heathcote wife2
sp: William Sloane
5. Elizabeth Heathcote
sp: Sigismund Lincolnshire Trafford Sir
4. Baltic Co. merchant, of Hursley, Samuel Heathcote Esq (d.13 Nov 1708)
sp: Mary Dawson (m.1691)
5. Mary Of Hackney Heathcote wife1
sp: Philip (William?) MP Yonge Sir, Bart4 (b.1693;m.30 Jul 1716(Div);d.1755)
5. William MP Heathcote Sir, Bart1 (b.15 Mar 1693)
sp: Elizabeth Parker (m.7 Apr 1720;d.27 Dec 1749)
6. Thomas Of Hants Heathcote Sir, Bart2 (b.23 Jul 1721)
sp: Elizabeth Hinton wife1 (d.27 Dec 1749)
sp: Anne Tollett wife2 (m.30 May 1754;d.1709)
6. Elizabeth cousin Heathcote (c.1740)
sp: Francis William DRAKE Admiral (b.22 Aug 1724;m.3 Nov 1763;d.19 Nov 1789)
6. William Heathcote Sir, Bart2 (c.1754;d.23 Jul 1721)
sp: Elizabeth Hinton wife1 (m.13 Dec 1742;d.27 Dec 1749)
6. Mary (cousin a fortune) Heathcote (d.1812)
sp: Thomas Parker Earl3 Macclesfld Visc Parker (b.12 Oct 1732;m.12 Dec 1749;d.9 Feb 1795)
5. Anne Heathcote of Hursley
sp: MP Francis Tavistock Drake Sir, Bart4 (d.1740)
6. MP Francis Henry Drake Sir, Bart5 (b.1723;d.1794)
6. Admiral Francis William Drake (b.22 Aug 1724;d.19 Nov 1789) - (Of the family of the famed mariner Sir Francis Drake)
sp: Elizabeth cousin Heathcote (c.1740;m.3 Nov 1763)
sp: Miss Onslow wife2
sp: Elizabeth Hayman Of Kent(ends)


The skilful handling of money, or, capital, was their only means of balancing the contingencies arising from dealing in diverse areas or commodities. Once joint-stock companies began to reliably offer a variety of ways for profit-takers to succeed, including parasitic speculation, the definitions of "merchant" or "businessman" expanded. It was merchant experience with all this in the City of London which has apparently remained partially invisible to historians, but the biographies, the intermarriages, the networks of merchants indicate that there were such repeated flip-flops of capital between slaving interests, and East India Company interests, that it is absurd to speak of one without speaking of the other. And this situation arose partly since investment in the East India Company gradually became reliable for even the most conservative.

Merchants learned that any capital requiring a rest from risk or speculation had better become shares in the East India Company. In this way, the Company helped shore up slaving interests. Madras traders include Nicholas Morse and William Monson. East India Company servants at Madras might trade to China, Siam, Tonkin, Pegu, Manila (Spanish Philippines could not trade with Protestants) and Java and Sumatra "most to themselves". Bombay had the Red Sea, Muscat, Persia and Malabar trades.
(Ian B. Watson, Foundation, pp. 123-127, on Francis Pym.)

Here, seen within "a theory of Mercantilism", a basic list of merchants with interests in both the East India Company and matters of slaving would include such names as:

The son of Caleb Banks, Sir John Banks (1627-1699), Royal Africa Company investor, married to Elizabeth Dethick. (This family was no relation to the family of botanist Sir Joseph Banks of Lincolnshire, later to be treated in this book.)
(Banks had premises in Leadenhall Street, and while he had links with Mediterranean trade, he also dealt with Martin Noell, the ubiquitous Maurice Thompson (or, Thomson) and a one-time governor of the East India Company, William Thomson. D. C. Coleman, Sir John Banks, Baronet and Businessman: A Study of Business, Politics and Society in Later Stuart England. New York, Oxford University Press, 1963. He was a friend of naval administrator Samuel Pepys and the first Earl Shaftesbury. Ian B. Watson, Foundation, pp. 72ff. GEC, Peerage, Devon, p. 334. K. G. Davies, Royal Africa Company, variously, provides information on men with links with the Royal Africa Company from 1672.) Thomas Papillon New East India Company, (1623-1702)
(Bruce, Annals, Vol. 3, pp. 260ff, pp. 290ff and Vol. 2, p. 86. Papillon had links with New East India Company figure William Gifford, who ended murdered in April 1721.)

Sir Jeremy Sambrooke, active in the 1680s, who in 1654 began to examine the financial behaviour of the East India Company. His name is found amongst the genealogical connections of Sir John Banks also in this list.
(GEC, Peerage, Bateman, p. 13. Ian B. Watson, Foundation, p. 66. Chaudhuri, The English East India Company, pp. 208ff. K. G. Davies, Royal Africa Company. Namier-Brooke, The History of Parliament: House of Commons, 1754-1790. Vol. 2, p. 521.)

William Hedges, governor of Bengal, married to Susanna Vanacker.
(Earle, Middle Classes, p. 216. Hogendron and Johnson, Shell Money of the Slave Trade. Furber, Rival, p. 352, Note 35. Ian B. Watson, Foundation, p. 66, p. 89, pp. 108ff.)

The Lascelles family, generally, which had various interests in the Caribbean. Daniel Lascelles (1714-1784) MP, was of the East India Company but he inherited West India property. His mother Mary Carter (who married an East India Company director, Henry Lascelles) was from Barbados. Daniel's brother Edwin (1713-1820) became first Baron Harewood.
(As is well-known, the Lascelles family married into the British royal family in the nineteenth century. Mary Carter was from Barbados. Lascelles had wide West and East Indian interests. Namier-Brooke, The History of Parliament: House of Commons, 1754-1790, Vol. 3, p. 22.)

Sir Edward Littleton (died 1707), of the New East India Company.

William Proby, active for the New East India Company at Surat.
(Son of Charles Proby. Ian B. Watson, Foundation, p. 267. Burke's Extinct Baronetcies for Proby of Elton, p. 429. While the genealogical connections are unclear, London Lord Mayor and investor in the Royal Africa Company, Sir Peter Proby, knighted in 1623, has amongst his descendants, the name Watson-Wentworth, and the second Marquis Rockingham. K. G. Davies, Royal Africa Company.)

1721++: Trecothick and Co., listed in Kellock. From 1721 to 1754, a triumvirate of leaders was Sir Robert Walpole, Henry Pelham, and the Duke of Newcastle. Merchant friends of Newcastle included Sir William Baker, Barlow Trecothick and John Tomlinson. Barlow Trecothick was an America Merchant of Vintry Ward, London.
(Sources: Olson, Making the Empire Work, p. 7, p. 140.)

1721: (Olson, Virginia Merchants of London, p. 373), Virginia colonial agents John Povey and Nehemiah Blakiston to 1721 used Micajah Perry as their banker. See William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. VIII 1899-1900. p. 273, re convicts, answer of merchant Micajah Perry, merchant, refusing to take 50 women convicts to Virginia, they were sent instead to the Leeward Islands. Sainsbury Mss, 1697. Oldham mentions same no of women convicts for same islands, sans mention of Perry.

18 May 1721: ship Gilbert Capt. Darby Lux (A. E. Smith, p.126), probably Captain Lux' second voyage in the convict service. Darby Lux made eleven more voyages, seven on the Patapsco Merchant. His last voyage was in 1738, when he settled in Maryland and acted as general agent for Forward. He still acted for Forward in 1749.
(Oldham, p. 51.)

William Gifford, New East India Company, died 1721.

Humphrey Morice (died 1731), separate trader, a noted dealer in cowrie shells from the Maldives, much used in the slave trade.
(Hogendron and Johnson, Shell Money, p. 99. K. G. Davies, Royal Africa Company, Appendix VI.)

A London tobacco dealer active from the 1690s, Micajah Perry. His father was "the greatest tobacco merchant in London".

1720, Birth of, Sir George Amyand, first Baronet (1720-1766), son of Dr. Claudius Amyand. He became a director of the East India Company in 1762-1764, prior to which he had been an army contractor during the Seven Years War, with extensive interests in the West Indies and North America worth up to £600,000 per year. He was a director of the East India Company in 1762-1764 and opposed the enemy of Clive of India, the deputy governor o f the East India Company, Laurence Sulivan.
(Valentine, British Establishment, Vol. 1, pp. 19ff. GEC, Peerage, Minto, p. 714.)

The Beckford family of Jamaica, circa 1770.
(The radical Whig MP and London Lord Mayor William Beckford, (1709-1770), who owned Jamaica plantations of about 22,000 acres and many slaves. GEC, Peerage, Effingham, p. 13; Rivers, pp. 30ff. R. B. Sheridan, `Wealth of Jamaica', p. 308. Valentine, British Establishment, pp. 66ff. Additional genealogical information is found in Boyd Alexander, England's Wealthiest Son: A Study of William Beckford. London, Centaur Press Ltd., 1962. H. A. N. Brockman, The Caliph of Fonthill. London, Werner Laurie, 1956.)

Buchanan and Simson, active in the 1780s, slavers, using Liverpool ships captains, dealing in East India Company goods from London. One of their associates appears to have been Robert Barclay, and an English whaler and tobacco trader, a friend of the American Nantucketeer whalers, Rotch. In 1785, this Barclay was a member of the East India Company India Interest group.
(Jacob Price, 'Different Kind', pp. 29-31.) His father was Alexander. The genealogy of the Barclay family is not as clear as available information at first suggests.

Sir George Colebrooke, second Baronet (1729-1809). Governor of the East India Company in 1769 and in 1772, whose wife had plantations in Antigua, while he had land on Grenada worth £50,000. By 1766 he was a noted speculator in East India Company stocks. He once tried to corner the world market on alum, and he backed the Vandalia settlement in North America, in the Ohio Valley. He helped back Clive of India while his deputy-chairman of 1772, Laurence Sulivan, became an enemy of Clive.
(For brief information on Laurence Sulivan's interests, H. T. Fry, Alexander Dalrymple (1737-1808) and the Expansion of British Trade. London, Cass for The Royal Commonwealth Society, 1970., p. 143.)

Colebrooke helped arrange the first London stock exchange in 1772, but his bank closed in 1773, and he bankrupted. Colebrooke was probably a victim of the spectacular 1772-1773 London bust caused mostly by the speculations of the Scot, Alexander Fordyce.
(On his wife, Miss Gayner, see R. B. Sheridan, `Colonial Gentry, Antigua', p. 349. Namier-Brooke, The History of Parliament: House of Commons, 1754-1790, Vol. 2, p. 235. GEC, Peerage, Tankerville, p. 634. Price, `Joshua Johnson in London', p. 163, Note 39, an article pp. 153-180 in Anne Whiteman, et al, (Eds.), Statesmen, Scholars and Merchants: Essays in Eighteenth Century History presented to Dame Lucy Sutherland. London, Oxford/Clarendon Press, 1973. Valentine, British Establishment, Vol. 1, p. 191.)


Further chronology notes: 1700-1750:

1690s: Capt James Gibson in Darien Co. ship, Rising Sun, Mr Cragg interested in making salt. connections include Mr Paterson, Mrs Woodrop and Mr Rbt Blackwood, a Darien company ship also named Dolphin. (G. Pratt on Darien, p. 55)

1699: About 1699 in England the Tories are impeaching the Whigs, Somers, Portland, Orford and Halifax. In 1697 Montague succeeds Godolphin as First Lord of Treasury.
[Clark, The Later Stuarts, p. 27, p. 186, p. 195, p. 225, p. 381.]

Pre-1700: First coffee house before 1700 was the Rainbow, in Fleet Street, then Dick's in the City, then Covent Garden or Will's, and Tom's in Change Alley, coffee, wine and all the other liquors...
(Burke, Streets of London, p. 43.


1700-1715: Follows a list of merchants working in Spain (Seville-Madrid, in France, etc) drawn from: Henry Kamen, The War of Succession in Spain, 1700-1715. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1969., pp. 60ff:
By 1703 is working, commissary-general D. Francisco Fernandez de Cordoba; in Paris is director-general of military factories and stores, Maximilen Titon; a reformer of Spanish textiles industries is Gaspar Naranjo; an army clothier (incl. shoes) in Paris is Jean Lelarge; in 1705 some military accounts in Madrid are with Juan Manuel de Villagarcia; a military uniforms outfit is Jean-Jacques Yon and Co.; military tents are got from N. Morasin and N. Berton of Bayonne or Jean Baptiste Duplessis (plus Jean Baptise Milhau); the brothers Gallois are drapers of Paris and bankers of Madrid; a financier of Lyons is Noe Dufau; military uniforms can be got from Le Leu and Morasin in France; a gunpowder merchant in south-east Spain is Luis Gonzalez del Olmo; arms contractors in Cantabria are Juan Francisco Goyeneche and Co.; an army food supplier is Manuel Lopez de Castro; in 1704 an army contractor for Castile and Extremadura is Francisco Esteban Rodriquez de los Rios later marquis de Santiago; an army contractor and administrator of the banking house of the marques de Valdeolmos is Cristobal de Aguerri; an army contractor for Andalucia is marques de Campflorido, and for Galicia is marques de Campaflorido, and for Navarre is Jose de Soraburu, and for Aragon is Esteban de Moriones, with Santiago being considered the most efficient; in 1708, Amelot was organising fourteen financiers of Madrid (including head of company Duchaufour and one D. Thomas de Capdevilla) to form a company to provide war supplies; in 1711-1712, a Frenchman Antoine Sartine headed a company supplying Aragon, Valencia and Catalonial; Aguerri as above was supplanted by financiers Juan Francisco Goyeneche and Pedro Lopez de Ortega, as Ortega had replaced Aguerri as head of the firm of Valdeolmos; of French financiers, of Cadiz-Madris, not named,. some by 1701 had gained the Spanish asiento for slave trading, with their Guinea Company, with Cadiz-Seville as Spanish capital of West Indies trade, to about 1691, a firm serving the financial interests of the Habsburgs for forty years had been Francisco Baez Eminente, succeeded by his son Juan Francisco Eminente, which firm was in financial difficulties 1701-1771 - this firm later headed by Joseph Franco and descended to minor status; one of the most prominent financiers of Philip V was Bartolome de Flon y Morales (elevated to conde de la Cadena), who sometimes dealt with Samuel Bernard in France and Gaetano Ametrano in Naples, Flon was succeeded by his son Bartolome de Flon y Zurbaran, conde de la Cadena who faded from 1732; a Spanish financier was Juan Francisco Goyeneche of a family firm; a foreigner-banker in Madrid was Hubert Hubrechtz; at Madrid were Italian bankers Rubini and Spinelli; and an Englishman, Francis Arther (who had a partner Edward Crean till 1715, Arther possibly with both sides of warring parties); active in Cadiz by 1710 were (Jean-Baptiste) Masson, Stalpaert and Romet and Co.; firm Sarsfield and Fenel; firm Gilly and Co. (Gilly freres, who had extensive sugar plantations in the Antilles and interests in the Languedoc); firm Villebague-Eon; some Flemish financiers of Nantes were Stalpaert freres; a Paris banker was Louis Romet; a financier-trader of Seville was Jean-Jacques Fenel plus Jacques Sarsfield; the most prominent French banker in Madrid was Jean-Jacques Yon who had a kinsman, Louis Yon, a Paris banker; bankers of Madrid, Bayonne and Paris were Morasin, and the brothers Barthelemy and Laurent de Ville; a Lyon banker (once refusing bills) was Ollivier; there was a financial crash in Lyon and Geneva in 1709 in which Samuel Bernard lost a fortune; ends this list.

After 1700: There grew areas outside the London gates, West End squares, Leicester Fields was built, Charing Cross, St. Giles, Soho, Clerkenwell, Holborn and Bloomsbury, Marylebone, Knightsbridge, Chelsea and Pancras, the penny post was invented, and the rival messengers, the half-penny post, went broke, fire insurance offices grew, some London buildings still wear their badges, street lighting was installed, gardens were installed. (Burke, Streets London, pp. 65-66.)

1700s: Hanbury and Co: John Hanbury, (1700-1758) Quaker early established in Tower Street, London, a major figure in tobacco trade. At some time he took a partner Capel (d. 1769) son of a Bristol soap maker. John Hanbury promoted the Ohio Company for new lands for tobacco growers and was close to Lord Baltimore. and in the war 1755-1763 he transmitted government funds for the armies in America. After John's death his son Osgood (1731-1748) became Chapel's partner and after Capel died Osgood took as partner John Lloyd a kinsman of his wife. In Feb. 1766 Capel Hanbury testified against the Stamp Act, as monies he felt could only be collected in tobacco. From Jan. 1759, George Washington handled his relatives Custis' tobacco, and he dealt with Hanburys till 1774. In 1790 Hanbury and Co claimed a pre-war debt of £78,809 in Virginia.
(Jacob Price, article on Buchanan and Simson, p. 23; Kellock's article, on London debt claimants of 1790, appendix, p. 127)-

1700+: On Jamaica: Item per genealogist John Dorman of Virginia, USA, on 'Materials for Family History in Jamaica', in Genealogists' Magazine, London, September, 1966.
See W. A. Feurtado, Official and Other Personages on Jamaica from 1655 to 1790. Kingston, Jamaica, 1896.

1700 approx: Pirate Capt Kidd had a brother-in-law Samuel Bradley, and did he maroon his brother-in-law near Antigua in 1700 or not? New York at this time wants Kidd's services, Kidd wanted a naval posting from London; Kidd had a friend in 1698-1699, young Duncan Campbell the postmaster of Boston; which young Campbell tried more than once to bribe the young wife of the governor, once with a box of gems. (Was this Duncan Campbell of Boston perhaps the son or relative of one Duncan Campbell the friend of William Dampier in 1674?)

1700+: There grow areas outside the London gates, West End squares, Leicester Fields was built, Charing Cross, St Giles, Soho, Clerkenwell, Holborn and Bloomsbury, Marylebone, Knightsbridge, Chelsea and Pancras, the penny post was invented, and the rival messengers, the half-penny post, went broke, fire insurance offices grew, some London buildings still wear their badges, street lighting was installed, gardens were installed. (Burke, Streets of London, pp. 65-66)


After 1700: And more so with the advent of the Hanoverians, England produces the stereotyped image of portly John Bull. Insensitive and jingoistic, despising the French and the Irish, wanting "the Scotch" kept under the foot, and coveting the fruits of an expanded empire. Often a Whig.
Here 1500-1700 - A useful title is A. L. Bier and Roger Finlay, London, 1500-1700: The Making of the Metropolis. 1986. With essays by Roger Finlay and Beatrice Shearer, Population Growth and suburban expansion; Paul Slack, Metropolitan government in crisis: the response to plague; Margaret Pelling, Appearance and reality: barber-surgeons, the body and disease; Brian Dietz, Overseas Trade and metropolitan Growth; A. L. Bier, Engine of Manufacture: the trades of London; J. A. Chartres, Food consumption and internal trade; M. J. Power, The social topography of Restoration London; M. J. Kitch, Capital and Kingdom, migration to later Stuart London; Stephen Macfarlane, Social Policy and the poor in the later seventeenth century.

By the 1700s, larger cities than European cities existed in China, northern India and Central America.

1700-1704: Barbados agents (in Penson, Colonial Agents, pp.84ff) included William Bridges MP in 1705 a law clerk for secretaries of state, Francis Eyles, Robert Heysham, and in 1704 were Sir John Stanley a commissioner of the Customs House, William Bridges, Melatia (sic) Holder, plus William Cleland.

1700+: After 1700, Somers and Halifax support Thomas Rymer, historian, to look into history of England's treaties, and Halifax supports publication of Rhymer's Foedera. Rymer was succeeded by Thomas Madox as royal historiographer.
(Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 381.)

1700: Bristol entered the slave trade soon after 1700 and took a lead in opposing the Royal Africa Co's monopoly of 1713.

1700 Circa: Governors of Christ's Hospital included Arthur Baron, Adrian Beyer, Col. James Boddington, Sir William Coles, Sir James Collett, Peter Godfrey, Samuel Jackson, Robert Knight, Thomas Lockington and Micajah Perry. (A. L. Bier and Roger Finlay, London, 1500-1700: The Making of the Metropolis.)

1700: Taylor has eclipsed Warren as a timber magnate with the navy board, monopoly re Baltic and New England mast timber, and later till Am Rev the New England timber men were William Gulston, John Henniker, firm of Durand and Bacon, with their agents in colonies being Waldo, Westbrook, and the Wentworths, contract monopolies at Portsmouth and Falmouth, and in the Baltic trade by 1775, the powerful houses were Normans in Norway, Sollys at Danzig and Thorntons at Riga, all successful. (Albion, Forests and Sea Power, p. 56.)

By 1700, Boston merchants of America are the wealthiest single economic group of the colonies except for the rich planters of Virginia and Maryland. By 1750, Boston operates more than 562 ships.
See K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways.. University of South Carolina Press, 1988., p. 40.

1701: Capt Kidd is back in London, a furore on his activities and queries on who were his backers? House of Commons listens to argument and allegations. If Kidd claims, as he did, he is innocent, then he also exonerates his backers.
29 Sept., 1701: inquiry into Dampier's voyage, no verdict recorded. Sitting were president of court-martial Sir Clowdisley Shovell, and Vice Admiral Hopson, on HMS Royal Souveraine at Spithead on 8 June, 1702. Later it was reported, Dampier to go to depart to West Indies, kissed HM hand, introduced to her by Royal Highness the Lord High Admiral. The war of Spanish succession had broken out, privateers in vogue, and the owners of St George 120 men 26 guns wanted Dampier as commander, official approval forthcoming. Dampier to go out with privateer Fame Capt John Pulling, to war on French and Spanish. Dampier had a roving commission to do what he liked. (Clennell Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 183-189.)

1701: England: A London Customs commissioner, Godolphin, introduces a register of all trading vessels.

1701++: Reputation of Scots-English financier William Paterson's recovers from earlier reverses, by 1701 he proposes a kind of Scottish Council of Trade, William Paterson perhaps raises the enterprise-aspiration of Scotland considerably. re Union with England; one idea he had in 1706 was he was Edinburgh as a Commissioner of the English Govt., and the last Scot Parliament of all commended him to the English monarch. He died in 1720, January, just as the South Sea Bubble was giving his Bank of England "a severe baptism of fire". Daniel Defoe thought Paterson a worthy patriot of his country.
H. R. Fox Bourne, English Merchants: Memoirs, p. 271.

1701: Dr James Wallace sails with a Scots "Darien Fleet" and later gives an almost-official record to the Royal Society, of Capt Pennycook's voyage. Royal Society prints it in 1700-1701 as part of its transactions. (G. Pratt on Darien, p. 77, p. 271)

1702: War of the Spanish Succession.

By the 1700s, larger cities than European cities existed in China, northern India and Central America.

1703 - Isaac Newton Elected FRS in 1672, and in 1703, Newton president of RS, and became friends with Jean Desaguliers (Holy Grail p. 456), of Sion, who helped spread Freemasonry throughout Europe, associated with Radclyffe, Ramsay, and in 1731 as Master of the Masonic lodge at the Hague, presided (it is said) over initiation of the first European prince to become a Freemason, Francois, Duke of Lorraine, who when he married to Maria Therese of Austria became Holy Roman Emperor.

1703: (Penson, Colonial Agents, p.84), Sir Bevil Grenville is gov. of Barbados; some disputes arise re agents.

1703: Earl of Morton in Dec 1703 wanting to send his ship Morton 100 tons Capt. John Brohode to East Indies. (G. Pratt on Darien p. 251.)

1703: 30 April: Dampier sails privateering to West Indies, joined there by Cinque Ports mate Alexander Selkirk, 16 guns 63 men 90 tons, Capt Charles Pickering and Lt Thos Stradling. Sailed to Madeira, St Iago Oct 7th, then Juan Fernandez, then Tobago, then Stradling on Cinque Ports put Selkirk (who later inspires Robinson Crusoe) ) on Juan Fernandez Island.

1703: 26 November: 11pm: One of the greatest storms known to England hits, The Great Storm, devastating London, estimated 6000 seamen lost, 300 merchantmen sank, blew down 19,000 trees in Kent, toppled 800 houses. (Rediker, p. 27.)

1703: England: Earl of Morton in December 1703 wants to send his ship Morton 100 tons Capt. John Brohode to East Indies trade areas. (G. Pratt, Darien, p. 251)

1704: English take Gibraltar.

1704+: Barbados agents include William Bridges MP in 1705, a law clerk for secretaries of state, Francis Eyles, Robert Heysham. In 1704 some relevant names were Sir John Stanley a commissioner of the Customs House, William Bridges, Melatia (sic) Holder, plus William Cleland.

1704+: Archibald Campbell, Third Duke of Argyll, (1628-1761), in 1705 the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, and commissioner of the Union in 1706 for 1707. He succeeded his brother John as duke of Argyll, and served as a Scottish peer in the United Parliament until his death. Unlike his brother he supported Robert Walpole. He held high offices and promoted trade, industry and schools in Scotland.

1704+: 1704-1732 is a long gap in the records of West India agencies, for Jamaica. An Act of 1693 re this had expired in 1704, and so the concerns of Jamaica were left in care of absentee planters and merchants as they chose voluntarily to fulfil some of the functions of an agent. Is this gap suspicious or not re the activities of those who had backed Cromwell's "western expedition" which took Jamaica from Spain?

By 1705: The role of French ambassador to Spain, Michael-Jean Amelot, Marquis de Gournay. (Lynch on Bourbon Spain)

1705: Invention of Newcomen's steam-engine with condenser.

1705: Agency of Bermuda (Somers Islands), first agent late as 1705 is London merchant Charles Noden, till 1714, succeeded by Sir John Bennet and his brother Thomas, then in 1724 a new agreement and London agent Ralph Noden of the same family was appointed, till 1750, after disputes with the gov. No other names arise of interest. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 247)

1705: Barbados agents included William Bridges MP in 1705, a law clerk for secretaries of state, Francis Eyles, Robert Heysham. In 1704 some names were Sir John Stanley a commissioner of the Customs House, William Bridges, Melatia (sic) Holder, plus William Cleland.

1705: French ships begin to enter the Pacific Ocean.
See also: Bernard Smith, European Vision and the South Pacific. 1950.; Bernard Smith, Imagining The Pacific: In The Wake of the Cook Voyages. MUP, 1992.

1705: Dutch mariners make significant efforts to know more of the north and south coasts of New Guinea and north coast of Australia, eg, Port Essington. and in 1721, the Dutch West India Co sought to find unknown areas west of South America, three ships, went by the north coast of New Guinea. (Australian Encyclopedia, exploration by sea).

1705: Richard Cary as agent for Nevis, in Penson, Colonial Agents, p.126.) (Another Cary to be a noted merchant, see Kellock.)

1705: Agency of Bermuda (Somers Islands), first agent late as 1705 was London merchant Charles Noden, till 1714, succeeded by Sir John Bennet and his brother Thomas, then in 1724 a new agreement and London agent Ralph Noden of the same family was appointed, till 1750, after disputes with the Gov., no other names arise of interest. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p.247.)

1706: Hauksbee explores static glow in partial vacuum.

1706: Thomas Twining establishes Tom's Coffee House in Deveraux Court near Temple Bar, London, and begins to specialize in tea. He opens another house, The Golden Lyon, nearby for the sale of dry tea and coffee.
(Sir Percival Griffiths, The History of the Indian Tea Industry. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1967., p. 17.)

1706: After 1670, the Bahamas were subject of a grant to certain of the proprietors to whom the province of Carolina was granted in 1670, [citing CSP iii, No. 311, pp. 132-133, of Nov 1, 1670]. The proprietors of Bahamas made little provision for defence, and in 1704 they had become depopulated due to war. About 150 families there. Salt the chief product. Bahamas had been a stronghold of pirates, situation not addressed again till 1715. By 1707, collector of customs for 20 years on Bahamas had been John Graves. For years the proprietors of the Bahamas had been resident of England, they had an agent to see to their interests re the Board of Trade, one Thornburgh. By 1706, Graves urges govt that Bahamas are decayed due to neglect of the proprietors. (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 99-103.)

April 1706: Some 31 commissioners meet in London to discuss union of Scotland and England, for new negotiations; one commissioner was Sir John Clerk, although union detested by Jacobite Scots.

September 1706: A huge tobacco fleet leaves Virginia, heavy weather and French privateers, and 30 ships with nearly 15,000 pounds (weight) of tobacco are lost. The English market is anyway glutted and result was a financial crisis for Virginia.
John M. Hemphill, Virginia and the English Commercial System, 1689-1733. London. Garland. 1985. [facsimile of a 1964 Ph. D thesis, Princeton Univ. p. 27].

1707: One Rbt Holden is proposed as gov of Bahamas, and John Graves resists this, in Penson, Colonial Agents, p.103. Graves said that after Holden had seen the [as usual, unnamed] proprietors he was only interested in "wrecks and whales".

1707: (H. R. Fox Bourne, English Merchants: Memoirs, p. 333), "The first English banker" is Sir Francis Child, and Coutts are the largest corn dealers in Scotland.

1707: Act of Union joins England and Scotland.

Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor for 1708-1709 - Sir Charles Duncombe
(There are some confusions with this family, difficult to resolve)
Descendants of Duncombe Senior and Miss Notknown
2. Anthony Duncombe (Alexander?) Of Drayton, Bucks Duncombe, Wilts (c.1670) sp: Mary Paulye (m.15 May 1645;d.1716)
3. Ursula Duncombe of Herts sp: Excise rec-general, Thomas (Duncombe-Brown) Browne (m.1678)
4. MP Thomas Duncombe (Duncombe-Browne of Duncombe Park) (b.1683;d.1746) sp: Sarah Slingsby (m.1714) 4. Mary (Duncombe-Browne) Browne wife1 (d.15 Jan 1716) sp: John CAMPBELL Duke1 Greenwich Duke2 Argyll (b.10 Oct 1680;m.1702;d.4 Oct 1743) 3. London Lord Mayor Sir Charles Duncombe (c.1708/1709;d.9 Apr 1711) sp: Miss Notknown sp: Jane Cornwallis coheir 3. MP, Whig Anthony Duncombe, Baron Feversham (b.1695;d.18 Jun 1763) sp: Margaret Verney wife1 (d.9 Oct 1755) sp: Frances Bathurst wife2 (m.Nov 1756;d.21 Nov 1757) sp: Anne Hales (b.24 Jun 1736;m.10 Aug 1758;d.18 Jun 1795) 4. Anne Duncombe, coheir (d.14 Oct 1829) sp: Jacob Bouverie Earl2 Radnor (b.4 Mar 1750;m.1777;d.27 Jan 1828) sp: Margaret Verney wife1 (d.9 Oct 1755)


1708: Darby casts iron in sand.

1708: Merging of the Old and New East India Companies, new charter in 1711 extended to Co's trading rights till 1733, a 1730 attempt by other merchants to share in its trade in vain, monopoly continued till 1769.

1708: 2 August: Leaves Bristol privateer Woodes Rogers backed by Bristol merchants and later Rogers is friends with Sir Robert Southwell and Sir Hans Sloane and he is later made governor of the Bahamas, died there 1732. He is on Duke, 320 tons 30 guns 117 men; and Capt Stephen Courtney on Duchess 260 tons 26 guns 108 men, and on Duke's crew are included Carleton Vanbrugh merchant and owner's agent; Dampier pilot, John Finch steward, late wholesale oilman of London; see re later rescue of Selkirk, brought back a fortune of £170,000.
(Clen Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 189-192-207, p. 217.)

1708: 22 Feb: Plans for an invasion of Scotland. March 1708, King of France indicated support for the invasion to Edinburgh, but matters are badly organized by France.

1708: Early months, (Gila Curtis, p. 157), a French fleet seen by anxious English spies, assembled at Dunkirk, projected invasion by the pretended Prince of Wales, so Catholics are put under suspicion. Habeus Corpus is suspended. The prince opposing his half-sister's throne is now 20 years old, James Francis Stuart. Invasion fails, the English fleet under Sir George Byng, and the fall of Harley was also engineered. Enter the Junto. More fighting with the French. Harley takes to driving about the parks to provide an impression all was well. Queen Anne becomes ill. Harley as treasurer is losing his grip on most things, he cannot make himself understood clearly.

1708: Vice-admiral Charles Wager commands at Jamaica and with three ships attacks the Spanish silver fleet, success incomplete. He later becomes very rich. And about now, Anglo-French rivalry shifts to American mainland.
(Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 330.)

See also: Ernest Samhaber, Merchants Make History: How Trade Has Influenced The Course Of History Throughout The World. London, Harrap. 1963.

1709: A financial crash occurs in Lyon and Geneva in which financier Samuel Bernard loses a fortune.

1709: England: Orford (see Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 225), is made First Lord of Admiralty.

1709: Freemasons' modes of recognition mentioned in The Tatler.

1709: Liverpool begins its slave trade in 1709, says Samhaber.

1709: End of Sweden as a major European power when Charles XII and Swedish forces at Poltava, Ukraine, lose to Russian forces under Peter the Great.

1709: A Jesuit priest from Brazil, Father Bartolomeu de Gusmao, demonstrates a hot-air balloon to the Portuguese court at Lisbon. That is, the Montgolfier Bros of Paris were probably not the first people to fly in a balloon. (Source: James/Thorpe).

1710: Sir Gilbert Heathcote (1651-1733), a founder of the [New?] East India Company in 1693, London Lord Mayor in 1710-1711. (Lewis Melville, The South Sea Bubble. New York, Burt Franklins, 1921., pp. 123)

Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor 1710-1711 Gilbert Heathcote
(Note the connections here with the power structure of Loyalist New York, and De Lanceys)
Descendants of Gilbert Heathcote (c.1633;d.1634) and Anne Dickens
2. Colonel, Customs, Mayor New York, Caleb Heathcote (c.1700) sp: Patty (Martha) Smith
3. Anne Heathcote sp: Acting-Gov New York, James De Lancey, Loyalist (b.1703;m.1729;d.1760) 4. Merchant, horse racer, James De Lancey Junior (b.1732;d.1800) sp: Margaret Allen (m.1771) 4. Miss DE Lancey sp: MP, contractor, John Watts of New York (c.1775) 4. Julia De Lancey sp: Capt. Robert Timpson (c.1775) 2. London Lord Mayor Sir Gilbert Heathcote (b.1651;d.25 Jan 1733) sp: Hester Rayner (b.1682;m.1682) 3. Anne Heathcote sp: Steelmaster, South Sea Co. figure, Sir Jacob Jacobson 3. Sir John Heathcote, Bart2 sp: Miss Notknown 4. Hester Heathcote wife2 sp: Archibald Edmonstone (b.10 Oct 1717;m.Apr 1778;d.1807)
3. Hesther Heathcote wife2 sp: William Sloane 3. Elizabeth Heathcote sp: Sir Sigismund Trafford of Lincolnshire
2. Baltic Co. merchant Samuel Heathcote (d.13 Nov 1708) sp: Mary Dawson (m.1691) 3. Mary Of Hackney Heathcote wife1 sp: MP Sir Philip (William?) Yonge, Bart4 (b.1693;m.30 Jul 1716(Div);d.1755) 3. MP Sir William Heathcote, Bart1 (b.15 Mar 1693) sp: Elizabeth Parker (m.7 Apr 1720;d.27 Dec 1749)
4. Sir Thomas Heathcote, Bart2 of Hants (b.23 Jul 1721) sp: Elizabeth Hinton wife1 (d.27 Dec 1749) sp: Anne Tollett wife2 (m.30 May 1754;d.1709) 4. Elizabeth Heathcote, cousin (c.1740) sp: Admiral Francis William Drake (b.22 Aug 1724;m.3 Nov 1763;d.19 Nov 1789) 4. Sir William Heathcote, Bart2 (c.1754;d.23 Jul 1721) sp: Elizabeth Hinton wife1 (m.13 Dec 1742;d.27 Dec 1749) 4. Mary Heathcote, a fortune, cousin (d.1812) sp: Thomas Parker Earl3 Macclesfld Visc Parker (b.12 Oct 1732;m.12 Dec 1749;d.9 Feb 1795) 3. Anne Heathcote Of Hursley sp: MP Sir Francis Tavistock Drake, Bart4 (d.1740) 4. MP Sir Francis Henry Drake, Bart5 (b.1723;d.1794) 4. Admiral Francis William Drake (b.22 Aug 1724;d.19 Nov 1789) sp: Elizabeth Heathcote, (cousin) (c.1740;m.3 Nov 1763) sp: Miss Onslow wife2 sp: Elizabeth Hayman Of Kent


1710: The English Royal Africa Company lists include: Sir William Humphreys, Deputy-Governor Thomas Pindar, John Campbell, John Duncombe, William Elliott (sic), James Gohier (sic), Arthur Moore, Anthony Reynolds, Daniel Hayes, John Cutting, William Lancaster, Robert Vansittart, John Cooke, Stephen Pendarves, Sir Jonathan Andrews, Capt John Nicholson, Colonel Joseph Jorey, Thomas Lake, Sir Francis Dashwood, (another). Sir Stephen Evance (sic), Sir Samuel Stanier (sic), John Morgan, Charles Vere, William Mead, Colonel William Graham, Francis Dandridge.

1710+: James Russell 1710+, the greatest Maryland merchants in London were Captain John Hyde, plus his sons, John and Herbert Hyde. (Jacob Price article, p. 178)

1710+: James Russell 1710 or so, the greatest Maryland merchants in London are Captain John Hyde, plus his sons, John and Herbert Hyde. See Jacob M. Price, 'One Family's Empire: The Russell-Lee-Clerk Connection in Maryland, Britain and India, 1707-1857'., Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 72, 1977. See also: Jacob M. Price, 'The Last Phase of the Virginia-London Consignment Trade: James Buchanan and Co, 1758-1768', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. XLIII, No. 1, Jan. 1968., pp. 64ff.; Jacob M. Price, 'Buchanan and Simson, 1759-1763: A Different Kind of Glasgow Firm Trading to the Chesapeake', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. XL, No. 1. Jan. 1983., pp. 3ff.; Jacob M. Price, 'The Rise of Glasgow in the Chesapeake Tobacco Trade, 1707-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. XI, April 1954., pp. 179ff.; Jacob M. Price, (Ed.), 'Joshua Johnson's Letterbook, 1771-1774: Letters from a Merchant in London to His Partners in Maryland'. London, 1979. Jacob M. Price, 'Capital And Credit In The British-Chesapeake Trade, 1750-1775', in Virginia B. Platt and David Curtis Skaggs, (Eds.), Of Mother Country And Plantations: Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Conference In Early American History. Bowling Green, Ohio, 1971. Jacob M. Price, essay, 'Joshua Johnson In London, 1771-1775', in Anne Whiteman et al, (Eds.), Statesmen, Scholars and Merchants, Essays ... presented to Dame Lucy Sutherland. Oxford, 1973.

John M. Hemphill, Virginia and the English Commercial System, 1689-1733. London. Garland. 1985. [facsimile of a 1964 Ph. D thesis, Princeton Univ. p. 259, citing on Perry, Elizabeth Donnan, 'Eighteenth-Century English Merchants: Micajah Perry', Journal of Economic and Business History. 4 Vols. Cambridge Mass, 1928-1932, iv 1932., pp. 70-98.
John M. Hemphill, Virginia and the English Commercial System, 1689-1733. London. Garland. 1985. [facsimile of a 1964 Ph. D thesis, Princeton Univ. pp. 44-45ff, a good deal of discussion of Micajah Perry and his views on trading.

See Katharine A. Kellock, 'London Merchants and the pre-1776 American Debts, Guildhall Studies in London History, Vol. 1, No 3, October 1974., pp. 109-149.

1711: England: Formation of South Seas Company.

1711: South Seas Company founded by Rbt Harley, (Earl of Oxford), in 1711, and in 1720 it attempted to take over the national debt on terms disadvantageous to itself. Rbt Walpole an astute speculator actually made money out of it all. People in all ranks of society left penniless. Allegations of bribery, corruption, robbery and jobbery. One minister committed suicide, Chancellor of Exchqr and some MPs committed to the Tower, and estates confiscated. The PM was arraigned. King is reviled for supporting the Co.
Rbt Harley becomes Chancellor Exchequer in August 1710, needs to improve finances, National Debt is over £nine million, plans especially leaned on the stability of the Bank of England [only recently founded by William Paterson]. Fantasies of vast riches to be found in Peru and South America, [Britain once again as a freebooter]. Idea that ships are only to travel out by Straits of Magellan or by Terra del Fuego, not to trade in goods India, Persia or China, go no further west than Chile, Peru, or Mexico, under pain of heavy forfeitures to East India Company. Bubble directors are not to be in EICo or Bank of England. South Seas Co. has royal assent on 18 May, 1711, by July, some £2,000,000 are subscribed, a further 2 million more came in. South Seas Royal Charter gained by 8 Sept., 1711, for South Seas and other parts of America. Some high connections of the Co. included William Astell, Francis Acton, William Chapman, South Sea Co. set up house in building north-east corner of Threadneedle St, by Bishopsgate St, City. Was to settle factories at Panama, Port Bello, Cartagena, Vera Cruz, Buenos Aires, Havana, agents at Jamaica and Cadiz, Madrid, one ship yearly.
(See Lewis Melville, The South Sea Bubble. New York, Burt Franklins, 1921.)

1711: England, John, Duke of Buckinghamshire in 1711 is president of the council.

1711: China: Ch'ing emperors are willing to relax restrictions on foreign trade and English East India Co. allowed to create a base at Canton.

1711: War between Turkey and Russia.

1711: Sir Gilbert Heathcote (1651-1733), a trader of the EICo in 1693, Lord Mayor of London 1710-1711. (Melville, South Sea Bubble, p. 123.)

1711: Firm Champion and Dickason of Great Ayliffe Street, Goodman's Fields, (formerly the house of Storke from 1711 when John Storke died in 1711) with partner Alexander Champion, also in the New England Company with Thomas Lane, alderman George Hayley also of this house married Storke's widow - Champion left in 1764 to 117 Bishopsgate and Thomas Dickason. Champion retired in 1789 died 1795, the business went to Dickason and Dickason Jnr, and William Burgess debt-collected for them (Champion and Hayley had dealt together in 1764)-Kellock; Champion and Dickason, Kellock, London debt claimants of 1790 appendix p. 120. This firm had its roots in one established by John Storke died 1711, whose mother was a Dummer, which gave him New England correspondents such as Samuel Sewell of Boston. [See William I. Roberts, III, 'Samuel Storke, An Eighteenth Century London Merchant trading to the American Colonies', The Business History Review, XXXIX, Summer 1965., pp. 47-70. Storke's son John died 1725 continued business and was succeeded by his son Samuel Storke, died 1746 aged 59, of [Great Ayliffe Street] Goodman's Fields. By 1734, Samuel Storke had Thomas Gainsborough for a partner with correspondents such as Andrew Oliver of Boston and Cuylers and Livingstons of New York. In 1742 the firm became Storke and Son. Links with a society for the propagation of the gospel in New England. Some funds transfers re such linkages. Samuel Storke took a partner, Alexander Champion, who headed the business after Storke died in 1753. Champion dealt with New England and Thomas Lane of Lane, Son and Fraser, till 1775. In 1764, when Lane declined to give more credit to Gov Jonathan Trumbull later gov of Connecticut, Champion and Hayley gave him £1200 worth of goods on nine months credit. At some time, George Hayley of the Storke counting house married Storke's widow, with a dowry of £15,000, and he became Champion's partner. Storke's widow was a termagent (turbulent) sister of John Wilkes the radical alderman. At end of 1764, Champion left Great Ayliffe Street, Goodman's Fields, and went into business with a new partner Thomas Dickason, at 117 Bishopsgate. When Champion and Hayley parted, Hayley, seeking correspondents for himself, wrote to Champion's correspondents that it had really been he who had conducted the business as Champion had poor health and spent most of his time in the country. Champion retired in 1789, he died in 1795, and he turned the business over to Dickason, who then took on his son and namesake. Young Dickason had already been to America on one debt collecting trip and the firm had earlier sent over William Burgess for the same purpose.

1711: Dies 1711, Merchant John Storke Senior, married to Miss Dummer of Boston. His son Samuel died of a sudden stroke leaving Alexander Champion in charge of their firm which had dealt with Americans such as Robert Livingston Jnr, and Henry Cuyler, families in the American fur trade. The firm also from 1723-1724 dealt with James Logan, who had a connection with the Pennsylvania trade of Quaker John Askew, whose son John Askew Jnr carried on the fur trade till 1730 when he also died. For the next ten years Storke dealt with Logan and Shippen, In 1746 Storke began dealing with Thomas Lawrence. In Philadelphia, Storke dealt with Isaac Norris Sr and Isaac Norris Jnr, in wheat sent to Spanish and Mediterranean ports. Storke had agents in Jamaica named Tindale, Manning and Co. A Storke son also worked in Hamburg. Storke dealt among others with four large Boston houses, Joshua Cheever, James Bowdoin, Andrew and Peter Oliver, and Bill & Sewall. In the 1730s Storke dealt with Holbroide and Pearson at Gibraltar, Patrick Purcell and Co at Cadiz, Winder and Ferrand at Barcelona. Samuel Storke Jnr entered the family firm in 1742 and soon took as a partner, Alexander Champion. His father's firm had been known as Samuel Storke and Co, Storke and Gainsborough, Storke and Son, Storke and Champion, and dealt with Boston, Philadelphia, New York, Lisbon, Cadiz, Gibralter, Jamaica, St Johns, Newfoundland, and major northern European ports. This firm also dealt with Andrew Oliver of Boston and Livingstons of New York. Storke died in 1753, so Champion continued to trade, later linked with Lane, Son and Fraser. Samuel Storke II had married Mary Wilkes; when he died, Mary married alderman George Hayley. After Hayley died, Mary consorted with the American whaler, Francis Rotch. An irony here is that since Mary was sister of the radical John Wilkes, who had influenced political thought in America, the business interests of his sister suffered by the American War. The Hayley estate as a British Creditor claimed £79,599.
See also, Anthony Dickinson, 'Some aspects of the origin and implementation of the eighteenth century Falkland Islands sealing industry', International Journal of Maritime History, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1990., pp. 33-68. Eduoard A. Stackpole, Whales And Destiny: The Rivalry between America, France, and Britain for control of the Southern Whale Fishery, 1785-1825. University of Massachusetts Press, 1972., pp. 102, 145; George Rude, Wilkes and Liberty. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1962. Kel lock's article, p. 111, p. 120. Collected citations would include D. A. Farnie, 'The Commercial Empire of the Atlantic, 1607-1783', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 15, 1962., pp. 205-218; G. D. Ramsay, (Ed.), English Overseas Trade during the Centuries of Emergence. London, 1957, especially Ch. 7, William I. Roberts, 'Samuel Storke: An Eighteenth Century London Merchant trading to the American Colonies.'

Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor of 1712 - Sir Richard Hoare
Descendants of Henry Hoare (d.1654/1655) and sp: Catherine Nott
2. Yeoman Henry Hoare sp: Olive Notknown
3. Henry Hoare of London sp: Cicely Notknown (d.1678)
4. London Lord Mayor, South Seas Co. figure, Sir Richard Hoare (b.1648;d.6 Jan 1718/1719) sp: Susannah Austen (m.27 Jul 1672)
5. Richard Hoare (b.1673) sp: Sarah Colston wife1 sp: Mary Bolton wife2
6. London Merchant William Hoare (d.13 May 1753) sp: Martha Cornelison (m.26 Jul 1746;d.25 Sep 1777)
7. Banker Henry Hoare (b.20 Apr 1750;d.15 Mar 1828) sp: Lydia Malortie (m.20 Feb 1775;d.19 Jul 1816)
5. Levant trader, John Hoare (b.3 Apr 1682;d.18 May 1721) sp: Elizabeth Hookes 5. Mary Hoare (b.17 Jan 1685;d.18 Apr 1761) sp: Sir Edward Lyttleton, Bart3 (m.10 Jul 1781;d.21 Jan 1741) 6. Sir Edward Lyttleton, Bart4 (d.18 May 1812) sp: Frances Horton (no issue) 6. Frances Lyttleton sp: Moreton Walhouse 7. Moreton Walhouse sp: Anne Cracroft Portal
5. Banker, Goldsmith Henry Hoare (c.1702;d.12 Mar 1724/1725) sp: Jane Benson (m.19 May 1702;d.9 Jun 1742)
6. Banker Henry II Hoare (b.7 Jul 1705) sp: Anne Masham wife1 (m.11 Apr 1726;d.4 Mar 1727) sp: Susan Colt wife2 (m.5 Jul 1728;d.17 May 1743)
7. Sir Richard Colt Hoare, Bart (c.1782) sp: Hester Lyttleton (d.1785) 7. Banker Henry Hoare Unm (b.22 Dec 1730;d.1752) 7. Susanna Hoare wife1 (d.1783) sp: Thomas Bruce Brudenell Earl4 Ailesbury (b.30 Apr 1729;m.17 Feb 1761;d.19 Apr 1814) sp: Charles Boyle Visc Dungarvan (b.27 Jan 1729;d.16 Sep 1759) 7. Anne cousin Hoare wife1 (d.5 May 1759) sp: Sir Richard Hoare Sir, Bart2 (b.7 Mar 1734/1735;m.20 Mar 1756;d.12 Oct 1754) 6. London Lord Mayor, Banker, Richard Hoare (c.1745;d.1754) sp: Sarah Tulley wife1 (m.24 Apr 1732)
7. Sir Richard Hoare, Bart2 (b.7 Mar 1734/1735;d.12 Oct 1754) sp: Elizabeth Rust wife2 (m.30 Jun 1737) sp: Anne cousin Hoare wife1 (m.20 Mar 1756;d.5 May 1759) sp: Elizabeth Rust wife2
5. Banker Benjamin Hoare (b.11 Jul 1693;d.12 Jan 1749/1750) sp: Ellen Richards (d.Feb 1747/1748) 6. Banker Richard Hoare (b.24 May 1673;d.26 May 1778) sp: Susan Cecilia Dingley wife1 (m.24 Jun 1762;d.20 May 1795) 7. Sophia Hoare sp: William (Grimston) Bucknall (b.23 Jun 1750;m.7 Feb 1783;d.25 Apr 1814)
3. Henry Hoare of London sp: Cicely Notknown (d.1678)


1712: Whaling history: Nantucket Island. Capt. Christopher Hussey in a Nantucket sloop is blown offshore and finds a new species of deep-sea whale - the Sperm. By 1715, Nantucket has six 30-40 ton ships chasing deepwater Sperm. About now, a Nantucketeer developed a brick tryworks enabling whalers to extract oil from blubber. Also, Benjamin Crabb invented a way of making spermaceti candles, meaning less shipment of fluid whale oil.
K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways.. University of South Carolina Press, 1988., p. 231.

1712: From 1712 the British slave trade became "free trade", and later the Company itself provided only an insignificant supply of slaves, allowing outports such as Bristol and Liverpool to become so dependent on slavery.

1713: Treaty of Utrecht.

1713: A number of English merchants trading to the tobacco colonies were also engaged in the slave trade, and in the Chesapeake the higher prices for slaves before 1708 were those of the separate traders, not the Royal Africa Co.
Olson, Virginia Merchants of London, p. 372 note 33)

1700-1713: After the establishment of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty of 1700, a French company (French Guinea Co though not named) is formed which receives the exclusive privilege of the Spanish-American slave trade - the asiento. Encyclopedia Britannica. - Asiento chronology -

1713: At the Peace of Utrecht of 1713, the British claim the asiento. This privilege goes to the South Sea Company, and forms part of the basis for the financial madness (and anti-Spanish fervour) of the South Sea Bubble, which bursts from 1720. Encyclopedia Britannica. - Asiento chronology -

December 1713: Queen Anne falls dangerously ill. Money is being distributed it was said in the Highlands for Jacobite purposes. Govt losing supporters. Bolingbroke quarrels with Oxford, Bolingbroke to the head of the high church party, and it is now known Bolingbroke had corrupt relations with a merchant and commissioner for Trade, Arthur Moore, re provisions for the peninsula army. Clark, Later Stuarts, pp. 245-247).

1713-1730: Changes in tobacco export inspection procedures from 1713 to 1730 prior to the idea of the 1733 Excise Act instigated by Walpole.
(John M. Hemphill, Virginia and the English Commercial System, 1689-1733. London. Garland. 1985. [facsimile of a 1964 Ph. D thesis, Princeton Univ. pp. 152ff.])

1713: Virginia merchants very apprehensive about pirates disturbing trade. (Rediker, p. 281).

1713+: From 1713, under a contract with the South Sea Company, slaves are supplied to Spanish colonies by the British, the Royal Africa Co. assisting, Spanish colonies bought all their slaves from France or England, as when a South Sea Co ship went to the "fairs" at Vera Cruz and Cartagena. But these Anglo-Spanish relations always remained uneasy, the last such English ship (there were only ever eight) sailed in 1733, and Adam Smith anyway said the last South Sea Co. ship sent, Royal Carolina of 1733, was the only one to make a profit; the arrangements were abandoned in 1750.
(Williams, Whig, pp. 296-297.)

1713: England: The arrival of peace in 1713 after twelve years of war with France sparks a sudden upsurge in serious crime. Military demobilization sets loose thousands of toughened young men in the London area with a need for employment and a taste for hard living. Unlike France and other absolutist monarchies in Europe, England lacks professional police on either the national or the county level. The country's long-standing commitment to protecting popular liberties hindered the development of a coercive bureaucracy. Much as with the traditional fear Englishmen had of standing armies, the prospect of a full-time police force engenders widespread alarm. ....London and other urban areas depend heavily upon amateur guardians like constables and watchmen who have excessive workloads.

1713: By 1713 a prominent London tobacco merchant is Thomas Coutts. See later careers of Coutts bankers.

1713, York Lodge makes eighteen Masons at Bedford. (Hamill.)

1713: The British Parliament passes an Act awarding £20,000 to anyone of whatever nationality who can determine a way to determine longitude to an accuracy of one degree. This prize not won until 1761 when a Hull man, John Harrison, produces his No. 4 Marine Timekeeper, now at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich. The clockmaker George Graham assisted this invention.

1714: John Ailsabie (1670-1742) Treasurer of Navy from 1714, chancellor of Exchqr in 1718, disapproves of the South Sea Company. (Melville, South Sea Bubble, p. 24.)

1714 Circa: Vacant directorships of South Seas Co. filled by Second Duke of Argyll, Sir Lambton Blackwell, Richard Horsey, Jacob Jacobsen a merchant and others. Ships Bedford and Elizabeth sail with this Co's goods in 1714, to Cartagena and Vera Cruz; disastrous trade though.
(Melville, South Sea Bubble, p. 21.)

1714: England: Death of Queen Anne. Scots Jacobites abroad intrigued with Bolingbroke, hoping to crown the Old Pretender instead of George I of Hanover in 1714. Bolingbroke's plans failed and a rising grew, in Scotland, 1715, led by Bobbing John Erskine, Earl of Mar and Bolingbroke from France. Mar's military incompetence doomed the 1715 rising; at Preston in Scotland on Nov 13, 1715, the Jacobites capitulated to the English, while at Sherrifmuir with an indecisive battle the Duke of Argyll defeated Mar's 9000-strong Jacobite forces, three times the strength of his enemy, and Mar withdrew leaving Argyll ready to fight another day. James Edward Stuart cross from France to be crowned but his cause was already lost.

1714: England: Charles Montague, later Halifax, in 1714 he again becomes First Lord of Treasury.

1714: Mariner William Dampier's health is broken down, in September he is 63, living in Parish of St Stephens, Coleman Street, London, near Old Jewry, looked after by his female cousin Grace Mercer, one of his main beneficiaries. Some furniture is left with Capt Richard Newton. Dampier died early March, 1715.
(Clen Wilkinson, Dampier, pp. 239-241.)

1714: From March 1714, the Pope contributes funds to the Stuart/Jacobite cause of Scotland.

1714: Geo I quite sensibly disliked the English habit of officers buying their commissions, which is hardly any way to encourage professionalism or run an efficient army. (Williams, Whigs)

1714: Polish-born physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit invents the mercury thermometer.

1715: Jacobite uprising of the Scots against the English, unsuccessful.

1715: By an act of 1715, South Seas Co now has capital of £10 million and wanting 2 million more. (Melville, South Sea Bubble, p. 23.)

By 1715, a former agent of Jamaica is Sir Gilbert Heathcote MP. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 171.)

1716: (Penson, Colonial Agents, p.102), the proprietors of the Bahamas have their rights resumed and the Crown takes up the islands; and then in 1718, the famous navigator Capt Woodes Rogers is sent there as governor to suppress pirates.

James /Bateman/ Lord Mayor of London 1600 Sir James Bateman elected in 1716.
(Item, per Peter Western)

1716-1718: (Rediker, p. 257), the Bahamas Islands ungoverned and undefended so become a haven for pirates in hundreds, and by 1718, the resulting complaints lead Geo I to appoint Woodes Rogers to bring the pirates under control. Rogers scatters pirates to Carolinas and Africa. By 1718, Madagascar is a pirate's entrepot for plunder and booty and a spot for temporary settlement. They also used the mouth of the Sierra Leone River on the African West Coast. (See Woodes Rogers, A Cruising Voyage Round the World, edited by G. E. Manwaring, 1712, reprinted New York, 1928. Rediker cannot clarify if the pirates' Jolly Roger, the skull and crossbones, was appropriated from Freemasonry, although he says the pirate's symbol of the death's head was appropriated from somewhere.
Rediker (p. 268) has a fascinating diagram of social links amongst pirates and their captains 1714-1727. Given that Anglo-American pirates had their own codes of behaviour, but remained in opposition to all other social codes, the diagram resembles a social whirlpool, with the vortex concentrated in the years 1715-1721. Death often visited the centre of this social and organisational vortex. (Rediker, p. 257).

1716: On Francis March: By 1716 a West Indies merchant of London, Francis March, had agreed to ship to plantations all prisoners he was able take from Gravesend, at his own expense. He ended being paid £2 per head by the Treasury. Some ships used about then were Lewis and Queen Elizabeth, for Jamaica. March's career was short. By July 1718 he was replaced by Jonathan Forward, who had the ear of the Solicitor-General. [Coldham, Emigrants in Chains, pp. 59-61]. In early 1717, the Treasury paid Francis March £108 to transport 54 felons aboard three vessels to Jamaica. [Treasury Order, 6 march, 1717, in William A. Shaw, Calendar of Treasury Books, London, 1905-1957., Vol. 31, pp. 171-172. [Noted by Ekirch]

1716: (Mingay, p. 124), in 1716 it is estimated there are 60,000 debtors imprisoned in England and Wales. The Marshalsea had 300 debtors in 1729, many literally starving to death.

1716: Departing England December 1716, ship Lewis Capt. Roger Laming, for Jamaica. (Coldham, pp. 915-916 in his Complete Book Of Emigrants in Bondage.)
See also Peter Wilson Coldham, 'Transportation of English Felons', National Genealogical Society Quarterly, LXIII, 1975. Also, Peter Coldham, Bonded Passengers To America. 9 Vols. Baltimore, 1983. Peter Wilson Coldham, The Complete Book of Emigrants in Bondage, 1614-1775. Baltimore, Genealogical Publishing Co., 1988. Lists convicts per ship England to North America. Directions to other writings by Coldham not given. Appends list of ships and ships captains 1716-Oct 1775.

1716-1717: A West Indies merchant, Francis March, in 1716 agreed to ship to plantations all prisoners he was able take from Gravesend, at his own expense, but he ended being paid £2 per head by the Treasury. Ships used about then were Lewis and Queen Elizabeth for Jamaica. March's career was short. By July 1718 he was replaced by Jonathan Forward, who had the ear of the Solicitor-General.) In early 1717, the Treasury pays the merchant Francis March £108 to transport 54 felons aboard three vessels to Jamaica. Treasury Order, 6 march, 1717, in Shaw, William A., Calendar Of Treasury Books, London, 1905-57. , XXXI, pp. 171-2. See also A. Roger Ekirch, Bound For America: The Transportation Of British Convicts To The Colonies 1718-1775. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1987.

1717: Coldham notes, Forward's first convict ship in 1717 was Dolphin, master/owner Gilbert Poulson. But finally, Poulson sued Forward, Dolphin had been impounded and ended unseaworthy, Forward's Maryland assets worth £2000 were seized, Lord Baltimore was obstructing Forward's endeavours, law suits dragged on. During the fracas, Forward used another of his ships from the slave trade, Eagle, Capt Robert Staple (September 1718).

1717: Formation of Freemason's Grand Lodge of London.

1717: Forward as a slaver was not well-reported until Coldham suggested his ship Jonathan regularly sailed in the slave trade until she sank at Antigua in 1717, leaving Forward in need of new business. Coldham notes from records of lawsuits, Forward took on the assigneeships of bankrupt tobacco dealers, one of whom was John Goodwin. Forward in 1717 had transported 131 convicts to Maryland and in July 1718 he shipped another 40. Thomson considered Forward ready to take felons at a lower rate than other merchants - simple price undercutting, in fact. As an indication of the kind of commercial imagination at work, Forward once suggested that a penal settlement be founded at Nova Scotia. (Ekirch, p. 112.)
Forward operated from a Cheapside house on Fenchurch Street, London, and also had experience in the Atlantic slave trade. He also had links to the tobacco trade in Virginia and Maryland. (Coldham, Emigrants in Chains, p. 61, pp. 71ff.)


Follows here a list of English ship managers operating 1717-1775, shipping convicts to America: With a list of merchants shipping convicts to Australia from 1786-1788, to 1867: The two lists will enable completion of any research on the English use of convict transportation in the period covered...
Please note: This collected list has never appeared in any printed book to date, and did not appear on the Internet before 16-6-2002 - Dan Byrnes.
1717: Francis March, London:
1718 Jonathan Forward, London;
1720 members of the Lux family, Darby, John, and Francis (probably London before becoming colonials, (later linked to Jonathan Forward's operations) and in 1750, William Lux;
1721-1722, Jonathan Forward Sydenham of London;
1722, ? Cheston;
1731, various men named Reed, to 1771;
1737, Joseph Weld in Dublin;
1739, Andrew Reid, London, with James and Andrew Armour, London, and John Stewart of London;
1740++, Moses Israel Fonseca, London;
1740, Samuel Sedgley, Bristol;
1740, James Gildart, Liverpool;
1744, John Langley, Ireland;
1745, Reid and Armour, London;
1745, Sydenham and Hodgson, London;
1747, William Cookson of Hull;
1749, Jonathan Forward Sydenham a nephew of Jonathan Forward above;
1749, Stewart and Armour, London;
1750, Andrew Reid, London;
1750, Samuel Sedgely and Co of Bristol; John Stewart and (Duncan) Campbell, London (JS&C);
1758, Sedgely and Co (Hillhouse and Randolph), Bristol;
1759, Stewart and Armour, London;
1760, Sedgely and Hillhouse of Bristol;
1763, Andrew Reid retired;
1764, John Stewart and Duncan Campbell, London;
1766, Patrick Colquhuon, Glasgow; 1766, Sedgely and Co. at Bristol replaced by William Randolph, William Stevenson and James Cheston, Bristol;
1767, Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston, Bristol? with a colonial agent Cheston;
1768, Jonathan Forward Sydenham, London or nearby counties;
1769, Dixon and Littledale, Whitehaven;
1769, Sedgely, Bristol; 1769, any ships captain providing necessary securities could transport felons;
1770, James Baird, Glasgow;
1772, John Stewart died, Duncan Campbell carried on alone in London until 1775.

At Bristol, Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston (SRC) were active till 1776; they made ill-advised and vain attempts to transport felons to North America at the end of the American Revolution. Wisely, Duncan Campbell (1726-1803) did not attempt to resume convict transportation to America.
(The above list does not include names transporting convicts from Ireland.)
(See here, Abbot Emerson Smith, Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labour in America, 1607-1776. Gloucester, Massachusetts, University of Carolina Press, 1947. [Peter Smith, 1965])
As a matter of silence-in-history, US historian Bernard Bailyn once wrote - about American reception of English emigrants generally before 1775, (p. 4) there are... "extraordinary facts, key facts, somehow obscured by historians of the empire concentrating on institutions, power rivalries, mercantilism and trade"... "...
(See Bernard Bailyn, 'The Peopling of the British Peripheries in the Eighteenth Century', Esso Lecture, 1988. Canberra, Australian Academy of the Humanities, Occasional Paper No. 5, 1988.
Oddly, Bailyn then wrote, (page 19), "I have never found a single reference to a convict in any genealogy or history of an American family, nor, in any other way, does a single one of the 50,000 convicts sent to America appear as such in American history."
In terms of American colonial society (Virginia and Maryland to 1775), the following list of names is interesting: The American correspondents of London based Duncan Campbell were mostly were users of slave labour.
Here is a list of them: Duncan Campbell's correspondents from the index to his business letterbook 1772-1776: including, Allison and Campbell, William Adam, Samuel Athawes, Colonel William Brockenbrough and Austin Brockenbrough, Dr John Brockenbrough, Adam Barnes and Johnson, James Bain, Rev. Mr Beauvoir, James and Robert Buchanan, George Buchanan, Robert Cockerell, Messrs Campbell and Dickson, Colin Currie, Stewart Carmichael, William Dickson, Charles Eyles, Fitzhugh, Fauntleroy, Richard Glascock/Glascook, Benj and Charles Grimes, Henderson and Glassford, Rhodam Kenner, Abraham Lopez and Son, James Millar Jamaica, Daniel Muse, Hudson Muse, Hugh McLean, Joshua Newall, George Noble, Francis Randall, Major Henry Ridgely, Adam Shipley, William Snydebottom, Richard Stringer, Alexr Spiers and Co., Spiers, Finch and Co., Dr. Sherwin, William and Edward Telfair, Tayloe and Thornton, Charles Worthington, Cooper and Telfair.

From 1786, Duncan Campbell, the overseer of the Thames prison hulks, never sent a convict ship to Australia, though he had every opportunity to do so if he wished.
(Below names asterisked are merchant names which are still resistant to genealogical or other forms of research.)
Merchants shipping convicts to Australia from 1786-1788 include: for the First Fleet: William Richards Junior, London alderman William (later Sir) Curtis, London alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay, Leightons, James Mather. For the Second Fleet to Sydney, London-based slavers supplying slaves to Jamaica at the time, Camden*, Calvert* and King. The Third Fleet, the Enderby whalers together with Calvert's firm. Later, a London whaling investor, John St Barbe.
By 1800 or so, John Wilsone, Gabriel Gillett with William Wilson, (who had links with the London Missionary Society, as did James Duncan*; William Hingston*, Edward Redman*, Thomas Patrickson*, John Prinsep (pioneer of the indigo industry in India); the London whaler Daniel Bennet. London dockowner names Money and Wigram, who from 1810 were also investor-names in the firm Forbes and Co. at Bombay (a firm which still survives with that name!). Alexander Towers*; Joseph Lachlan* (who as an agent took more than 84 contracts - "in bulk" - and so camouflaged the names of the shipowners actually involved); Buckle, Buckle, Bagster* and Buchanan*; J. Atty* and Co., Hovelds*, Lyalls*, Birch* and Ward*, Thomas Ward, Abel Chapman, J. Blacket*, Johnsons*, John Barry*, Robert Brooks, Joseph Somes*, Duncan Dunbar*.
The two lists above of convict-transporting ship managers given for North America, then Australia, are the mainstay-names for England's long-use of convict transportation from 1718 to 1867.
For more detailed information on these merchant names as chapters arise, see Dan Byrnes' website on convict transportation from England, 1718-1810: The Blackheath Connection at: http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/blackheath/


1717: French authorities open their ports to American colonial shipping, boosting trades in sugar and molasses to pleased American surprise. Rum becomes a favoured American beverage and supplants French brandy as a staple item in Guinea slave trade.


After 1718: Virginia and Maryland take the brunt of receiving English convicts.

1718: By 1718, Virginian planter John Tayloe is dealing with Messrs James and Lyonel Lyde of Bristol. (John M. Hemphill, Virginia and the English Commercial System, 1689-1733. London. Garland. 1985. [facsimile of a 1964 Ph. D thesis, Princeton Univ., p. 49.])

1718: John Ailsabie (1670-1742), ("avaricious and unscrupulous") is Treasurer of Navy from 1714, Chancellor of Exchqr in 1718, disapproved of the South Seas Co. (Melville, South Sea Bubble, p. 24.

1718: William Nevine is proposed as agent for Montserrat (Penson, Colonial Agents, p.93, p. 104.) In 1718-1728 Woodes Rogers co-governs Bahamas with George Phenney, and Phenney unpopular as he exacts money from the inhabitants. Rogers died in 1732.

1718: December: At Providence the capital of the Bahamas Islands in the West Indies is a mass hanging of pirates which had been anticipated with relish by the governor and vice-admiralty judge Woodes Rogers. (Rediker. pp. 56ff).

1718: France: John Law amongst other things acquires control of the Senegal (French) slave trade, he also buys out the old French Eastern and China companies, and has monopolies of tobacco sales, mint, and tax collections. Law's bank becomes the French royal bank in 1718 and can issue notes.
(Pierre Vilar, A History of Gold and Money, 1450-1920. London, Verso, 1991., p. 242, Vilar's chapter, From Colbert to Law.)

1718: The Treasury and Jonathan Forward made an agreement on 8 August, 1718 which allowed Forward a monopoly on convict contracting. [Coldham, Emigrants in Chains, pp. 61-61.
In 1719 Forward wanted higher fees for his services, partly as tobacco prices were low; the Treasury gave in. later, Forward as in Coldham, Emigrants in Chains, had a corrupt link with Wild the thief taker, for people, see on thief-taker Jonathan Wilde, see Robert Hughes, The Fatal Shore, p. 27, and especially p. 613, Note 13 re corrupt links with Jonathan Forward.

1718-1867: On the English Convict Contractors 1718-1867 - in the chronological order of their involvements:
Evidently, the merchants active in the convict service between England and North America after 1717 had survived the South Sea Bubble well. After 1717, a list of the names of British convict contractors to North America (in roughly the chronological order of their first appearance in records) would include:
1717: Francis March, London: 1718 Jonathan Forward, London; 1720 members of the Lux family, Darby, John, and Francis, probably London (later linked to Jonathan Forward's operations) and in 1750, William Lux; 1721, 1722, Jonathan Forward Sydenham of London; 1722, Cheston, ?; 1731, various men named Reed, to 1771; 1737, Joseph Weld in Dublin; 1739, Andrew Reid, London, with James and Andrew Armour, London, and John Stewart of London; 1740ff, Moses Israel Fonseca, London; 1740, Samuel Sedgley, Bristol; 1740, James Gildart, Liverpool; 1744, John Langley, Ireland; 1745, Reid and Armour, London; 1745, Sydenham and Hodgson, London; 1747, William Cookson of Hull; 1749, Jonathan Forward Sydenham a nephew of Jonathan Forward; 1749, Stewart and Armour, London; 1750, Andrew Reid, London; ; 1750, Samuel Sedgely and Co of Bristol; John Stewart and (Duncan) Campbell, London (JS&C); 1758, Sedgely and Co (Hillhouse and Randolph), Bristol; 1759, Stewart and Armour, London; 1760, Sedgely and Hillhouse of Bristol; 1763, Andrew Reid retired; 1764, John Stewart and Duncan Campbell, London; 1766, Patrick Colquhuon, Glasgow; 1766, Sedgely and Co at Bristol replaced by William Randolph, William Stevenson, James Cheston, Bristol; 1767, Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston, Bristol? with a colonial agent Cheston; 1768, Jonathan Forward Sydenham, London or nearby counties; 1769, Dixon and Littledale, Whitehaven; 1769, Sedgely, Bristol; 1769, any ships captain providing necessary securities could transport felons; 1770, James Baird, Glasgow; 1772, John Stewart died, Duncan Campbell carried on alone in London until 1775. At Bristol, Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston (SRC) were active till 1776; they made ill-advised and vain attempts to transport felons to North America at the end of the American Revolution. Wisely, Duncan Campbell did not.
The above list has been re-compiled from myriad information compiled by historians working independently between 1933 and 1987 on the original documentation of transportation to North America. [Historians such as A. E. Smith, Oldham, Coldham -[Peter Wilson Coldham, Emigrants in Chains. Phoenix Hill, Far Thrupp, Stroud, Gloucestershire, Allan Sutton, 1992.], Eris O'Brien, Shaw, Ekirch [Roger A. Ekirch, Bound for America: The Transportation of British Convicts to the Colonies, 1718-1775. Oxford University Press. And also, importantly, Roger A. Ekirch, 'Great Britain's Secret Convict Trade To America, 1783-1784', American Historical Review, Vol. 89, No. 5. December 1984., pp. 1285-1291.] and Kenneth Morgan, 'The Organisation of the Convict Trade To Maryland: Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston, 1768-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, Vol. 42, No. 2, April, 1985., pp. 201-227. ]
Often-mentioned merchants were obviously stayers in the convict service .[John M. Hemphill, Virginia and the English Commercial System, 1689-1733. London, Garland, 1985. [Facsimile of a 1964 Ph.D thesis, Princeton University, pp. 152ff, on matters such as changes in tobacco export inspection procedures from 1713 to 1730, prior to consideration of the 1733 Excise Act instigated by Walpole. By 1713 (Marcus Rediker, Between The Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Merchant Seamen, Pirates and the Anglo-American Maritime World, 1700-1750. Cambridge, 1987., p. 281) Virginia merchants remained very apprehensive about pirates disturbing trade. ]

Notably in maritime terms, merchants shipping felons had a commercial advantage over their competitors - their voyage out was partly or wholly paid. The merchants' inconvenience was that they had to wait till convicts became available from the courts before despatching a ship outward, and given the seasonal nature of shipping colonial tobacco home, this did not always suit ship turn-arounds.

1719: Departing England May 1719 ship Margaret Capt. William Greenwood for Maryland. Coldham. Departing England 1719 Sept 19 - Ship Margaret in trade. See F. H. Schmidt, 'Sold And Driven: Assignment Of Convicts In Eighteenth-Century Virginia', The Push From The Bush, No. 23, 1986, History Dept. University Of New England.


1718-1720: Acts 4 Geo III c. 11 and Act 6 Geo III c.23 condemned any person convicted of any larceny or felonious stealing to be transported to America at discretion of the court. Fifteen more such acts were made until 1765, enlarging the scope of application of such a punishment as transportation.
(O'Brien, on Penal Colonisation, p. 124)
See also A. E. Smith, Transportation Of Criminals To The American Colonies In The Seventeenth Century. American History Review, Vol. XXXIX, Jan. 1934. Cited in Eris O'Brien, Foundation, p. 316. A. E. Smith, Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labour in America, 1607-1776. University of Carolina Press, 1947. Gloucester, Mass. Peter Smith. 1965.

1720: George Campbell of the London bank which became Coutts from about 1720. This George Campbell was associated as a banker with a firm, Campbell and Carr. Sources: R. B. Westerfield, Middlemen in English Business: 1660-1760. New Haven, Connecticut, 1915. [Reprinted, Newton Abbot, 1968]., p. 383. On Coutts bank, see Edna Healey, Coutts and Co, 1692-1992: The Portrait of a Private Bank. London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1992.

1720: Japan removes its ban on European culture.

Departing England October 1720, convict ship Gilbert, Capt. Darby Lux for Maryland. Coldham. 1721, 18 May, ship Gilbert Capt. Darby Lux (A. E. Smith, p.126), probably Captain Lux' second voyage in the convict service. Darby Lux made eleven more voyages, seven on the Patapsco Merchant. His last voyage was in 1738, when he settled in Maryland and acted as general agent for Forward. He still acted for Forward in 1749. Oldham rev. p.51. Departing England August 1721, ship Owners Goodwill, Capt. John Lux for Maryland. Coldham.

Essay by Dan Byrnes

Re 1720++ Robert Brenner, Merchants and Revolution: Commercial Change, Political Conflict, and London's Overseas Traders, 1550-1653. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Brenner, I take it, demonstrated that there was greater genealogical coherence in trading history, and in merchant biographies, than had been previously thought. Which is to say, that families engaged in England's international trade tended to stay together in trade (and often in clusterings of trade, such as the Levant Company, or East or West India trade) where possible, whether or not their members entered politics, or married into the aristocracy. This was due to many factors, including class consciousness, the maintenance of family fortunes, commercial and family tendencies in favour of the employment of nephews, and also to the ability of such families to place money in secure investments. This was more so after the disaster of the South Sea Bubble (1720-1723) produced an investment house which could give secure returns to annuities, while the East India Company also provided useful investment returns to the affluent. These tendencies can also be noticed in some London-based families engaged in aspects of the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

(Ends this essay by Dan Byrnes)

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