Helmsman graphicMonitor graphicHelmsman graphic The Cozens/Byrnes Merchants Networks Project - Updated 24 September 2013

Network logo png

[Previous page - Timelines For 1910-1920] [You are now on Merchants Networks Project Pathways1 page filed to list Convict Contractors to Australia 1784-1865 pathways1.htm] [Back to the beginning Timelines 1350-1450]

Graphic of Chinese junk, oldFor a page in Chinese
about this website,
click on the image of the junk

Shipping convicts as a business

Dates of some merchants´ business decisions to transport convicts to Australia

Charles Bateson´s book The Convict Ships remains a classic on the topic of convict transportation to Australia. Delving into his book means however that the researcher enters something of a labyrinth of connections, historical phases and changes, and possibilities for conclusions. On the Internet today, most Australian and New Zealand webmasters seem not to be interested in who owned the convict ships and immigrant-carrying ships arriving to their ports. This lack of interest is a loss to maritime history and also to British social history. And it has to be said, that if a researcher does ask questions about ship owners sailing ships into Australasian waters, methodological questions arise to the complexities of the information arising as questions are answered.

For one thing, historical changes in Britain itself, in Imperial history, in NSW and New Zealand have to be alluded to, which is not easy across the vast oceanic distances to be considered. (Historians interested in British India have similar problems and the researcher interested in Australasia will have to notice British India as well.) Suffice to say, the research situation becomes complex, and so it remains to date. The easiest way to view matters is ... as a challenge.

By 1959, Charles Bateson had published his research on the transports used to ship convicts to eastern Australia, The Convict Ships, a book to be cited often on this wepage. Early in his book, Bateson remarked: (p. 2):
"Its (Australia's) colonisation was the rich reward garnered from (James) Cook's voyagings, but its settlement was not effected in the tradition and spirit which had inspired the great navigator. The circumstances of the founding of Australia are divorced entirely from those of its discovery and exploration by Cook. The mainspring was very different, and in the conditions of the day, and the state of man's thoughts and outlook at the time, it was perhaps inevitable that it should be so. Never in history were a country's beginnings laid by such unhappy and unenthusiastic pioneers as the seven hundred and fifty-nine convicts of Australia's first fleet and the thousands of prisoners who followed them into an unwanted exile."

We quite agree with Bateson here, and wonder, why so few other Australian writers have approached their research on the "founding" of European Australia in the light of Bateson's remarks?

One relatively simple way to view matters is to regard convict transportation as an outcome of class war in Britain. For what the convict contractors did share were resources for living that most convicts had not been blessed with - a good-quality education, a useful and/or lucrative occupation, helpful associates, personal abilities to exploit opportunities, access to capital, and as a matter of personal outlook on life in Imperial Britain, wide horizons.

The rationale for this presentation on the names of Convict Contractors is that before any ship embarked convicts for Australia. the shipowner concerned had made a business decision on the use of his ship. Where a ship was part-owned, presumably a group of owners had made a business decision. For this reason, it is important to find the date when a ship was to be placed in the convict service. We find that Bateson in The Convict Ships does list when ships departed their English or Irish port, but he gives precedence to the date a convict transport ship arrived at an Australian port. The presentation below emphasises earlier dates for the participation of shipowners and particular ships in the convict service.

The question arises, of course: did the shipowners so involved share any patterns of cross-association. The answers arising to any such question are sometimes surprising, and they change complexion as the decades passed, indicating that merchants involved in convict transportation passed through several historical phases.

The first phase lasted from 1786-1788 to 1800-1810. By 1810, the second phase indicated a younger generation of merchants, and a set of merchant names with wider links to the East India Company. There are two kinks in the second phase which the historian might observe, one in Britain due to the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, following which was a rise in the numbers of convicts to be transported, and in NSW, the rise of wool exports, which gave convict transports extra opportunities to carry a paying cargo home from an Australian port.

The third phase represents the winding down of the system of convict transportation, and during this phase, the business fell into the hands of fewer merchants. These phases are implicit in Batesoon´s book, which remains a classic, but are difficult to expand on, due to lacks of information. Even by 2012, with Internet resources freely available, information is simply not forthcoming on many merchant names which can be identified but not explained further.

On Joseph Lachlan, agent for convict contractors

Joseph Lachlan Jnr. (Or, The Younger). In 1828 he was of 22 Great Aile Street, London. He was also of Goodman's Fields in Midx, as ship broker, by 1832. See in Bateson, p. 389, he is maybe linked to ship Amphitrite by 1833. (Byrnes, Blackheath Connection. Broeze on Brooks.) Lachlan connected with Joseph Somes (see below), and Lachlan in 1828 negotiated with the Admiralty over chartering of the Parmelia, owned by Somes, the ship that brought Governor Stirling to WA in 1829. Lachlan was once the executor of the will of [Samuel] Moates, qv, an ancestor of correspondent Ian Berryman. Per letters of March 1996 from Ian Berryman in WA. Item online, London Gazette, 24 January 1890, Notice re dissolving of partnership between Joseph Lachlan and William Henry Carrington, as ship and insurance brokers, as Lachlan and Carrington, was dissolved mutually on 31 December 1890, Joseph Lachlan to meet the debts and he will continue as Lachlan and Co. Online is a blacksheep index with a Joseph Lachlan of Dartmouth. Lachlan and Co. arranged the ship Boyne of 1838 re Admiralty, 619 tons, a barque ship which was 22 years old, built Calcutta 1807, embarked emigrants at Cromarty Scotland and later renamed Moffatt to South Australia as Moffatt. Lachlan as a ship broker at 77 Cornhill has something to do as executor with Will of Robert Lachlan of Calcutta then of 14 Salisbury Street, Strand Midx or 4 Grosvenor Place, Brixton, this Robert Lachlan died 11 November 1870. Joseph Lachlan had solicitors Rickards and Walker at 29 Lincoln´s Inn Fields. From a New Zealand website we find, A notice appeared in the “N.Z. Journal.” 17/9/1842, reading thus:—“For Nelson and Wellington, N.Z. direct; under engagement to the N.Z. Company. To sail, 1st Oct. (1842), ship “Indus,” 425 tons. D. McKenzie, master. Lachlan and McLeod, agents, 62 Cornhill. There was also in London at some time, an agency known as Lachlan, Sons and McLeod who are difficult to trace. See the note below on Captain William Harrison of ship Ocean. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

For more on Lachlan (still a major problem name for research by October 2012.)

William Henry Carrington

On William Henry Carrington. Still a problem person for research by October 2012. The question has arisen: Does he become a ship broker/convict contractor with Joseph Lachlan the Younger? On the Internet are several genealogies which mention a man of this name, but so far it is ompossible to tell which of them might be the man in question.

Lachlan: Citation: Data from the website www.theshipslist.com on the Net since 1999 by S. Swiggum and M. Kohli, file for Vessels Carrying Convicts from Great Britain, 1839-1846, A Return of all ships or Vessels hired for the conveyance of Convicts from Great Britain and Ireland, between the Ist January 1839 and the 30th June 1846, stating the Ships´ Names, Tonnage, Owner´s Name, Broker´s or Agent´s Name, Class of Ship, Rate of Freight, and when the same commenced, Number of Convicts taken on Board, when Sailed, when Sailed, Amount of Demurrage (if any), and whether engaged by Public Tender or otherwise- (in Continuation of Parliamentary Paper, No. 244, of Session 1839). All vessels were engaged by Public Tender. The original information for 1839-1846 came to government from James Meek, Comptroller of Victualling and Transport Services. The data derives from British Parliamentary Papers (BPP), LXV, (573)


(Ends this table begun April 2012 by Dan Byrnes)
PayPal preferred graphic

PayPal - safe and secure

If you value the information posted here,
and the projects of these websites in general,
you may like to consider making a donation
to help reduce our production costs?
It would be greatly appreciated.
Options include:
paying via PayPal which this website uses - Ed

Another new-wave excursion into maritime history from The Merchant Networks Project

Pathways to the Convict Contractors to Australia

From the 1780s to the 1860s

(And to many of their associates)

A new excursion into Australian maritime history as seen through the lens of convict transportation.

The view taken is that the topic forms a labyrinth. Since it does seem that Australians have great difficulty in discerning and commenting the maritime history that was produced by Britain´s decision in 1786 to resume the shipping of transportable convicts to eastern Australia.

Follows a series of data on the owners and/or principals of the convict ships.

Dan Byrnes´ has three print-published articles on the convict contractors:

Dan Byrnes, '"Emptying The Hulks": Duncan Campbell and the First Three Fleets to Australia’, The Push From The Bush: A Bulletin of Social History, No. 24, April, 1987., pp. 2-23.

NB: The author comments in 2012: this paper was written out of a decision to argue that the traditional Australian attitude to events before 1800, to treat three distinct fleets of convict ships, then smaller sets of convict shipping, or even individual ships, sent at intermittent intervals to about 1800, was an unsuccessful approach to a survey of the maritime history that did justice to the maritime background. The article had no noticeable effect on the views of writers, publishers, or since 1996, Australian webmasters.

Dan Byrnes, 'Outlooks for the English South Whale Fishery, 1782-1800, and the "great Botany Bay debate"', The Great Circle, Vol. 10, No. 2, October 1988., pp. 79-102.

Dan Byrnes, 'The Blackheath Connection: London Local History and the Settlement at New South Wales, 1786-1806', The Push, A Journal of Early Australian Social History, No. 28, 1990., pp. 50-98.

Introduction

Labyrinth

The Convict Contractors treated here 1786-1865 are mostly as listed in Charles Bateson´s book The Convict Ships, first published in 1959, with some additions. Sydney-based historian Gary Sturgess in 2011-2012 contributed much on new detail and approach points on the topics relevant. The netsurfer and/or Bateson´s reader will find that Bateson made a few errors which have been corrected by any information listed below. The items given here are often sketchy, but will be subject to revision if incoming information suggests this should be necessary or interesting. These Pathways will be added-to only intermittently. -Ed

One error Bateson made was in mistaking the firm of which London alderman George Macaulay Macaulay was a part, Turnbull, Macaulay and Gregory, see below on Macaulay. Bateson due to this mistake produced in his book a spurious identity in convict transportation history, Mr. Turnbull Macaulay, who never existed. By today´s knowledge, Bateson also knew relatively little about the contractor for the First Fleet, William Richards Jnr. (see below).

Although he did index a variety of the names of convict contractors (or, the owners of convict ships), partly because he mistook the identity of alderman Macaulay, Bateson overlooked any idea that there might have been any forms of cooperation between the convict contractors, the shipowners they dealt with, or any of their associates. In fact, alderman Macaulay was a friend of alderman William Curtis, owner of the First Fleet ship Lady Penrhyn. After the First Fleet had been arranged, William Richards, the contractor for the First Fleet, was sidelined commercially by the efforts made to gain convict contracting business by the slavers and shipping contractors, Camden, Calvert and King. Long later, during the nineteenth century, a variety of convict contractors had forms of association, often by joint membership of like-minded commercial organisations in London. The nature of their forms of association in time will be explored by this set of Pathways files. There is however, a great deal of re-examination of data sources to be conducted before any such information becomes reliable. - Ed

This is file Pathways1 - To go back to the first file (prior to 1720++) in this Merchant Networks Timelines series of files, click to <--! blut --> "timelines1.htm">Timelines1

Bateson´s Convict Ships is a valuable resource, but its treatment is not as comprehensive as it seems. This series of Pathways webpages is designed to try to expand on Bateson´s information. The first question asked as the expansion occurs is: who owned the convict ships? This question seems to occur little in the minds of Australian descendants of convicts, historical commentators and maritime researchers, as can be noticed from today´s websites. Bateson listed some owners of convict shipping, but not near as many as actually operated. In February 2012 the present researcher, Dan Byrnes, embarked on a re-examination of the ownership of convict shipping. The results begin below.

The stories of the lives of the Convict Contractors begin to form a large-scale back-story to the general narrative of convict transportation to Australia (and has never before been attempted by an Australian). This series of files, irregularly updated, is an attempt to launch a narrative of this back-story, the telling of which has been too-long delayed in Australia.

This file remains Work-in-Progress

Premable:

Bateson in his book The Convict Ships, presenting appendices consisting of lists of data on convict shipping, emphasizes the date the ship arrived to an Australian port. This table takes a different approach, emphasizing the dates that shipowners or shipbrokers made a business decision to ship convicts to Australia (the dates they or their agents signed their contracts). What in business terms was on the mind of the convict shipowners when they made such a decision is something Australians have never wondered about. Nor, indeed, have English researchers of maritime history. Obviously, in many cases, the date of the business decision preceded the departure date from Britain of any ship loaded with convicts.

As will become obvious, the dates of the related business decisions form quite a different chronology to what Australians are used to reading concerning convict transportation. The revised chronology refers far more to English business conditions for shipping operators, to business history and to other related maritime history, than it does to penal history or social history. We need firstly to ask, why did such shipping operators bother to become involved in convict transportation?


Thomas Shelton (died 1829), who wrote the convict transportation contracts for government 1787-1829.

On Thomas Shelton, the legal official who wrote the contracts for merchants to transport convicts (died 1829), see The Blackheath Connection. More to come.

Before the First Fleet

Duncan Campbell

Duncan Campbell (1726-1803). Overseer of Thames Prison Hulks, 1776-1803. West India Merchant. Uncle-in-law of Captain William Bligh famed due to the Mutiny on the Bounty. Campbell ceased to transport convict to North America (Virginia and Maryland) in 1775.

The Pitcairn Island Pathway: Re the Bligh-Campbell connections see The Blackheath Connection. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

At right: Image of Duncan Campbell, Thames hulks overseer.

Image of Duncan Campbell (1726-1803)

The Picton NSW Pathway: to Duncan Campbell and Bligh. Re Henry Colden Antill. The Antill genealogy of NSW is currently available on several websites.

On connections of the Bligh-Campbell families see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection. Also the files, thebc31.htm, thebc37.htm

On Stephenson, Randolph and Cheston of Bristol. More to come

William Hamilton

William Hamilton. Still a problem person for research by October 2012. Duncan Campbell was personal friends with an unidentified William Hamilton by 1786. It is still not known if the little-known William Hamilton named below is the same man.

Year 1783

Re George Moore

George Moore

Labyrinth

Moore remarkably enough, as someone from the Isle of Man, falls within the extended family of Bounty mutineer Fletcher Christian, as is evident in the Christian genealogy lodged elsewhere on this website. For so far minimal information see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection. See also: an update on George Moore at:

Year 1784

On plans to transport convict to West Africa. (See Emma Christopher, A Merciless Place, variously.) More to come

Year 1785

More to come

Year 1786

The Phantom First Fleet (1786)

Alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay

Blackheath: Pathway to London alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay (1750-1803) - For some information here re convict transport Pitt see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection. Also the file thebc39.htm (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

Bedford: Macaulay´s diary, which survives only for 1796-1797, held at British Library, indicates Macaulay often visited Bedford. This was possibly because each of his wives, both surnamed Theed, may have come from Bedford and wished to visit their families frequently. However, the origins of his wives still remain unclear.

The First Fleet

On William Richards Jnr. More to come.

William Richards (contractor for The First Fleet)

Pathway to convict contractor William Richards - Contractor for the First Fleet. See Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection. On Richards´ various ambitions see The Blackheath Connection. Otherwise on Richards, see the file, thebc34.htm. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

A notable shipowner Richards dealt with was Sir William Leighton (c1750-1826), a London coal merchant recently re-researched by Gary Sturgess. Leighton was from a County Durham family, and had married one Mary. William had a brother George who married Elizabeth Swan and a sister Ann who married a butcher, James Wood. Sir William moved to London about 1779 after his father had died in 1774 and became a coal merchant shipping coal from Newcastle mostly using Whitby-built ships. He had a counting house at 18 Mark Lane, then was at the Coal Exchange. He first lived at Charlton, Kent, near Greenwich, and then at Kemnall House near Chiselhurst, a convenient eleven-mile commute into London. As a convict contractor he sent five ships in all to NSW, including several in the First Fleet. He perhaps had links with Martin Lindsay, also probably a minor convict contractor. After 1783, Leighton also send several ships as military transports to Quebec with Navy Board contracts. Leighton was Lord Mayor of London in 1806-1807, and continued as an alderman for Billingsgate till 1821. In 1796 he was on a committee of shipowners interested in the intended London Docks and Canal from Blackwall. In 1798 he was part of a committeee to supervise the appearance of a new register of shipping. As someone who took various government contracts, Leighton seems to have been a busy-but-modest man who got things done, his modesty meaning he made no publicity splashes in London life. As Lord Mayor he still remains little-known.

The ship Scarborough of the First Fleet was possibly part-owned by Hoppers and George Moorson. The latter was possibly actually one George Moorsom (sic) who has a known genealogy at Whitby, north of England.)

The ship Charlotte of the First Fleet was owned by Matthews and Co., suggests Gary Sturgess. She was built in 1784 for [William] ]Matthews and Co.

Other ships of the First Fleet. Alexander. Prince of Wales. Friendship. Lady Penrhyn. Borrowdaile. Fishburn. Golden Grove. HM Sirius (naval). HM Supply (naval).

Shipping/contractor names associated with the First Fleet include James Mather better seen as a whaling investor.

James Mather (1738-1796), whaling investor, is thought to have married Jane Whale (1739-1807) and had three children, to named James and Thomas. He was sometime of 12 Birchin Lane, Cornhill. Mather bought Cook´s ship Endeavour from the navy once Cook had returned from his first voyage of exploration. He renamed her Lord Sandwich and re-hired her for naval use; the ship was caught up in the American War, captured by the Americans and finally scuttled at Newport, Rhode Island, as part of an American blockade of that water to deny it to the British. Mather is mentioned only sporadically in relation to whaling in American or Pacific waters, presumably since he remained active in the Greenland Whale Fishery. Mather by 1784 leased land which was part of Blackwall Yard, its western section, perhaps with an Orchard House with a Thames RIver frontage, whicvh land was leased to the East India Co. in 1804. Mather used this land blubber boiling and whale oil extraction. In the early 1790s, Mathers leased land from Perrys, known as East Quay, to land Greenland whaling product. When Mather died in 1796 his three sons continued his business till 1803, when they leased land to the EICo, probably because the Greenland whaling trade had lost force in London and had anyway moved to Hull and Whitby. By 1797, John and Thomas Mather with partner John Anderson (so far unknown) were in whaling business at Mark Lane, London. The Mather family is noted in a book on the dark side of Captain James Cook. Apparently near the Orchard House, Sir Robert Fitzwigramn, who was also a convict contractor, had a freehold estate.

Essay Section by Dan Byrnes

By 15 September, 1786 William Richards had offered three ships to Government for "The First Fleet". By 19 September, William Richards Jnr. and Fernie (who remains still unknown) contacted the East India Company directors offering Scarborough, Brothers, and William and Mary, then Scarborough, Brothers, William and Mary, Britania (sic) and Brittania (sic) to carry tea cargoes. By 25 September, the East India Company had surveyed at least three of Richards' ships, so that he could properly tender their use. The idea had increasingly taken hold that the costs of the exercise to government - (perhaps to the king's Civil List?) - would be lessened by bringing home tea from Canton. (By 23 September, William Wilberforce had been responsible for recommending the Rev. Richard Johnson as chaplain for the new colony).

Bateson,The Convict Ships, p. 80. A ship named Prince of Wales owned by James Mather, a South whaler, built at Sidmouth, 1779, captained by a John Mason, was not the POW of Fleet 1. But the Mather-owned POW may have been the ship POW sent by John and Cadman Etches mentioned by J. H. Meares, but the second POW was also owned by Mather. Shaw, Convicts and The Colonies, p. 76, Note 2. Pitt to Wilberforce, 23 Sept. 1796. Byrnes, `Emptying The Hulks', Note 29. In 1793, James Mather, was of Cornhill, managing a wharf at Blackwall. Other whale fishery wharves were Paul's wharf, Mr. Lucas' wharf at Rotherhithe.
Information for the name Borrodaile (Borradaile) is sketchy and indeterminate. William Borrodaile (died 1826) dealt in the Australian trade and became a member of the Van Diemen's Land Company; he was perhaps the brother of a woman who married into the Lloyd family of bankers? (George Sugden Le Couteur, Colonial Investment Adventure, 1824-1855: a comparative study of the establishment and early investment experiences in New South Wales, Tasmania and Canada, of four British companies. Ph.D. thesis, Sydney University. 1978., presents a list of members of the Van Diemen's Land Company, list of 1826. Broeze, Brooks, variously). William Borrodaile of Surrey was possibly the trader who had a first fleet ship? (Burke's Landed Gentry for Lloyd of Dolorbran.) He was of Bedford Hill, Streatham, Surrey. William Money was an East India Company shipowner, active 1790. (He was probably the one in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Boxall with a daughter who married William Percival Boxall and see also, for Chatfield,  with a daughter of one William Money noted. (Chatterton, Mercantile Marine, pp. 94ff) Richard Borradaile Lloyd (1839-1913) was a London banker, son of Richard Harman Lloyd and Isabella Mary Borradaile; he married Catherine Jean Campbell Money. (Burke's Landed Gentry for Lloyd of Dolorbran. Julia Money (died 1902), was daughter of Rev. William Money, noted in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Ryder/Harrowby. In general, the Borradaile descent involves the later names, Money, Gurney and Lloyd the banking family. See also, Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Wigram.

The shipowners Richards dealt with as he gathered the First Fleet included London coal merchant William Leighton, Hoppers of Scarborough, William Walton and Co., the whaler James Mather and the Greenland whaler, alderman William Curtis, (though most of these merchants did not continue their involvements with the Pacific).

Whether he realised it or not at the time, Richards would develop numerous worthy ideas about servicing the new colony's needs for shipping. But also whether he knew it or not, he was inviting the competition of merchants who wished to see the Pacific explored commercially. Richards' more idealistic ideas were inimical to their ambitions.

So Richards gathered other ships: the Three Brothers, Friendship, Britannia, Scarborough, Lady Penrhyn, later Alexander in lieu of Friendship, then Golden Grove in lieu of Three Brothers; and Borrowdale in lieu of Young William (Young William may have been a whaler owned by the whaler Daniel Bennet, later of Blackheath). Later, Richards tendered Fishburne and another Friendship to complete his contract.
Oldham, his original thesis: Wilfrid Oldham, The Administration of the System of Transportation of British Convicts, 1763-1793. Ph.D. thesis. London University. 1933., pp. 415, 430, 468, 430.

Richard's own ideas for use of the ships were well in line with government policy on the colony's purpose and likely development, and would have been useful if pursued. Government, as though in contempt of its own guidelines, first pulled the rug from under him by accepting tenders much cheaper than Richards' and allowing an atrocity to occur - the Second Fleet - then allowing a consortium of whalers and slavers - the Third Fleet - to organise more shipping than Richards could organise.

But who paid for it all? It seems, the First Fleet transportation was paid for from the king's Civil List. Maxine Young, writes: "Before 1815, it was the practise to borrow money from the king's current Civil List revenues to pay the running costs of New South Wales and other expenses concerning the colony. The money advanced was repaid by parliament in the next Miscellaneous Supply Grants."
Paying for the new convict colony from the king's Civil List might be the explanation for one striking feature of the exercise - it was consistently underfunded. If so, any notion of the new colony being an Imperial venture is given a slightly different complexion - a complexion suffused with the hues of royal outrage at the continued state of crime, at men unworthy, in the king's eyes, to remain in the kingdom!
Maxine Young, 'The British administration of New South Wales, 1786-1812', pp. 23-41., in J. J. Eddy and J. R. Nethercote, From Colony to Coloniser: Studies in Australian Administrative History. Sydney, Hale and Iremonger, 1987.

Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor (1795-1796) Sir William Curtis
Descendants of Joseph Wapping CURTIS, (b.1715;d.1771) business of sea biscuits at Wapping and sp: Mary TENNANT (d.1789)
2. London Lord Mayor, Freemason, Sir William CURTIS, Bart1 (b.1752;d.1829) sp: Anne CONSTABLE (m.9 Nov 1776;d.7 May 1853)
3. Investor in Australian Agric. Co., Charles CURTIS (b.1795;d.1878) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN
4. Charles William CURTIS sp: Miss NOTKNOWN 4. Henry Downing CURTIS 4. Maj-General DSO, Reginald CURTIS (b.1863;d.1922) sp: Hilda Margaret BARRINGTON (m.1894;d.1929)
3. George CURTIS (b.10 Sep 1784) 3. Banker Timothy Abraham CURTIS, investor in Australian Agricultural Co. (b.30 Jan 1786;d.1857) sp: Margaret Harriet GREEN wife1 (m.1809;d.8 Jun 1847) 4. Lt.-General William Frederick CURTIS 4. Colonel James Charles CURTIS sp: Frances Pitt (Browne?) CONSTABLE (m.17 May 1851) 3. Sir William CURTIS, Bart2 (b.2 Mar 1782;d.1847) sp: Mary-Anne LEAR (m.19 Nov 1803;d.1864) 4. Sir William CURTIS, Bart3 (b.26 Aug 1804) sp: Georgina STRATTON (m.18 May 1831) 4. George CURTIS (b.15 Sep 1805) 3. Rebecca Mary CURTIS sp: RN Capt. Timothy CURTIS 4. Army Capt. Constable CURTIS (d.30 Mar 1909) sp: Henrietta Mary Anne ADAMS, cousin
2. Biscuit baker, Freemason, Timothy CURTIS of Hackney (b.1743;d.1804) sp: Elizabeth WILDBORE, (a cousin) 3. William CURTIS 2. James CURTIS (b.1750;d.1835) 2. Rev. Charles CURTIS, Bengal India (b.1784;d.1805) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN 3. RN Capt Timothy CURTIS sp: Rebecca Mary CURTIS 4. Capt. (army) Constable CURTIS (d.30 Mar 1909)


December 1786: A London wit wrote satirically:
Away with those whimsical bubbles of air,
Which only excite a momentary stare;
Attentions to plans of utility pay,
Weigh anchor, and steer for Botany Bay.
Let no one think much of a trifling expense,
Who knows what may happen a hundred years hence?
The loss of America what can repay?
New colonies seek for at Botany Bay.


Of the First Fleet ...

Lady Penrhyn was owned by Alderman (later, Sir) William Curtis. She was also chartered by alderman Macaulay once she'd left Sydney to go to Nootka Sound for seal furs under Lt. John Watts, but ended arriving at Tahiti, thence China, before Bligh arrived at Tahiti in HMAV Bounty (as noted above).

Lady Penrhyn, convict transport, females only, 333 tons, Capt William Crofton Sever of 12 Princess Square, Ratcliffe Highway. Chief mate Nicholas Anstis, (master of Surprise of the Second Fleet). Took prisoners at Deptford or Spithead. Owner, alderman William Curtis. Possibly built Thames, 1786 and therefore her maiden voyage? Under East India Company Charter, departing Sydney in May 1788 after discharge from government employ in March. On leaving Sydney, taking a declaration from Gov. Phillip, proceeded east, Capt. Sever in July naming Macaulay and Curtis Islands after the owner and the alderman having chartered the vessel to obtain furs on the North-west American Coast. As the crew by then had scurvy, the ship went to Tahiti, thence China for a cargo of tea. The vessel may possibly have been named for the Lady of Richard Pennant, Lord Penrhyn, Chairman of the Planters and Merchants of the West Indies. Vessel later sold to the London firm of Wedderburns and put to the London -Jamaica run. E. A. Stackpole in "Whales and Destiny" presumes her voyage was an exploration of potential whaling grounds.
Lloyd's Lists of this period indicate - Also to China was alderman G.M. Macaulay's ship Pitt, Capt. G. Couper. Some other ships registered with Lloyds that year (1786-1787) were the First Fleet ships, Scarborough, Capt. J. Marshall, owned by Thomas Hopper, to Botany Bay, and Prince of Wales, Capt. J. Mason, for Botany Bay, owned by South Whaler J(ames) Mather of Cornhill.

Prince of Wales, Capt. John Mason. Convict transport, 350 tons. Mason died, being replaced by Samuel Moore on the voyage home. Ship built Thames in 1786. Launched 12 August after building by Christopher Watson and Co. Departed Sydney to be in England via Cape Horn and Rio, reaching Falmouth on 22 March 1788, at Deptford April 30. Owned by James Mather, South whaler, merchant of Cornhill. This vessel later continued to sail out of London. However, another view is that Prince of Wales (the First Fleet ship) had been built by Christopher Watson and Co. of Thames Yards. There were a John and a James Mather at Finsbury Square, London, it is yet unknown if they were related.

Alexander, 445 tons, Capt. Duncan Sinclair. Convict transport. The largest ship of First Fleet. Owners, Walton and Co. of Southwark, firm headed by William Walton. Took late-arriving convicts before she sailed. Surgeon, William Balmain. Some 16 male convicts died before she sailed. Left Sydney about 13-14 July, 1788, in company with Borrowdale, Friendship and Prince of Wales.

Storeship Fishburn, 378 tons, owned by Sir William Leighton. Capt. Robert Brown, storeship, 378 tons. Acting mate, Keltie, sometime RN. First mate is [Archibald?] Armstrong. Discharged from government employ on 18 November, 1788, being delayed whilst cellars were built ashore for Fishburn's cargo of three years' supply of rum. Thence England via Cape Horn and Rio de Janeiro for England in company with Golden Grove, until losing sight of her on 11 April 1789 at Falklands for recovery of sick members. She arrived home to be discharged from HM service at Deptford on 25 May 1789.

Storeship Borrowdale owner, William Leighton, 275 tons, departing 13 May 1787 as part of First Fleet. Contracted by William Richards Jnr. Crew of around 20. Capt. Hobson Reed (also perhaps known as Readihon Hobson?). Second mate was one William Richards (it is not known if he was a relative of Richards the fleet contractor). Departed Sydney 14 July, 1788 for England via Cape Horn and Rio as one of the ships in government employ for the round trip, under the direction of Lt John Shortland, agent for the Transport Department. Crew so bad with scurvy that by mid-October, her captain took her into Rio de Janeiro.

Storeship Golden Grove, Capt. William Sharp. Storeship, 375 tons, owners unknown. First mate Simms, later on William and Ann of the Third Fleet. Departing England 13 May 1787. On this vessel came colony chaplain Rev. Richard Johnson. Left Sydney on 12 October 1788 to take 21 male and 11 female convicts to Norfolk Island. On 19 November 1788, left in company with Fishburn, both storeships delayed for want of a storehouse to hold their cargo (says Gillen who lists some crew). Home via Cape Horn. Also stayed at Falklands as crew had scurvy. (Gillen says she was 331 tons.) Later she was possibly put on Liverpool-Jamaica run, disappears from records.
References various: Bateson, Gillen, Founders of Australia.

Friendship, convict transport, 274 tons. Owned by George Moorson with Thomas, George and John Hopper of Scarborough. Capt. Thos. Walton. Master, Francis Walton. Ship scuttled on way home 14 July 1788 in Straits of Macassar in company with Alexander as crew bad with scurvy, resulting in a legal battle by owners, so annoying the contractor, William Richards. The case put to Treasury for reimbursement dragged on for several years (see a later file here). Took prisoners aboard at Plymouth. Carrying some prisoners from the Mercury mutiny including John Best.

Charlotte. Convict transport, 375 tons, possibly owned by James Mather. (Mathews?) Mather may have once bought Cook's old ship, Endeavour, which was sunk as part of a blockage of Newport, Rhode Island, during the American Revolution? (a story still to be properly verified). Capt. Thomas Gilbert (not to be confused with Capt. John Gilbert of the Second Fleet, first appointed to the Neptune, with whom John Macarthur duelled before Gilbert was replaced by Capt. Donald Trail).). Out of government employ by 25 March, 1788. Departed 13 May 1787, from Portsmouth, part of First Fleet. Charlotte was later sold to Bond and Co., Walbrook merchants, and put to the London-Jamaica run, according to Bateson.
1 December, 1788: Alexander Duncan at Canton, a correspondent of Sir Joseph Banks, as was Alexander's brother, mentioned to Banks one Capt. Gilbert of a Botany Bay ship, a stuffed "kon-goroo" aboard which weighed 70 lbs. Alex Duncan was surgeon to the EICo factory, sought Banks' favours, which later were granted. (Dawson, Banks Letters, p. 281)

Scarborough. Convict transport, 430 tons, owned by Hoppers of Scarborough. Captain John Marshall. (The Hopper Islands were named for them.) Had an EICo charter for China tea. This ship was later placed in the Second Fleet for different contractors.
Shipowners Hoppers are listed in Treasury Board Papers petitioners with others letting ships to the Transport Board, T1/695, Reel 3553. They were the only shipowners letting vessels to NSW who were familiar as shipowners with the Transport Board, a fact probably meaning they already knew William Richards. Capt. William Richards, son of the First Fleet contractor, later commanded the convict transports Prince Regent, I, (3) in 1827; Roslin Castle, in 1833-34-35 to NSW.
(Bateson, The Convict Ships, pp. 347ff. See also Connah, Rowland and Oppenheimer, Captain Richard's House at Winterbourne - A Study In Historical Archaeology. Dept. of Prehistory and Archaeology, University of New England. 1978. Ch. 5.
Hoppers of Scarborough whose name was commemorated in the Hopper Islands named by Marshall. Made a second trip to Sydney with the second fleet, contractor being Calvert. (Capt. Marshall also named another island after Constantine John Phipps.)

Storeship Fishburn, 378 tons, owned by Leightons. Capt. Robert Brown, storeship, 378 tons. Acting mate, Keltie, sometime RN. First mate is [Archibald?] Armstrong. Discharged from government employ on 18 November, 1788, being delayed whilst cellars were built ashore for Fishburn's cargo of three years' supply of rum. Thence England via Cape Horn and Rio de Janeiro for England in company with Golden Grove, until losing sight of her on 11 April 1789 at Falklands for recovery of sick members. She arrived home to be discharged from HM service at Deptford on 25 May 1789.

Storeship Borrowdale owners, Leightons, 275 tons, departing 13 May 1787 as part of First Fleet. Contracted by William Richards Jnr. Crew of around 20. Capt. Hobson Reed (also perhaps known as Readihon Hobson?). Second mate was one William Richards (it is not known if he was a relative of Richards the fleet contractor). Departed Sydney 14 July, 1788 for England via Cape Horn and Rio as one of the ships in government employ for the round trip, under the direction of Lt John Shortland, agent for the Transport Department. Crew so bad with scurvy that by mid-October, Capt. took her into Rio de Janeiro.

Storeship Golden Grove, Capt. William Sharp. Storeship, 375 tons, owners unknown. First mate Simms, later on William and Ann of the Third Fleet. Departing England 13 May 1787. . On this vessel came colonly chaplain Rev. Richard Johnson. Left Sydney on 12 October 1788 to take 21 male and 11 female convicts to Norfolk Island. On 19 Nov. 1788, left in company with Fishburn, both storeships delayed for want of a storehouse to hold their cargo (says Gillen who lists some crew). Home via Cape Horn. Also stayed at Falklands as crew had scurvy. (Gillen says she was 331 tons.) Later she was possibly put on Liverpool-Jamaica run, later disappears from records.
References various: Bateson, Gillen, Founders of Australia.

Note: 26 March, 1789: Francis Masson at Cape Town sends Banks 422 species of seeds and or bulbs, per Alexander transport from NSW. (Carter, Banks, 1988. Noted from pp. 560ff, Appendix XIA)


1788: Across decades, revisionist have been afoot about the first British governor of Australia, Arthur Phillip. Many writers have seen him a small man doing an inadequate job, some kind of failure. A newly-arising view (January 2002) is that he was "a man of considerable intellect, widely read, a son of the European Enlightement, a gentleman proud to dine in his home with Sydney's most powerful Aboriginal warriors and a dedicated adherent to the rule of law", and also "organisationally brillant" with commanding the First Fleet (all from former NSW premier, Bob Carr). Professor in Australian History at University of New England, Alan Atkinson, rather demurs. Town planning was not one of Phillip's strengths, and the governor was "a highly imaginative authoritarian", he said. (Reported 26 January 2002, Australia Day)


Even by December 1788, decisions on "Botany Bay" were still fluid. Nepean had an idea that Nova Scotia might be settled as an alternative to NSW, that matters were flexible, that destinations could be changed. On 1 December, the Recorder of London had a long conference with Lord Sydney. The Times reported that the "The season is over for sending them [convicts] to Quebec or Nova Scotia, but assurances have been given that two ships, properly fitted up, shall be ready [within months] to carry convicts to America." There was an idea to send some men to Newfoundland in the fleet for the next season.
David L. Mackay, A Place of Exile: The European Settlement of New South Wales. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1985., p. 58. Ged Martin, 'The Alternatives to Botany Bay', pp. 152-168 in Ged Martin, (Ed.), The Founding of Australia: The Argument about Australia's Origins. Sydney, Hale and Iremonger, 1978.

1789: Note: The Nootka Sound area seized by Spanish who curtail British activity in the area. British merchants including William Curtis (owner of Lady Penrhyn) later protest vigorously. "The Nootka crisis" ends won by British interests.

London alderman William Curtis

Labyrinth

Curtis and his commercial operations are well-outlined in a 2005 Masters thesis by Ken Cozens of London which is freely available as a download from this website at: titled Patronage and Profit: A Case Study of Three 18th Century London Merchants)

By 1784, a contractor for naval stores (sea biscuits) were brothers Timothy and William Curtis. The Curtis´ had the address, 236 Wapping. At times, eg, 1788, one Richard Henry Clark was at the same address. There was also, William Curtis Jnr. at 236 Wapping in 1786, in 1789 at Southgate or 40 Old Broad Street, in 1795 at Old South Sea House, Broad Street.

Vaucluse House, Vaucluse, Sydney: Built by Sydney lawyer and politician William Charles Wentworth (1790-1872). Son of Darcy Wentworth (1762-1827) who was a convict transported for a spot of highwayman work. Darcy at Shooters Hill, Blackheath, one day had held up alderman William Curtis (1752-1829) (who years later was a personal friend of George IV). (See Dan Byrnes, The Blackheath Connection website.) Being an alderman, Curtis sometimes acted as a magistrate, sentencing offenders. In business he was a manufacturer of sea biscuits, selling them to the navy and merchant shipping. Being an alderman, a noted figure in Civic London, Curtis decided to charter his new ship, Lady Penrhyn, for use in the First Fleet to ship out convicts to Botany Bay. (Darcy Wentworth was later transported, somewhat after the First Fleet, see Ritchie´s book on Wentworths). Alderman Curtis was, amongst other things, a Freemason. One doubts he was sorry to hear his highwayman had been transported. For so far minimal information see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

The Curtis family genealogy is extensive, extends to today, and is placed on this website in folders devoted to genealogies. ()The database used to produce the mini-genealogy websites supplied is Personal Ancestral File V5.)

Borrowdaile

Convict shipping contractor, Borrowdaile. For so far minimal information see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection variously.

Year 1788

1788: HM Supply. RN. First Captain John Hunter. Captain Henry Lidgbird Ball, Lt. Jan 1788. To Norfolk Island.

1788: HM Sirius RN,lead ship of First Fleet to Australia. Captain Arthur Phillip. 1787-1788. Create new colony at NSW

1788: Fishburn. Owner, Leighton. Captain Robert Brown. 1787-1788. Storeship as part of First Fleet.

1788: Golden Grove. Owners, Leightons. Captain Unknown. 1787-1788. First Fleet storeship.

1788: Lady Penrhyn. Owner (Sir, London alderman) Sir William Curtis. Captain William Cropton/Crofton Sever. 1787-1788. Convict transport. Later bought by Wedderburns for the West India trade run. ()See Bateson, Byrnes.)

1788: Scarborough (1). Owners, Hopper Brothers. Captain John Marshall. 1787-1788. Convict transport, part of First Fleet. Cumpston's Register.

1788: Prince of Wales (1). Owner James Mather. Captain John Mason. 1787-1788. Convict transport, see Bateson.

1788: Charlotte. Owner, Unknown. Captain Thomas Gilbert. 1787-1788. Convict transport of First Fleet. See Bateson.

1788: Alexander. Owners, William Walton and others. Captain Duncan Sinclair. 1787-1788. Convict transport of First Fleet. See Bateson.

1788: Friendship (2). Owners Hopper Brothers. Captain Francis Walton, 1787-1788. Convict Transport of First Fleet. See Bateson.

1788: Borrowdale. Owners, Leightons. Capt Readihon Hobson. 1787-1788. Storeship to NSW. See Bateson.

Item: Charles Bateson, The Convict Ships, 1787-1868. [Orig. 1959] Sydney, A. H. and A. W. Reed, 1974.

Item: John S. Cumpston, Shipping Arrivals and Departures, Sydney, 1788-1825. Canberra, Roebuck, 1963-1964.

Year 1789

Surveying neglect

A sympton of the Australian neglect of convict transportation seen as a variety of maritime history is revealed by the date of the first treatment of questions arising from - the arrival of the First Fleet ships back to England. For the arrivals home allowed Britain to reassess its views of Pacific opportunities, and gave both government and ship managers chances to make new decisions. Not until 1989, two centuries later! See A. K. Kavanagh, ´The Return of the First Fleet Ships´, The Great Circle, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1989., pp. 1-16.

THE SECOND FLEET

The term "The Second Fleet" is something of a misnomer, as this "fleet" of five ships was split into two wings. The second three ships (Neptune, Scarborough and Surprise) were solely organised by the London firm of slavers, Camden, Calvert and King, who had virtually sidelined Richards for future transportation business.
Note: 17 July, 1791: Sir Joseph Banks is consigned various samples by Capt. Trail, Neptune transport. (Noted from Carter, Banks, 1988, pp. 563ff, Appendix XIB)

The other Second Fleet ships were Lady Juliana, 401 tons, given a tea cargo by EICo, contracted for by William Richards, a slow sailor which still has the reputation of being a "floating brothel". Plus the ill-fated supply ship, HM Guardian. 1789: HM Guardian. Captain Edward Riou. 12 Sep. 1789, wrecked off South Africa. Convict transport and supply ship.

Lady Juliana Capt. Aitkin: Owner, William Morris (who is little known). Contractor, William Richards. Ship taken up by September, 1788. (In October 1788, Richards laid before Treasury an extensive plan for convict transportation, by which time he knew little of what had already transpired at Botany Bay. The first First Fleet ship to return was Mather's Prince of Wales, 22 March, 1789.) Lady Juliana had freight by Richards and Moore. By 2 February, 1789, Richards had contracted to carry 226 female convicts. A crew member was Edward Powell who later came out free settler on Bellona. She had aboard Lt. Thoms Edgar, who had been out with Cook's last voyage as master on Discovery
Bateson, The Convict Ships, variously. Sian Rees, The Floating Brothel: The Extraordinary Story of the Lady Juliana and its cargo of female convicts bound for Botany Bay. Hodder, 2001.

The Second Fleet was sent in two wings. The first wing consisted of Lady Juliana and HM Guardian. The second wing consisted of Surprize. Neptune. Scarborough.

The ship Lady Juliana has been identified by Gary Sturgess as once owned by Christopher Stephenson (no extra information) and Joseph Smith (no extra information). 1788: Lady Juliana (Second Fleet). Owners? Captain Aitken. Unknown. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1789: HM Guardian. RN. Captain Edward Riou Lt RN. 12 Sep 1789, Wrecked off Sth Africa. Convict transport, supply ship for the Sydney colony. See Bateson.

Reference Item: 1789: Sian Rees, The Floating Brothel: The Extraordinary Story of the Lady Juliana and its cargo of female convicts bound for Botany Bay. Hodder, 2001. (Historical account of a shipload of women convicts transported to Australia in 1789 - the ship Lady Juliana)

1789: Note: The Nootka Sound area (north-west America) is seized by Spanish who curtail British activity in the area. British merchants including William Curtis, owner of Lady Penrhyn, protest vigorously to Parliament. The ¨Nootka Crisis¨ ends won by British interest.

Year 1790

On Camden Calvert and King. See also the 2005 thesis by Ken Cozens noted above, Patronage and Profit. See also a major update of Cozens' 2005 work, published by May 2013: Gary L. Sturgess and Ken Cozens, 'Managing a Global Enterprise in the Eighteenth Century: Anthony Calvert of The Crescent, London, 1777-1808', The Mariner's Mirror, 99:2, May 2013., pp. 171-195.

Anthony Calvert (Camden, Calvert and King)

At right: The premises of Anthony Calvert at The Crescent, London, today. (Photo made available by Gary Sturgess, 2012)

For so far minimal information see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection variously.

1790: Ship Justinian. Owners unknown. Captain Benjamin Maitland. 20 June 1790-28 July 1790. Storeship, trader to China.

1790: HM Pandora. RN. Captain Edward Edwards. Departed Portsmouth in November 1790. Wrecked on coral 29 August, 1791 about 5km northwestof Moulter Cay, 120km east of Cape York. Seaman William Moulter took pity on the caged prisoners and freed ten of them. Some 89 of the ship's company survived. Mission to capture Bounty mutineers. See re unexpected capture of Mary Bryant and other convict escapers heading north from Sydney. A 24-gun frigate. Called to Matavia Bay, Tahiti, in March 1791. Tracked down 14 of Bounty mutineers, those who had not gone with Fletcher Christian to Pitcairn Island. Edwards caged his prisoners and searched at Cook Islands, Union, Samoan and Society islands. Had stopped at Sydney, then proceeded to Torres Strait. Wreck regarded as perhaps Australia's most significant shipwreck. Surgeon was George Hamilton, whose gold watch and surgical instruments were retrieved during 1984 work on the wreck. Pandora went down in one piece, settled on the bottom and has remained largely undisturbed.

1790: Surprize (1). Owner Unknown. Captain Nicholas Anstis. 26 June 1790. Convict transport. Anstis had been chief mate of Lady Penrhyn.

1790: Britannia (Capt Raven). Owner John St Barbe. Captain William Raven. 25 Jul 1790- Oct-Dec 1790. Sealing. Cumpston's Register, To Dusky Bay, NZ, sealing.

1790: Chesterfield. Owners Unknown. Captain Matthew Bowles Alt. 18 Nov 1790 - 10 Mar 1791. Whaler. Is still around NSW by April 1792, Cumpston's Register.

At right: Generic whaling scene

1790: HM Discovery. RN. Capt George Vancouver. 28 Sep 1790. Pacific exploration

1790: Waaksamheyd. Owner, Unknown. Capt Detmer Smith. 17 Dec 1790-28 Mar 1791. Food supplies for Sydney NSW. Or, De Waak Zaamheid - "Good Look Out".

The Third Fleet of 1791

1791: HM Gorgon. RN. Captain John Parker (plus his wife Mary Ann). 21 Sep 1790. Supply ship to Sydney. See Bateson. Sometimes thought of as part of the Third Fleet. Gorgon sailed 18 March 1791 (The Times), with stores, livestock and personnel (280) for the Sydney colony.) One task she had was to pick up any stories salvaged from the wreck of HM Guardian.

The Third Fleet consisted of nine ships. Matilda Capt Matthew Weatherhead, whaler.
Atlantic Captain Archibald Armstrong, non-whaler.
Salamander Captain J. Nichol, a whaler.
William and Ann, Captain Eber Bunker who later settled at Sydney, a whaler.
Active, Captain John Mitchinson a non-whaler.
Queen, Captain Richard Owen a non-whaler.
Albermarle, Captain George Bowen, a non-whaler.
Britannia, Captain Thomas Melville, a whaler.
Admiral Barrington, Captain Robert Abbon Marsh a non-whaler.

Samuel Enderby Snr.

Samuel Enderby Snr (died 1797). From 1786, the Enderby-owned Emilia Captain James Shields sailed 1786-1787 became the first British whaler to sail into the Pacific, via Cape Horn. She returned home by 1790 with a full cargo of sperm oil. Of which Enderbys were very proud. Thus, it can be argued that any ships London-based whalers sent into the Pacific, or by Australia, were part of a two-pronged, east-west exploration of Pacific whaling opportunities. Added to which, Londoners interested in sealing in the Pacific were on the fringes of whaler activities in the Pacific and might well discussed conjointly. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

For so far minimal information see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection variously.

THE THIRD FLEET

The first four ships of the Third Fleet carried freight for India. Governor Phillip was to complain on their arrival that cargo space had thus been used which could have been filled with goods for the colony.
Phillip to Lord Grenville, 8 November, 1791, and to Navy Board, 9 November, 1791, HRA, I, I, pp. 295, 300-301.

So the vexed issue arose again, of private trade in a colony which had not been intended to develop an economy - a patently unworkable policy. Strategically, on a global front, it appears the London whalers were testing the usefulness of Sydney as a refreshment base, and also experimenting with the carriage of convicts and/or stores as a way of paying part of the voyage out. Certainly, the Third Fleet revealed deliberate exploratory strategies useful for the whalers.
Information given here comes from various sources. On freight, Navy Office Accounts, HRNSW, Vol. 2, as cited above. See Byrnes, 'Outlooks', variously. Otherwise Bateson, Cumpston, Stackpole, Dakin, Steven and footnotes in other sources too numerous to list. On the fate of Matilda, foundering near Tahiti, see Kennedy, Bligh, cited above. See also, R. Hodgkinson, Eber Bunker. Canberra, Roebuck, 1975.

Hitherto, reliance on an alleged but never-proven role of the East India Company in the establishment of New South Wales has prevented useful questions being asked about the strategic deployment of shipping by the Southern whalers. Contemplation of the East India Company attitude to the activities of Macaulay, Calvert, and other convict contractors to Sydney before 1800 is for the most part a study in the muttering acceptance of the inevitable. A Company chairman, Francis Baring, quite early remarked on "the serpent we are nursing at Botany Bay".

On 18 November, 1789 Camden, Calvert and King were awarded a contract for the Third Fleet, specifying 1,820 English convicts and 200 Irish. In mid-December Treasury informed the Navy Board that some of the ships to be sent were nearly ready to take their stores and provisions aboard.
J. C. Garran, 'William Wright Bampton and the Australian Merino', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society. Vol. 58, Part 1, March, 1972., p. 2. Other details are in Byrnes, 'Outlooks', variously. Garran has followed up his views on Bampton, and on Macaulay's Capt Edward Manning on Pitt, in J. C. Garran and Leslie White, Merinos, Myths and Macarthurs: Australian Graziers and their Sheep, 1788-1900. Canberra, Australian National University Press, 1985. Garran is interesting also on maritime outcomes after Phillip chartered Atlantic to purchase stores at Calcutta, and his views seem valid. And ibid., pp. 20, 31ff, 126ff.

Convict transport Mary Ann, 298 tons, carrying 150 female convicts, part-owned by her captain, Mark Monroe, according to Bateson she may or may not be regarded as a Third Fleet ship. She sailed "independently" in 1791 (February 1791) with HM Gorgon, a storeship which also carried convicts. Mary Ann went whaling via Norfolk Island/Peru; she was owned by Mark Monroe and/or Lucas & Co.

Lists: The Third Fleet of convict ships to Australia:

Transport and storeship, Matilda, 460 tons, also whaler. Freight by Alexander Davison. Whaler. Contracted by Camden Calvert and King (CC&K). Possibly owned by Calvert. Capt. Matthew Weatherhead. Usually a south whaler but wrecked near Tahiti and some crew picked up by Bligh in HM Providence on his second breadfruit voyage. To Sydney by 1 August 1791. Thence fishery. Originally intended to Peru and/or India.
Note: Apparently mysteriously, 26 March 1792 a small vessel touched at Tahiti, Prince William Mary, and took some of wrecked Matilda's crew thence N/W coast America/Nootka Sound. In 1793: Whalers Jenny and Britannia called at Tahiti and picked up some of Matilda's crew. Presumably, the owners of these ships were in touch with each other in London.

Convict transport and storeship, not a whaler, Atlantic, 422 tons. Some freight by A. Davison. Transport. Contracted for by CC&K. Capt. Archibald Armstrong. Went various trading voyages for Gov. Phillip to Calcutta . On return from India to Sydney in 1792, Phillip went home on her. Also went later to Norfolk Is.

Transport/whaler Salamander, 320 tons, Freight by A. Davison. CC&amp;K contracted. Capt. William Irish. Owned by Joseph Mellish. Surgeon J? Nichol. To Sydney by 21 Aug., 1791. Thence Norfolk Island. Fishery - Norfolk Island/India.

Usually a whaler, William and Ann, 370 tons. Convict transport. Freight by A. Davison. Owned by Enderbys or Enderbys/St Barbe. Usually a South Whaler. Contracted CCK. Capt. Eber/Ebor Bunker. Portsmouth Division of fleet. Crew inc. Simms, first mate on Golden Grove of First Fleet 1. To Sydney, 28 August, 1791. (Bateson)
Eber Bunker (1761-1838, died NSW). The Bunker clan of Nantucket was extremely large, and today, much of their genealogy is available on the Internet. See Hodgkinson on Bunker, p. 4, p. 47 and elsewhere. See Newsletter of the Royal Australian Historical Society (RAHS), July 1972 p. 8, and June-July, 1976, p. 4-5. See Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers, p. 19, p. 30ff re Albion. Hainsworth, Sydney Traders, p. 239, p. 242. Eber's mother's name was Hannah, see R. Hodgkinson, 'Eber Bunker-Whale-Ship Captain of Parramatta', Newsletter Royal Australian Historical Society, June-July, 1986, pp. 4-5. Birthdate in Newletter of RAHS, July 1972, p. 8, in an article by Olive Havard which says Bunker had sheep on the Namoi River at Keepit when he died in 1836, but this sheep matter cannot be verified by Tamworth's local historians. (Tamworth is the present writer's home town.) There is a genealogical tree of Eber's wife in the ML prepared by Marie Fearn, See Hogkinson, 'Eber Bunker - A New Look', Journal RAHS, March 1979., pp. 252ff. See Hodgkinson's treatment of Bunker at Liverpool, Sydney etc. In 1795 he sailed for Alexander and Benjamin Champion. Then Eber sailed for Enderbys. He had left Nantucket for England in 1786. His lineage as given by Hodgkinson, 'New Look', pp. 253-254, goes back to the Mayflower via his grandmother, Desire Gorman, and he was related to John Howard and Elizabeth Tilley. About the time of the American Revolution, James Bunker and his brother Simeon Bunker took a whaling lease in Barrington, Nova Scotia, but the effort failed as the British Government promoted her home ships (that is, ships of the South Whale Fishery based in London).

Transport, Active, 350 tons, Capt. John Mitchinson. Arriving Sydney 26 Sept. 1791.

Transport and storeship, non-whaler, Queen, 380-400 tons. Owned by Enderbys whalers. Stores by A. Davison. With Irish convicts. Contractors, CC&K. Capt. Richard Owen. Only vessel sailing from Ireland. Arriving Sydney 26 Sept., 1791. Thence Norfolk Is/New Zealand. Fishery, Calcutta/India.

Transport/storeship, non-whaler, Albermarle, 530 tons. Grossly overcrowded. Freight by A. Davison. Contractors, CC&K. Capt. George Bowen. Arriving Sydney 13 Oct., 1791. Thence Bombay via Norfolk Is.

Transport, storeship, whaler, Britannia, owned by Enderbys. Freight by A. Davison. Other freight by St. Barbe and Green by account dated 15 Dec., 1791. Contractors, CC&K. Capt. Thomas Melville who had recently on Friendship been into the Pacific via Cape Horn and by South America for Enderbys. Arriving Sydney 14 Oct., 1791. Thence pioneered Australian whale fishery on NSW coast/Norfolk Island area.

Transport, non-whaler, Admiral Barrington, 527 tons, grossly overcrowded. Freight by Alex. Davison. Contractors CC&K. Capt. Robert Abbon Marsh/Peter Gossan. Surveyed by EICo re experiment in new method of surveying. Ship may have been earlier connected with Greenland Fishery. Arriving Sydney 14-16 Oct., 1791. Thence New Zealand, Bombay. In 1792 she was driven from her Bombay anchorage by gale to the Malouine Islands and wrecked. Some crew were slain by natives.

Transport William and Ann, 370 tons. Freight by A. Davison. Owned by Enderbys although Stackpole suggests owned by Calverts. Usually a South Whaler. Contractors CC&K. Capt. Ebor/Eber Bunker. Crew includes Simms, first mate on Golden Grove of First Fleet. Arriving Sydney 28 Aug., 1791.

Thackeray Wetherell

Thackeray Wetherell. Convict ship captain. Still a problem person for research by October 2012.

The ship Salamander of the Third Fleet has been identified by Gary Sturgess as owned by P. and R. Mellish, who were probably the rather well-known London butchers and victuallers based around the Isle of Dogs, London.

John St Barbe

1786-1788/9: Addresses: St. Barbe and Green(e), ships husbands, and Insurance Brokers, 33 Seething Lane. (London Directories). St. Barbe, merchant, was at 1 Little Marlborough Street, London, in 1790).

John St Barbe. The ship Atlantic of the Third Fleet has been identified by Gary Sturgess as owned by Charles Long (probably the director of the East India Company of this name), and the firm St Barbe and Green. Much is known of St Barbe by now, but this is not the case for Green.

Labyrinth

For some information see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection. See also file thebc42 on St Barbe and Captain William Raven of Britannia at Sydney and New Zealand. See also file thebc44.htm on St Barbe´s activities at Lloyd´s of London in the 1790s.

Year 1791

1791: Mary Ann. Part-owner and captain, Mark Munroe.

1791: HM Gorgon. (Naval).

15 June 1791. Alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay (1750-1803), owner of Pitt. Shelton´s Account No. 5


SHIPS AFTER THE THIRD FLEET

A variety of issues arise with discussion of the movement of convict transports and other ships between the Third Fleet and 1800. Some issues are with the question, how was the trading of the NSW Corps officers funded? Other issues arise regarding the dominance, if any, of any particular London merchants interested in the new Australian colony. Thirdly, were any London merchants interested in financing the officers of the NSW Corps? (The answer to which seems to be, no. The officers of the NSW Corps are treated in The Blackheath Connection - Chapter 40).

For example, between 1792-1800, John Macarthur, the paymaster of the NSW Corps, Sydney, drew Bills on the Corps' London agent (Cox, Cox and Greenwood) for more than £46,000 for investment in imported goods. (Are Hainsworth's entertaining speculations here erroneous or not?)
See D. R. Hainsworth, The Sydney Traders: Simeon Lord and his Contemporaries, 1788-1821. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1972., pp. 25ff.

Attention will be given here to the dates of the departures of convict ships, due to the matter of assessing the earlier decisions and motives of the shipowner involved - and any groupings amongst them. Australian historians have never given this matter attention, which is partly why we lack treatments on the population of merchants involved. Especially before 1800, whenever a ship was being prepared by her owners for a voyage to Botany Bay, news from the ship(s) most recently arrived from Botany Bay was still filtering through London. Especially at Blackheath. Each ship sailing for Botany Bay sailed first through a context of opinion developing in London about the new Australian colony.

Also it needs to be explained that in order to transport convicts, a shipowner had to tender his ship to the Navy Board/Transport Board, have her surveyed and accepted, and then he or his agent were required to sign a contract for the transportation with the only official in London empowered to make out such contracts, Thomas Shelton at the Old Bailey. (Shelton answered to the Home Office and by 1807 if not before, all his contracts listed the counties and areas the convicts came from.) Whether a ship was accepted by the EICo to take a cargo from ports under their control was a separate matter. All such business can be well illustrated by the departure of Pitt, owned by alderman George M. Macaulay.

In Navy Office Accounts (1793), found in Historical Records of NSW, are found lists of merchants taking contracts regarding ships for Botany Bay. For Pitt's voyage, the contract takers are listed as G. M. Macaulay and a man who was actually his neighbour, John St. Barbe. Both men at Blackheath lived close to the whalers Enderby. St Barbe was a whaling investor, Macaulay had earlier been interested with Lady Penrhyn in exploring prospects for sealing at Nootka Sound, and both Macaulay and St Barbe were underwriting names at Lloyd's in the City.

Shelton's Contract No. 5, was dated 15 June, 1791, with George Mackenzie Macaley (sic) for the Pitt, which usually sailed as an East Indiaman to China for tea and was wholly owned by Macaulay. (Inside Pitt was a small ship-in-frame, Francis, which was used on the coast about Sydney, reputedly put together and launched by Capt. William Raven - who was a partner with St Barbe in Britannia, a ship notable in its day in Sydney Harbour. (Unusually, it appears a copy of an original contract for Pitt remains with the NSW State Archives.)

At right: Macaulay's ship Pitt

Convict transport Pitt

15 June, 1791:
Indenture for the Pitt, copy of original, made on June 15, 1791, thirty first year of Geo III, .... between Thos Shelton of the Sessions House in the City of London, and George Mackenzie Macaulay of Chatam Place London, [transportable felons] 224 cons, 227 [names], And Whereas His Majesty by His Royal Sign manual bearing date at His Court of St James's the [15 June] 1791, [by act of parlt in 28th year of reign], initiated "an Act to continue several laws relating to the granting a bounty on the exportation of certain species of British and Irish linens exported, and taking off the duties on the importation of foreign [?] and yarns made of flax and to the preventing the committing of frauds & bankrupts and for continuing and (?) [of] several laws relating to the imprisonment and transportation of Offenders and has graciously thought fit to authorise and empower the above-named Thomas Shelton to make a Contract or Contracts with any person or persons for the effectual transportation of all the above named Offenders and to take securities from that person or persons so contracting for the effectual transportation of them pursuant to the sentences and orders aforesaid concerning them respectively And Whereas the said Thomas Shelton by virtue of such power and authority and in consideration of the Contract and Agreement of the said George Mackenzie Macaulay hereinafter mentioned and of the security to be given by him the said George Mackenzie Macaulay .................... by Bond or Writing obligatory for the effectual performance thereof hath agreed to and with the said George Mackenzie Macaulay (he being a fit person to transfer all the several before named Offenders unto him the said George Mackenzie Macaulay and his Assigns for such and the same terms for which they were ordered to be transported as herein abovementioned And the said George Mackenzie Macaulay in consideration thereof and of the property which he and his Assigns will have in the service of the said Offenders for and during the remainder of such terms and for divers other good and valuable Considerations him (?) (?) hath contracted and agreed to and with the said Thomas Shelton for the effectual transportation of the said Offenders pursuant to the sentences and orders aforesaid concerning them respectively Now This Indenture witnesseth that the said Thomas Shelton (?) of the power and authority given to him in this behalf as aforesaid and in pursuance of his said agreement with the said George Mackenzie Macaulay ...doth transfer all the several before named Offenders unto him the said George Mackenzie Macaulay and his assigns for such and the same terms for which they were ordered to be transported as herein before mentioned - And the said George Mackenzie Macaulay for the considerations aforesaid hath contracted and agreed and by their presents for himself his executors and Administrators and Assigns Doth contract and agree to and with the said Thomas Shelton in manner following, that is to say, that the said George Mackenzie Macaulay and his Assigns shall and will forthwith take and receive all the several before named Offenders and transport them or cause them to be transported effectually as soon as conveniently may be to the Eastern Coast of New South Wales or some one or other of the Islands Adjacent pursuant to the sentences and orders aforesaid concerning them respectively And shall and will procure such evidence as the nature of the case will admit of the landing there of the said several before named Offenders (death and casualties by Sea excepted) and produce the same to whom it may concern when lawfully called upon And shall not nor will by the wilful default of him the said George Mackenzie Macaulay or his Assigns suffer the said Offenders or any or either of them to return to Great Britain or Ireland during the respective terms .....
sgd in presence of ? Fitzpatrick and one other illegible, Thomas Shelton and George M Macaulay. Macaulay on 11 July, 1791 then agreed to assign [the prisoners] tho Gov. Phillip and his assigns, and all his rights in them, on 11 July, 1791.
(Probably, after the convicts had been loaded?)

Pitt, 775 tons, sailed under Capt. Edward Manning, arriving Sydney 14 Feb., 1792. Lloyd's Register for 1789 says she sailed 26 December, 1788, under Capt. Manning "for St Helens and Bencoolen, built 1780, husband G Macaulay". Carter in his biography of Banks says that by 2 January, 1793, botanist Colonel Robert Kyd at Calcutta, only months before his death, put on Pitt Capt Manning various samples including a mango tree for Banks. This then was on Pitt's return voyage from Sydney/China.
Carter, Banks, 1988, noted from pp. 563ff, Appendix XIB.

On 15 July, 1791, the surgeon on Pitt reported smallpox aboard. Opinions on the matter differed.

The general context of Pitt's departure can be guaged from the following ...

By April 1791, after squabbles with the Spanish, Vancouver was being sent from England to Nootka Sound to restore the trading post there and to further survey the Sandwich Islands.
K. M. Dallas, Trading Posts or Penal Colonies: The Commercial Significance of Cook's New Holland Route to the Pacific. Hobart, Fuller's Bookshop, 1969., p. 43. Margaret Steven, Trade, Tactics and Territory: Britain in the Pacific, 1783-1823. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press, 1983., pp. 82-83.

Interests in the Pacific had become more intensely concentrated since early in 1791. In January, London's South Whalers led by Enderbys had submitted a Memorial to the Committee for Trade asking for legislation on proposals that their vessels be allowed to proceed from the South Pacific to the Nootka Sound area, north of NW America. Enderby had expected that the whalers would use the new convict colony as a refreshment base. Of course, if interested in furs from Nootka Sound, the South Whalers were also interested in sales to the Chinese merchants at Canton - which might have made EICo hackles rise.

During April 1791, a new Bill was being drafted - for opening a trade through the South Seas to China. The EICo was firm that India-registered ships should not be permitted to trade between Asia and the north-west sealing coast of America and the adjacent islands. It was no accident here that St Barbe would also send his partner on Britannia, Capt. William Raven, to seek seal fur at Dusky Bay, New Zealand. (Cook had earlier noted the number of seals at Dusky Bay.) Nor an accident that the Bristol whaler Sydenham Teast sent mariner Charles Bishop into the mid-Pacific.

It was also as a matter of whaler politics, no accident that after the second fleet had departed, Anthony Calvert and the whalers organised a third fleet, of course excluding William Richards and his interests. The third fleet after delivering its convicts to Sydney would split into two arms. One arm went into the Pacific, whaling. The other ships, with trading contracts for the Calvert firm, went either to China or India. The inspired whaler in the planning operations for this convoy was probably John St Barbe, who after the Third Fleet had left, personally arranged with George M. Macaulay for Pitt to carry out convicts. After the Third Fleet operation, the whalers continued to carry out convicts and their continuing interest in the Pacific whaling grounds was perfectly illustrated when after 1798 (during which wartime year, ships for their own protection were required to sail in convoy), they sent out the first really well-organised flotilla of whaling ships since the Third Fleet.

With whaler politics, the situations facing the EICo were that whalers and their associates (by the Whalers Bill of 1791) would be allowed to utilise EICo banking facilities at Canton - as a "new and independent traffic in their own preserve", meaning, freelancers could come into Canton with mixed cargoes and sell to the Hoong merchants. According to whaling historian Stackpole, the EICo directors recognised that the South Whalers had mustered "overwhelming political support", so the EICo had "conceded tho retaining their control of the China Trade at Canton." The Bill's passage was not quick, but later, Pitt had some patience vindicated by success of a Bill allowing whalers greater freedom to fish in Australian waters.
Eduoard A. Stackpole, Whales and Destiny: The Rivalry between America, France and Britain for Control of the Southern Whale Fishery, 1785-1825. University of Massachusetts Press, 1972., p. 155, Refer: Act 32 Geo III. c. 73 and Act 33 Geo III c. 90.

So while Bligh's second breadfruit voyage to Tahiti was being arranged, a great deal of other British shipping moving into the Pacific was also being contemplated. Bligh's latest ship, HM Providence (a new West Indiaman) was launched on 25 April. Bligh had received his commission for her by 16 April. Francis Godolphin Bond was appointed First Lt to Providence (420 tons launched at Blackwall, purchased from Mr Perry, ship to have marines from Chatam, a complement of 134 men.)

Contractor to government and a friend of Evan Nepean at the Home Office, Alexander Davison, by 4 May, 1791, had dated an account to Navy re Pitt, for £8846/10/8d for supplies. So Davison must have been prompted to act as supplier somewhat earlier. Also loaded in Pitt would be the 41-ton ship, in frame, with stores and furniture, Francis, valued at £901. Presumably then, Macaulay had decided by early May or even earlier to send her to Botany Bay, and presumably the Navy had unofficially decided already to use her. Assessment here may depend on conversations Macualay had with other residents of Blackheath, probably Enderbys and St Barbe.

In fact, a variety of word was about. By 18 May, 1791, (Grenville to Sir George Yonge), two extra companies of the newly raised NSW Corps were advised to go on Pitt, then lying at Gravesend. Two such companies were at Chatam Barracks, (the other company of the NSW Corps would remain in England until further ships were taken up.)

By 20 May, 1791, Lt. Richard Nairne was appointed as naval agent to Pitt, confirmed by Treasury. By about 21 June, 1791, Pitt was possibly at Portsmouth. On 23 June, an anonymous letter regarding convicts on Pitt was received by government officers, to be referred to by Henry Dundas, who the same day wrote to Treasury on convicts to be put aboard her. The later-wealthy Sydney colonist, John Piper (youthful in the NSW Corps), was on her at Portsmouth by 23 June. As was the later convict artist at Sydney, Watling, "the limner of Dumfries", sent from the Lion hulk at Portsmouth to the custody of Captain Manning of Pitt. Piper had entered the army (NSW Corps) as an ensign only the month before, in April.
Lloyd's Register for 1792-1793, East Indies list, noted: Sailed late 1791, Pitt 775 tons Capt Manning for NSWales and China, built river 1780, husband G Macaulay.

More news of Botany Bay would also soon come to hand, since by 5 May, 1791, Albermarle of the Third Fleet had arrived at St Jago; she sent a letter by a French ship which mentioned other Botany Bay ships, HM Gorgon, Admiral Barrington and Britannia.

Also, by 12 May, 1791, the First Fleet contractor, Richards, still hopeful for more business, wrote to Charles Long, Esq (at Treasury), offering to manage 300 convicts on a hulk - in England. (That is, Richards had conceived notions of competing with the major contractor then managing hulks prisoners, Duncan Campbell.)

News would also spread of William Bligh preparing for a second breadfruit voyage. Bligh by 17 May, 1791, was wanting supplies for HM Providence - in a letter he wrote, could Mr Larkins at Mr Perry's Dock at Blackwall supply wood? (And was this Mr. Larkins part of the Larkins family of Blackheath which owned Royal Admiral, which would soon follow Macaulay's Pitt to Botany Bay?) A question on early British interest in the Pacific might be: just how cohesive - even, inspiring - were the interests of the mariner families of Blackheath?
This letter is noted in George Mackaness, (Ed.), 'Fresh Light On Bligh: some unpublished correspondence', Australian Historical Monographs, Vol. 5, (New Series). Review Publications, Dubbo, NSW, Australia, 1976 (Reprint). Lloyd's Register for 1791 indicates: Ships in EICo service, sailed 17 April, 1790, Royal Admiral Capt. E. H. Bond, for China, built River in 1777, husband T Larkins, 914 tons.

In 1825 Marquis Camden owned by Thomas Larkins. (In 1830, the British government made an examination of ships let from 1811 to the service of the East India Co. Amongst the shipowner and ship names listed, some are noted as ships carrying convicts to Australia. Follows an extraction from the list, which is on a webpage provided by www.british-history.ac.uk - an aspx-generated report.)

Dark mutterings

The scuttling of the Friendship: There were darker, unhappier mutterings about disaster ships going into the Pacific. Mentioning Richards, and regarding the earlier-dated charter party for the First Fleet, the owners of Friendship, after they had heard of her being scuttled, had correspondence around 15 July, 1791. Mr Secretary Long of the Treasury wrote to Commrs of Navy re the memorial of Samuel Hopper and other owners of Friendship; the owners (including Samuel Hopper) wanted to charge government for the loss of the ship, not the owners of Alexander. (Who were Walton and Co. of Southwark.) Opinions on legalities were to be sought from the attorney-general. (Letter of 19 August, 1791.)

In a letter of 9 August, 1791, William Richards to the Navy Office referred to the scuttling of Friendship and freight of the ship; Richards at least was reimbursed for his own losses by Friendship (some £350/18/9d.)
See Historical Records of Australia, i, i, 1792-95, pp. 38-40. Treasury Board Papers, T1/695 Reel 3553, ML.

Convict ships listed by date of departure

Note: Bateson lists ships by date of their arrival at Sydney. Some are re-listed here by date of departure.

Reference item 1790: Michael Flynn, The Second Fleet: Britain's Grim Convict Armada of 1790. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1993.

HM Gorgon: A naval ship, basically a storeship but carrying 31 male convicts. She sailed 15 March 1791, arriving Sydney 21 September. Best seen as a "loner" ship.

Another convict ship for Australia - Pitt: Departing June-July 1791 for Sydney, arriving 14 February, 1792. Capt. Edward Manning. Owned by London alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay.

Another convict ship for Australia - Kitty, Capt. George Ramsay. Departing March 1792 - Arriving 18 November, 1792.

Another convict ship for Australia - Royal Admiral 1: Departing 30 May 1792 - Arriving October 7, 1792.
Re: 1792 - Capt. Essex Henry Bond on convict transport Royal Admiral... Owned by Thomas Larkins, according to Bateson (p. 140), "a member of perhaps the most prominent family associated with the EICo's shipping"...
Cathy Dunn, Ladies of the Royal Admiral, 1792. Milton NSW, Cathy Dunn, c1996.

Follows a list of some descendants of EICO dockowner/ships husband Thomas LARKINS
1. Dockowner/ EICo ship's husband Thomas LARKINS (b.1746;d.1794) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN Miss 2. William LARKINS of Point House, Blackheath (b.1756;d.1800) 2. EICo shipowner John Pascal LARKINS (b.1765;d.1818) sp: Mary Ann SAMPSON 3. Georgiana LARKINS (IGI data only) (b.Mar 1802) 3. John Pascal LARKINS (IGI data only) sp: Mary Anne NOTKNOWN (IGI data only) (c.1827) 4. John Pascal LARKINS (IGI data only) (b.Jul 1827) 3. Susannah LARKINS wife1 (d.14 Jan 1832) sp: Sir Frederick CURRIE, Bart1 (In India) (b.3 Feb 1799;m.7 Aug 1820;d.11 Sep 1875) 4. Rev Sir Frederick Larkins CURRIE, Bart2 (b.18 Apr 1823) sp: Eliza Reeve RACKHAM wife1 (d.14 Apr 1861) 5. Sir Frederick Reeve CURRIE, Bart3 (Unm) (b.13 May 1851;d.27 Feb 1830) 5. Sir Walter Louis Rackham CURRIE, Bart4 (b.16 Mar 1856) sp: Bertha FREEMAN (m.28 Jun 1892;d.15 Jun 1951) sp: Mary Helen CORRIE wife2 4. Major Mark Edward CURRIE (b.10 Sep 1824;d.14 Dec 1868) sp: Jane wife1 UPWOOD 5. Lt-Col Frederick Alexander CURRIE sp: Geraldine Lucy GRAVES sp: Catherine GRAVES 4. Katherine Louisa CURRIE (d.26 Mar 1914) sp: Rev Edwin Francis Mersham DYKE of Kent (b.27 Sep 1842;m.22 Nov 1870;d.26 Aug 1919) 3. Jane Emma LARKINS (IGI data only) (b.Feb 1810) 3. George LARKINS (IGI data only) (b.Dec 1807) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN 4. J. P. LARKINS - at Calcutta sp: Miss NOTKNOWN 5. John Johnny LARKINS (c.1815) 3. Capt . Thomas LARKINS of London (c.1805) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN 4. EICo sailor William LARKINS Died Young (b.1770;d.May 1786)
See E. W. Bovill, 'Some Chronicles of the Larkins Family: the convict ship, 1792', The Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1954., pp. 120-121. George Thompson, 'Slavery and Famine: Punishments for Sedition, or An Account of the Miseries and Starvation of Botany Bay, by George Thompson, who sailed in the Royal Admiral May 1792 with some Preliminary Remarks by George Dyer, BA. Edited by George Mackaness, Sydney, Australian Historical Monographs, Vol. XXXI, New Series, (Orig. 1947).



Enderbys about this time had a white lead factory (paint factory) at Gravel Lane, Southwark - an industry based on whale oil. George Enderby to his grandchildren in 1875 produced a debatable quote which ought to be more famous ... "You will I think on consideration be of the opinion that unless there had been whaling ships to carry out the first convicts to Sydney, that the Government would have been obliged to select some nearer spot for the convicts ..."
Samuel Enderby Junior of Croom Hill, Blackheath was by 1820 recommending the annexation of New Zealand as a way to control whalers and traders on its coasts, although by 1819, Australasian whale oil was virtually barred from London. See D. R. Hainsworth, The Sydney Traders: Simeon Lord and his Contemporaries, 1788-1821. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1972., p. 139. See AGE Jones, Ships Employed, pp. 266ff.

Charles Enderby (d.1876), promoted the development of coastal New Zealand. His parents' generation had been part of The Blackheath Connection. The younger Enderby generation was notable for letting their whaling industry slip from their grasp, and failing to re-establish a new South Whale Fishery ranging New Zealand waters by 1849. A letter of 16 September, 1823, from S. Enderby and Son, William Mellish and Daniel Bennett and Son, to Lt. Col. Edward Nicolls, Royal Marines, outlined the advantages of whalers operating from New Zealand if a settlement existed there.
The names Enderby-Mellish-Bennett in this 1823 context are seen in pp. 28-31 of Phyllis Mander-Jones, (Ed.), Manuscripts in the British Isles Relating to Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific. Canberra, Australian National University, 1972. Adams, Fatal Necessity, listings. Broeze, Brooks, p. 227 on the 1849 South Whale Fishery failure. Note: When he returned home from examining New South Wales, Commissioner Bigge had used an Enderby home at Greenwich/Blackheath to write his three reports on the state of New South Wales. P. P. King a commissioner to the AA Co. had his shares in the AACo jointly with the Enderbys who acted as his agents. (Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 48., citing AA Co. Minutes, 4 July, 1833.) Such details suggest that with any suggestions concerning New Zealand development, Enderby interests were assuming the continued satisfactory progress of New South Wales. See also Historical Records of New Zealand, pp. 608-609. P. Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 205, Note 2.

1791: Jenny of Bristol. Owners Unknown. 1791-1792. To Nootka Sound from Bristol. She called at Tahiti to pick up Capt Matthew Weatherhead of wrecked Third Fleet ship Matilda

Year 1792

1792: Royal Admiral (I). Captain Essex Henry Bond. Owner Thomas Larkins. 7 October 1792. Convict transport but normally in EICo service. Later bought by William Wilson (on whom, see below.)

28 January 1792. Contract to William Christopher for Kitty Captain George Ramsay. Shelton´s Account No. 6. Convict contractor, still a problem person for research by October 2012.

William Christopher

William Christopher. Convict contractor noted in Shelton´s Accounts. Still a problem person for research by October 2012.

1792: December 1792: convict transport Boddingtons. Captain Robert Chalmers, for William Richards who had engaged Augustus Beyer. EICo charter for ship to trade.

8 May 1792. Contract to Thomas Larkins (of the Larkins family of Blackheath). Re transport Royal Admiral I. Shelton´s Accounts No. 7

Thomas Pascal Larkins

London: Pathway to convict contractor Thomas Pascal Larkins. For some basic information here see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

Update 31 March 2012. Some new information, small clues only, has arisen on the Larkins family of Blackheath.

A certain Eliza or Elizabeth Larkins (parents still uncertain) married a man associated with the EICo, Adam Walker (parents still unknown). They had a daughter, Elizabeth Larkins Walker, who married Lt-Colonel in India, Michael Edward Bagnold (1787-1857). The Bagnold genealogy here leads to the family history of Samantha Sheffield, wife of the present Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, David William Cameron.

One notable family member was John Pascal Larkins, (1781-1856). He had been a manager of opium supplies from India for the East India Company, and also a deputy Grand-Master of Freemasonry in Bengal. He worked with the Bengal Civil Service between 1796-1827. Prior to 1804 he had been an assistant to the Opium Agent at Bahar. He was once (in Bengal) a Member of Board of Trade, and once Superintendent of Silk Investments. JP returned to England in 1826 and retired from the East India Company in 1827. He lived with his second wife, Mary Ann Robertson, at Brunswick Place, Regents Park, London. (His first wife was Louisa M. Muller/Mueller.) Mary Ann Robertson was mother of Ann Larkins, who died in 1847 in Dublin, Ireland, (buried in Mount Jerome Cemetery), having married Sweeting Bond, and they had at least one child who emigrated to America and married there, John Baptist Bond.
John Pascal Larkins (died 1856) was seemingly a friend of Major-General in India, Samuel Watson, who had a son, Lt-Colonel William Larkins Watson (1784-1852), who had a daughter Jane Woodburn Watson who married to the Steer family of England (who have considerable genealogy available on the Internet).

There are faint hints on the Net that before 1810, there was a William Larkins, designated as being of Blackheath, London, (wife not mentioned) who had a daughter, Eliza Susannah (died 1851 in Brussels), who married a son of a Loyalist of the American revolutionary period, the son being Major-General of Royal Artillery, Guy Carleton Coffin (1782/83 born South Carolina died 1865 at Greenham Lodge, Berkshire), son of Loyalist General John Coffin (1756-1838) and Ann Mathews. Guy Carleton Coffin evidently had some daughters who married British military men. This William Larkins of Blackheath could be the same William Larkins (1756-1800) who was once a senior accountant in India for the East India Company, reporting to none other than Governor-General of India, Warren Hastings, who was subjected to well-known impeachment proceedings. This William Larkins (of Calcutta, later of Blackheath) gave evidence for Hastings at those proceedings.
What is not yet clear is whether William the accountant (son of William Larkins and Christian Pascall) had two wives, one being W. Reynolds (parents unknown), probably the second wife (who apparently had a daughter Harriet Anne Reynolds Larkins who married a barrister, Edward Orpen (born 1781)). The accountant´s first wife might have been Mary Harris (no known parents), with whom he seemingly had a painful estrangement. Since in his Will, he was still surly enough with Mary Harris to threaten his daughters by her that they would lose their inheritance if they had any contact with their mother. But all matters re the accountant still need clarification. (Various Orpen genealogy is available on the Net but it does not help with any Larkins-related question.)

An Australian e-mailer to this website has some years ago conjectured that William Larkins Jnr (1755-died c.1800, the accountant) married to Mary or Mary Ann Harris (no parents?) had a daughter Mary Ann or Marian Larkins born 1780 married to one Thomas Dawson (born 1775) of Essex, and some further generations continue, but this cannot be verified from the Net, and so all we have are this gentleman´s conjectures, and no useful proof.

This William Larkins Jnr (1755-1800) was presumably the son of William Larkins (1721-1784 no parents) and Christian Pascall (c.1728-1788 no parents and no known siblings). As it turns out, contradictory information on him, so far available on the Internet, almost gives William two separate identities. What does seem remarkable is that no historian treating the Impeachment of Warren Hastings has ever sorted out the facts on accountant William Larkins.

Yet another of the too-little-known Larkins clan was John Pascal Larkins (parents still unidentified) who was a lawyer in Bombay by 1840. He had earlier married at Islington, London, to Eliza Bird Andrews, and took her to Bombay, India. Eliza had three children, a son surviving and two children died young. She apparently committed adultery with an English artist staying in Bombay, Frederick Christian Lewis (1813-1875), son of an English artist of the same name. This enraged Larkins, who petitioned for an Act to divorce her (not so uncommon with the affluent British in British-India), which he was granted.

Other matters re Larkins

Fresh questions arise. We have Adam Walker (no parents yet) married to Eliza Larkins, daughter of Thomas Larkins (1745-1794) and Susannah Collingwood (1748-1818). Adam is father of Elizabeth Larkins Walker who leads us to the Bagnold genealogy which leads us to today´s Samantha Cameron (see above). But we have little on Adam´s other children apart from Colonel Thomas Nicholls Walker who is author of a book re the India Mutiny which is on the Net in entirety. But there is not much extra to find on Colonel Thomas Nicholls Walker.

There is a problem also here, John Pascal Larkins (1754-1818) and Mary Ann Sampson (1767-1831), said by a recent e-mailer to have been be daughter of Henry Morse Sampson, of the EICo and of the ship Rose of Kent, but I can find nothing on Henry Morse, and for years there has been nothing useful on the Net on the name Sampson in any parts of Southern England. The situation is, the name Larkins is more or less surrounded by intermarrying surnames on whom we lack useful information. This makes the Larkins more stand-alone than not, and no one seems to be able to sort things out or cut through the difficulties.

Mary Ann Sampson seems to have seven children at least, including Louisa Seton Larkins, but I have no clue why the name Seton creeps into the picture. The alleged Louisa Seton had a sister Georgiana (found only via an old version of the IGI), who conjecturally married one Luke Dawson (per the Australian emailer referred to above). Georgiana had a brother George (also via IGI) who married Unknown (maybe a Cecilia) and had a son John Pascal Larkins (born 1807?), who maybe had a son John Burton Larkins of EICo service, who married Georgiana Henrietta Valiant (born 1851, no parents listed) but there is nothing I have ever been able to find on the Net on John Burton Larkins or his wife Valiant, nor her surname, Valiant. Mary Ann Sampson also had Susannah, who married Sir Frederick Currie (1799-1875) Bart1 of EICo, and there is quite a lot on the Net re the Curries.

The latest on Larkins

The latest on Larkins Descendants of Larkins Progenitor by 5-4-2012 ... a cleaner genealogical picture with many conjectures annotated, solved, rectified or removed - Ed. Corrected with much assistance from e-mail from Maybe and Nick Walker of London.
1. Larkins Progenitor 2012- sp: LNotknown Miss-
2. Larkins William- (b.1721;d.1784) (the first-known relevant Larkins name) sp: Pascall Christian- (b.1720;m.1744;d.1788) (Pascall genealogy on the net cannot yet establish her origins)


3. Larkins Christian- (b.1762)
3. Convict contractor, EICo, Shipowner Larkins John Pascal- (b.1754;d.1818) sp: Sampson Mary Ann- (b.1767;d.1831) (Sampson genealogy on the net cannot yet establish her origins)
4. Conjectural Larkins Georgiana- (b.1802) sp: (conjectural per Keith Dawson of Toowoomba Queensland) Luke Mr- (not yet findable on net)
5. Luke Henry- (b.1795)
4. wife1 Larkins Susannah- (d.1832) sp: Sir Bart1, in India Govt, EICo Currie Frederick- (b.1799;m.1820;d.1875)
5. Rev Sir Bart2 Currie Frederick- (b.1823) sp: wife1 Rackham Eliza Reeve- (d.1861)
6. Sir Bart3 Unm Currie Frederick Reeve- (b.1851;d.1830)
6. Sir Bart4 Currie Walter Louis Rackham- (b.1856) sp: Freeman Bertha- (m.1892;d.1951)
7. Sir Bart5 Poet Currie Walter Mordaunt Cyril- (b.1894;d.1978) sp: wife2 Corrie Mary Helen-
5. Major Currie Mark Edward- (b.1824;d.1868) sp: wife1 Upwood Jane-
6. Lt-Colonel Currie Frederick Alexander- sp: Graves Geraldine Lucy- sp: Graves Catherine-
5. Currie Katherine Louisa- (d.1914) sp: Edwin Francis Mersham, Kent Dyke Rev- (b.1842;m.1870;d.1919)
5. EICo Currie Charles- (b.1829;d.1878) sp: (had issue) Upwood Marian- (m.1852;d.1903)
6. Currie Lucy Marian Alexander- (d.1962)
6. Currie Stanley Charles Cuthbert- (b.1856;d.1916)
6. Currie Harry Augustus Frederick- (b.1866;d.1912)
5. Died young Currie Amelia-
4. Of Blackheath Larkins William- (b.1792) sp: Steer Harriet- (b.1788) (Steer genealogy is available on net)
5. Larkins Frances-
5. Larkins Georgina-
4. Larkins Henrietta- (b.1797) sp: Major-General RA Coffin Guy Carleton- (b.1782;m.1854;d.1865) sp: Dimsdale John- (not findable so far on net)
4. Larkins Mary Ann- (b.1789;d.1814)
4. Larkins John Brooks- (b.1792)
4. Captain EICo ship Marquis Camden Larkins Thomas- (b.1793;d.1850) sp: Ibbetson Sarah Sparke- (widow of Caunter and sister of Robert Ibbetson a governor of Penang/Singapore)
4. Larkins Georgiana- sp: Vyvyan Edward- (not findable so far)
4. Died young Larkins Eliza Susanna- (b.1805;d.1807)

3. Merchant EICo Larkins William Jnr- (b.1755;d.1800) sp: IGI entry only Harris Mary Ann or Mary Harries- (c.1780;m.1776) (uncertain if her surname is Harris or Harries. Presumably not connected with George Harris of India, Lord1 Harris of Belmont, Faversham, Kent.)
4. Larkins Georgiana Grueber- (b.1779)
4. Larkins Apollonia Charlotte-
4. IGI entry only Larkins Mary Ann or Marian- (b.1780) sp: Of Essex Dawson Thomas- (b.1775;m.1805) (seemingly unfindable on net)
5. Dawson James- (b.1810;d.1876) sp: Hogarth Magaret-
6. Dawson George Hogarth- (b.1845;d.1917) sp: Womersley Elizabeth-
7. Dawson Neville- (b.1876;d.1947) sp: Liddon Catherine-
8. Of Leaden Hall Suffolk Dawson Douglas George Damer- (b.1905) sp: Slacke Rosamund-
4. Larkins Warren Hastings- (d.1788)
4. Larkins Eliza- (b.1782)
4. Larkins Christiana- (b.1776) sp: James William- (unfindable on net so far) sp: Vowler Mr- (unfindable on net so far)
4. Larkins Charlotte Anne- (b.1778) sp: Captain EICo Walker James-
In 1811 General Kyd was owned by James Walker. (In 1830, the British government made an examination of ships let from 1811 to the service of the East India Co. Amongst the shipowner and ship names listed, some are noted as ships carrying convicts to Australia. Follows an extraction from the list, which is on a webpage provided by www.british-history.ac.uk - an aspx-generated report.)

3. Dockowner, EICo husband Larkins Thomas Pascal- (b.1745;d.1794) sp: Collingwood Susanne Susannah- (b.1748;d.1818)
4. Of Greenwich Kent Larkins Susannah- (b.1774;d.1865) sp: Merchant Of Hull and Hamburg Haworth Joshua Jnr- (c.1798;m.1798) (findable on net but not in a useful way)
4. Captain EICo Larkins Thomas- (b.1775;d.1858) sp: le Gallais Harriet- (d.1806) (this surname appears in New Zealand at time of WWI)
4. Opium dealer Larkins John Pascall- (b.1781;d.1856) sp: wife1 Robertson Mary Anne- (c.1827) (unfindable on net so far)
5. IGI only Larkins John Pascal- (b.1827)
5. Larkins Ann- (d.1847) sp: Bond Sweeting Svealing- (b.1750)
6. Bond John Baptist- emigrant to USA sp: Stone Catherine Kitty-
sp: wife2 Muller Louisa M.- wife 2
5. conjectural Larkins Louisa Seton-
5. conjectural Larkins Susanna-
4. Larkins Eliza- (b.1782;d.1871) sp: EICO Walker Adam- (c.1806;m.1807)
5. Walker Susan Caroline Larkins- (b.1808;d.1875) sp: Capt 70th Regt Foot Kelsall Edward William- (b.1808;m.1833;d.1875)

6. Kelsall Senior- (full genealogy seems to not yet be on the net)
sp: KNotknown Miss-
7. Kelsall Senior- sp: KNotknown Miss-
8. Kelsall Senior- sp: KNotknown Miss-
9. Kelsall Anne- Internet family historian
5. Architect Walker Thomas Larkins-(b.1811;d.1860) sp: WNotknown Miss- so far unfindable
6. Colonel Walker Thomas Nicholls- (b.1837;d.1903)
5. Walker John Pascal- (b.1808)
5. Walker Adam Scott-
5. Walker Elizabeth Larkins- (b.1817;d.1873) sp: Lt-Colonel 17th Regt India Bagnold Michael Edward- (b.1787;d.1857)
6. Colonel Royal Engineers Bagnold Arthur Henry- (b.1845;d.1943) sp: Alger Ethel-572121 (b.1866)
7. UK novelist Bagnold Enid Algerine- (b.1889;d.1981) sp: Sir Chairman Reuters Jones Roderick- (b.1887;d.1962)
8. Jones Timothy Angus- sp: Clifford Patricia David Pandora-
9. Jones Annabel Lucy Veronica- sp: Sir Bart8 Sheffield Reginald Adrian Berkeley-
10. Sheffield Samantha Gwendoline- (b.1971) sp: UK Prime Minister Cameron David William- (b.1966) (some of his genealogy is net-available)
11. Cameron Miss- sp: Viscount4 Astor Astor William Waldorf- (b.1951)
10. Astor Flora Katherine- (b.1976) sp: Rycroft Baronets Rycroft Alexander Theophilus-
8. Jones Richard Bagnold- 7. Brigadier Founder of Long Range Desert Group Bagnold Ralph- (b.1896;d.1990) sp: Plank Dorothy-
8. Bagnold S. C.-
5. Walker Margaret-
4. Larkins Christian (Catherine)- (b.1768;d.1848) sp: London merchant Pinkerton Thomas- (it is not yet clear if he was not Thomas Pinkerton a war contractor of Birchin Lane London and Nuneaton Warwickshire, helping victual the navy during the Napoleonic Wars)
4. EICo sailor, died young Larkins William- (b.1770;d.1786)
4. Larkins Jane Carlton- (b.1778;d.1780)
4. Larkins Maryann- (b.1787;d.1804)
4. Larkins Laura- (b.1788;d.1856) sp: Goodwyn Henry- (d.1814)
5. Goodwyn Elizabeth Catherine- sp: Captain EICo army Hawkins Edward- (not yet further assessed)
6. Hawkins Edward-
6. Hawkins Henry-
6. Hawkins Eliza-
5. General, RE Goodwyn Henry- sp: wife1 Gale Maria-
6. Lt Bengal Engineers Goodwyn Henry- sp: wife1 McAlpin Susan- (not yet assessed) sp: wife2 Fuge Emmeline-
6. Goodwyn Faith- (b.1874) sp: Patch Henry- (a different view is that his name is Thomas)
4. Larkins David Scott- (b.1792;d.1805)
3. Larkins Ann- (b.1765)
3. Larkins Elizabeth- (b.1765)
3. Accountant-General, India Bengal, Larkins William- (b.1756;d.1800) (He gave evidence for Warren Hastings at the prolonged impeachment of Hastings, and it is very peculiar indeed that he is not far better known for that, given the notoriety in history of the Hastings proceedings. One might ask, whom his widow married, if anybody. Since he died relatively young, aged 44. -Ed ) sp: Reynolds W.- (unfindable)
4. Larkins Harriet Anne Reynolds- sp: Barrister Orpen Edward- (b.1781) (Orpen genealogy is net-available)
4. Larkins Eliza Susannah- (d.1851) sp: Major-General RA Coffin Guy Carleton- (b.1782;m.1808;d.1865) (Son of a noted Loyalist of the American Revolution)
5. Captain RN Coffin John Townsend- (b.1789;d.1882) sp: Of Canada, Donaldson Sophy Wallace-
5. RN Coffin William Henry-
5. Coffin Caroline-
5. Coffin Elizabeth- sp: Captain Kirkwood T. of Bath- (not yet assessed)
5. Coffin Anne Eliza- sp: Lt-General Sir Royal Welch Fusiliers Pearson Thomas- (b.1781;d.1847) (not yet assessed)


25 July 1792. Contract to William Hamilton re Bellona (Captain Boyd). Shelton´s Accounts No. 8. Bellona has been identified by Gary Sturgess as owned by Boyd and Co. and managed by William Hamilton and John Brickwood. This Brickwood was probably the partner of London merchant Thomas Pattle whose genealogy has been posted on this website. It is not impossible that this William Hamilton was the man of this name who was friends with Duncan Campbell (2726-1803) the Overseer of the Thames Prison Hulks, it remains uncertain. Bellona carried free settlers to NSW, disembarking 16 January 1793. When she left Sydney went to Whampoa, China and sailed back to England in company with the EICo ship Minerva (which is noted otherwise below).

On Alexander Davison. Friend of naval hero Lord Nelson. Sent stores/freight to NSW. More to come.

Alexander Davison

For some information on Alexander Davison see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection.

December 1792, A British vessel Jenny reached Nootka Sound, from Bristol, she had called at Tahiti and picked up Capt. Matthew Wetherhead off the wrecked Matilda, earlier a ship of the Third Fleet to Australia. So Wetherhead must have been waiting on Tahiti deliberately on South Whale Fishery business, as he could have gone earlier with Bligh on Bligh's second breadfruit voyage pick-up. 17 December, 1792, Bligh in Providence called at St Helena where she received orders from England pointing locations in West Indies at which she was to touch, and deliver cargo. On Providence Bligh had picked up part of the crew of the wrecked London whaler, Matilda, wrecked near Marquesas Islands. Matilda wrecked at night near Muroroa or Osnaburg Island. 21 survivors. Bligh met them at Matavi Bay, Tahiti.

Year 1793

Out May, 1793: Simon Paul Queen Charlotte. (?) Estimate: Simon Paul of Tottenham Court Rd, May 1793, had out Queen Charlotte in fishery. TI/719.

1793: Follows a List of Subscribers to John Hunter's "Transactions", 1 January, 1793.
Addington, speaker, HOC; Pepper Arden; Sir Joseph Banks; Sir Charles Bunbury; Mr Barnard Jnr; Richard Barwell Esq; George Chalmers; Alexander Dalrymple; Alexander Davison; Samuel Enderby; W. Faden; Lord Grenville; John Hunter (surgeon); Lord Hawkesbury; Sir George Jackson; Mr Alderman Macaulay; Evan Nepean; Rt. Hon. W. Pitt; Mr Richardson; Vis. Sydney; Sir James Sanderson, Mayor; Robert Thornton; Nicholas Vansittart; Sir George Young.

August, 1793: (Stackpole. p. 182) Capt Thomas Melville of Britannia Fleet 3 returns to NSW waters in that ship. Oct. 1793, Capt. Thos Melville out whaling (for Enderbys) on Speedy.

1793: See Capt. Thomas Melville of Fleet 3 ship Britannia in NSW waters. Dakin has his argument with Gov Phillip and his letter home to Enderbys. (See Stackpole, p. 182) He is possibly still out in August 1793.

1793: Sugar Cane. Owner, Unknown. Captain Thomas Musgrave. 17 Sep 1793. Convict transport, see Bateson.

1793: Shah Hormuzear. Master/Owner, William Wright Bampton. Captain William Wright Bampton. 24 Feb 1793. Stores, provisions to NSW. Ship 18 May, 1793.

1793: Duke of Clarence. RN. Lt John Hayes. 25 Apr 1793 - 9 Jun 1793. Exploring New Guinea. Cumpston's Register. Hayes/McCluer. Effort to annex n/e New Guinea. Had tried to obtain EICo interest, failed, trade with NG till 1801. 1793: Also given as Duchess of Clarence. RN. Captain Lt John Hayes. 1793. 25 Apr 1793 - 9 Jun 1793. Explore New Guinea area. Cumpston's Register

1793: Descubierta. Spanish Navy. Captain Malaspina. 1792-1793. Exploration.

1793: Daedalus. HM? Lt James Hanson. 1792 - 20 Apr 1793 - 1 July 1793. Storeship to NSW. Cumpston's Register.

1793: Canada of 1793. Owner Notknown. Captain Muirhead. 1793 but did not sail. Convict transport per John St Barbe. John St Barbe tried to send but she is condemned as unfit. Did not sail.

1793: Boddingtons. Owners Unknown. Captain Robert Chalmers. 7 Aug 1793. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1793: Atrevida. Spain Navy. Captain Malaspina visiting Sydney. 1792 - 1793. Exploration.

1793: Francis. Local NSW ship, schooner. Owner, Gov. of NSW. Captain William House. 24 July 1793 - Local Sydney, local transport. Mate is Robert Watson from HM Sirius. Cumpston's Register.

1793: Bellona. Owners, Unknown. Captain Matthew Boyd. 16 Jan 1793. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1793: Another convict/storeship for Australia - Bellona:
Departing? Arriving 16 January, 1793. Capt. Matthew Boyd. Carrying 17 women convicts.

1793: Another convict ship for Australia - Boddingtons, 331 tons:
Departing Cork ? Arriving Sydney 7 August, 1793 carrying Irish convicts. Contractor William Richards. Capt. Robert Chalmers. Ship had "alarms" of convict mutiny risks. Boddingtons and Sugar Cane were the last two ships ever organised by William Richards, who was not heard of again.

1793: Another convict ship for Australia - Sugar Cane, 403 tons:
Departing Cork, 12 April, 1793 - Arriving 17 September, 1793 carrying Irish convicts. Contractor, William Richards. Captain Thomas Musgrave.

In 1793, the Amelia brig, Capt. Trotter sailed for n/w America.

In March 1793, the Spaniard Malaspina visited Sydney with ships Descubierta/Descuvierta and Atrevida, 11 March, 1793, Two Spanish ships, treated with hospitality, invited two colony officers to ship for dinner. See story by Bob Beale in The Sydney Morning Herald, 22 May, 1993, a member of the British Library staff has rediscovered three of the pictures from the Malaspina expedition to Sydney early 1793. Three large ink-and-wash drawings, the deputy map librarian was Mr Peter Barber, who was "examining the contents of an obscure file in a remarkable collection of 50,000 maps, charts, prints and drawings compiled by King George III" the so-called Kings Collections, also with scenes of New York and Toronto. The King apparently removed the drawings enclosed in a despatch to the then Home Secretary, Mr Dundas, from the then Lt. Gov of the colony, Major Francis Grose, to whom they had been given by the Spaniards ... executed by Don Fernando Brambila ..." Apparently the absence of the drawings had been noted earlier by PRO and scholars lamenting their absence.
Malaspina arrived in January 1793, when Bampton's ship Shah Hormuzear possibly was in Sydney Harbour at the time, it seems for political reasons the Spanish censored scenes depicting the convicts. Malaspina was privately critical of the colony on humanitarian and political grounds, especially about the treatment of the convicts. But Malaspina knew that Britain was keen at the time to promote the colony as a suitable place for emigration. So Bambila painted two sets of scenes, one sanitised for the British; one showing it as it was. One scene kept by the Spanish shows convicts in chains under armed guard being used in teams to pull a wagon, possibly a rick-shaw arrangement. The Spaniards arrived in Sydney on 13 March, 1793, and left on 11 April, Malaspina had secret orders to make military and commercial maps, records on the colony, and to find if Sydney was intended as a British naval base with a view to attacking the west coast of Spanish America and even California. But when Malaspina's voyage took years, and when he made his final report, his views were deemed seditious and he spent many years in jail; his reports were suppressed.

16 December, 1793, London: John St Barbe tendered a ship Canada (Capt Muirhead) for convict transportation, and on inspection the ship was condemned, replaced by Surprize Capt Patrick Campbell, 110 convicts, at 25 pounds per head, 20 pounds now, five pounds at delivery, as per Third Fleet arrangements under Lt. Bowen, etc., but the ship was found to be in a state to be condemned. This was surprisingly bad form from John St Barbe, who should have known ships far better than to try on such a bad ship for the convict service.

1792-1793: From Providence, Rhode Island, Brown and Francis, in late 1792/1793 had out their trader Hope, Capt. Benjamin Page, to Sydney, thence Canton. Also, one Capt Martin Page is recorded as being on a trader/sealer from Providence, Hope, for owners Brown and Francis, to Sydney thence Canton. Probably, Benjamin and Martin Page were related (?).

1793: Discovery - Capt. George Vancouver; accompanied by Chatham; arrived 12 Feb., 1793, departed 30 Mar., 1793. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1793: Chatham - Lieut. Peter Puget; accompanied Discovery; arrived 12 Feb., 1793. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

28 June and 8 August 1793: For Samuel Enderby Jnr. and Christopher Willoughby. Convict transport William. Shelton´s Accounts No. 9. Ship owned by Enderbys. A whaler by Peru. Departing ?. Arriving Sydney 19 March 1793, Captain William Folger. (A Nantucketeer?). See Cumpston´s Register. On Christopher Willoughby. More to come. A problem person for research by October 2012.

The ship Boddington was perhaps owned by Seale and Co, with managing-owners Thomas Seale (no extra information) and Thomas Allen (no extra information), suggests Gary Sturgess.

The ship Sugar Cane was perhaps owned by [Colonel] Turner and Co, Gary Sturgess suggests. (On whom, no more information arises.)

1793: Ship Butterworth as sent out by alderman William Curtis, English registry, a trader. Captain William Brown.

Year 1794

1794: Sydenham Teast of Bristol, had out Charles Bishop in Nautilus in Pacific.

1794: Out June, 1794. Donald, Robert, Swift. (?)
King, Thos. Spry. (?) Spencer, Chris Lucas (?)
Bennet, Daniel Fanny (?)
Delano, Harvey Kitty (?)
10 June, 1794. Yorke, Thos. New Hope Capt. Joshua Bunker (same, May 1795.
Dec. 1794. Bennett, Daniel, had out Lord Hawkesbury Capt. Henry Mackie, returning 2 Dec.

1794: (Stackpole, pp. 400-401, Appendix). SWF from GB, vessels returning in 1794.
Owners Ship Capt.
Curtis Arnold Wheatley, Patagonia SA
Duncan Chesterfield 180 Duncan
Mangles British Tar 347 Fitch
Mather Prince of Wales 318 Bolton, Coast of Peru, Pacific.
Source: Chalmers Papers/Pub. Lib. NSW. BT-6/95. BT 6/230 PRO.

1794: Speedy (1). Owner Samuel Enderby Snr. Captain Thomas Melville. 8 Jun 1794-2 Aug 1794. Delivers food supplies, thence whaling

1794: Salamander (2). Owner Unknown. Captain William Irish. 11 Sep 1794-15 Nov 1794. Stores, whaling, India. Cumpston's Register.

1794: Resolution. Owner Locke? Captain John or Matthew Locke. 10 September 1794- 9 Nov 1794. Stores, whaler. Cumpston's Register.

1794: Prince Lee Boo. British. Captain Notknown. Nil as to Hawaii. Exploration. Views civil war on Hawaii, in In company with Jackal.

1794: Lady Washington (US). Owner Notknown. Captain Notknown. Honolulu. Nil. Exploration, Views civil war. See Glen Barclay on Pacific History.

1794: Jackal of 1794. British. Owner Notknown. 1793-1794. Nil as to Hawaii. Exploration, Views civil war. In company with Prince Lee Boo and US ship Lady Washington

1794: Fancy snow. Owner Dell. Captain Thomas Edgar Dell. 9 July 1794-29 Sep 1794. Food supplies. Dell? Formerly chief mate of Shah Hormuzear. Cumpston's Register.

1794: Surprize (2). Owner British. Captain Patrick Campbell. 25 Oct 1794 - 17 Dec 1794. Convict transport, to Bengal. Cumpston's Register.

1794: William. Owner Samuel Enderby Snr. Captain William Folger. 10 Mar 1794. Convict transport, whaling by Peru. Bateson. Cumpston's Register.

1794: Atlantic (1). Owner Unknown. Captain Archibald Armstrong. 20 Aug 1791

1794: Arthur (brig). Owner Unknown. Capt Barber. 10 Mar 1794. Food to Sydney, speculation, then to Bengal.

1794: Arthur (US-1794) snow or brig, Owners Brown and Ives (US), Capt Henry Barber, 1793-1794, 1794 at Sydney and Apr 1796. Trader from Providence, RI. Notes from a website say Barber is recorded on n/w American coast of 1794, as George Vancouver saw her moving, it left there on 23 July, she had originally come from Bengal via Port Jackson, was wrecked off Hawaii, From Wace and Lovett.

1794: Ruby of 1794. Owner Sydenham Teast of Bristol. Capt Charles Bishop. 1794-1795. N/W America sealing. To arrive by April 1795. Roe, pp. 6-7. See chronology notes

1794: Experiment (snow). Owners British. Capt Edward M'Clellan. 24 Dec 1794-23 Mar 1795. Spec trader, to Bengal. Goes to Hawkesbury River for cedar and mahogany. Cumpston's Register.

1794: Another convict ship for Australia - William:
Owned by Enderbys, a whaler. Departing ? - Arriving 10 March, 1794. Capt. William Folger.

8 December, 1794. English mariner Charles Bishop in Ruby sailing for Sydenham Teast of Bristol reached Berkely Sound in the Falkland Islands. See May 1795.) Note: Roe, pp. 6-7.

1794: At Honolulu, Hawaii, came in two British ships the Jackal and Prince Lee Boo, (sic) plus the American ship Lady Washington, all three to find themselves viewing a civil war on the islands. (Note: See also on Coffin, Margaret and Colin Kerr, Australia’s Early Whalemen. Sydney, Rigby, 1980., p. 34. Glen Barclay, A History of the Pacific: From the Stone Age to the present day. London. Sidgwick and Jackson. 1978., p. 59.)
By 10 March, 1794, the brig (or snow? ) Arthur Captain Barber was to Bengal on speculation, then to the n/w coast of America. By 26 April, 1794, Captain Barber in Arthur was at Tahiti, and discovered the west of Fiji group of islands on his passage from Sydney to N/W America.

1794: June-July 1794, Capt. Benjamin Page is on trader Halcyon, from Providence, for owners B. page, W. Megee and others, to Sydney thence Canton. (Churchward 1948.)

By 10 March, 1794, the British brig Arthur Captain Barber was to Bengal on speculation, then to the n/w coast of America. By 26 April, 1794, Captain Barber in snow Arthur (?) was at Tahiti, and discovered the west of Fiji group on his passage from Sydney to N/W America.

By June 1794, there returned to Bristol, England, Charles Bishop who now won his employer Sydenham Teast's approbation and an appointment as master of Ruby (a small ship) for a voyage to n/w coast of America, Bishop to reach n/w coast by April 1795, to begin trading at about 45 degrees north, and he must take scrupulous care to observe the requirements of EICo, on which Teast had entered a £25,000 pounds bond. The South Sea Company had to grant approval also for this voyage - see 9 September, 1794. (103) (8 December, 1794. Charles Bishop in Ruby reached Berkely Sound in the Falkland Islands. See May 1795.)

1794: Discovery - Capt. George Vancouver; accompanied by Chatham; arrived 9 Jan., 1794, departed 14 Mar., 1794. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Chatham - Lieut. Peter Puget; accompanied Discovery; arrived 9 January, 1794, departed 14 Mar., 1794. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Britannia - first vessel built in Hawaii; constructed under Vancouver's supervision in Feb, 1794 (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Jefferson - American registry; Capt. Roberts, master; arrived Oct 1794. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Phoenix - Capt. Moore, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Jackal - English registry, schooner, trader; William Brown, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Prince Lee Boo - English registry, Capt. Gordon, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Lady Washington - American registry; Capt. John Kendrick, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

February 1794: Anthony Calvert, Convict transport Surprize. Shelton´s Accounts No. 10. (Re ¨Scotch convicts¨.)

NB: In the 1790s, as convict transportation took up to Australia, a variety of Lords Mayor of Dublin offered to the Irish government to contract for convict transportations, though they mostly had Canada in mind.

Year 1795

1795: May. Eber Bunker had just gotten back from Fleet 3 to London. Went out whaling on Pomona for Alexander and Benjamin. Champion. May 1795, see June 1794, same.

1795: Betsy of 1795. Owner, Edward Faning. Captain Edward Faning. 1795 to Canton, seal skins.

1795: Young William, British owned, Capt James Mortlock, 4 Oct 1795, 29 Oct 1795, Storeship to NSW, to Canton. Cumpston's Register. Said by Gary Sturgess to have been owned by Sir William Leighton (died 1826, see above).

1795: Experiment of 1796. British. Captain Edward M'Clennan. 1795 - 24 Jan 1796 - April 1796. India goods. Cumpston's Register

1795: Endeavour. Master/Owner Captain W. W. Bampton. 1795. 31 May 1795 - 18 Sep 1795. Trading to Sydney NSW from India. M/O? Cumpston's Register.

1795: Ceres. Owners British. Captain Thomas Hedley. 1795 - 23 Jan 1796 - 3 Apr 1796. Trade, to Canton. Cumpston's Register.

1795: Arthur of 1796. Owners Notknown. Captain Barber. 1 Jan 1796 - 3 Apr 1796. To Calcutta, Bengal, Trade, speculation. Cumpston's Register.

1795: Tom Thumb. RN. Capt Matthew Flinders. With George Bass to circumnavigate Tasmania. Sails again in March 1796, Cumpston's Register as Tom Thumb IIb.

At right: Matthew Flinders

1795: Indispensable. Owner, Daniel Bennett. Captain William Wilkinson. 30 Apr 1795-8 June 1794. Convict transport, trade China, Bengal. Cumpston's Register seems to have her arrive April 1796.

1795: HM Providence of 1795. RN. Captain William Robert Boughton. 26 Aug 1795- 13 Oct 1795. Exploration, Nootka Sound. Cumpston's Register.

1795: Another convict ship for Australia - Surprize 2:
Departing 2 May 1794 - Arriving Sydney 25 October, 1795. Capt. Patrick Campbell. Ship carried the "Scottish Martyrs".
Michael Flynn, Settlers and Seditionists: The People of the Convict Ship Surprize, 1794. Sydney, Angela Lind, 1994.

September 1795: Via India, Capt. W. W. Bampton's Endeavour from India ran aground at Dusky Bay, New Zealand South Island. He presumably was on sealing business there. Americans seemed to express no interest in the Dusky Bay area, which had first been mapped by Cook. (Note: See J. C. Garran, 'William Wright Bampton and the Australian Merino', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 58, Parts 1&2, March 1, 1972., pp. 1-12. J. C. Garran, 'Indian Sheep in early New South Wales’, Newsletter, Royal Australian Historical Society, April 1974. J. C., Garran, 'Sheep and other livestock in New South Wales, 1788-1805’, Canberra and District Historical Society Journal, March 1970., pp. 1-17. J. C. Garran and Leslie White, Merinos, Myths and Macarthurs: Australian Graziers and their sheep, 1788-1900. Canberra, Australian National University Press, 1985.

At Canton 1795: American Edward Fanning, on 93-ton Betsy, with sealskins. And John Jay, Capt Samuel Hill, at Canton.

1795, Delight, owned by?, Capt. Sturgis.

22 May, 1795: Roe - Charles Bishop on Ruby reached north of Columbia River trading about North-West America, (see October).

1795: HM Reliance. RN. Owners Not given. 7 Sep 1795 - 21 Jan 1796. Govt, Norfolk Island. Cumpston's Register.

1795: Ruby - Charles Bishop, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1795: Mercury - Capt. Barnett, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1795: HM Reliance. RN. Owners Not given. 7 Sep 1795 - 21 Jan 1796. Govt, Norfolk Island. Cumpston's Register.

27 January 1795: For Alexander Towers (his first contract). Convict transport Sovereign. Shelton´s Accounts No. 11. A still-untraceable name.

Alexander Towers

Pathway to convict contractor Alexander Towers active maybe 1795 - little information so far. Still a problem person for research by October 2012. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

James Colnett

James Colnett. More to come.

17 October 1795: For whaler Daniel Bennett of Blackheath (his first contract), re convict transport Indispensable. Shelton´s Accounts No. 12.

Daniel Bennett

Daniel Bennett - whaler -

For some information see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection.

Year 1796

1796: Providence - Capt. William Robert Broughton; arrived 1 Jan., 1796, departed 20 Feb., 1796. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

January 1796: Re ship Providence. She was launched in January 1796 at Dusky Sound, New Zealand. Her building began 1792-1793 by a sealing vessel who found their own ship would be wrecked at Dusky Bay in 1795. (Aspects of NZ Maritime History)

1796: Arthur - Henry Barber, master (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1796: 21 June, London whaler Daniel Bennett had out whaler Lord Hawkesbury.

1796: Prince of Wales (transport). British. Captain Unknown. 1 Nov 1796 - 23 Nov 1796. Transport/victualler. To China. Cumpston's Register.

1796: Grand Turk. Supercargo Megee. Captain Unknown. Unknown. 23 Aug 1796. Food and supplies. Cumpston's Register. (Is she owned still by her original owner, Elias Haskett Derby?) To Manila and Canton

1796: Sovereign. British. Captain George Storey. 5 Nov 1796. Storeship, Convict transport. Cumpston's Register.

1796: Marquis Cornwallis. Owners Hogan and Co. Captain Michael Hogan. 9 Aug 1795 - 11 Feb 1796. 5 May 1796. Convict transport, then to India. Cumpston's Register

1796: L'Atrevida (Intrepid). Spanish Navy. Captain Jose de Bustamenta y Guerra. 1795. 12 March 1792 - 20 April 1792. Exploration about Australia. Cumpston's Register.

1796: Assistance. British. Not given. 17 Mar 1796 - 1796. To Dusky Sound, find castaways, whaling. Cumpston's Register.

1796: Atlantic (of 1796) Owners, S., C. and S. Enderby. Captain Henry Delano. 1796. Captured by Spain. Whaling. Enderby, Paul's Wharf. AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 196.

1796: Sylph. British owned. Captain Unknown. 17 Nov 1796 - 6 Dec 1796. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register.

1796: Susan (of 1796). Owners of Rhode Island. Captain Trotter. 1796. 19 April 1796. Trader speculative to Sydney, to Canton. From Providence, RI. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett.

1796: Washington. US Owners Notknown. Capt Roger Simpson. Exploration. At Sandwich Island meets Britisher Charles Bishop, the two captains become friends

1796: Indispensable (1) Owner Unknown. Captain Wilkinson. 30 Apr 1796. Convict transport. See Bateson. Another convict ship for Australia - Indispensable: Capt. Wilkinson.
Arriving Sydney 30 April, 1796. Carrying female prisoners.

1796: Campbell and Co. of Calcutta in 1796 are beginning to deal to Sydney, New South Wales. Campbells also wanted to ship saltpetre to Sydney for salting meat, which was allowed.
Singh, Agency Houses, p. 154-158.

1796: Another convict ship for Australia - Sovereign: Capt. George Storey.
Arriving Sydney 5 November, 1796.

1795: Another convict ship for Australia - Marquis Cornwallis: Capt. Michael Hogan, Master/owner.
Departing Cork, 9 August, 1795. Arriving Sydney 11 February, 1796. Had risk of mutiny by prisoners-guards (part of the NSW Corps).

The latest on Hogan is as per this e-mail to The Blackheath Connection of 14 January 2004 from Virginia, USA
Dear Dan, I was a frequent user of your Blackheath Connection when researching a non-fiction book now published as Captain Hogan: Sailor, Merchant, Diplomat on Six Continents.
It tells the true story of Michael Hogan (1766-1833) who traveled the world's oceans and lived in and traded with all six continents. Among other things, it tells the full story of his carriage of Irish convicts to New South Wales on his ship, the Marquis Cornwallis, in 1796. Full details are at: (now a broken link): http://SixContinents.home.att.net/
Kind regards, Michael H. Styles, 7004 Sylvan Glen Lane, Fairfax Station, VA 22039 USA
Follows some detail on the book: Captain Hogan: Sailor, Merchant, Diplomat on Six Continents, by Michael H. Styles - The true story of Michael Hogan, an adventurous "seaman, merchant and diplomat" who traveled the world's oceans and lived on six continents during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Set in the rich historical context of the times, the action takes place in Ireland, London, Bombay, Calcutta, Canton, New South Wales, Cape of Good Hope, New York, Havana, Valparaiso and Washington, D.C.
Critically acclaimed - ISBN 0-9744347-0-1 * 434 pages * Bibliography/Index Biography/18th & 19th Century History * Paper * US$22.95
Also by Michael H. Styles - Michael Hogan: A Family Addendum: A companion booklet with additional background about the book, Capt. Michael Hogan's children and grandchildren through about 1900, and a genealogical record of all his descendants. Of principal interest to Hogan family descendants. ISBN 0-9744347-2-8 * 71 pages * Second Edition * Paper * US$6.00 JUST PUBLISHED! (January 2004). Email to Six Continent Horizons, at: SixContinents@att.net

1796++: A dark horse in trading matters was surgeon Augustus Beyer, on Capt. Dennot's Britannia 1796-1797. Rather mysteriously, Beyer became agent for the NSW Corps Officers at Calcutta until 1801. What Beyer actually did remains very hard to say.

1796: Grand Turk. American ship. William Fairchild Magee owner or supercargo, Capt. Francis Mallaby. Another report is: 1796: From Boston/Salem: Capt Francis Mallaby in August-Sep 1796 is on trader Grand Turk, supercargo being Megee, to Sydney thence Canton.

1796: Otter, owned Ebenezer Dorr, sealer, to China, American ship. 18 February, 1796, Otter, Capt. Ebenezer Dorr, departed Sydney. 1796: From Boston, Capt. Ebenezer Dorr in Jan-Feb 1796 is on sealer Otter, to Sydney. (And in 1811, one Capt. Dorr for unnamed owners had the ship or brig Brutus from Boston to Launceston and Hobart.)

1796: Lady Washington, owned by John Howel and Co., Capt. Robert or Roger Simpson.

1796: Grand Turk, William Fairchild Magee, owner or supercargo, Capt. Francis Mallaby.

19 February, 1796: Charles Bishop in Ruby (damaged), reaches the Sandwich Islands, and there met the American snow Washington Capt Roger Simpson. And the two captains became close friends. Roe, p. 10, see June. Meanwhile, in 1796, the earliest US vessel to sail the Californian coast was the Otter, see below, visiting Monterey. Seven years later the Lelia Bird, (referred to by sailors as "Lily Bird") the first US otter-fur sealer, put into San Diego. Such US sealers had to compete with a growing Russian presence on that coast, as well as dealing with the Mexican government. (Note: K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways. University of South Carolina Press, 1988., p. 57.

1796: As the British take the Cape of Good Hope, EICo fears a rise of illicit trade, so that deputy-chairman David Scott discounted ideas that Botany Bay (convict) ships might engage in smuggling; he noted that such ships had a freight out with government, freights for EICo if any were regulated by the Court of Directors.
(See Alan Frost, Convicts and Empire: A Naval Question, 1776-1811. Oxford University Press, 1980., p. 192.)

Image at right: Thought to be David Scott Snr, East Indies merchant, adviser to Henry Melville Lord Dundas.

Thought to be Mercahnt David Scott Snr

1796-1802: Publication of a Report (1796) on Providing Accommodation for the Trade and Shipping of the Port of London: Capt. Thomas King (earlier of slaver firm Camden, Calvert and King and said to be of Blackheath, London, with a wife, Sarah Unknown), an Elder Brother of Trinity House, pp. 274-283; John St Barbe (of Blackheath), pp. 280ff. King, p. 283, deposing to a committee of inquiry, said he had been acquainted with the River Thames for more than 30 years, the last 12 of which he had been residing in London and concerned with shipping. St. Barbe deposed on 18 April, 1796, and was described as a ship broker. A ship owner, Mellish, also concerned with whaling, gave evidence on 18 April.
(In Reports From Committees of The House of Commons, Vol. XIV. 1793-1802. Reprinted by Order of the House in 1802., Port of London Authority Library, Poplar, Isle of Dogs, from p. 276.)

1796: Another convict ship for Australia - Britannia, 500 tons:
Capt. Thomas Dennott. Departing Cork 10 December 1796 - Arriving Sydney 27 May 1797. Dennot was admonished for harsh treatment of convicts. Regarded as "a hell ship" with mutiny risks, a high death rate. Surgeon was Augustus Jacob Beyer, who by now has his third voyage on a convict ship to Australia, and his last.

9 August 1796: For Thomas Patrickson (his first contract). Convict transport Ganges 700 tons. Shelton´s Accounts No. 13.

Thomas Patrickson

Thomas Patrickson master/owner of the 1797 convict transport Ganges (see a Wikipedia page on her arriving to Sydney on 2 June 1797). Ganges was launched in India in 1794, owned by Patrickson. Ganges left Sydney in December 1797 for China. Still a problem person for research by October 2012. Patrickson has been on an American trader Philadelphia to Sydney then Norfolk Island thence China in 1792. Earlier, Governor King had seen Patrickson at Cape of Good Hope and asked him to bring supplies to Sydney, which Patrickson did, from Philadelphia, including 569 barrells of American beef, wine, run, gin, tobacco, pitch, tar. Some of Patrickson´s cargo was bought by officers of the NSW Corps. Patrickson then took supplies to Norfolk Island.

The ship Sylph of 1796 has been associated by Sturgess with (as owners?) John White (no information), Joshua Roome (no information) and John Green (not information), and/or with Faith and Co. of London. (George Faith?)

The ship Young William was perhaps owned by Aspinall and Co., suggests Gary Sturgess

Year 1797

1797: Barwell of 1798. British. Captain John Cameron. Probably owned by Sir Richard Neave (?). Arrived Sydney 18 May 1798 - 17 Sep 1798. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register. Risks of convict mutiny arose her voyage. Website material on her indicates she was usually in East India Company employ, owners still unknown. She embarked her convicts on the Thames on 15-18 October 1797 and left Portsmouth on 7 Nov 1797. She was thence China and apparently she took home 300 French prisoners from Madras. Follows material lifted from a wikipedia page on John Buyers - John Buyers was the first officer of the brig Barwell in 1799 on her voyage to China. John Turnbull was second officer. On their return to London, Buyers and Turbull contacted regrettably unnamed London mechants with an eye to scouting the Pacific in more detail in a ship they'd acquire. Later Buyers was the first officer of the brig Margaret as an investment he and John Turnbull made in Turnbull / Buyers and Co. John Turnbull being his second officer and historian.[Note 1] Margaret, of ten guns, sailed under Buyers with Turnbull as supercargo,The Margaret, after some delay, left England on 2 July, 1800, and sailing by way of the Cape of Good Hope, reached Sydney in February 1801. They reached the Society Islands in September 1802. After trading with various islands in the group, the ship sailed for the Hawaiian Islands, arriving at Oahu on 17 December. After trading for salt at Oahu, Kauai, Niihau, and Hawaii island, Margaret sailed south on 21 January, 1803. The ship sailed in among the Tuamotuan atolls and, on 6 March, 1803, Nukutepipi, one of the Duke of Gloucester Islands, was visited and named Margaret Island, after the ship, though previously discovered in 1767. On March 10, Makemo was discovered and named Phillips Island, after a late sheriff of London (Sheriff in 1807), Sir Richard Phillips (1767-1840 who was a colourful if not eccentric fellow who died at Brighton). On the same day, Taenga was discovered and named Holts Island. Some other islands were sighted but they had been previously discovered and were not landed on. Once in Tahiti, Turnbull set up an establishment ashore for buying pigs and salting them down with the salt obtained in the Hawaiian Islands. All round, Turnbull visited Sydney/Port Jackson twice in two years, during which Hobart had been established.
Margaret set out to trade for hogs with the neighboring islands, but she ran onto a reef in the Palliser Islands and was wrecked. Buyers and his crew, after considerable hardship, managed to reach Tahiti on a roughly constructed barge made of planks from the wreck. A ship which called at Tahiti afforded passage to Sydney for both Turnbull and Buyers. They left Sydney on 16 March, 1804, in Calcutta and reached England via Cape Horn. Though a financial failure, the voyage obtained interesting information about the Society and Hawaiian Islands and the discovery of the islands Margaret, Phillips, and Holt in the Tuamotu Archipelago.
Foonote 1. ^ John Turnbull (1805). A voyage round the world: in the years 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803, and 1804, in which the author visited the principal islands in the Pacific Ocean and the English settlements of Port Jackson and Norfolk Island. 1. R. Phillips by T. Gillet. http://books.google.com/books?id=Fqj_SJuA3_oC. Meanwhile, from the Internet, Barwell seems to have no owners and none of John Cameron, Sir Richard Phillips, Buyers or Turnbull seem to have any family at all. -Ed

1797: whaleboat, RN. With explorer George Bass. 1798. Discover Western Port Bay. See notes.

1797: Sydney Cove (of 1797). Owners, Campbell, Clarke and Co. Captain Guy Hamilton. 1796-8 Feb 1797. Wrecked at Preservation Island. Commercial, shipwreck. Associated is Robert Campbell Snr later of Sydney. Cumpston's Register.

1797: Abigail (US), from Rhode Island, Capt. Chris Thornton, Feb 1798, to Sydney, Manila, Canton. (From Wace and Lovett.)

1797: Ganges. Owner, Captain Thomas Patrickson. 1796-1797. 2 June 1797-Aug 1797. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register.

1797: Mercury of 1797. Owners not given (US). Captain Not given. 1796-11 Jan 1797. Feb 1797. Sealer at Dusky Bay, Manila, N/w America, China. Cumpston's Register.

1796-1797: - Howay lists Sally a Boston brig Capt Joseph Pierpont. Howay lists Lady Washington in n/w trade, owned John Howel and Assocs, Capt Roger/Robert Simpson. Howay at some point has Otter of Boston Ebenezer Dorr for Dorr and Sons with aboard, Muir of the Scottish Martyrs.

1797: Reference item: Michael Nash, Cargo for the Colony: The 1797 Wreck of the Merchant Ship Sydney Cove. Navarine Publishing Co., Woden, ACT, 2002, 199pp.

1797: Another convict ship for Australia - Lady Shore, Capt. James Willcocks, probably a master/owner.
Ship had mutiny and did not arrive Sydney in 1797. Carried the notorious swindler, Major Semple/Major Semple Lisle (who later ended in Australia as a convict). Departing May 1797. Had earlier been used as an East Indiaman. Owned or part-owned by her master, James Willcocks, who was killed by a Frenchman, Jean Baptist Prevot. Ship seized by military guard and sailed to South America (ended at Montevideo). Carried one male and 66 women convicts.

1797: Sailed Abigail, from Rhode Island, Capt. Chris Thornton. 15-23 February, 1796, at Sydney, ship Abigail, Capt Christopher Thornton, merchants on speculation, thence Manila and Canton. (Hao pp. 13ff in 1795, Samuel Shaw was a supercargo on Ann and Hope, by 1800 he had established as a resident commission agent in China on his own account, and in p. 19 of Hao, T. H. Perkins and Co. of Boston opened a branch at Canton, with John P. Cushing in charge. Cushing in Hao, pp. 29ff came home with a fortune of $600,000, retired by 1828 and let William Sturgis manage the funds. Cushing withdrew from China trade and went into railroads, textiles and various “modern” investments). Then resident agents acted for B. C. Wilcocks of Philadelphia, and Daniel Stansbury of Baltimore.

19 February, 1796: Chas Bishop in Ruby (damaged), reaches the Sandwich Islands, and there met the American snow Washington Capt Roger Simpson. and the two captains became close friends. (Roe, p. 10.)

1797-1798: Convict transport for Australia - Ganges, 700 tons: Capt. Thomas Patrickson.
Arriving Sydney 2 June 1798.

1797-1798: Convict transport for Australia - Barwell, 796 tons: Capt. John Cameron.
An attempted mutiny. Departed Portsmouth 7 November, 1797 - Arriving Sydney 18 May 1798.

1797-1798: Convict transport for Australia - Britannia, 301 tons:
Capt. Robert Turnbull. A whaler owned by Enderbys. Arriving Sydney 19 July 1798.

1797: Britannia (2). Owners British. Captain Thomas Dennott. 1796- 27 May 1797- 2 Aug 1797. Convict transport. Owner Enderby maybe. Cumpston's Register.

1797: HM Reliance (2). RN. Captain Henry Waterhouse RN. 26 June 1797. Storeship to Sydney via CGH. Cumpston's Register.

1797: Nautilus. Owner Sydenham Teast of Bristol. Captain Charles Bishop. 14 May 1798 - 7 Oct 1798. To VDL, Tahiti, Missionaries, pork, sealing. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register

1797: Lady Shore. Owner James Willcocks (part or full). Captain James Willcocks. May 1797. Lost by mutiny. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1797: 1/2 July 1798 -- 20 Aug 1798. Whaler, South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

1797: Deptford brig. British. Owner Not given. 1797- 20 Sep 1797. Dec 1797. Goods on speculation, Madras, Coromandel Coast. Cumpston's Register. NB: Not a convict transport.

1797: 1/2 July 1798 -- 20 Aug 1798. Whaler, South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

Year 1798

1798: Hunter (of 1798). Owners, Campbell, Clarke and Co of India. Captain Fern. 10 Jun 1798 - 20 Aug 1798. Speculative trade to NSW. Robert Campbell Snr. Cumpston's Register. (See James Broadbent, Suzanne Rickardand Maergaret Steven, India, China Australia: Trade and Society, 1788-1850. Sydney, Historic Houses Trust of NSW, 2003., p. 68.)

1798: Francis (Reed). Local NSW ship. Sailed by William Reed. 20 Jan 1798 - 20 Jan 1798. To Preservation Island. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Diana. Whaler. Owner/Captain. John Lock. 1797 - 20 Aug 1798. Whaler via CGH to South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register. NB: Not a convict transport.

1798: Cornwall. Whaler, British. Details not given.

1798: Semiramis (of 1798). Owners, Wm. Handy and Jacob Smith. Captain Jacob Smith. Trader, to China from Newport, Rhode Island. From Wace and Lovett.

1798: US ship, Unknown owners, Captain Jacob Smith. 7 Oct 1798 from Sydney - 1 Oct 1798 - 7 Oct 1798 and in 1799. Fishery, to China. From Rhode Island. Cumpston's Register

1798: Norfolk (of 1798).

1798: Pomona. Whaler, British. Owner Unknown. 1797 - 20 Aug 1798. Whaler. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Nautilus brig. Unknown. Unknown. 7 Oct 1798 from Sydney.

27 February 1797: For James Willcocks (his first contract), master/owner. Convict transport Lady Shore. Shelton´s Accounts No. 14.

On James Willcocks

This file remains Work-in-Progress

Re merchant ship Lady Shore c1797. She was built 1793 in Hull, 316 tons, barque-rigged, for East India service. Willcocks was her captain in 1796 when she was captured of CGH by a French corvette Le Moineau Capt. Tayeau. By strange sets of circumstances, Willcocks retained possession of her, though as a prize ship she was no longer EICo property. A known painting of her was probably commissioned by Willcocks.

The ship Prince of Wales (2) was perhaps owned by Staniforth and Co, suggests Gary Sturgess.

22 September 1797: For William Lennox (his first contract) and Captain Edward Redman. Convict transport Barwell and later for China. Shelton´s Accounts No. 15. Barwell was owned or part-owned by Sir Richard Neave, Gary Sturgess suggests. Used at least once to Bombay. A Wikipedia page on this ship notes she was a 796-ton merchantman, built by the shipyard of John and William Wells at Deptford the East India Co. work. In 1804 she was bought by Fletcher and Co. of London for the Lisbon run and apparently in 1811 was stolen by her commander, Captain John Poole. This website has received e-mail from parties named Hughes wanting to find an image of Barwell.

William Lennox

William Lennox died at Hornfey in 1802 in a Gentleman´s Magazine Obituary where he is regarded as a very capable man. He dealt with Michael Hogan, a sometime Convict contractor. Began with crews of EICo ships, became managing partner of David Scott Jnr and Co. See B. R. Tomlinson, 'From Campsie to Kedgeree: Scottish Enterprise, Asian Trade and the Company Raj', Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 36, No. 4, October 2002, pp.769-791 from jstor at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3876474 - Is his son William George Illegit? His heir is his daughter. Of 8 New Bond Street London. Possibly a banker in Edinburgh then manager of David Scott Jnr and Co. of which William Fairlie was a partner. See also re info from David Gibbon re Maj-General William Lennox. Byrnes, The Blackheath Connection, p. 97. There is still no easy explanation of why a senior associate of any David Scott company (Snr. or Jnr), which would have had East India business, would be involved in convict contracting to Australia.

Follows an impression of the Lennox genealogy.

Descendants of John Lennox of Ballacorach
1. Of Ballacorach Lennox John I (d.1755) sp: Stewart Margaret
2. Of India Lennox Alexander (d.1797) sp: LNotknown Miss
3. Lennox Ann sp: Pauling Richard (c.1813;m.1809)
3. Lennox Elizabeth sp: Harwood Joseph
2. Emigrant to America Lennox Robert (d.1785)
2. Of Antermony Lennox John (d.1804)
2. Lennox Hugh (d.1770)
2. Lennox James (d.1770)
2. Managed Woodhead estate in Scotland Lennox William (b.1722;d.1800) sp: Robertson Margaret
3. Managing partner David Scott Jnr and Co Lennox William (c.1797;d.1802) sp: LNotknown Miss
4. Major-General Lennox William George of HEIC0 (b.1798;d.1884) sp: deLaval Marie Hyacinth Oclanis (b.1806;m.1822) 5. Lennox Margaret Oclanis sp: Lamb William Burges
5. Lennox Charles William sp: Oliver Rosalia
6. Lennox Ermentine Helen sp: Mackenzie-Hughes Edward W.
6. Lennox Mathilda Oclanis Rosalia sp: McCreary J.
6. Lennox Malcolm George sp: McNamara Mary
5. Lennox Isabelle Oclanis sp: Bost Timothy
4. Lennox Miss heiress
3. Of Woodhead wife2 Lennox Cecilia sp: Of Kincaid Kincaid John (d.1832)
4. Kincaid John Lennox (b.1802;d.1892) sp: Of Craigends Maxwell Frances
5. Kincaid Margaret sp: MP Conservative Bateman-Hanbury Charles (b.1827;d.1912) sp: Baron7 Strangford Smythe George Augustus Frederick Percy Sidney (b.1818;d.1857)
6. Baron8 Strangford Smythe Percy Ellen Algernon (b.1825;d.1869)
3. Lennox Margaret (d.1833)
2. Lennox Margaret heir
2. heiress of Lennox Lennox Cecilia
2. Lennox Jane.

This file remains Work-in-Progress

London: Pathway to convict contractor William Lennox (died 1802). (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

Robert Charnock

For so far minimal information see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection.

Further on Robert Charnock: Some doubts arise on Charnock´s genealogy as to any correct identification of the convict contractor in question. The doubts arise due to a major discrepancy with genealogies available on the Internet regarding a Scots academic, Sir Daniel Keyte Sandford (1798 1838), a professor of Greek at Edinburgh University. Sandford was son of Rev. Daniel Sandford and Helen Frances Catherine Douglas, who were parents also of Frances Catherine Sandford (died 1875) wife of Rev Charles Lane (died 1879). This Helen Douglas has six known children. Professor Sandford is taken to have married Henrietta Cecilia Charnock (1800-1878) who had two daughters, Cecilia Catherine Charlotte Sandford and Eliza Helen Charnock Sandford; and the middle-naming of ELiza as Charnock would seem to specify her mother´s maiden name. However, a discrepant website gives the professor´s wife as Cecilia Catherine Charnock, daughter of a little-known John Charnock. This Cecilia Catherine Charnock is taken to be mother of first and last Baron Sandford, Francis Sandford (1824-1893 who married Margaret Buchanan Finlay), Sir Herbert Bruce Sandford (1826-1892) and Rev. Daniel Fox Sandford (1831-1906). There is no suggestion yet found however which suggests that the Professor had two wives both named Charnock, which is not of course impossible.
However, the alternative name given for a wife of the professor, Henrietta Cecilia Charnock, is taken to be the only daughter of Robert Charock (the convict contractor died about 1805, and no parent-names given) and Elizabeth Parish, the only daughter of Scots-British financier in Hamburg, John Parish (1742-1829) and Henrietta Tod from South Leith. There are, however, few hints that any grand-daughter of John Parish married any Professor Sandford, the available Parish genealogy does NOT indicate this.
And so problems arise of cross-connecting several Scots genealogies here. These problems will be followed up here in due course. Firstly, the present writer will have to re-research the genealogies concerned.

1798-1800: David Scott Snr, director of EICo, his son David Scott Jnr, traded 1800-1810 with Robert Campbell at Port Jackson/Sydney.

1798, David Scott Jnr a director, EICo. 1800-1810, in London, David Scott Jnr dealt with Robert Campbell.

1798: Hunter (of 1798). Owners, Campbell, Clarke and Co. of India. Captain Fern. 10 Jun 1798 - 20 Aug 1798. Speculative trade to NSW. Robert Campbell Snr. Cumpston's Register. (See James Broadbent, Suzanne Rickard and Margaret Steven, India, China Australia: Trade and Society, 1788-1850. Sydney, Historic Houses Trust of NSW, 2003., p. 68.)

1798: Francis (Reed). Local NSW ship. Sailed by William Reed. 20 Jan 1798 - 20 Jan 1798. To Preservation Island. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Eliza of 1798. Whaler, British. Owner Unknown. 1797 -- 4 July 1798. Whaler. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Diana. Whaler. Owner/Captain. John Lock. 1797 - 20 Aug 1798. Whaler via CGH to South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Cornwall. Whaler, British. Details not given.

1798: Semiramis (of 1798). Owners, Wm. Handy and Jacob Smith. Captain Jacob Smith. Trader, to China from Newport, Rhode Island. From Wace and Lovett.

1798: US ship, Unknown owners, Captain Jacob Smith. 7 Oct 1798 from Sydney - 1 Oct 1798 - 7 Oct 1798 and in 1799. Fishery, to China. From Rhode Island. Cumpston's Register

1798: Norfolk (of 1798).

1798: Pomona. Whaler, British. Owner Unknown. 1797 - 20 Aug 1798. Whaler. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Nautilus brig. Unknown. Unknown. 7 Oct 1798 from Sydney.

1798: Sally. Whaler, British. Owners Unknown. 1797 - 8 July 1798. Whaler via CGH. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Britannia (3). Owner unknown or Enderby probably. Whaler. Capain Robert Turnbull. 1797- 18 July 1798 - 7 Oct 1798. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register. Britannia of 1798. Whaler. Unknown. 7 Oct 1798 from Sydney.

1798: Argo schooner. Owner Unknown. Captain Unknown. 7 Oct 1798 from Sydney - 7 Jul 1798 - 7 Oct 1798. From Isle of France, speculative trade, liquor, China. Cumpston's Register.

1798: -- 1 Oct 1798 - 23 Oct 1798. Trader, Sydney, China. From Providence, Rhode Island. Cumpston's Register, From Wace and Lovett

1798: Indispensable of 1798. British whaler. Capt William Wilkinson. 27 Oct 1798. Whaler. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register, it is Wilkinson's third visit to Sydney.

1798 - RA Swan, Botany Bay, p. 168, not until 1798 with the passing of another Act of Parliament, 38 Geo III c.57, that British whalers were permitted to exploit Australian waters. Finally, late in 1800 they were permitted to carry goods to Sydney under bond for sale to the settlers. (See also R. A. Swan, To Botany Bay: If Policy Warrants the Measure: A Re-Appraisal. Canberra, Roebuck Society, 1973. This last achievement destroyed the EICo's monopoly over the carriage and sale of goods to the NSW settlement, a monopoly that had been granted, together with one for the transport of convicts, by the government in 1792. See HRA Vol. ?, p. 354.

1798: Notably, in 1798, the discovery of Bass Strait between Tasmania (Van Diemens Land) and the Australian mainland allowed further development of sealing. In 1798, George Bass discovered Phillip Island. Early in the year 1798, in London, the whalers Cornwall, Eliza, Sally, Bligh etc., were got together to go to the whale fishery off Sydney. The flotilla was comprised of Sally, Bligh, Cornwall, Swain, Pomona, Clark, Diana, Lock, Britannia and Nautilus. On Nautilus there was probably Capt. Charles Bishop, sailing afresh for Sydenham Teast, South Whaler of Bristol. At that time, 1799, whalers apparently were working around the Pacific Fishery, New Zealand, past Tahiti, about the Philippines (being a source of conflict with Spain) and in South East Asian waters generally. (London whalers once suggested Formosa [Taiwan] be opened to them as a port.) This whaling flotilla was about Sydney during July, 1798.

1798: Early in the year 1798, in London, the whalers Cornwall, Eliza, Sally, Bligh etc., were got together to go to the whale fishery off Sydney. The flotilla was comprised of Sally, Bligh, Cornwall, Swain, Pomona, Clark, Diana, Lock, Britannia and Nautilus. On Nautilus there was probably Capt. Charles Bishop, sailing afresh for Sydenham Teast, South Whaler of Bristol. At that time, 1799, whalers apparently were working around the Pacific Fishery, New Zealand, past Tahiti, about the Philippines (being a source of conflict with Spain) and in South East Asian waters generally. (London whalers once suggested Formosa [Taiwan] be opened to them as a port.) The flotilla was about Sydney during July, 1798.

Between 1799-1801, from New Bedford; Capt. Andrew Gardner (in March 1799) was on whaler and trader Rebecca, owners not-named, for Sydney thence China. In 1800, Jared Gardner had the sealer Diana from New Bedford for Rodman and Co., to Sydney then China. And about mid-1801 Diana was a sealer/trader from New York, Capt. Jas. McCall - she "passed n./w point of New Holland", to Whampoa, China.

1797: Alert. An American ship of Boston, owned by J. and T. Lamb, R. Sturgis and associates, commanded by William Bowles. She cleared from Boston in 1797 with a cargo of trading goods for the Northwest Coast, valued at $13,090. Nothing further has been found, regarding this voyage. She was doubtless on the coast in 1798. References: Bancroft's History of the North West Coast (1884), Vol. 1, p. 306; Solid Men of Boston, MS. p. 76.

1798: Providence: Benjamin Page is captain in October 1798, of trader Ann and Hope for Brown and Ives, to Sydney, then China. (And in December 1807 and April 1808, Brown and Ives are owners for trader Eliza, from Providence, Capt. E. Hill Correy, to Fiji, wrecked.)

1798: Newport: Capt Jacob Smith is for owners William Handy and Jacob Smith in October 1798 on the trader Semiramis, to China.

1798: Hunter (of 1798). Owners, Campbell, Clarke and Co. of India. Captain Fern. 10 Jun 1798 - 20 Aug 1798. Speculative trade to NSW. Robert Campbell Snr. Cumpston's Register. (See James Broadbent, Suzanne Rickard and Margaret Steven, India, China Australia: Trade and Society, 1788-1850. Sydney, Historic Houses Trust of NSW, 2003., p. 68.)

1798: Francis (Reed). Local NSW ship. Sailed by William Reed. 20 Jan 1798 - 20 Jan 1798. To Preservation Island. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Eliza of 1798. Whaler, British. Owner Unknown. 1797 -- 4 July 1798. Whaler. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register. NB: Not a convict transport.

1798: Indispensable of 1798. British whaler. Capt William Wilkinson. 27 Oct 1798. Whaler. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register, it is Wilkinson's third visit to Sydney.

1798: Diana. Whaler. Owner/Captain. John Lock. 1797 - 20 Aug 1798. Whaler via CGH to South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register. NB: Not a convict transport.

1798: Cornwall. Whaler, British. Details not given. NB: Not a convict transport.

January 1798: For Samuel Enderby (and his sureties, second contract to Enderbys). Convict transport Brittannia (sic). Shelton´s Accounts No. 16. Ship Britannia Captain Thomas Dennett has been associated by Sturgess with owners John Prinsep and Thomas Saunders in London and Calcutta merchants Anthony and Charles Lambert and David Ross of the agency house Lambert and Ross of Calcutta.

John Prinsep

Pathway to convict contractor John Prinsep. Of the firm Lambert, Prinsep and Saunders. More to come. For so far minimal information see Dan Byrnes´s production, on Prinsep Genealogy. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

On the firm, Lambert, Prinsep and Saunders. Part of the firm was Andrew Lambert (1758-1800), wjho was not born to money, was rather self-educated and became an East India Co. cadet by 1781. Later he became a merchant and commercial agent, part of an agency house at Calcutta. He had an uncle Anthony Snr. Andrew had a sister Mary married to Ovans and a sister Jane married to Gilchrist, plus brothers Thomas and Charles. Amongst Andrew´s business correspondents were John Prinsep, Gabriel Gillette, Major Samuel Shaw (1751-1794) the USA´s first consul to China/Canton. Andrews´s Letterbooks survive, unpublished. Andrew returned to England with poor health in 1798. He died at Devonshire Street, Portland Place, London. There is data online on his portrait by Robert Home.

Andrew was an opium trader with the firm Lambert and Ross. By 1784 he was writing to James Scott. ... when Governor Phillip at Sydney sent Lt. Bowen on the Third Fleet ship Atlantic from Sydney to Calcutta, he dealt with Lambert and Ross for food, plus arrangements for buffaloes, sheep and goats from Bengal to NSW. Meanwhile, his brother Charles (1767-1837) married Louisa Elizabeth Poignard.

On Charles Lambert: Charles Lambert was a partner with his brother Andrew of Lambert and Ross, Calcutta traders. Charles lived at Osborne House, Cowes, Isle of Wight (probably renting it, 1825-1839). He also had addresses at Blendon Hall, Bexley, Kent and Fitzroy Square, London. There was also a firm Lambert, Ross and Biddulph worthy of inspection here. Charles´ Letterbook is held at India Office Select Materials and includes letters to relatives of the Berwick-on-Tweed area. Charles and Poignard had two sons, Robert an architect and Charles (d.1824 at age 17, drowned while bathing).

1870: Henry Charles Prinsep of WA, (1844-1922). (Wikipedia page on Prinseps.) He left behind diaries, and had three daughters, and an uncle Henry Toby Prinsep with wife Sara. See De Vries-Evans on pioneer women, pp. 165ff. He was later protector of Aborigines at WA. In 1870 he lost money on horses going to India when a ship was wrecked near India. He had arrived in West Australia from Singapore 25 May, 1866. See also, http://www.groserfamilies.com/page - &c.

December 1798: Contract with Daniel Bennett of High Street Wapping, Merchant (and his sureties) to transport such Convicts &c. Second contract for Bennett. For Captain William Hingston. Convict transport Hillsborough, 764 tons, known as a ¨fever ship¨. Shelton´s Accounts No. 17. (Notation: Instructions to prepare Assignment of the several Convicts from Mr Bennett to Governor Hunter for the remainder of the terms of their sentences.) Hillsborough was probably owned by Mr Bennett and/or Messrs Perry. The Mr Bennett was probably the London whaler Daniel Bennett. Departing after 17 November 1798, arriving Sydney 26 July 1799. Voyage organised by London Missionary Society (LMS). A noted convict aboard was William Noah.

1798: Notably, in 1798, the discovery of Bass Strait between Tasmania (Van Diemens Land) and the Australian mainland allowed further development of sealing. In 1798, George Bass discovered Phillip Island. Early in the year 1798, in London, the whalers Cornwall, Eliza, Sally, Bligh etc., were got together to go to the whale fishery off Sydney. The flotilla was comprised of Sally, Bligh, Cornwall, Swain, Pomona, Clark, Diana, Lock, Britannia and Nautilus. On Nautilus there was probably Capt. Charles Bishop, sailing afresh for Sydenham Teast, South Whaler of Bristol. At that time, 1799, whalers apparently were working around the Pacific Fishery, New Zealand, past Tahiti, about the Philippines (being a source of conflict with Spain) and in South East Asian waters generally. (London whalers once suggested Formosa [Taiwan] be opened to them as a port.) This whaling flotilla was about Sydney during July, 1798.

1798: Early in the year 1798, in London, the whalers Cornwall, Eliza, Sally, Bligh etc., were got together to go to the whale fishery off Sydney. The flotilla was comprised of Sally, Bligh, Cornwall, Swain, Pomona, Clark, Diana, Lock, Britannia and Nautilus. On Nautilus there was probably Capt. Charles Bishop, sailing afresh for Sydenham Teast, South Whaler of Bristol. At that time, 1799, whalers apparently were working around the Pacific Fishery, New Zealand, past Tahiti, about the Philippines (being a source of conflict with Spain) and in South East Asian waters generally. (London whalers once suggested Formosa [Taiwan] be opened to them as a port.) The flotilla was about Sydney during July, 1798.

Year 1799

1799: HM Reliance of 1799. RN. Cmdr Henry Waterhouse. 24 October 1799 - 3 March 1800. Detachment of NSW Corps, discovers Penantipodes Island. Cumpston's Register.

1799: Hillsborough. British. Captain William Hingston. 17 Nov 1798 - 26 July 1799. October 1799. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register.

1799: El Plumier prize

. Owner, Spanish. Captain, not given. 1799. 2 Dec 1799. Captured by British whalers. Cumpston's Register. NB: Not a convict transport.

1799: Britannia of 1799. Owners, Saml Anderbury (Enderby?) and Sons. Captain Robert Turnbull. 3 Nov 1799. Whaler of Bridport. Cumpston's Register

1799: Albion of 1799. Owners, Champions. Captain Eber Bunker. 1798 - 29 Jun 1799. Whaler, storeship for NSW. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

1799: Swallow packet. Owner, EICo. Captain John Suard. 8 Dec 1799 - 3 Jan, 3 Jun 1800. Speculative trader. Cumpston's Register. NB: Not a convict transport.

1799: Walker. Owner, Robert Wigram of London. Capt John Nicol. By 3 Nov 1799. 2 Dec 1799. Storeship. Robert Wigram and Co of London. See Cumpston's Register, p. 9, p. 35.
In 1823, Marchioness of Ely owned by Octavius Wigram. (In 1830, the British government made an examination of ships let from 1811 to the service of the East India Co. Amongst the shipowner and ship names listed, some are noted as ships carrying convicts to Australia. Follows an extraction from the list, which is on a webpage provided by www.british-history.ac.uk - an aspx-generated report.)

In 1825 Roxburgh Castle owned by Wigrams and Green. (In 1830, the British government made an examination of ships let from 1811 to the service of the East India Co. Amongst the shipowner and ship names listed, some are noted as ships carrying convicts to Australia. Follows an extraction from the list, which is on a webpage provided by www.british-history.ac.uk - an aspx-generated report.)

1799: Thynne. Owner, George Tyler. Capt Owen Terral. 1799-11 Jan 1800. Trader from Calcutta to Sydney. Cumpston's Register. NB: Not a convict transport.

1799: Convict ship for Australia - Minerva, 558 tons: Capt. Joseph Salkeld.
Usually an East Indiaman, owned by Robert Charnock, an associate of the LMS, also of the EICo., assisting the LMS arrange voyages to the Pacific. Departing Cork 24 August 1799 (delayed by rebellion in Ireland) - Arriving Sydney 11 January 1800.

1799: Another convict ship for Australia - Friendship, 430 tons: Capt. Hugh Reed.
Owned by "prominent London shipowners", John and James Mangles. Departing Cork with Minerva, August 1799 - Arriving Sydney 16 February 1800. It is not generally appreciated that the first governor of Western Australia, James Stirling, had married to this same Mangles family, who thus had more connections to Australian pioneering than has been realised!
From an e-mailer of May 2010, Dear Merchant Neworks team, following up your last re any image of the convict ship Minerva, I note that the surgeon aboard was John Washington Price who produced an illustrated journal of his travels. Is it possible that he may have made a watercolour or sketch of the ship. Also noted that Price was taught how to draw etc by the artist John William Lewin among whose works, apart from the superb illustrations of flora and fauna, there may also lurk a painting of the ship, in a general scene perhaps? Cheers, Peter.

Robert Mangles (1731-1788) of London was of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, and had sons John and James. About 1750 he went to London and set up as a ships chandler. (In litt per Ian Berryman in WA in March 1996.)
The Mangles genealogy given here has been sourced from the following references: ADB entry for James Stirling, governor of Western Australia. The IGI. Burke's Landed Gentry for Norman of Bromley Common. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Onslow. Cameron, Ambition's Fire, pp. 38-44. Hasluck, Thomas Peel, pp. 18-21ff. Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 421 and elsewhere. Stenton, British Parliamentarians, Vol. 1, pp. 258-259. On the banker family, Norman; Sir Henry Clay, Lord Norman. London, Macmillan, 1957. pp. 1-12. Youssef Cassis, `Bankers in English Society in the late eighteenth century'', p. 215. Cassis, City Bankers, p. 226. Kynaston, City of London, p. 29, p. 84. Burke's Landed Gentry for Lubbock formerly Bonham-Carter. ADB entry for General Sir Henry Wylie Norman, (1826-1904), governor of Queensland. Autobiography of George Wade Norman, Completed 3 September, 1857, Kent County Archives, Microfilm U310-F69. [Copy, Dixson Library, UNE]. On the genealogy of bankers Stone, see Clay, Norman, pp. 6-7. Lennard Bickel, Australia's First Lady: The Story of Elizabeth Macarthur. North Sydney, Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1991., pp. 175ff. Ralph W. Hidy, The House of Baring in American Trade and Finance: English Merchant Bankers at Work, 17630-1861. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1949., p. 15. Burke's Landed Gentry for Holland-Martin of Overbury.

In 1825 Guildford owned by James Mangles. (In 1830, the British government made an examination of ships let from 1811 to the service of the East India Co. Amongst the shipowner and ship names listed, some are noted as ships carrying convicts to Australia. Follows an extraction from the list, which is on a webpage provided by www.british-history.ac.uk - an aspx-generated report.)

1832++ James Mangles, a Whig MP For Guildford 1832-1837, son of Robert Mangles, was a ships chandler and an East India proprietor, also a director of the East India Company. He was part of the firm, F&C Mangles of London. (From a discursive citation we find that in Trevelyan's life of Macaulay, Vol. 1, p. 431, some of Macaulay's circle in India included Cameron and MacLeod the law commissioners, Mangles, Colvin and John Peter Grant, the latter three of a younger circle.) James Mangles seems to have married a woman Camden, who was maybe related to the family of Camden linked to the early convict contractors, Camden, Calvert and King? James the MP, married to Mary Hughes, had a nephew, Capt. [John?] Mangles, RN. James' address was 6 Cannon Row, London, and Woodbridge, Surrey. He was high sheriff for Surrey in 1808. This family, Mangles, is supposed to have once have had much discussion with James Stirling, later governor of Western Australia, on "colonising matters".
Some arcane ship-buying matters on Mangles' part are noted in Bateson, The Convict Ships, pp. 232ff and notes thereto. Confusingly, from 1816, the convict transport Mangles was owned not by Mangles, but by the London firm (and convict contractors) Buckle, Buckle, Bagster and Buchanan.

Charles Edward Mangles, MP, "of the Australia trade" (1798-1873) also pursued East India interests. He was son of MP James Mangles, of F. G. Mangles and Mary Hughes, and was married to Rose Newcombe. Broeze, Brooks, p. 80, has Charles on the Board of the Union Bank of Australia (UBA), and as a senior partner of Mangles, Price and Co. (From 1834, Mangles Price and Co. were at New Broad St as names with Lloyd's.) It should be noted that the bank, Herries/Farquhar, became part of the UBA. Broeze, Brooks, p. 314, Note 56, has a man Mangles as treasurer of the Australasian Church Missionary Society by 1838. Pemberton, London Connection, p. 421. Charles was also chairman of the London and South-Eastern Railway, 1859-1872. Butlin, Australia and New Zealand Bank, p. 56 has him on the early board of the UBA.
I am grateful to Ian Berryman for discussion of some points here in litt. Broeze, Brooks, p. 80: by the 1830s the WA trade was dominated by Mangles Price and Co. and the firm's senior partner Charles Edward Mangles was on the board of Union Bank of Australia.

1833: Circa: One element in the Mangles family story is of the "small world" variety, since two Mangles men married to sisters Newcombe - who were daughters of George Newcombe of the Audit Office. If working at the Audit Office by 1830, Newcombe may well have known of the auditing of the papers associated with the contract-making for transportation by Thomas Shelton, and of the bureaucratic arguments on that strange matter. Emily Mangles married to Norman, of the Norman banking family of Bromley Common, London. The Norman family connection meant some connection to the family Stone, of the bankers Stone-Martin, whose (financial ) history is linked to the origins of the bank begun by Francis Baring - although this financial history is not yet in useful detail. Further to the mysteries of the Stone banker family, Caroline Mangles married Rev. Arthur Onslow, who by his second wife, Marianna Campbell, had a son, Arthur Alexander Onslow, who married Elizabeth Macarthur, daughter of James II Macarthur and Emily Stone. Emily, who was from the same Stone family; Emily being daughter of banker, Henry Stone.
Here, in brief, one Harriet Herring married the later Sir Francis Baring. Her sister Mary married banker Richard Stone. Richard had a son, Henry Stone, banker of Lombard Street. In Clay's book on the bankers Norman, Henry Stone seems to be a partner in the bank Stone and Martin, later Martin and Co. From 1764, Francis Baring banked with his brother-in-law Richard Stone. Later, John Martin MP can be noticed in these family linkages, since the name Martin became linked with that of the Norman banker family of Bromley Common.

To 1833: Ross Donnelly Mangles (1801-1877) was an India Merchant, director of the East India Company, MP, son of MP James Mangles and Mary Hughes; he married Harriet Newcombe. Ross Donnelly was of 9 Henrietta St., Cavendish Sq., London, and of Woodbridge, Surrey. He had spent time in the Bengal Civil Service. He became a director of the New Zealand Co. and once visited New Zealand on banking matters, about 1841. He was a deputy-lieutenant of London. A liberal, he was also anti-Papist. He was appointed a Member for the Council of India in September 1858, to 1866. (Of the Mangles family, Vice-Admiral of White Sir Ross Donnelly had contributed his name. Donnelly had service in the American Revolutionary War. (See his own wikipedia page.) The Donnelly River of Western Australia is named for him, see Wikipedia entry on Donnelly River WA. He was of Sussex House, Hammersmith. the peerage.com.)
Ellen Mangles of Woodbridge, Surrey, (1807-1874), married James Stirling, first governor of Western Australia. She once offered her own money to help failing Stirling businesses. She had five sons and six daughters.
Rev. Arthur Onslow (b.1773), rector of Crayford, Kent, was son of Lt-Col George Onslow MP and Jane Thorp. Arthur's first wife was Marianna Campbell, his second, Caroline Mangles.

1833: George Mangles is noticed in Catalogue of the Australian Historical Exhibition, 1-26 Feb., 1938. Australia's 150th Anniversary Celebrations Council. 1938. Copy Dixson Library, UNE. The West Australian settler arriving 1829, a stock manager, George Mangles was a cousin of Ellen Mangles, wife of Sir James Stirling. George left WA in 1833-34 to begin a shipping service.
Pamela Statham, (Compiler), Dictionary of Western Australians, 1829-1914. Two Vols. Vol. 1, Early Settlers, 1829-1850. Nedlands, Western Australia, University of Western Australia, August, 1979.

On the West Australian coast is a spot called Mangles Bay. Why is this? It is due to the marriage between Stirling, the first governor of Western Australia - as follows:

At first sight, it appears merely that the first governor of Western Australia, James Stirling, instrumental in moves to establish a colony there, had married Ellen Mangles. There was more to it than that, and the well-connected Mangles interests, mainly known as "an East India house", became a large investor in Australasia. Follows an impression of Mangles family history:
1. Robert MANGLES of London (b.1731;d.1788) sp: NOTKNOWN
2. Shipowner John MANGLES (b.1760;d.1837) married (probably) Harriet CAMDEN (c.1781;m.1781)
3. Capt RN James MANGLES (b.1786;d.1867)
2. MP for Guildford, James MANGLES (c.1800;d.1837) sp: Mary HUGHES (c.1823); 3. Australia trade merchant Charles Edward MANGLES (UBA) (b.1798;d.1873) sp: Rose NEWCOMBE (m.1832)l 4. Rose MANGLES (b.1835), 4. James Henry MANGLES (b.1832);
3. New Zealand Co member, Ross Donnelly MANGLES (b.1801;d.1877) sp: Harriet NEWCOMBE (m.1830), child, Louisa Malkyn MANGLES (b.1840) who married sp: Rev Henry Alexander MACNAGHTEN (b.1850;m.1873);
4. Emily MANGLES wife2 (d.1927) who married banker Charles Lloyd NORMAN (b.1833;d.1889);
4. Ellen MANGLES sp: John FENDALL (of a family active in British India) (b.1827;m.1854), child, 5. Louisa FENDALL who married Member of Supreme Court of India John LOWIS (d.1870), child 6. John Mangles LOWIS;
3. Ellen MANGLES of Woodbridge, Surrey, (b.1807;d.1874) sp: Governor WA Sir James STIRLING (b.1791;m.1823;d.1865), children including 4. Australian naval commander Frederick STIRLING (b.1829), 4. Andrew STIRLING (b.1826), 4. William STIRLING (b.1831), 4. Agnes STIRLING (b.1835), 4. Elenor STIRLING (b.1838) who married sp: James Alexander GUTHRIE (b.1823;m.1856;d.1873) and also to Orientalist/Writer, Forster Fitzgerald ARBUTHNOT (b.1833;m.1879;d.1901);
4. Soldier in India, Walter Albert STIRLING (b.1837;d.1857);
3. Emily MANGLES (b.1799), 3. Caroline MANGLES (c.1793) wh married Rev. Arthur ONSLOW (b.1773;m.1815), child (?) 4. Rev. Thomas George ONSLOW (b.1826) who married Edith Augusta HAWKINS wife1 (m.1853;d.1857) (Earlier, Lt-General Richard Onslow (1697-1760) was governor 1752-1759 of Fort St William in India His wife1 was Rose Bridges (died 8 Feb 1827-28) daughter of John Bridges. (Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Onslow. Namier/Brooke, Vol. 3, p. 230);
5. Edith Fanny HAWKINS (d.1944), sp: Charles Constable CURTIS (m.1882;d.1936)
3. MANGLES Hamilla Mary sp: William PRESTON RN, child 4. Ellen Jane PRESTON who married Stannard MCADAM;
4. D'Arcy Harrington PRESTON (b.1844), sp: Harriet UPAN; 4. Rev. (Prebendary of York), John D'Arcy Jervis PRESTON (b.1738) who married Jane CONSETT; 5. Admiral D'Arcy PRESTON (d.1847), sp: Sophia NARES; 6. RN, Unm, Edward Preston;
6. William PRESTON RN, sp: Hamilla Mary MANGLES, child, 7. Ellen Jane PRESTON;
7. D'Arcy Harrington PRESTON (b.1844), 7. Rev, Prebend York PRESTON John D'Arcy Jervis-108876 (b.1738);
6. John D'Arcy Jervis PRESTON (b.1795), sp: Wife1 Elizabeth SPENCE (m.1821), child, 7. John D'Arcy Warcop PRESTON (b.1795), sp: Emily Anne Augusta BROWNLOW; 7. Major Charles Edward PRESTON, sp: Ennisline MARTIN (m.1875);
7. Rear Admiral D'Arcy Spence PRESTON (b.1827), 7. JP William Warcop Peter PRESTON (b.1823) sp: Harriet Georgina Edith KERR (m.1864);
8. D'Arcy PRESTON, 8. Montague PRESTON;
7. Sophia Elizabeth PRESTON, sp: Rev. John BLOMEFIELD, 7. PRESTON Margaret Laura PRESTON, 7. Emily Ann PRESTON; and 7. Fanny PRESTON who married Sir Rev. Thoms Eardley BLOMEFIELD Bart3, (b.1820;m.1853). There was also a Western Australia settler, 3. George W. MANGLES, active about 1829.
//////// Ends listing on Mangles family ////////

Notes on ships: Mangles: we find from data on the convict transport Mangles that one of her part-owners was once John Bannister Hudson, of St Helens, Bishopsgate, late of Hackney Grove, also once of Old City Chambers, London. He bankrupted in 1818, and creditors matters were disputed legally between his assignee, Gabriel Gillett (noted elsewhere on this webpage), and a brother-in-law, Mr. Bacon.

1799: Dallas' writings, Enderbys proposed to PM Pitt for an expedition against Peru and Chile using Port Jackson, Sydney, as a main base and using convicts as recruits for a landing force. (Note: 1799, November: W. J. Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers in Southern Waters. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1977. [Angus and Robertson Non-Fiction Classics Edition], p. 17: London was informed that fifteen whalers off the Pacific Coast of South America had been captured by the Spaniards.

Such was the will of an affluent, energetic man - Enderby - who had done something to provide ships to government for convict transportation. But the whalers would largely abandon the NSW fishery. For 8-9 November, 1799, Saunders Newsletter in London reported on 15 whalers "taken by Spanish cruisers" off the coast of South America.
HRNSW, Vol. 3, p. 741. See also Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers, p. 17: London was informed that fifteen whalers off the Pacific Coast of South America had been captured by the Spaniards.

This newsletter had reported that early in 1799, the whalers Sally, Bligh, Cornwall, Swain, Pomona, Clark, Diana, Lock, Britannia and Nautilus had left Sydney for employment in the NSW fishery. There were far more vessels working west of South America... About the time Enderby Senior died, only one more fleet of whalers would visit Sydney Harbour.
NB: Mention of Nautilus suggests Teast had her properly listed by the London-based whalers.

30 October 1799: For Samuel Enderby (third contract for Enderbys). And Captain George Quested. Convict transport Speedy. Shelton´s Accounts No. 18. 1799-1800: Another convict ship for Australia - Speedy, 313 tons: Capt. George Quested. Whaler owned by Enderbys. Arriving Sydney 15 April 1800.

The ship Walker of 1799 was owned by Robert Wigram and Co., Gary Sturgess suggests.

Robert Wigram

Labyrinth

The Bruxner Highway pathway. West from Ballina past Lismore on the north-east coast of NSW runs the Bruxner Highway, said to be one of the most obscure highways in NSW. It is named for Country Party politician Sir Michael Frederick Bruxner (1882-1970), a descendant of an Anglo-Russia merchant. Amongst Sir Michael´s forebears was Rev. George Edward Bruxner (1812-1891) who married Anne Mary Arkwright (1821-1854) a daughter of Anne Wigram (d.1863 and Rev. Joseph Arkwright (1791-1864), Anne Wigram being a daughter of Sir Robert Wigram (Fitzwigram) (1843-1830) of the Green and Wigram consortium which owned Blackwall Yard (shipyard). And Wigram´s second wife, Eleanor Watts (d.1841). Wigrams were not large convict contractors. (Robert Wigram is noted in Bateson, Convict Ships, as owner of convict transport Tottenham (1818). But Wigrams were anyway such a part of London maritime life that they (and their associates) cannot be overlooked. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

On James Duncan

James Duncan (ship), Broker, according to a London directory for 1794 was of 3 George Street, Tower Hill. Not much more is known. See the website londonancestor.com. He perhaps lived at Blackheath.

For some information on James Duncan see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection. Also the file, thebc47.htm

1794: James Duncan, probably died 1803. Convict Contractor, East India broker. Being interestingly re-researched in November 2012 by Gary Sturgess. Sturgess finds that this James Duncan (died 1803) was not another name arising (see below), James Beveridge Duncan. There was a James Duncan a broker of 3 George St Tower Hill in Kent's Directory of 1794. Nil of use on this name arises on the Internet. He is noted in Bateson. Possibly noted on the londonancestor.com website.

This file remains Work-in-Progress

This James Duncan remains a conundrum. From some research angles he seems to have assumed the surname Duncan for inheritance reasons. We find a case of a man with an original name, James Beveridge (no known parents) who married Isabel Marshall, daughter of Thomas Marshall. This James Beveridge was an East India broker of Great Tower Hill. He is found as such on a known list of Blackheath residents. (See also a website being stirnet.com file on Lake of Aston Clinton and of Canons.) Item, Saturday, 9 December 1815, Caledonian Mercury - MARRIAGES – At Lewisham in Kent, on the 28th ultimate, the Honourable Warwick Lake, to Elizabeth, only daughter of James Beveridge DUNCAN, Esq, of Damside. The property of Damside passed into the hands of the Duncans of Galloford, Perthshire; Patrick Duncan of Damside having died in 1798 leaving no children, his heir Mr James Beveridge of Blackheath, Kent, assumed the name of Duncan in compliance with his cousin's will; Mr Beveridge Duncan left issue, a son and one daughter; Elizabeth who married Warwick Lake, third and last Viscount Lake of Delhi, had issue, two daughters. Mr Beveridge Duncan's only son married 1829 Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Ross of Oakbank; their only child and heiress Elizabeth married in 1856 Hector C. R. Macduff, Esq., and has issue besides daughters, a son, Hector Macduff Duncan of Kirklands, Aberuthven. It is not at all clear if any of these details refer to the actual convict contractor James Duncan.
Warwick Lake (1781-1848) son of first Viscount Lake of Delhi had siblings such as Anna Maria who married Sir Richard Borough Baronet1. Lt-General Francis Gerard Lake (1772-1836). Amabel who married Lt-General Joseph Brooks of Everton and had a son Gerard Lake Brooks who married Louisa Barbara Pakenham daughter of Admiral John Pakenahm (died 1878) and his wife, Caroline Emily Popham, daughter of Admiral Sir Home Riggs Popham (died 1820 at Cheltenham). Elizabeth Lake who married a Lt-General and governor in Canada, John Harvey. And Ann Lake, who married Lt-General John Wardlaw. (See data from histfam.familysearch.org.)

London Missionary Society

London: Pathway to London Missionary Society as a convict contractor - For some information here see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

Michael Hogan

Michael Hogan is worth his own page on this website. Click now to: The Michael Hogan. This page by the way utilises a new system for automatic self-re-numbering of footnotes as they are placed in a text. Readers are welcome to a copy of this code via e-mail. -Ed.

Labyrinth

Year 1800

1800: Lloyd's Green Book, Underwriters. Committee is Angerstein, William Bell, John Bourke, John Campbell, Alexr Champion, George Curling, Charles H. Dubois, William Hamilton. Rbt Hunter, Rbt Pulsford. Edward Vaux. Members include: Angerstein and Rivaz, Thomas Backhouse and Co., Baillie Thornton and Campbell, Leonard Barnard, John Barnes, Thomas Bell and Son, William Borradale, James Boydell, Brown Welbank and Petyt, Richard Buller and Co., John Campbell, A. & B. Champion, George Curling, EICo, Rbt Hamilton, Rt Hon Thomas Harley, Hibbert, Fuhr and Purrier, Rbt Hunter, Yves Hurry and Co., James Inglis, Robert Ingram, J. P. Larkins, Paul Le Mesurier and Haviland. London Assurance Co. William Lushington and Co. Thos Plummer Jnr and Barry. St Barbe Green and Bignell. Smith, St Barbe and Marten, John Shoolbred; Turnbull, Forbes and Co., Brook Watson.

1800: Lloyd's Register (Green Book), Underwriters 1800. 19 June, 1799, Asia Capt. R. Wardlaw for coast and bay built Liverpool in 1798 for R. Charnock, 819 tons. G. Gillette husband sent 6 Nov, 1797 ship Bengal Capt. Andrew Cumine, 818 tons. 8 June, 1798, R. Charnock sent Calcutta Capt W Maxwell, to St Hels and Bengal, 819 tons, and Caledonian, Capt. S. Hawies, China and Bengal. Husband W. Curtis 8 Jan sent ship City of London Capt. A. Green, to Bengal and Bombay, 800 tons. 1 Feb, 1798, J. Duncan sent Earl Spencer, Capt. C. Raitt, 645 tons but not taken up. J. Prinsep on 18 June, 1799 sent Lady Burgess Capt. A Swinton to coast and china, 820 tons. R. Charnock 24 April, 1799 sent Lord Nelson Capt. R. Spottiswood, coast and china, 819 tons. T. Curtis sent Nottingham as usual, but not taken up.

1800: Minerva. Owner, Robert Charnock. Captain Joseph Salkeld. 11 January 1800-April 1800. Convict transport. Cumpston´s Register.

1800: Harbinger Brig renamed. Owner Michael Hogan. Captain John Black. General trader to Sydney. Cumpston´s Register. 1800-1801> Reporting the second vessel to pass through Bass Strait, after Grant had traversed it in Lady Nelson was the Harbinger, commanded by John Black; he arrived at Sydney on 11 January 1801. Black named a group of islands after his employer, Michael Hogan. See Andrew Sharp, Discovery, p. 228.

On Peter Evet Mestaer

Peter Evet/Everitt Mestaer: Once of Bethnal Green London and/or of King and Queen Dock, shipbuilder. He is once listed as a ships chandler in Wapping. Convict Contractor, London shipbuilder and alderman. In 1778-1780 built ship Mercury an enterprise class frigate for the navy. In 1794 he built the Duff which later sailed for the London Missionary Society but was then said to be owned by J. Cox and Co. Mesaters is said to have been prominent, had a small shipyard which built East Indiamen at Rotherhithe on the waterfront opposite Shadwell Dock; when Mestaers died his yard was taken over by William Elias Evans (who had poor hearing), a poor businessman who built steamers. Mestaer´s ship Experiment made only one voyage with convicts and she disappeared from the records. Mestaer´s shipyard is shown on a 1799 London map published by Horwood. His area was later known as Princess Dock and by 1923 as Bellamy´s. One view is that he died 1818, another in 1819. He was Of 28 New Broad Street, or of 225 near King and Queen Stairs, Rotherhithe where he also had Mestaers Buildings. (See Bateson, p. 187). See Hainsworth, Builders, p. 97. With John Locke(e) of America Square re eg convict ship Fortune c1806 Captain Henry Moore (Lt RN who had bought 1/3 share in Fortune). See webpages re case of Solomon Wiseman and also re ship of 1806 Alexander Captain Richard Brookes. There was also a Joseph Everitt Mestaer a solicitor of Montague Place Russell Square, who had a daughter Jane who married Arthur Riley Gilham (?), son of Rev James Gilman, and had children Arthur Charles b1881, Martin Alexander Aldridge b1887, Warren Riley b 1890 and Barbara b 1895.
Clarendon was a ship built by Wilson, Walker and Co. for Peter Everitt Mestaer who sailed her to the Far East, later sold her to Porcher and Co., then was with Whitehaven, for W. Stitt and Co., Capt W. Atkinson. Captured off CGH 14 guns and 50 men, in Jan 1815 while Batavia-London by American privateer Young Wasp. Lloyd´s Register for 1815-1816 has a ship Clarendon, 507 tons, built at Whitehaven, 8 years old, owned by Mestaers. Item re Captain George Gooch (1761-1832 born Great Yarmouth) of EICo marine servicce, first commanded Sir Stephen Lushington, in 1796, and had four voyages on her 1796-1803, Sir S. Lushingston had principal managing owners PE Mestaer and William Mayor, John Mayor. Gooch later shared ownership of several Indiamen, was an Elder of Trinity House, buried at St Peter Isle Thanet, Gooch also once sailed Princess Charlotte, launched in 1795, 610 tons, had four voyages before being captured by French, in 1804, built and part-owned by Peter Everitt Mestaers, who had four-sevenths of Sir Stephen Lushingon. Mestaer became an important Rotherhithe shipbuilder, Gooch was an executor of Mestaer´s Will (PROB 11/1613) in 1819. Mestaer also used an EICo Capt John Price. Mestaers in 1794 built Duff later to Australia, but she was first sailed to Gibraltar by Captain P. Gordon. When she went to Australia, she was listed as owned by J. Cox and Co. Capt James Wilson of 1796, later at Typa Harbour, sailed with an EICo convoy to arrive 11 July 1798, and she sailed again for Tahiti with Capt Robson, An action was brought against PE Mestaer in 1802 for bribery re a Hedon election, with evidence against him from his colleague, Christopher Saville (earlier named Atkinson). In this July 1802 election, Randle Jackson the expert on EICo got 77 votes, Mestaer got 83/84. Mestaer´s Will re a New Broad Street address is noted in UK National Archives, Probate HB/E/013 dated 1809 with executors Robert Paulsford of Great St Helens, George Gooch of Brunswick Square and William Lewis of Walbrook. The Whitehaven shipbuilders Wilson Walker and Co once built a ship Clarendon for Mestaer´s firm, for Far East trade, later sold to Porcher and Co. In 1811 she was registered in Whitehaven for W. Stitt and Co.

On Mestaer and Locke. More to come.

Gabriel Gillett

29 March 1800: For Gabriel Gillett (with William Wilson). Gillett´s first contract. Convict transport Royal Admiral II. Shelton´s Accounts No. 19. Gary Sturgess has found (so far) she was owned by Gabriel Gillett (c.1760-1848), Nicholas Cheminant and William Wlson. Cheminant is known as a name from the Isle of Jersey, Channel Isles.

This file remains Work-in-Progress

For some information see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection.

1800: Royal Admiral (2). Owners Wilson and Gillette. Captain William Wilson. 23 May 1800-20 Nov 1800. Convict transport. Former owner of the ship, Thomas Larkins of Blackheath, London. Gillette and Co. Cumpston's Register of shipping.

1800: Shelton's Accounts, No. 19, Contract taken 29 March, 1800, with Mr Gabriel Gillett in the Royal Admiral (2). (Note re Scotland, procuring and perusing the documents and writings related to seven convicts sentenced to be transported at the Courts of Justiciary respectively for Perth, Aberdeen, Edinburgh and Ayr.) 426 convicts, Shelton charged £309 plus tuppence, By 1800, Gabriel Gillett, 1 contract (with William Wilson). (See H. E. Maude, Of Islands and Men: Studies in Pacific History. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1968., p. 185), Royal Admiral II got 400-500 hogs at Tahiti (cites HRA, III: p. 334; p. 432.) 29 March, 1800, re Royal Admiral II, the voyage of Royal Admiral I is detailed in:
E. W. Bovill, 'Some Chronicles of the Larkins Family - The Convict Ship, 1792', Mariner's Mirror,, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1954.
John Pascal Larkins lived at alderman George Macaulay's former residence, Dartmouth Hill House, from 1798. Thomas Larkins was a Blackheath resident.
(Bateson, Convict Ships, variously, on this ship, which was later bought by William Wilson; and Gabriel Gillette of Blackheath. On Gillette, see HRNSW, Vol. 4, p. 469; HRA, Series 1, Vol. 2, pp. 470, 483. Gabriel Gillette is listed in Shelton's Accounts as being the contract taker for Royal Admiral II: Contract No 19, dated 29 March, 1800.)
See also, H. E. Maude, 'In Search of a Home: from the mutiny to Pitcairn Island (1789-1790)', Journal of The Polynesian Society, Vol. 67, 1956., pp. 104-131.

1800: Another convict ship for Australia - Royal Admiral 2, 914 tons: Owned and commanded by Capt. William Wilson, earlier an associate of the LMS, having been nephew and employee of Capt. James Wilson of the first-sailing LMS ship carrying missionaries to Tahiti, Duff. Departing 23 May 1800 - Arriving Sydney 20 November 1800. Regarded as a "fever ship"; surgeon was Samuel Turner, earlier to Tahiti on the first LMS into the Pacific, Duff. William Wilson later became a commercial associate of Sydney merchant, Robert Campbell. Royal Admiral (2) carried eleven missionaries. She had mostly been used by the Larkins family as an East Indiaman, she had been bought from them by William Wilson and his partner Gabriel Gillette, who were recorded as her owners by authorities at Sydney. There is an incorrect legend that when she returned to London she was used as a prison hulk on the Thames, but her name turns up in no listings of such prison hulks.

Labyrinth

Gabriel Gillette may have had some connections to a family named Cardin, as one Robert Edward Cardin was born at sea on Bengal in 1805. The Gillette genealogy cannot be given with any confidence here. (See Byrnes, The Blackheath Connection, p. 97.) On The Blackheath Connection website he is discussed in terms of proximity to shipping names such as William Wilson, Abel Chapman, George Green, Joseph Huddart and John Pascal Larkins, most of whom moved in EICo circles. Gabriel probably had an older brother William. Gabriel was owner of the Indiaman Bengal and seems to have had an address at 25 (or 35?) Guildford Street, St Pancras, London. He was an early subscriber to East India Docks Co. He is living at St Pancras London in 1818. Or at 25 and maybe later 35 Guildford St Guildford Street, St Pancras. website on Powys-Libbe forebears. - greenwood_files\wga24.htm If he owns the Indiaman Bengal which wrecked in 1809 parted in a gale, and which mostly was under command of Captain Adam Cumine, built 1799 by Perry Wells and Green, 819 tons, Gabriel Gillett seems to deal with (Andrew) Lambert and Saunders, Andrew Lambert (see below) being a merchant and commercial agent.

Information Gillett was only found on the Internet in February 2012 and may not be entirely accurate; the main clue is his name being associated with Guildford Street, St Pancras London. Gabriel was son of Jonathan Gillett (son of William and Martha) and Elizabeth Stedman (d.1767). Gabriel´s siblings were William (married Elizabeth Coward) who was possibly in East India Company shipping, Thomas, Robert, and Jonathan (who was possibly in India in 1793 and possibly married Elizabeth Childs).

Gabriel (d.1848) married Mary Ann Hodgson (c.1780-1868), daughter of George H. Hodgson (died 1802) and Elizabeth Cushong (sic). Mary Ann´s children were: Southampton landowner William Stedman Gillett who married Eliza Coster; Rev. Gabriel Edwards who married Elizabeth Woodall, the mother of Admiral Arthur Woodall Gillett (1830-1913).

Eliza Coster had one child who married a man from a family in proximity to the name Welbank, who may have been related to the Welbank of Welbank, Brown and Petyt, who are a firm difficult to research, the firm which had sold to government the ship which became HMAV Bounty.

26 August 1800: For John Wilsone (sic). Wilsone´s first contract. Convict transport Earl Cornwallis. Shelton´s Accounts No. 20. (¨Scotch convicts.)

On John Wilsone

Pathway to convict contractor John Wilsone - little information so far. Still a problem person for research by October 2012. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

Re convict transport Minerva, said on one website to be the first East Indiaman to be chartered from the EICo (as owned by the Company) for use as a convict transport, and intended to trade to Bengal once she had dropped her convicts. She carried 200 prisoners, mostly United Irishmen from the 1798 uprising in Ireland. Minerva sailed in company with Friendship to arrive at Sydney 11 January 1800.

1800: HM Porpoise Captain William Scott. 6 November 1800-16 February 1801. Convicts, detachment of NSW Corps. Cumpston´s Register.

1800: Greenwich. Owner Enderby. Captain Alexander Law. 1800 (and in 1802 similar). 29 May 1801-18 July 1801. Waling. Miscellaneous. Cumpston´s Register.

1800: Elligood. Owner unknown but possibly whaler Daniel Bennet of London. Captain Chr. Dixon. 1800. Whaler to King George´s Sound. From Wace and Lovett. NB: not a convict transport.

1800: Chance. Owner, Michael Hogan. Captain William White. Privateer, French ship, a prize. Cumpston´s Register.

1800: HM Buffalo. RN. Captain William Kent. Stores, animal stock, Governor Hunter embarks on her. Cumpston´s Register.

1800: Britannia of 1801. Owners, Enderbys whalers. Captain Robert Turnbull. Whaler, general merchandise. Cumpston´s Register.

1800: Anne St Luz. Owner John Prinsep. Captain James Stewart. Convict transport for Lambert Prinsep and Saunders. See Bateson, Cumpston´s Register. Arriving Sydney 21 February 1801. br>Note: 1800: To 1830, one Robert Saunders, probably of Mincing Lane, with partners, was a London-Calcutta indigo dealer; he was probably son of the otherwise-unknown partner, Saunders, of John Prinsep, from about 1800. To 1826, a J. Saunders appears as a wool trader and is listed by Le Coteur as a member of the Van Diemens Land Company; but there is no proof that he was connected with the original partner, Saunders, with Prinsep.

1800: Friendship. (1) Owners, Mangles. Captain Hugh Reed. Convict transport. (See Bateson.)

1800: Greenwich. Owner Enderbys. Captain Alexander Law. 1800 (and in 1802 similar). 29 May 1801 - 18 July 1801. Whaling, Miscellaneous. And in 1802. Cumpston's Register.

1800: 1 August, Re whalers Greenwich, Venus, Britannia. Enderbys and Champions wrote to Lord Liverpool that they had established there was a valuable sperm whale fishery on the NSW coast; suggesting that the frequency of visits of whaling ships to there would assist the colony; that exorbitance in the colony might be avoided if whaling ships were used to there; that the Americans were taking advantage of the restrictions they knew the English whalers were bound by.
W. J. Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers in Southern Waters. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1977. [Angus and Robertson Non-Fiction Classics Edition], p. 15; Margaret Steven, Trade, Tactics and Territory: Britain in the Pacific, 1783-1823. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press, 1983., p. 98.

1800: November. Delivery of copper coinage to the colony at Sydney.

Year 1801

1801: Ocean of 1801: 1800-1801. Owners, Enderby. Captain Abraham Bristow. Whaler. Cumpston´s Register.

18 June 1801: For Thomas Hurry. (His first contract.) Convict transports Minorca, Canada and Nile. Shelton´s Accounts No. 21. More to come

1801: Canda, Minorca, Nile, owned/managed by Reeve and Green, who are almost impossible to trace despite often being linked to John St Barbe in matters of the use of convict shipping.

Yves Hurry

Pathway to convict contractor Yves Hurry - (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

1801: Earl Cornwallis. Owners Hogan or Wilson. Captain James Tennant. Convict transport. For Wilson, Tennant and Co. Cumpston´s Register. Sydney then Bengal.

1801: Harriot whaler. Owners, T. & J. Mather. Captain Samuel Chace. Whaler, general merchandise. Similar in 1802. Cumpston´s Register.

1801: General Boyd. Owners, Watson and Co. Captain George Hales. Whaler. Cumpston´s Register.

1801: Canada (1). Owners, F. & T. Hurry or Reeve and Green. Captain William Wilkinson. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1801: Nile: Owners F. & T. Hurry or Reeve and Green. Captain Jas. Sunter. Convict transport. See Cumpston´s Register for Owners.

1801: Nile. Owners F&T Hurry or Reeve and Green. Capt Jas. Sunter. 14 Dec 1801. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register re owners.

1801: Active (whaler2), Owner Daniel Bennett of Blackheath, London, Capt John Dunn. Taken by French. Whaling. (See AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 193)

1801: Albion, Owners Champions. Captain Eber Bunker. 1798 from Deptford, 26 Aug 1801, Whaler, (see Cumpston's Register).

1801: Venus brig. Owners, Bass (the explorer), Bishop and Co. Capt Charles Bishop. 20 Aug 1801-23 Nov 1801. General merchandise. For Creighton, Bass and Bishop. (Cumpston's Register.) She is again about Sydney 4 Nov 1802, re Creighton and Co., Bengal-London, and re Charles Bishop.

1801: Venus whaler. Owners, Champions. Capt B. Gardner. 16 Sep 1801-3 Oct 1801. Whaler. Similar by March 1803. Cumpston's Register.

1801: Convict ship Canada I, 393 tons, built Shields in 1800, Capt Wm Wilkinson, surgeon John Kelly. Departing Spithead 21 June 1801 via Rio 176 days to arrive Sydney 14 December, 1810, possibly maiden voyage, possibly owned by Hurry and Co. (a whaling firm, see below re settling of Hobart) and later sold to Reeve and Green (asociates of St Barbe), and re-entered in convict service thus in 1810.

1801: George Bass's trading ship Venus was at Sydney on 29 August 1801. Bass' London agent was James Sykes of London, naval agent for most of the naval officers at Port Jackson.

1801: 25 September 1801, George Shee at Whitehall to Transport Board re idea that South whalers will be (regularly) employed as convict transports - an idea which did not eventuate.
Historical Records of NSW, Vol. 4, p. 523.

1801: Whalers begin to frequent coast of New Zealand (Bay of Islands). A trade begins between NSW, New Zealand and the South Sea Islands. Dakin suggests Norfolk Island is a useful sperm whale ground. Lord Pelham has suggestions, unsuccessful, that whalers carry out convicts to Australia.
Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers, pp. 19-23; Dallas, Trading Posts or Penal Colonies, p. 86.)

1801: 4 October, 1801, from Sydney sails convict transport Earl Cornwallis for Bengal, with first shipment sent of Newcastle coal.
Historical Records of Australia I, Vol. II.

1801-1824: A long-time Macarthur contact is W. S. Clarke, former master of East Indiaman Wexford, and by 1824 an EICo Director. He met John Macarthur Snr and Jnr at Ambon in 1801. This Clarke from 1824 becomes an investor in Australian Agricultural Co.
Pemberton, London Connection, p. 52.)

1801: Joseph Somes has three vessels in South Whaler Fishery but by 1801 was getting out as it did not pay. Somes later took contracts to send many convict transports to Australia. (Jackson, Whale, p. 141.)

1801: London sends 60 vessels into its whale fishery, Bristol sends 1, Yarmouth 1. 1801: Charnock, (See Parkinson on the East, p. 188.) lists some chief managing owners of EICo shipping, as Robert Charnock, William Fraser, Robert Wigram and John Woolmore. (From A. G. E. Jones, whaling historian, various writings).

1801: Hugh Inglis an EICo director writes to to Sir Joseph Banks re hemp supplies.

1801-1802: Convict ship Coromandel 1, owned Reeve and Green or Brown, Welbank and Petyt. Arriving Sydney 13 June, 1802.

1801: Coromandel (1). Owners Reeve and Green. Captain Alex Sterling. 13 June 1802- 22 July 1802. Convict transport. Via China. Cumpston's Register. Other information is: 1801-1802: Hercules 1, Probably owned by John St Barbe. Arriving Sydney 26 June 1802.

1801-1802: Convict ship Atlas 1, (I), Arriving Sydney 7 July 1802.

1801: Cumberland of 1801. Local Sydney ship. Captain Not given. 26 May 1801 launched. Cumpston's Register. In late 1802 she is sailed by J. Rushworth.

Year 1802

Joshua Reeve

30 January 1802: For Joshua Reeve. (His first contract.) Convict transports Perseus and Coromandel. Shelton´s Accounts No. 22.

Convict contractor Joshua Reeve. Still a problem person for research by October 2012. Byrnes, The Blackheath Connection article, p. 97. There is a Josh Reeve of North Shields noted in Cumpston's Register p. 97, who was not this man. He does not appear to be a link to Reeve and Green, London shipbrokers, who were of 30 Canterbury Square, Southwark in 1794 Kents Directory. We find that from a webpage at www.nationalarchives.gov.uk re 4 October 1817 and a matter concerning Joshua Reeve of 3 Chatham Place Blackfriars London plus George Faith of Little Tower Hill London ship owner and Daniel Rowland of Lincoln´s Inn Fields Midx. This Joshua Reeve has a Will noted online dated 10 October 1829, ref: PROB 11/1762/53 at Kew, London.

1802: General Boyd of 1802. Owner Watson and Co. Captain Owen Bunker. 1801. 26 June 1802 - 10 Aug 1802. Whaler. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Fanny of 1802. Owner Harris and Smith, Captain E. Smith. 9 July 1802. 7 Nov 1802. To Batavia, trader. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Duff. Owners, London Missionary Society. Captain William Wilson. 12 Feb 1802. 1802. Missionaries to Tahiti. (See also, Byrnes, in a chapter of The Blackheath Connection.)

1802: Duke of Portland (of 1802). Owners Unknown. Captain Lovat Mellon. 1802. Trader from Boston. From Wace and Lovett.

1802: Surprise schooner wrecked. Owners Not given. Captain Alexr Le Corre. 9 Sep 1802 - 4 Oct 1802. Merchandise, sealing, China, wrecked in Bass Strait. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Lady Nelson (of 1802). RN. Captain John Murray. 1802. Exploration. Surveys Bass Strait area.

1802: Endeavour schooner of 1802. Owners Not given. Captain J. Oliphant. Nov 1802. Sealer. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Hercules. Owners John St Barbe or Robert Brooks. Captain Luckyn Betts. 26 June 1802 - 12 Aug 1802. Convict transport. Simn Semple. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Fly of 1802. Owners, EICo. Captain Turner. 1 Jan 1802 - 6 Feb 1802. From Bombay, EICo cruiser. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Caledonia whaler of 1802. Owner Daniel Bennett. Captain John Page. 1802. Whaling.

1802: About 1802, AGE Jones writing in 1968 on Bennet -- Daniel Bennet bought from Mr Bush the oil wharf by the King's Mill, Rotherhithe, there he had, Jones writes, for another forty years or more, by the entrance to the Grand Surrey Canal, warehouses, a cooperage, sheds, a dwelling house, cottage and gardens. In 1806 he was assured at 220 pounds for land tax. Today it is site for a ballast merchant's yard. He moved to Blackheath, where there is still a road called Bennet Park, then one of the best residential districts south of the river, convenient to his works. Bennet's wife Elizabeth. In 1818 he moved out of London, as less active in business, he died in 1826. His son William (died 1844) was bequeathed the Blackheath and Rotherhithe Estates and a house at West Cowes. sums etc amounting to 13,000 pounds. AGE Jones in Appendix IV gives following list of Daniel Bennett's whalers out: 1787, Lively 240 tons to Trinidad, 1790-1792, the Lord Hawkesbury 229 tons on Guinea Coast, 1794, Lord Hawkesbury to Walvis Bay, 1794, the Lively to Brazil, 1794, the Kingston 293 tons to Brazils, 1796 the Indispensable 351 tons to NSW, 1797 the Sally to Brazil, 1797, the Fanny 242 tons, captured, 1797, Young William, South Georgia, 1799, Diana 230 tons to Falklands Islands, 1800 the Betsy 326 tons to Port Jackson, 1801 the Diana to Delagon Bay, 1801 Indispensable to Walvis Bay, 1801 the Flirt 189 tons to Walvis bay, 1801 the Favourite 323 tons to Walvis Bay, 1801 the Caledonia 250 tons to Walvis Bay, 1803 the Sally to Walvis Bay, 1804, the Betsy 230 tons to Kergeluen, 1804, the Ferrett 207 tons to NSW and Norfolk Island, 1805 the Indispensable to Peru, 1805 the Kingston to Kergeluen, 1805, the Active 400 tons to Kergeluen, 1805 the Ferrett to New Zealand, 1807 the Young William to NSW, 1807, the Indispensable to New Zealand. 1808, the New Zealander 258 tons to New Zealand, 1810, Indispensable to Norfolk Island.

1802: Castle of Good Hope. 1000 tons. Owners were David Scott Snr and Company of London as we find from a book by Styles on Captain Michael Hogan (p. 385, Note 32)] Her owner is not given by Cumpston´s Register. Arrived NSW on 14 February, 1803. Captain A. McAskill. 1802- 12 Feb 1803. Livestock import to NSW from Calcutta. Departed in ballast for Calcutta on 21 March 1803. (HRNSW 5, 165, 270.) Cumpston's Register. McAskill was in London by 1805.

1802: Casuarina. French navy. Captain Lt Louis de Freycinet. 17 Nov 1802. Exploration, Bass Strait. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Caroline (of 1802, Boston). Owners Russell Sturgis, J. &T. Lamb and others. Captain William Sturgis. 1802. Sealer of Boston. Proceeds of sale is more than $72,000.

1802: Alexander of 1802. Owner John Locke, maybe. Captain James Norman. 16 Oct 1802 - 3 Jan 1803. Prisoners. Cumpston's Register. Does she appear in other records?
In 1811, Herefordshire owned by John Locke. (In 1830, the British government made an examination of ships let from 1811 to the service of the East India Co. Amongst the shipowner and ship names listed, some are noted as ships carrying convicts to Australia. Follows an extraction from the list, which is on a webpage provided by www.british-history.ac.uk - an aspx-generated report.)

1802: Atlas (Brooks). Owners Messrs Clays. Captain Richard Brooks. 1801 - 6 July 1802 - 7 Oct 1802. Convict transport. Bateson. Cumpston's Register.
In 1816, Windsor owned by George Clay. (In 1830, the British government made an examination of ships let from 1811 to the service of the East India Co. Amongst the shipowner and ship names listed, some are noted as ships carrying convicts to Australia. Follows an extraction from the list, which is on a webpage provided by www.british-history.ac.uk - an aspx-generated report.)

1802: Atlas (Musgrave). Owners Beatson and Co. Captain Thomas Musgrave. 30 Oct 1802 - >3-8 Jan 1803. Convict transport. Bateson. Extra from Cumpston's Register.

1802: Arthur (US snow or brig). Owners Brown and Ives. Captain Scott Jenckes. 1802, Sydney, to China. 22 July 1802. Trader from Providence, RI. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett, p. 45.

1802: Arthur (US-1) snow or brig. Owners Brown and Ives. Captain Henry Barber. 1793? 1794-1796 at Sydney. Trader, Sydney, Bengal, from Providence, RI. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Arthur (US-2). Owners Brown and Ives. Captain Scott Jenckes. 1801? 1802 at Sydney, to China. Trader, wrecked off Hawaii, from Providence, RI. From Wace and Lovett, p. 45.

1802: Arthur, US snow, owned by Brown and Ives, Capt. Henry Bate (?) Alternatively, 1802, Arthur, owned by Brown and Ives, Capt. Scott Jenckes.

1802: Perseus of 1802. Owners Reeve and Green. Captain John Davison. 12 Feb 1802. 4 Aug 1802. 7 Oct 1802. Convict transport,later to China. Cumpston's Register.

1801-1802: Swain and Co. in 12/01 - 3/02 have trader/schooner Caroline from Boston Captain S. Tuckerman, to Sydney to New Bedford;

1802: US Capt. Lovat Mellon is on trader Duke of Portland, from Boston, owners not-named, in 1802, for Norfolk Island and Tongabatu; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1802: British Southern whaler General Boyd, Capt. Owen Bunker, owned by Watson and Co. See Australian Encyclopaedia, Whales, p. 275. See also 14 February, 1805.)

1802: Lloyd''s Green Book - Register. Usual names include: George Curling, NO; W, Curtis, EICo; George Forbes; Turnbull Forbes and Co.; Rt Hon Thomas Harley; J. P. Larkins; Plummer; Barry and Upham; St Barbe, Green and Bignell; John Shoolbred (Africa Co.); Smith; St Barbe, and Marten; Thorntons; New 1802 Green members included: Benjamin Bunn Jnr; Campbell and Geddes; and Thos Powditch.

1802: Perseus, owned Reeve and Green or Brown, Welbank and Petyt (once owners of Bethia which became HM Bounty). Arriving Sydney 4 August, 1802.

1802: March: Peace of Amiens, ending war between Britain and France. Britain retains Ceylon. Cape of Good Hope retained by Dutch.

1802: Convict ship Atlas 2. Arriving Sydney 30 October, 1802.

1802: Sir Robert Wigram ... had started life as surgeon's mate in the EICo's service etc. Twice a surgeon on ships. The next stage in his career was the opening of a small shop for the supply of drugs to ships, and by buying shares in Indiamen he laid the foundation for a fortune, which when Farrington writes of him in 1809 was "thought to be more than half a million". He owned most of the shares in Meux's brewery (UK) and was head of a great agency in Crosby Square, Bishopgate. Three fourths of the shares in the Blackwall Docks of London were also his, acquired about the year 1802 from William Wells, a retired" Company's captain" and his brother. Here, Wigram built the numerous Indiamen which he chartered to the Company, and which were the forerunner of the celebrated 'Money Wigram clippers".
From "East Indiamen" by Sir Evan Cotton and edited by Sir Charles Fawcett.)

Reference item 1802: Rhys Richards, `The Cruise of the Kingston and the Elligood in 1800 and the Wreck Found on King Island in 1802', The Great Circle, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1991., pp. 35-53. (Note 28).

1802-1803: HMS Glatton, arriving Sydney 11 March, 1803.

1802-1803: Rolla, arriving Sydney 12 May, 1803.

1802: Margaret - British registry; John Buyers, master; arrived Dec 17, 1802, departed Jan. 21, 1803. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1802: Southern whaler General Boyd, Capt. Owen Bunker, owned by Watson and Co. See Australian Encyclopaedia, Whales, p. 275. See also 14 Feb, 1805.

20 September 1802: For James Colnett. (His first contract.) Convict transport Glatton. Shelton´s Accounts No. 23.

Year 1803

February 1803: To Government. Convict transport HM Calcutta. Shelton´s Accounts No. 24.

1803: Betsy of 1803. Owners, McTaggart and Co. Captain R. Eastwick. From Calcutta in 1803. 24 December 1803. 20 April 1804. General merchandise, get coal and timber. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Harrington of 1804. Owners Chace and Co. Captain William Campbell. 1803- 9 Jan 1804. May 1804. Merchandise, sugar, rum, arrack. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Dart brig. Owner, J. M'Kenzie. Captain D. McLennan. 29 Sep 1803 - 24 Oct 1803. Sealer. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Rolla. Owners, Messrs Brown. Captain Robert Cumming. 12 May 1803. Convict transport, timber, seals. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Nautilus renamed L'Enfant d'Adele. Owner, Berry, Simpson and R. Coutance, Merle and Co. Captain James Black. Little known. Logs, cedar. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Mary or Mary Ann. Owner, Boardman and Co. Captain Samuel Balch. 1803 - 24 Jan 1804 - 12 Feb 1804. General merchandise, to Manila. US owners. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Scorpion whaler. Owner, Mathers and Co. Captain William Dagg. 1803 - 10 May 1804 - 5 May 1804. Whaler/sealer. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Rambler (of 1803). Owner, Perkins and Co. Captain Bowditch. 1803-1804. Trader to Canton. T. H. Perkins to Samuel Snow at Canton on this vyage.

1803: Ocean of 1803. Owners, Hurry and Co. Captain John Mertho. 24 Nov 1803 from Newcastle, UK. Whaling. Cumpston's Register has her again in Sydney Capt Mertho for 24 Aug 1804 to 7 October 1804.

1803: Calcutta (of 1803). RN. Captain Dan Woodriff RN. 26 Dec 1803 - 16 March 1804. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Cato of 1803. Owners, Reeve and Green of London. Captain John Park. 9 April 1803. Timber, trader, lost at sea. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Charles. US-owned. Captain Unknown. Sealing in Bass Strait in 1803. Or, 1803: Charles (of 1803). Owner, Dorr and Co? Captain Isaac Percival. Sealer, Bass Strait. Boston. From Wace and Lovett.

1803: Bee colonial vessel. Local Sydney ship. Owner Not given. 16 Dec 1803 - 18 Dec 1803. 16 Dec 1803. Gather lime at Broken Bay. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1803: Bridgewater of 1803. Owners, Princes and Co. (Prinsep?) Captain E. H. Palmer. 1802 - 12 Mar 1803. May, 10 Aug 1803. Oak timber, to China. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Britannia of 1804. Owner Enderbys. Captain George Quested. 1803. 13 May 1804. Whaler, some merchandise. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Albion of 1803, Owner Champions, Captain Eber Bunker. 6 July 1803, 30 Aug 1803, Whaler, Cumpston's Register. She is again at Sydney with Eber Bunker on 4-21 August

1803: Alexander of 1803. Owners Hurrys. Captain Robert Rhodes. 1802 - June 1803 - 19 Sep 1803. Whaler, pork to Norfolk Island. Cumpston's Register has her in Sydney again 14 Dec 1804 to 27 Feb 1805. See re Jorgen Lorgenson aboard her, later. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Independence schooner. Owner, Fanning and Co. O. F. Smith et al. 1803 - 1805. Sealer, lost Pentantipodes. New York, built Kangaroo Island. Cumpston's Register has her again at Sydney Capt O. F. Smith or J. Townsend, or Master Wilkinson, arrives 28 June leaving 29 August, sealing in Bass Strait and to China. From Wace and Lovett

1803: Union. US-owned. Captain Unknown. Sealing with Charles in Bass Strait by 1803.

1803: US Capt Jonathan Aborn in 11-12/1803 is on sealer/trader Patterson, for owners either Munro and Co. or Lawrence and Co., to Sydney, out sealing, see HRA, 1 (4), pp. 525-526 and HRA, 1 (5), pp. 69; Dorr and Co.

In 1803: Sealer Charles Captain Isaac Percival from Boston to Bass Strait and King George Sound; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1803-1804: In 1803-1804, Fanning and Co. are owners of Union brig/sealer from New York, Capt Isaac Pendleton, to King George Sound, Kangaroo Island, Bass Strait, Sydney, to China, wrecked by Fiji. (See HRA, 1 (4,) p. 583 and HRA, 1 (5) pp. 120-122ff;

In November 1803, Lawrence and Co. are owners for sealer/trader Wertha Ann of New York, Capt Gibbs West, Sydney then China, see HRA, 1 (4), p. 427.

December 1803, Captain W. R. Eastwick, from Sydney to Madras, trade with Simeon Lord of Sydney, a captain noticed (by Parkinson) as an opium trafficker.

1803: Gov. King at Sydney orders the settlement of Tasmania, his reasons given being (1) to prevent any French occupation (2) for timber getting (3) to divide the convicts (4) to raise grain (5) to promote sealing. Captain Eber Bunker, still on the whaler Albion, assisted an expedition, 12 September, 1803.
Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers, p. 30.

1803: 12 February, 1803: Arrives Sydney/Port Jackson the largest ship to thus far enter the harbour, Castle of Good Hope, 1000 tons, 307 head Bengal cattle, some Zebu, donkeys, rice and sugar, under contract, and 14000 gals spirits. Ship for Robert Campbell and Co.

1803: 12 September: John Bowen arrives to "the future Tasmania", Hobart, with convicts to set up a new British colony.
See Philip Tardif, Notorious Strumpets and Dangerous Girls: Convict Women in Van Diemen's Land, 1803-1829. North Ryde, NSW, Angus and Robertson, 1990.

1803: 1803+: On treatment of convicts convicted in India, mostly, indigenous people.
(See also, C. M. Turnbull, 'Convicts in the Straits Settlements', 1826-1867', Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 43, Part 1, No. 217, July 1970., pp. 87-103.)

1803: Lloyd's Green Book Committee: Angerstein, John Burke, William Bell, John Campbell, Alexr. Champion, George Curling, Charles Henry Dubois, Effingham Laurence, Robert Pulsford, Robert Shelden, Edward Vaux. At Register Office of Shipping, No 4 Castle Court, Birchin Lane. New 1803 members are David Scott and Co, John Shee and Thomas.

1803: Lloyd's Red Book Subscribers List includes: Moses Agar, J. & A. Atkins, Thomas Backhouse and Co., John Blackett, William Bewnett (? - Bennett?), Brown, Welbank and Co., Norrison Coverdale; Camden Calvert and Co., Cox and Curling, Robert Curling, Duncan and Lachlan, Thomas Hall, Hodgson and Co., Humble, Holland and Hurry, Ives Hurry and Co., Peter Kennion, John Lyall, Thomas Newnham, Reeve and Green, Thomas Rowcroft, St. Barbe, Green and Co., F. S. Secretan, Society of Ship Owners of Great Britain. Transport Board (2 books).

1803: The man who named Australia: Matthew Flinders (died 1814), a "naval prodigy". Son of Lincolnshire surgeons. By 1801 he had sailed to Tahiti with William Bligh, and sailed with Capt. John Hunter to NSW, later surveying Bass Strait with Bass. Been first to circumnavigate Tasmania, and developed ambition of doing the same for the entire continent. (Flinders married Ann Chapell and had a daughter Anne who was mother of the explorer/Egyptologist, Flinders Petrie). By 1801, Flinders was sailing about Australia (Terra Australis. At Encounter Bay off South Australia he met French explorer Nicholas Baudin (who later died of dysentery on Mauritius). Baudin was using a map Flinders himself had drawn! In 1803, Flinders' voyage home was interrupted, and he called in to Ile-de-France (Mauritius). The governor General de Caen imprisoned Flinders for seven years as a "spy". Flinders did not reach England till 1810, and almost killed himself with work on his discoveries, and met bureaucratic inertia from the Admiralty.

1803-1805: A schooner/sealer Independence, from New York, (for Kangaroo Island off the South Australian coast?) Captain O. F. Smith with ? Wilkinson and J. Townsend, for Fanning and Co., to Kangaroo Island, King George Sound, Bass Strait, Sydney, and same in 1804 and 1805, to Norfolk Island, lost Penantipodes, see Fanning, 1924; Henry Trapp, L. C. Tripp; ? Trotter, is Captain of snow/trader, Susan, from Providence, owners not named, to Sydney thence Canton, see HRA 1 (9), p. 47.

1802, Southern whaler General Boyd, Captain Owen Bunker, owned by Watson and Co. See Australian Encyclopaedia, Whales, p. 275.

In 1803: Abiel and Jonathan Winship Jnr. re ship O'Cain of New York in 1803.

1803: US Captain Jonathan Aborn in 11-12/1803 is on sealer/trader Patterson, for owners either Munro and Co. or Lawrence and Co., to Sydney, out sealing, see HRA, 1 (4), pp. 525-526 and HRA, 1 (5), pp. 69;

1803: Dorr and Co. in 1803 have sealer Charles Capt Isaac Percival from Boston to Bass Strait and King George Sound; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett)

1803-1804: In 1803-1804, Fanning and Co. are owners of Union brig/sealer from New York, Capt Isaac Pendleton, to King George Sound, Kangaroo Island, Bass Strait, Sydney, to China, wrecked by Fiji, see HRA, 1 (4,) p. 583 and HRA, 1 (5) pp. 120-122ff;

1804-1805: Champlin and Minturn in December 1804 and 1805 have trader Aeolus from Sumerset (sic) NY, Capt Andrew Mather, to Sydney, thence China; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1803: L'Adele snow. Owners, M. S. G. Courtans. Captain R. Coutance. 15 July 1803 - 4 Sep 1803. From Mauritius, timber. Cumpston's Register.

1803: John sealer. Owner, Chace. Captain not given. 26 Dec 1803 - 26 Dec 1803. Seal skins, oil, Bass Strait. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1803: James of 1803. Owner, Thomas Raby of Sydney. Captain not given. 23 Dec 1803. Gathering lime at Broken Bay. Lost at Broken Bay by 25 April. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1803: Governor King. Owner, Kable and Underwood of Sydney. Captain Moody. 26 Dec 1803 - 7 Jan 1804. Sealing or whaling. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1803: HM Glatton. RN. Captain James Colnett RN. 1802 - 11 Mar 1803 - 17 May 1803. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Ferrett whaler. Owner, Daniel Bennett. Captain Philip Skelton. 1803 - 22 Jan 1804 - 31 Jan 1804. Whaler, to Derwent River. Owner been misgiven as "David Bennett". Cumpston's Register. This ship was under Skelton at Sydney 8 Sep 1805 then to NZ's Bay of Islands, 20 Sep 1805. (See Robert McNab, From Tasman to Marsden, 1914. Aspects of NZ Maritime History)

Item: 1803: First cricket match played in Australia by officers of HM Calcutta, in Sydney on a boxing day.

Year 1804

???: To Messrs Reeve and Wigram (Second contract for Reeve). Convict transports Coromandel and Experiment. Shelton´s Accounts No. 25. (¨Three Scotch convicts¨.) The name Reeve here remains a problem person for research. These are presumably Joshua Reeve and Robert Wigram.

1804: HM Buffalo of 1804. RN. Lt William Kent. 12 June 1804 - 15 October 1804. Cattle, horses. Cumpston's Register, p. 5

1804: Contest (44 tons). Owners, Kable and Underwood. Captain not given. Launched May 1804. Local Sydney ship. Cumpston's Register, p. 49.

1804: Coromandel (2). Owners, Reeve and Green. Captain John Robinson then George Blakey. 1803 - 7-8 May 1804 - 19 July 1804. Convict transport. Reeve and Co. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Rose. Owner P. Gardner. Captain James Carey. Sealer, trader to China from Nantucket Island. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett.

1804: Fair American of 1804. Owner, J. E. Farrell M/O. Captain J. E. Farrell. 26 March 1804 - 12 Nov 1804. Also to Manila. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Hannah and Eliza. Owner, W. Rotch. Captain Micajah Gardner. 1806. Whaler, sealer from New Bedford. From Wace and Lovett.

1804: Raven. (11 tons). Owner, Thomas Raby of Sydney. Captain not given. New by 1804. 23 May 1804. Light coals, cedar timber. Cumpston's Register, p. 49.

1804: Surprise sealer. Owner, Kable and Underwood of Sydney. Capt Rushworth. 19 April 1804 - 9 April 1804. Bass Strait sealing. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1804: Sophia of 1804. Owners, Not given. Captain William Collins. 1804- 16 Jan 1805. Convicts, stores. Cumpston's Register, p. 51

1804: Policy whaler. Owners, Hurrys. Captain C. S. Foster, Rbt. Sparrow. 1804 - 17 Nov 1804 - 10 May 1805. Timor, Mollucccas, England, seal/whale oil. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Richard and Mary of 1804. Owners, Spencer and Co. Captain James Lucas. 1804 - 5 January 1805 - 26 January 1805. Whaling, to England and Moluccas. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Mandarin (of 1804). Owners, Notknown. Captain James Magee. 1804 - Trader. Letter T. H. Perkins by Mandarain Capt James Magee to E. Bumstead at Canton on Madeira wine, other goods, by which time the Perkins firm has ships on N/w coast America, Malay coast, Isle of France/Mauritius. In 1804, TH Perkins to Grant, Forbes and Co. in London who are still unidentified.

1804: Lady Barlow Owners, Campbell and Co. Captain A. McAskill. 21 Jan 1804. Skins, timber, curios, for Campbell Family. Robert Campbell, Sydney. Cumpston's Register, p. 51, has her to Pegu, Bengal, England via Derwent.

1804: Experiment (1). Owner, Wigram and Co., of London. Captain Francis J. Withers. 24 June 1804. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register, p. 51. Presumably, Robert Wigram.

1804: Mary Owners, Boardman and Co. Captain Samuel Balch. Trader from Boston to Manila. From Wace and Lovett

1804: Mersey. James Wilson Master/Owner. Captain James Wilson. 16 April 1804 - 24 May 1804. Trader from Fort William. Cumpston's Register. Consignment for Robert Campbell Snr, Sydney.

1804: Pilgrim (of 1804). Owners Boardman and Co. Captain Samuel Delano. 22 Aug 1804 - 31 Aug 1804. Sealer. Boston, Bradbury and Co. Cumpston's Register, she is sealing in Bass Strait. From Wace and Lovett.

1804: Pilgrim of 1804. US-owned. Captain Unknown. Sealer. Sealing in Bass Strait by 1804. Aboard is O. F. Smith, an American, who applied to live at Sydney but was refused by Gov. King.

1804: Endeavour (of 1804). Owner not given. Captain Murrell. 1804 - 22 Jan 1805 to Bass Strait. Sealing, fine skins. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Marcia. Owners, Unknown. Captain J. Aicken. 5 July 1804. Wrecked, salvage, taking beche-de-mer. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1804: Endeavour. Owners, Kable and Underwood of Sydney. Captain J. Oliphant. 17 Jan 1804 - 8 Feb 1804 - 17 Jan 1804. Sealing. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1804: Myrtle. Owners, Wm. Kinlock and Co. Captain Henry Barber. 18 Oct 1804 - 31 Dec 1804. Misc, general, spirits, ordered to sea. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Edwin sloop. Sydney owned. Captain William Stewart. 8 Feb 1804. Bass Strait sealing. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1804: Brook Watson. Owners, Goodall and Turner. Captain Obed Worth. Whaling. Goodall and Turner. AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 199.

1804: Antelope. Owner, Daniel Bennett. Captain James Mortlock, John Samuel Parker. Captured. AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 196.

1804: Aeolus (US). Champlin and Minturn. Captain Andrew Mather. 1804-1805. At Sydney 1804-1805. 9 Feb 1805 . Whaler, to China. Sumerset, New York. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett.

1804: African (of 1804). Owner Daniel Bennett of Blackheath. Captain Ranson Jones. 1804. Whaling. Formerly Minerve, captured by HMS Circe in 1800. Other captain is John Brown, as in AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 194.

1804: Active (whaler3), Owner Daniel Bennet, Rotherhithe. Capt Louis Blair. Whaling, AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 193.

1804: Adonis of 1804. Owners Unknown. Captain Robert Turnbull (See above). 25 Aug 1804 - 19 Sep 1804. Whaling NZ. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Swift prize. Bought by Campbell and Co. J. Lawrence. 1804, taken as prize. 17 Nov 1804. Beef, clothing, wine, arrack. Earlier owned by Dutch. Cumpston's Register sees her condemned in Sydney.

1804: Perseverance. US-owned. Captain Unknown. Sealing in Bass Strait by 1804. 1804: Perseverance (of 1804). Owners Fanning and Co. Captain Amasa Delano. Sealer from Boston. From Wace and Lovett

1804: Integrity HMC. Sydney owned. Capt Rushworth. Feb 1804 maybe. Port Phillip, Derwent. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1804: Union of 1804. US Owners Fanning and Co. Captain J. Pendleton. 27 June 1804-29 August 1804. Sealing, Bass Strait, China. Cumpston's Register.

1804: P. Gardner is owner in 1804 for sealer/trader Rose, of Nantucket, Captain James Carey, to Sydney, Dampier Straits south of Tasmania, thence Canton, (note re R. Caldwell, Nantucket), see HRA, 1 (5), pp. 120-122;

1804-1805: Champlin and Minturn in December 1804 and 1805 have trader Aeolus from Sumerset (sic) NY, Capt Andrew Mather, to Sydney, thence China; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

In 1804-1805, for not-named owners, ship Herald of Salem, Captain Zachary Silsbee, to Tasmania, see Langdon, 1971;

1804: US Captain Amasa Delano, in March-November 1804 is on sealer Perseverance, of Boston, for Fanning and Co., to Cape Barren Island and Bass Strait then S/W coast of New Holland. (See HRA, 1 (5), pp. 168-173.)

1804: Capt Samuel Delano in late 1804 is on schooner/sealer Pilgrim, of Boston, for Boardman and Co., to Sydney and Bass Strait, then New Zealand, see HRA, 1 (5), pp. 173-176; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1804-1806: In 1804-1806 sails whaler/sealer Hannah and Eliza from New Bedford. Captain Micajah Gardner, for owner W. Rotch to Tasmania, Norfolk Island, Broken Bay, Norfolk Island, then New Zealand and Cape Horn. (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1804: US merchants Boardman and Co. in 1804 are owners for Mary (or Marion or Mary Ann), from Boston, Capt. Samuel Balch, to Sydney, thence Manila, see HRA I (5), pp. 151-152. (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1804: Circa: Date becomes relevant for the London-based Green-Wigram partnerships. Some information is extant on Wigrams, a large family with some men operating as convict contractors. Greens seem resistant to genealogical research, although they are referred to in E. Keble Chatterton, The Mercantile Marine. London, William Heinemann Ltd., 1923., pp. 94ff. On Wigrams, see Burke's Landed Gentry for Arkwright of Sutton Scarsdale and Long of Sydenham. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Wigram. There is no date in Shelton's Contracts No 25, for convict ships Coromandel and Experiment, contracts with Messrs Reeve and Wigram, 382 cons, Shelton charged £381/14/8d. with three Scotch convicts; as found in Byrnes, `The Blackheath Connection', p. 97, Note 156.

1804: 4 March, 1804, Sunday, Convict rebellion at Castle Hill, Sydney, the only battle (as reported) ever fought by the NSW Corps. Otherwise, soldiers' conflict with Aboriginals was not exactly "officially reported".

1804: Convict ship Coromandel 1 (2), probably owned as Coromandel I above. Arriving Sydney 7 May 1804.

1804: Convict shipExperiment 1, Arriving Sydney 24 June, 1804.

1804: Active at Penang by 1804: Robert Townsend Farquhar (1776-1830), governor at Penang, succeeding Leith, very energetic, and he reconstructs Fort Cornwallis. French privateers still sail about. Farquar is succeeded by Philip Dundas, brother of Henry Dundas (Lord Melville). In 1804, Acheen has a civil war, family squabble, the displaced sultan offers Penang a fort and settlement at Acheen, re pepper trade, but the EICo procrastinates. Then the EICo directors went for a Acheen fort, maybe to command northern approach to the Straits of Malacca. Philip Dundas also shilly-shallied. But in 1805, ambitions grew. EICo, Directors very keen, mentioning Pegu timber nearby as well.
Clodd, Francis Light, pp. 140-148.

1804: By 1804, New Zealand "did its bit" re providing naval timber. Captains had been enthusiastic about the woods of NSW and NZ, and by 1804, England was receiving masts of NZ kaurie or NSW jarrah. (But in 1809, New Zealand cannibals "ate the crew" of Boyd, loading NZ spars for the Cape Town dockyard. High freight rates precluded too much business here, but for many years the navy continued to draw masts from such remote sources.) See Albion also also re ships of Indian teak, Malabar coast, as EICo now already built many of its own ships in India, the Bombay shipbuilder, the Parsi, Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy being involved . Jeejeebhoy later becomes first Parsi Baronet and a freeman of City of London.
(Albion, Forests and Sea Power, p. 197, pp. 364-368.)

1804: John Prinsep in London by 1804 laid plans - interesting but premature - to import wool from eastern Australia. The plans involved John Maitland, John Macarthur, Mr. Coles, Mr. Wilson at Monument Yard, Capt. Waterhouse and Mr. Stewart. John Maitland, of Basinghall Street, was an influential wool merchant who had links with Sir Joseph Banks and Macarthur. (See Harold B. Carter, His Majesty's Spanish Flock: Sir Joseph Banks and the Merinoes of George III of England. Sydney, Angus And Robertson, 1964. Harold B. Carter, Sir Joseph Banks, 1743-1820. London, British Museum (Natural History), 1988.) At an 1804 auction of the King's sheep, Maitland was interested in Macarthur's proposal for a company to produce wool in New South Wales and supported it in company with Hulletts, who'd dummy-bought two ewes for Macarthur, and owned the Argo. At the sale, Banks warned Macarthur of the Obstructive Act of 1788 preventing export of sheep. Later, Macarthur suggested to Lord Camden a Treasury warrant be drawn for the export. A company with a capital of £10,000 was proposed, but the plan went awry. By July 1804, John Prinsep was examined in Council Chamber at Whitehall. (See Sibella Macarthur-Onslow, Some Early Records of the Macarthurs of Camden, pp. 92-95.)
1804: 11 July 1804, wool gentlemen meet inc. Hunter and Waterhouse, both RN, Capts Prentice and Townson of New South Wales Corps, William Wilson of Monument Yard, agent for Robert Campbell and Marsden, and William Stewart Master Mariner of Lambert, Prinsep and Saunders, shipping and East India agents of 147 Leadenhall St, owners of Anne to NSW in 1800. (See also, Sibella Macarthur-Onslow, Some Early Records of the Macarthurs of Camden. [Orig. 1914] Sydney, Rigby, 1973. Pemberton, London Connection, p. 121).

1804: Prinsep and Saunders tendered 16 ships to EICo, see July 1804, (Parkinson p. 143 on Eastern Trade.)

1804:Aurora US owned. Captain - Hussy. 1803? 1804, at "New Holland". Whaler from Nantucket Island. From Wace and Lovett, p. 45.

Year 1805

15 July 1805: To Peter Everitt Mestaer (sic) a Rotherhithe shipbuilder, merchant, London alderman. (His first contract.) Convict transport William Pitt. Shelton´s Accounts No. 26.

1805: Mr Dominicus, the EICO husband in the matter of the seizure of cargo of the Lady Barlow belonging to Robert Campbell. 1805, Lady Barlow affair, Sir Stephen Cottrell, at Council Office (EICO?).

1805: Ceres whaler of 1805. Owner, D. Stevens. Captain Ed Sharp(e). 1804 -- 10 Apr 1805 - 18 June 1805. South whaler. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Aurora. Owners, Daniel Starbuck/Sterbeck. Captain Andrew Merrick/Meryck. 1805 - 21 Apr 1806 - 24 Apr 1806. Whaler. Milford, Bideford. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Eagle brig of 1805. Owners, Campbell and Co. Captain Thomas Graham. 5 Apr 1805 - 28 Jun 1805. To Calcutta. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Honduras packet. Owners, Hurry and Co. Captain Owen Bunker. 1804 - 20 July 1805 - 20 Sep 1805. Seal skins, 7000. Also re William Edwards. Ship a Spanish prize. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Myrtle. Owners, Kinlock and Co. Captain Henry Barber. 4 March 1805- 7 March 1805. Rum, sugar, sundry, to Fort William, East Indies. Also to n/w America. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Nancy. M/O. Captain A. Thompson. 14 Aug 1804. Oil, Bass Strait. Cumpston's Register, p. 50.

1805: Star ship. Owner, Birnie and Co. Captain James Birnie. 22 Feb 1806- 25 March 1806. Whaling off New Zealand. Of London. Plus J. Wilkinson. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Lucy privateer. Owner Daniel Bennett. Captain Alexander Ferguson. 21 April 1806. Whaling or sealing, Peru, a prize ship. Of London. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Sophia. Owners, Campbell and Co. of Sydney. Captain William Collins. 19 Apr 1805 - 12 July 1805. To Hobart, King Island, Bass Strait. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Lady Barlow. Owner, Robert Campbell. Captain A. McAskill probably. 1805 on Thames River. Sealer, trader. McAskill is ex-Castle of Good Hope. This ship about Sydney in May - July 1804, with cattle and stores. Cargo seized in London by London interests protecting their own investments in Australasia.

1805: Herald. Owner, Unknown, American. Captain Zachary T. Silsbee. 1804 - 1805. To Tasmania from Salem. From Wace and Lovett.

1805: Criterion. Owners, Hussey and Co. Captain Peter Chase/Chace. 23 Apr 1805- 28 May 1805. Sealer, trader to China. Tobacco. From Nantucket. She is back in Sydney May-July 806, China and teas, etc. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett.

1805: Harrington5. Owners, Chace and Co. Captain William Campbell. 27 Jan 1805-27 Feb 1805. General merchandise, then whaling, Peru. Takes two prizes. Cumpston's Register.

1805 circa: King George. Owners, Henry Kable et al. Captain Unknown. Re James Underwood, Simeon Lord. Ship King George built in Sydney for Henry Kable, James Underwood, Simeon Lord and David Dickenson Mann and launched on 30 April 1805. Cumpston's Register, p. 8.

1805: HM Buffalo. RN. Lt. Houston. 27 Nov 1805 - 10 Feb 1806. To Hobart, carries Gov. King and family. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Elizabeth and Mary. Owners, Spencer and Co. Captain John Hingston. 27 Sep 1805 - 8 Nov 1805. Whaling, New Zealand. Cumpston's Register.

1805: More to come US owned. -- Unknown. 1805. Trader from Salem. From Wace and Lovett.

1805: Harriott whaler. Owners, Mathers and Co. Thaddeus Coffin. 1804 - 24 Apr 1805 - 29 May 1805. Whaling, sperm oil. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Hazard. American Owner, Wm. F. Megee. Captain Notknown. 1805. US Trader to EI and China. Supercargo is Saml III Nightingale.

1805: Favorite. American Owner, P. Gardner and D. Whitney. Captain Jonathan Paddock. 1805 - 24 Apr 1805 and 1806 - 11 Jun 1805. Whaler, sealer. New Zealand, Canton, general merchandise. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett.

1805: Britannia whaler of 1805. Owner, John T. Hill. Captain Amiel Hussey. 1805 - June 1806. Whaler, sealer, off California. Up to 20,000 skins, full whale oil. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Favourite. Owners, Gardiner and Co. Captain John Paddock. 10 March 1806 - 29 July 1806. Sealing, 60,000 skins. Of Nantucket. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Commerce brig. British Owners, James Birnie and Co., London. Captain John Wilkinson. 9 Oct 1805 - 7 Feb 1806. Sealing, timber. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Britannia South Sea whaler. 1805. Details not given. Re Nathaniel Goodspeed.

1805: Brothers (US). Owner, O. Mitchell. Captain Benjamin Worth. 1804-1805. 1805 to Sydney. Whaler from Nantucket Island. From Wace and Lovett, p. 48.

1805: Brothers whaler of 1805. Owner, O. Mitchell. Captain Benjamin Worth. 10 July 1805- 1 Nov 1805. Whaling, New Zealand coast. Driven back. Cumpston's Register. --- 1806: Brothers whaler of 1806. Owner O. Mitchell. Captain Benjamin Worth. 21 July 1806- 17 August 1806. Whaling, NZ coast. Re Obh Mitchell. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Amiante brig. Spanish, presumably. Captain A. Fisk. 1804-1805. 17 May 1805. Prize to Harrington. Sent by Chile, Kent's Group. Name was Santa Francisco y Santo Paulo. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Argo of 1805. Owners, Hulletts and Co. of London. John Baden/Bader. 7 Jun 1805- 15 Sep 1805. Whaling, probably, as by NZ. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Atlantic whaler. Owners, Enderby and Co. Captain William Swain. 3 May 1806 - 29 May 1806. Whaling. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Anne (US). Owner, William Rotch. Captain Jas. Gwinn/Gwynn. 1803 - 1805 to Sydney. Whaler, Sydney, China, England. From New Bedford Named in records is William Rock Jnr. To China. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett

1805: Sydney of 1805. Owners, Campbell and Co. Captain Austin Forrest. 18 Apr 1805 - 5 October 1805. Cattle for Port Dalrymple. Calcutta to Hobart. She is lost on coast of New Guinea by maybe Feb 1807. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Independence of 1805. Owners, Fanning and Co. Captain Jsh. Townsend. 21 Apr 1805 - 11 Jun 1805. Sealer, Kangaroo Island, Norfolk Island, Canton. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Venus small brig. Campbell and Co. of Sydney. Capt John Calder. 7 May 1805-29 July 1805. Sealing, Bass Strait, coast Peru, Calcutta. Link to William Stewart. Cumpston's Register. She is under Jas. Stewart to Derwent and Penantipodes, skins, by 24 Jan 1806.

1805: Vulture whaler. Owners Mathers and Co. Capt Thomas Folger. 22 Juy 1806-20 Aug 1806. Whaler, Chile and Peru. Cumpston's Register.

1805, US ship Hazard, Wm. F. Megee (probably supercargo), Capt ?

1805, US ship Catherine, Fanning and Co, Capt. Henry Fanning.

1805: and in 7-11/1805 and 7-8-1806, Captain Benjamin Worth is on whaler Brothers from Nantucket, for O. Mitchell, Sydney and New Zealand;

1805-1806: Salem: J. Pierce is owner in 1805/1806 of trader Eliza with Capt. William Richardson, with log keeper Philip Payn Pinel, to Sydney and Norfolk Island, thence China.

no date American William Richardson as master has brig trader Active, from Salem, owned by Jas Cooke, to Hobart, Sydney, Fiji, Canton, Manila in 12/10 and 2/11; William P. Richardson, Freeman Richmond, I. B. Richmond as owner in 2/42 and 7-8/42 has whaler Addison Capt Thos. West from New Bedford, Hobart.

1805: S. C. Phillips in a confused entry in 1805 and maybe 1806 has US trader/whaler (barque) Elizabeth, from Freetown, then Salem, no captain named on one trip, trip has Capt. Isaac Hodge/Hedge, with Jonathan P. Saunders as log keeper; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1805: US Capt. Henry Fanning in 1805 is on sealer Catherine from New York (by 1804?) for Fanning and Co., Sydney and King George Sound; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1805-1806: US merchants Hussey and Co. have sealer and trader Criterion from Nantucket, Capt. Peter Chase, to Sydney and Hobart, then Fiji, Canton and Nantucket. (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1805-1806: US merchant J. Pierce is owner in 1805/1806 of trader Eliza, from Salem, with Capt. Wm. Richardson, with log keeper Philip Payn Pinel, to Sydney and Norfolk Island, thence China; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett)

1805: A smuggler from Boston, Massachusetts, Charles Cabot, attempts to purchase opium from the British, then smuggle it into China under the auspices of British smugglers. (From website based on book: Opium: A History, by Martin Booth Simon & Schuster, Ltd., 1996.)

1805 and later: McLardie are traders at Calcutta, in the context of Robert Campbell's trading from Sydney.

1805: The prison on convict transport Tellicherry was insufficiently ventilated, it was complained at the Irish port involved. NB: This ship was owned by John St Barbe of Blackheath, London; she was lost, and was the last ship St Barbe ever sent to NSW.
Con Costello, Botany Bay: The Story of the Convicts Transported from Ireland to Australia, 1791-1853. Cork-Dublin, Mercier, 1987., p. 68


St Barbe's Tellicherry had aboard eight supporters of Robert Emmet. (Shaw, Convicts and the Colonies, pp. 170-171.) St Barbe lost Tellicherry about the Philippines about 1806. Bateson describes St. Barbe as "a prominent London merchant and shipowner", but not as an influential underwriter helping manage the Lloyd's Red Book. Tellicherry was to load China tea, a good indication that by 1805, a former whaler could deal with the East India Company without animosity.
Bateson, Convict Ships, p. 190.

1805: Chace, Chinnery and Co. of Madras, bankrupt in 1805. In 1805: Chace, Chinnery and Co. of Madras, send ships to Sydney.

1805: Patrick Colquhuon, LLD, when writing his major work, A Treatise On The Police Of The Metropolis, was acting as a magistrate for the counties of Middlesex, Surry, Kent and Essex. He recommended a water police be created for the Thames River. Patrick Colquhuon was agent for West Indies Nevis 1806-1821 as Patrick and James Colquhuon; and for Nevis, 1821-1848, James Colquhuon, 1825-1851; James Colquhuon agent for St Christopher; from 1802-1845 Patrick and James Colquhuon were the agents for Virgin Islands; from 1842-1850, James Colquhuon the agent for Tobago; from 1806-1844, Patrick and James Colquhuon agents for St Vincent; from 1845-1850, the agent for St Vincent is James Colquhuon; 1816-1826, Patrick and James Colquhuon agents for Dominica, James 1826 till 1852. James and Patrick Junior Colquhuon being nephews of Patrick LLD. See Lillian M. Penson, The Colonial Agents of the British West Indies: A Study in Colonial Administration mainly in the Eighteenth Century. Orig. 1924. London, Frank Cass and Co., reprint 1971., pp. 251ff. Patrick Colquhuon, LL.D., A Treatise On The Police Of The Metropolis. London, 1805.

1805: Sir John Hayes who annexed New Guinea, (New Albion), visits London and is deputised by EICo, made Deputy Master Attendant at Calcutta, succeeds to senior position in 1809, holds position for 21 years.

1805?: Sir Lionel Hook (d. 1810 or 1811) of EICo military Dept., secretary to Gov. of Bengal, brother of Charles Hook a sometime-trader at Sydney, NSW and once an agent for Robert Campbell the Sydney merchant.

1805: Captain Abraham Bristow discovered the Auckland Islands. Bristow later worked for the London based whalers, Mellishes.

1805: The impeachment of Henry Dundas, First Lord of Melville, who had "smeared the image of the admiralty with corruption". See DNB entry on Dundas.

1805: Convict ship William Pitt, owned by Peter Mestaers or Hulletts Bros, 604 tons, Capt. John Boyce. Departing 31 August 1805 from Cork, via Mad., S. Salvadore, Cape, 223 days to Sydney arriving 11 April, 1806. Contractor, Peter Everitt Mestaer. Shelton Contract No. 26, with Peter Everitt Mestaer, dated 15 July, 1805 for 142 convicts. (Bateson, Convict Ships, p. 338.)

1805: Hullett Bros, are partners with Macarthur in Argo, are partners with Blaxland Bros in ship William Pitt which sailed 1 September 1805, with Gregory Blaxland. (Pemberton, London Connection, p. 134).

1805: 18 December 18, 1805, Whitehall, (Under-sec) J. King to Commissioners for the Transport Service, King being directed by Lord Hawkesbury they shall permit Mrs Wiseman the wife of the convict Solomon Wiseman, for embarkation on the transport Alexander, to have passage with her husband in lieu of Mrs. Henshall who has declined such an indulgence. (HO 13/17, pp. 134-135, cited in David T. Hawkings, Bound for Australia. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1988., p. 13, pp. 23-27. (A book helpful for genealogists.)
1805: 19 December, Lord Hawkesbury to A. H. Bradley, Commissioner of Convicts, giving Bradley a list of convicts in his care and asking that he allow 150 free of any infectious disease to be selected from the list and put on board Alexander and Fortune. Hawkings writes that no logs for the Fortune or Alexander have ever been located.

1805: Re London Docks, First West India Docks, almost as large as the EICo docks then in existence. Finished in 1805, at a cost of £168,000. Note: Australian wool when sent in larger quantities to London was unloaded at London Dock, upriver from West India Docks. London Dock, was founded by private subscription, opened on 31 January, 1805; the first ship entering this dock is unknown.
Upriver of Limehouse Reach, the only docks on Thames southside were the Surrey Commercial Docks, which included Greenland Dock, Russian Dock (a small dock), Albion and Canada Docks. Joseph Moore about 1809 organised what became Lady Dock. Brunswick Dock at Blackwall was owned by Perry the shipbuilder, and used only by East Indiamen, Howland's Greenland Dock at Rotherhithe had been used by the South Sea Company.

1805-1806: The Hurry shipyard and complex at Howdon Pans [Newcastle, England], is declared bankrupt in 1806 and assets are gradually sold off. (Tony Barrow, 'The Newcastle Whaling Trade, 1752-1849, The Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 75, 1989., pp. 231ff.

1805: Lelia Byrd - American registry; William Shaler, master; arrived Aug. 22, 1805. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1805: Tamana - John Hudson, master; built in Hawaii 1805

1805: Atahualpa - Boston; Capt. Adams, master; arrived Aug. 1805, departed Oct. 6, 1805. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

Yarmouth - arrived Dec. 8, 1805; Samuel Patterson; departed Dec. 22, 1805. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1805:: Southern whaler Ferrett, Capt. Skelton, been to Derwent.

1805: Sept., Sydney, Capt. John Hingston, whaler Elizabeth and Mary.

Year 1806

23 January 1806: To Messrs Mestaer and Locke. (Peter Evet Mestaer´s second contract.) Convict transports Alexander and Fortune. Shelton´s Accounts No. 27.

1806: Sophia. Owner, Campbell and Co. Captain James Lelohf. 14 Feb 1806-21 Feb 1806. Sealing, Bass Strait, a prize named Policy. (Cumpston's Register)

1806: General Wellesley. Owner and Captain not known. 1806 - 13 Feb 1807 - 24 April 1807. Merchant, to New Zealand for spars, Pulo Penang. For Dalrymple and Co. Cumpston's Register.

25 February 1806: Ship Lady Nelson leaves Sydney to return Maori Te Pahi and his sons to the Bay of Islands. The Maori have been given bricks, a house frame and other goods. Te Pahi becomes ill and is nursed by ex-convict George Bruce. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: Dart of 1807. Owners, Hulletts and Co. Captain Richard Smith. 1806 - 8 March 1807 - 9 April 1807. Whaling. Cumpston's Register.

18 March 1806: New Zealand: Ship Argo Captain John Bader again visits Bay of Islands NZ. Maori Ruatara and some others are aboard. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: Elizabeth of 1807. Captain J. Walker. Owner McArthur and Co. 1806 - March 1807. Sydney to Tahiti. Cumpston's Register.

1806: Brothers of 1807. British Owners, Hulletts and Blaxland. Captain Oliver Russell. 1806 - 3 April 1807 - 13 Jun 1807. London, fishery, schooner in frame. Re Blaxland. Cumpston's Register.

20 April 1806: New Zealand: Ex-convict George Bruce on Lady Nelson has been lately flogged. When the vessel reaches North Cape he jumps ship and goes to Bay of Islands. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

27 April 1806: London-New Zealand: Whaler Ferret reaches London with aboard Maori Te Mahanga (Morehanga). The first Maori known to have visited England. He meets John Savage again and in London also meets King George III and Queen Charlotte. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

Late April 1806: New Zealand: Lady Nelson again visits Bay of Islands and returns Maori Te Pahi and his sons. The ship's carpenter starts to erect Te Pahi's house. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: Jefferson. Owner, B. Rotch. Captain Robert Barnes/Brock. 1806 - 1814 - 1813. Whaler from New Bedford. From Wace and Lovett

12 June 1806: Ship Alexander reaches Portsmouth with Maori Teina and Maki aboard. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

13 June 1806: Whaler Ferret leaves London for Sydney with Maori Te Mahanga aboard. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

17 June 1806: Ship Venus, Captain Samuel Chace, is taken piratically by convicts at Port Dalrymple (Launceston). Is sailed to New Zealand. Aboard her are two women, Charlotte Badger and Catherine Hagerty. The ship is about Bay of Islands July and August. Some of her people are left at Rangihoua Bay. The ship then went down the east coast of the North Island, kidnapping several Maori women who are sold to rival tribes who eventually killed them. These problems become subject of a retaliatory raid in 1818. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

27 June 1806: Ship Alexander arrives to London. Maori Teina and Maki come under the care of Rev. Joseph Hardcastle of the London Missionary Society and he tries to find them a passage back to Sydney. Unfortunately, Teina died and Maki was kidnapped by a criminal and became lost. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: Fortune EICo extra ship. Owner, Mestier and Co. (Peter E. Mestaer?) Captain Henry Moore. 1805 - 12 July 1806 - 21 Aug 1806. Prize, carries pigs, coal, copper, timber. Cumpston's Register.

18 August 1806: Ship Ocean, Captain Bristow, discovers the Auckland Islands. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: Fortune. Owner, Peter Evet Mestaers (?), Captain Henry Moore. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1806: Sinclair extra ship. Owner William Osbourne? Captain J. H. Jackson. 1805 - 5 Aug 1806 - 5 Oct 1806. China, seal skins, coal, timber. Transport Hon Co's Extra Ship. (Cumpston's Register)

1806: More to come 25 August 1806 ship wrecked Middleton Reef. Name not given. (Cumpston's Register)

1806: Eliza (of 1806). Owner J. Pierce. Captain William Richardson. Trader to China. From Salem. Also to Norfolk Island.

1806: Alexander (2). Owner, John Locke. Captain Richard Brooks. 1805 - 20 Aug 1806 - 12 Nov 1806. Convict transport, then oil and skins. Earlier named Atlas. Cumpston's Register names Locke here. Bateson.

1806: Young William storeship, Owner Daniel Bennett, Capt William Watson. 7 July 1807, 14 Sep 1807. Govt storeship, whaling. Cumpston's Register.

1806: Adonis of 1806. Owners, Daniel Starbuck et al, Milford. Captain Robert Turnbull. 1806. Whaling. "And others". Also captains Robert Thomson and William Melville. (AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 194.)

1806: Adventure (of 1806). Owner, Daniel Bennett, Blackheath. Captain John Page, Wm Parker. Whaling. AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 194.

1806: Tellicherry. Owner, John St Barbe. Captain Thomas Cuzens. 15 Feb 1806 - 6 Apr 1806. Convict transport. Intended for China, Bengal. Lost about the Philippines, Bateson. (Cumpston's Register.)

1806: William Pitt of 1806. Owners, Hulletts. Captain John Boyce. 1805 - 11 Apr 1806 - 25 Jun 1806. Convict transport, then to China. Re Peter Everitt or Peter Evet Maesters. (Cumpston's Register. Bateson.)

1806: Parramatta of 1807. Owners Hulletts and Co. Capt John Glenn/Glynn. 3 April 1807-17 Jun 1807. Merchant, to Tahiti for pork. (Cumpston's Register.)

In 1805-1806: James Gwinn (sic), in 5-6/05, 2-3/06 is captain of whaler Anne from New Bedford, for owner William Rotch, Sydney and Norfolk Island, whaling, China and England and in 9-11/1808 Gwinn on same ship whaling for B. Rotch and in 1812 also similar by New Zealand.

1805-1806: in 7-11/1805 and 7-8-1806, Capt Benjamin Worth is on whaler Brothers from Nantucket, for O. Mitchell, Sydney and New Zealand.

By 1806, William Bignell (who remains little known), 1 contract for a convict ship with Shelton. By 1806, Messrs Mestaer and Locke, 2 contracts with Shelton for convict ships.
Note: It is known that the whaler investor John St Barbe had a sister Catharine who married William Bignell, but it is not known for certain if her husband was a partner of her brother John. He probably was, as part of a family firm.

1806: 9 January, 1806: Convicts Hawkins and Cording were sent on board Fortune, then to sail for NSW. Fortune's muster of convicts was mixed with the muster of Alexander. On Fortune was Capt Henry Moore (Lt, RN). These transports were to sail with a ship commanded by William Bligh, who was going out to become governor of NSW. Hawkings says the two transports had 306 convicts, which conflicts with Shelton's naming of 298 cons. Hawkings lists the other ships, which set sail on 28 January, 1806, with Henry Moore complaining he had not got all his guard aboard. The inventory of private goods sent in Fortune is printed in Sydney Gazette for 13 July, 1806. Fortune (1) departed England 28 January 1806 arriving Sydney 12 July, 1806. Convict Hawkins was put to government work at Castle Hill. (Hawkings, Bound for Australia, p. 3-4, pp.27-32.
Shelton's Contracts No 27, dated 23 January, 1806, with Messrs Mestaer and Locke, with ships Alexander and Fortune for 298 convicts. Shelton charged £322/14/6d.
Departing 28 January 1806 from England, convict ship Fortune 1, 620 tons, possibly owned Mestaers, Capt. Henry Moore. Arriving Sydney 12 July, 1806. Contractors Mestaer and Locke. Shelton's Contract No. 27, with Messrs Mestaer and Locke, in the Alexander and Fortune, dated 23 January, 1806, for a total of 298 convicts.
Bateson, Convict Ships, p. 338. By now, see for example, J. D. Shearer, Bound for Botany Bay: Impressions of Transportation and Convict Life. Sydney, Summit Books, 1976.)

1806: Departing March 1806 from England, convict ship Alexander I, 278 tons. Capt. Richard Brooks. Contractors, Messrs Mestaer and Locke. Arriving Sydney 20 August, 1806. (Brooks had a descendant in Armidale, the writer Geoff Blomfield.)
By 1810, Captain Richard Brooks was using a trading ship, Simon Cock. By 1810, Birnies are said to be the only merchant and general agents regularly trading to NSW.

Convict transport William Pitt. Arriving Sydney 11 April, 1806.

8 September 1806: New Zealand: Ship Richard and Mary Captain Leikins leaves Port Jackson for England carrying Maori (Maa)Tara, son of Te Pahi.

(From a wikipedia page on year 1806 in New Zealand)

September 1806: New Zealand: Ship Argo returns to Port Jackson. Captain Bader discharges Maori Ruatara without pay. Ruatara meets Rev. Samuel Marsden for the first time. (From a wikipedia page on year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: Noted traders at Calcutta are Ferguson and Fairlie; in October 1806 William Wilson, years before on the London Missionary Society ship Duff, and one William Fairlie offered to act as guarantors of Robert Campbell of Sydney (By about 1811, a firm was Fairlie Gilmore and Co. of Calcutta, and Robert Campbell had London agents, David Scott Jnr of London. )
1806: In October, 1806, in London, William Fairlie, of the India house Fairlie, Ferguson and Co., and William Wilson, offered themselves as security for the further financial good behaviour of Robert Campbell. (Fairlie was an associate of David Scott Snr from their mutual days in India. His connection with Campbell means that Robert Campbell in Sydney has several merchant networks to connect with, including the network of David Scott Snr, which was international. However, the Lady Barlow affair had destabilised Wilson's own affairs too much, and after Wilson's bankruptcy in February, 1811, he ceased to act as agent for Robert Campbell. (On Lady Barlow affair see Margaret Steven, Trade, Tactics and Territory: Britain in the Pacific, 1783-1823. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press, 1983., p. 102.)

12 October 1806: Whaling ship Albion Captain Cuthbert Robertson, leaves Port Jackson. Maori Ruatara joins the crew. (From a wikipedia page on year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: After 1806, female convicts were sent in separate ships, except for the Providence in 1811. (Shaw, Convicts and the Colonies, p. 125.)

1806: 18 December, 1806: Shelton's Contract No. 28, taken with William Bignell in ship Sydney Cove, Capt. William Edwards, re 113 convicts. Shelton charged £192/pounds, 15/4d. (Bignell was a sometime-associate of St Barbe.) Departing 11 January 1807 from Falmouth - Arriving Sydney 18 June, 1807.
However, 11 July, 1807, (See Hainsworth, Builders, pp. 82-91), re a letter from Sydney merchant Simeon Lord to Gov. Bligh, a suggestion Sydney Cove was technically owned by Thos. W. Plummer of London, and Bligh was inquisitive about this. (?)

December 1806: Whaler Ferret returns to Sydney from England with Maori Te Mahanga on board. (From a wikipedia page on year 1806 in New Zealand)

18 December 1806: To William Bignell (his first contract). Convict transport Sydney Cove. Shelton´s Accounts No. 28. Presuambly a partner with John St Barbe and John Green of the firm St Barbe, Green and Bignell. ships husbands and insurance brokers of 33 Seething Lane London. This firm was still operating by 17 November 1807 when Captain Liston on their ship Transit was bound for St Domingo and Liston had a brush with a French privateer as he informed his owners. The firm was involved in London re Sydney Cove in a deal with Kable and Co., a Sydney company formed by ex-convicts James Underwood Henry Kable and Simeon Lord, so the St Barbe applied for the contract to transport. Here then is a rare case of ex-convicts arranging a convict transport, to depart as it happened from Portsmouth. The convict contractor names St Barbe, Green and Bignell, and the Mangles family are mentioned as slavers as part of a syndicate operating about 1789-1793 in an online item, N. Draper, ´The City of London and slavery: evidence from the first dock companies, 1795-1800´, Economic History Review, 61, 2, 2008, pp. 432-466.

Year 1807

1 January 1807: To whaler Daniel Bennett (his third contract). Convict transport Duke of Portland. Shelton´s Accounts No. 29.

Follows an impression of the genealogy of Daniel Bennett.

More to come.

Year 1808

22 March 1808: To William Wilson (his second contract). Convict transport Speke. Shelton´s Accounts No. 30.

1807: Duke of Portland. Owner Daniel Bennett. Captain John C. Spence. 1807. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1807: Hannah and Sally. Owners Nath Cogswell and Henry Kable (?). Captain Nathaniel Cogswell. 1807 as American brig. 5 April 1807, to Canton. 25 Aug 1807. Sealer, trader in China goods. From Philadelphia. Cumpston's Register notes H Kable Jnr is aboard. From Wace and Lovett.

1807: Jenny/Jeanette. Owner, John Dorr and Co. of Boston Captain William Dorr, Jnr. 2 Nov 1807 - 22 March 1808. Smuggling spirits into Sydney and apprehended for it. Provisions, merchandise, to Fiji. Wm Dorr died at Macao in 1815 after being captured by British in War of 1812. Cumpston's Register. (Editor's Note - This man has a mariner brother. William is mentioned in a jstor article available on the Net. His death is while on ship Ontario is recorded in Sydney Gazette No. 663. of 3 Aug 1816. William in 1808 is on Jenny owned by John Dorr and Co [he is their nephew] and is involved in smuggling booze into Sydney/Parramatta and is caught, at the time his chief mate is William Lockerby whose journal is available at www.archive.org/stream. In 1808 Dorr became interested in Pacific sandalwood. Dorr once marooned Lockerby on an island. Cf, Sullivan Dorr Papers, 1799-1852, Rhode Island Historical Society, Manuscripts Division.

1807: Duchess of York brig. Owners, Campbell and Hook. Captain Austin Forrest. 3 April 1807 - 9 May 1807. Calcutta and Derwent. Charles Hook? Cumpston's Register.

1807: HM Cornwallis, frigate. RN. Captain Charles James Johnstone. 1806 - 12 April 1807 - 23 April 1807. Madras, Peru coast, exploration. Cumpston's Register.

1807: Amethyst (US). Owner, John Dorr. Captain Seth Smith. 1807 at Sydney. Sealer from Salem/Boston. From Wace and Lovett.

1807: Eliza US brig of 1807. Owner, Brown and Ives. Captain E. Hill. Correy. 7 Dec 1807.

1807: Hope (of 1807). Owner, Fanning and Co. Captain Reuben Bromley. 1807- 1808. Trader, King George Sound, from New York. From Wace and Lovett.

1807: Hope of 1807. Owner, Fanning and Co. Captain Reuben Bromley. 1806 - 17 March 1807 - 2 April 1807. Refresh, no merchandise, for Sth Sea Islands. Of Connecticut, New York. Cumpston's Register.

1807: Amethyst of 1807. Owner, John Dorr. Captain Seth Smith, Jnr. 16 Dec 1807 - 19 Dec 1807. Whaling, sealing. Dorr of Salem, Boston. Cumpston's Register.

1807: Topaz. Americans Boardman and Pope. Capt William Mayhew Folger. Sealer, trader. From Boston. From Wace and Lovett.

1807: Departing February 1807 from England?, convict ship Duke of Portland (1), for whaler Daniel Bennet (of Blackheath), whalers, 523 tons, built Bordeaux in 1790, Capt. John C. Spence, surgeon unlisted, to Sydney arriving 27 July, 1807. Contractor, Daniel Bennett. Shelton's Contract No 29, with whaler Daniel Bennett dated 1 January, 1807, for 224 convicts. Shelton charged £313/17/6d to write the contract.
(Bateson, Convict Ships, p. 338.)

1807: US Capt. Coffin Whippey in 9/1807 is on whaler Grand Sachem from Newbury, for owner B. Rotch, to Sydney thence Fishery, see HRA 1 (6), pp. 618-619.

To 1807, both British and US ships bought furs at n/w American coast, and swapped them for tea. The US had unrestricted trade, but the British fur traders had to have special EICo permission, and could not freely swap for various Chinese goods, sell furs, but sell them and deposit the specie gained with the Co (see Byrnes’ article, the first bank at Canton.), and the Co then issued bills redeemable in London at 12 months sight. In contrast, the US men bartered freely, underselling British pelts by up to 20 per cent, and took tea wherever they liked, writes Hao (p. 13). From p. 18, Hao writes on early US supercargoes as tea buyers, then the establishment of resident US trading firms which dealt on commission in their own right or acted for other US mercantile houses.

To 1807, an annual average of 36 American ships arrived in China. US merchants had freedom from restrictions of European monopolies, and US ships purchased furs at American n/w coast and sold them in Canton in exchange for tea. English vessels could only go to n-w America with special permission from EICo, and could exchange furs not for commodities but for specie which had to be deposited with the EICo at Canton, (Hao, pp. 13-18), for which specie the EICo. issues bills at 12 months' sight payable in London. but the US could barter freely at Canton, undersell British pelts and carry tea where they pleased, early US ships used supercargoes, then resident trading firms at Canton.

1807 – US ship Amethyst owned by John Dorr, Capt Seth Smith. (June 1807, James Drummond, Superintendent of Supercargoes, Canton, as in Dawson, Banks Letters, p. 275, to Sir Joseph Banks re botanical matters. Mentions ship the David Scott.)

Bhagat (p. 13) cites EICo officials noting in 1806-1807 that American trade in India in that period exceeded "everything of the kind recorded in the Commercial History of British India". Some 23 US ships visited Madras in 1805. Jefferson's embargo of December 1807 largely ruined this extensive trade, There was some consternation for the British at the reduction of cashflow and turnover.

1807: American Seth Smith is captain in 12/07 for owner John Dorr, of Amethyst sealer from Salem Boston to Sydney and fishing, see HRA, 1 (6): 319-319; Hao, p. 29, has it that in 1797-1798, US ship Betsy had profits of $53,118.

1807: US merchants Boardman and Pope are owners for sealer/trader Topaz, of Boston, Capt. William Mayhew Folger, to Adventure Bay, Hobart, Storm Bay, Bruny Islands, see HRA, 1 (6), pp. 553-554; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett) For various Folger-Starbuck family history see website: http://www.s-starbuck.com/dat10.html

1807: US Capt Nathaniel Cogswell, in 1807 is on trader/sealer Hannah and Sally, from Philadelphia, for owners Nathaniel Cogswell and/or Henry Kable (of Sydney?), to Sydney thence Canton (where she may have been sold; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1807-1808: US Capt William Dorr in 1807-1808 is on trader Jenny, from Boston for owner John Dorr, to Sydney - Broken Bay, China, Fiji; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1807-1808: - 1798: Benjamin Page is captain in October 1798, of trader Ann and Hope from Providence, for Brown and Ives, to Sydney, then China, as noted by Dunbabin 1950 and 1955 and Churchward in 1948.

And in 12/1807 and 4/1808, Brown and Ives are owners for trader Eliza, from Providence, Capt. E. Hill Correy, to Fiji, wrecked.

To 1807, an annual average of 36 American ships arrived in China. US merchants had freedom from restrictions of Euro monopolies, and US ships purchased furs at American n/w coast and sold them in Canton in exchange for tea. English vessels could only go to n-w America with special permission from EICo, and could exchange furs not for commodities but for specie which had to be deposited with the EICo at Canton (Hao, pp. 13-18), for which specie the Co. issues bills at 12 months' sight payable in London. but the US could barter freely at Canton, undersell British pelts and carry tea where they pleased, p. 13, now see p. 18, early US ships used supercargoes, then resident trading firms at Canton.

1807: Walter Stevenson Davidson visits China as part of a trading venture with John Macarthur, Robert Campbell and Garnham Blaxcell. Davidson returned to England in 1809 after the deposition of Gov. Bligh in NSW.
Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 123.

1807: First bales of Australian wool arrive in London.

1807-1808: City of Edinburgh of 1808. Owner, Alexr Berry s/cargo. Captain Simeon Pattison. 12 Jan 1808 - 26 May 1808. Spirits, wine, etc. Cumpston's Register.

1807: Sydney Cove. Owner Wm. Wilson or Rbt Campbell. Captain William Edwards. Convict transport

1807: Rose of 1808. Owners, Campbell and Co, Richard Brookes/ Penson/Brookes. 15 April 1808 - 15 Sep 1808. Merchant, oil and skins. Richard Brookes, s/cargo, Campbell as part-owner. Cumpston's Register.

1807: Grand Sachem. Owner, Benjamin Rotch. Captain Coffin Whippey. 11 Sep 1807, whaling - 26 Sep 1807. Whaler. Cumpston's Register, From Wace and Lovett.

1807: Maryland - New York; Jonathan Perry, jr., master; arrived May 19, 1807, departed July 19, 1807. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

22 June 1808: To Messrs Buckle and Boyd. Convict transport Admiral Gambier. Shelton´s Accounts No. 31.

Buckles: In later years, Captain John Coghill later of Braidwood NSW later of NSW sailed the convict transport Mangles for the Buckles firm. Before that, Coghill had sailed for years for Brown Brothers of London, often to India.

24 February 1809: To Daniel Bennett. Convict transport Indispensible. Shelton´s Accounts No. 32.
On Daniel Bennett. For some information see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection.

22 April 1808 ship name? Sth Seas trade, wrecked Fiji, loses $20-30,000. From Providence, Rhode Island. Cumpston's Register. 1805? Elizabeth (of 1805 US)

1808: Speke (1). Owner, Unknown. Captain John Hingston. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1808: Argo (of 1808). Owner, Thos and Jn Hullett, Jn Macarthur, Thos Thompson. Captain John Gradon. Whaling. Owners are Thomas and John Hullett and John Macarthur, Broad Street, Place, merchants and Thomas Thompson of Castle St., Leciester Sq, and others, in AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 196.

1808: Admiral Gambier (1-1)/Owners, Buckles. Captain Edward Harrison. 29 March 1808. Convict transport

1808: Brothers of 1808. 1807. John Blaxland, Thos Hullett, Jn Hullett. Oliver Russell. 30 Jan 1808 - 2 May 1808. Sealing, possibly whaling. Hullett and Blaxland. Cumpston's Register.

1808: Eliza (of 1808). Owners Brown and Ives. Captain E. Hill Correy. Trader, brig to Fiji, wrecked. Providence, Rhode Island. From Wace and Lovett.

1808: Hero (of 1808). Owners Jn & Wm Jacob. Capt Micajah Gardner. 1808 to Peru, Chile. Contraband fabric. From Nantucket Island. Capt is probably Barnabas Gardner, owners Jn and Wm Jacob from Chris Maxworthy emailer. She is captured in 1809 by Spanish corsair La Flecha. From Wace and Lovett

1808: Jenny. Owner John Dorr. Capt William Dorr. 1807-1808. Trader from Boston. From Wace and Lovett

1808: Favorite brig. Owner Garnham Blaxcell. Capt Dundas. 1813-1808. Trader, brig to Calcutta. Six voyages. She moves Calcutta, Sydney, Fiji, China, is American-built.

1808: Tonquin. US Owners, Fanning and Co. Capt Reuben Bromley. Sealer, trader to Fiji. From New York. From Wace and Lovett.

1808: Topaz (Folger). US ship. Capt Mayhew Folger. 1808. Finds Pitcairn Island. US whaler. On 6 Feb 1808 Folger sees smoke on Pitcairn Island, hideout of the Bounty Mutineers, which he had thought was uninhabited.

(1808: Notes from Paul R. Johnson, (Ed), The Economics of the Tobacco Industry. New York. Praeger.  1984. p. 35, Relations British-US deteriorated rapidly when in 1808, the USA tried to prohibit her merchants dealing with either Britain or Europe.) Capt Micajah Gardner, in ship Hero, from Nantucket, in 1808, owners not named, is to Sydney then Peru and Chile, (presumably whaling), see HRA 1 (9):47 see Dunbabin, 1950. (Note: See HRA, I (9): 47. See also Thomas Dunbabin, 'William Raven RN and his Britannia, 1792-95', The Mariner’s Mirror, Vol. 46, No. 4, November 1960., pp. 297-303.

Not until after February 1808, was it known that Pitcairn Island had become Fletcher Christian's hideaway. Fletcher Christian was 23 when he became Bligh's master's mate on Bounty.) 6 February, a Saturday, 1808, Capt Mayhew Folger in ship Topaz off Pitcairn Island thought he saw smoke, surprised as he thought Cartaret had described the island as unpopulated.

1808: Capt Micajah Gardner, ship Hero, from Nantucket, in 1808, owners not-named, is to Sydney then Peru and Chile, (presumably whaling), see HRA, 1 (9):47 see Dunbabin, 1950;

However, on 4 July 2005 arrives an e-mail from Chris Maxworthy who has been working on a book on US families Jacob, and Gardner: “Dear Dan, Can I offer a suggestion re some of your content On page “Merchants9a” there is a reference to Micajah Gardner being the master of the Hero of 1808. This is not correct. The Hero was commanded by Barnabas Gardner, a former Nantucket whaleman, who was employed by John and William Jacob. The ship was British-registered, and was not a whaler, but was smuggling contraband goods, mainly fabrics, into the Spanish colonies. The Thomas Dunbabin article of 1950, and restated in Cumpston's Register of Shipping Arrivals and Departures, was wrong. In fact, Tom Dunbabin corrected the item in the following issue of American Neptune. The Hero sailed from Port Jackson in September 1808 and was captured on the coast of Chile by the Spanish corsair “La Flecha” on 28 January 1809. I have acquired the above information in the process of compiling my book on Jacobs and Gardner. I will be in London next month, at which stage I hope to put some more flesh on the bones. Cheers, Chris Maxworthy.

1808: Saturday 6 February, 1808: American Capt. Mayhew Folger in Topaz is off Pitcairn Island and thinks he sees smoke. He is surprised as he thought Cartaret had described the island as unpopulated. Not until after February 1808, was it known that Pitcairn Island had become Fletcher Christian's hideaway.
See Robert V. J. Varman, The Bounty-Tahitian Genealogies of Pitcairn Island descendants on Norfolk Island. Central Coast, NSW, 1992.

Shelton's Contract, No. 30, dated 22 March 1808, account with William Wilson, for Speke, 98 convicts. Shelton charged £117/11/-.
Speke I (1), 473 tons, Capt. John Hingston, surgeon J. Macmillan. Departing Falmouth on 18 May, 1808 - Arriving Sydney 18 November 1808. (Counting Royal Admiral 2, this was Wilson's second attempt at contracting.)

1808: (Shelton's Contract No. 31, taken with Messrs Buckle and Boyd, in the ship Admiral Gambier. And Eolus. Dated 22 June, 1808, 278 convicts, Shelton charged £383/6/6d to make the contract. Departing 2 July 1808: Arriving - (Something is known of the genealogy of Buckle here, but not of Boyd.)

1808: Shelton's Contract No 31, taken with Messrs Buckle and Boyd, in the ship Admiral Gambier 1. (And Aeolus?) Dated 22 June, 1808, 278 convicts. Shelton charged £383/6/6d. Departing 2 July 1808 - Arriving Sydney 20 December 1808.

Departing 2 July, 1808 from Portsmouth, convict ship Admiral Gambier (1), Capt Edward Harrison, possibly for Buckles, 501 tons, Capt. Edward Harrison - Arriving Sydney 20 December, 1808. Contractors, Buckle and Boyd. Shelton's Contract No. 31 dated 22 June, 1808, for 278 convicts.

1808: Late 1808 departed from, unknown, convict ship Aeolus 289 tons, Capt. Robert Addie - Arriving Sydney 26 January, 1809. Possible contractors were Buckle and Boyd.

According to Bateson, The Convict Ships, and various other sources, from 1800 to 1810, active convict contractor names sending convicts to Australia included Prinsep/Saunders, Michael Hogan, Reeve and Green. Brown Welbank and Petyt. John St Barbe, possibly Richard Brooks as early as 1802. Hullet Brothers. Peter Evet Mestaers. William Wilson (who had bought Royal Admiral I from the Larkins family).

This file remains Work-in-Progress

John Prinsep, Lambert, Prinsep and Saunders. More to come.

Year 1809

12 August 1809: To Messrs Buckle and Boyd (this firm´s second contract). Convict transport Ann. Shelton´s Accounts No. 33.

1809: Boyd ??. Owner Unknown. Captain Unknown. 1809? Convict transport. See Bateson.

1809: Experiment II. Owner Peter Evet Mestaers of London. Capt Joseph Dodds. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1809: Aeolus. Owners Unknown. Capt Robert Addie. Convict transport

1809: Boyd (of 1809 to NSW). Simeon Lord of Sydney charters her to NZ. Capt John Thompson. 2 March 1809-18 Aug 1809. Trader. Owners Brown of London maybe.

1809: Union of 1810. Owners Loane and Co. Capt Williams Collins. 1809-17 Jan 1810. 7 March 1810. Calcutta, spars, provisions, convicts. Of Calcutta?. Cumpston's Register.

1809: Indispensable (2). Owner Unknown. Capt Henry Best. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1809: Convict ship Experiment II, contractor, P. E. Mestears (Peter Evet, of London), 146 tons, built Georgia, Capt. Joseph Dodds, surgeon unlisted. Departing from Cork, 21 January, 1809 - Arriving Sydney 25 June, 1809. She early sailed from Cork with a West India convoy.

1809: Convict ship Indispensable 2, 350 tons. Capt. Hy Best, surgeon William Evans. Departing 2 March 1809 - Arriving Sydney 18 August, 1809. Indispensable, Contractor, whaler of Blackheath, Daniel Bennett. Shelton Contract No. 32, with Bennett dated 24 February, 1809, for 62 convicts.

1809: Convict ship Boyd, 392 tons. Capt. Jn. Thompson. Surgeon unnamed. Departing from Cork, 2/3 March, 1809 - Arriving 14 August, 1809. The contract does not appear to have been made out by Shelton.

1809: Shelton's Contract No 33, with Messrs Buckle and Boyd, their second contract, dated 12 August, 1809, for ship Ann 2. Capt. Charles Clarke, 221 convicts. Shelton charged £298/17/6d. Departing late 1809 - Arriving Sydney 27 February, 1810. Owner unknown, surgeon unlisted, no other details. (Pemberton has suggested the owners or contractors may have been J. & W. Jacob (?) She sailed from NSW with some wool cargo. (Pemberton, The London Connection, pp. 420ff.)

1809: London Docks: Joseph Moore acquired what became Lady Dock, part of Surry Commercial Docks.

1810: Ship Cyclops from Trincomalee Ceylon comes to Sydney, is bought by "Sydney Interests" and sent to collect sandalwood at Fiji. See James Broadbent, Suzanne Rickard and Margaret Steven, India, China, Australia: Trade and Society, 1788-1850. Sydney, Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales, 2003., p. 47.

Year 1810

1810 or so: Convict contractor Alexander Mount Greig. (A name difficult to trace)

Years 1810-1820.

Year 1810

13 March 1810: To George Faith (his first contract). Convict transport Canada. Shelton´s Accounts No. 34.

George Faith

On George Faith. Noted in Shelton´s Accounts. In 1841, he was perhaps connected re case of ship Dryad to Cuba, a cargo theft case, he being a director of a company with Alexander Denoon and John Chapman? Maybe some connection to ship broker George Herring of Bishopsgate Street Within? Still a problem person for research by October 2012.

1810: Canada (2). Owners, Reeve and Green. Captain John B. Ward. 1810. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1810: Hunter (of 1810). Owner not known. Captain Thomas Folger. Trader from Salem or New Bedford. From Wace and Lovett.

1810: Hunter of 1810. Owner, John Gilmore and Co. Captain James Robson. 20 Aug 1810 - 24 Nov 1810. Calcutta, Fiji, Derwent, Bengal. Jn Giilmore, shipbuilder. Cumpston's Register.

1810: Perseverance (of 1810). Owner, Robert Campbell of Sydney. Capt Frederick Hasselburg. Sealing, exploration, discovers Macquarie Island

1810: New Zealander. Owner, Daniel Bennett. Capt Wm Elder/Alder. 1 Oct 1810-13 Oct 1810. London, sperm fishery.

Cumpston's Register.

1810: Indian. Owner Unknown. Andrew Barclay. Convict transport. See Bateson. 1810: Shelton's Contract No. 35, with George Garnett Huske Mannings/Munnings, Esqr. (an unknown name), for ship Indian, dated 5 July, 1810 for one man only. Otherwise, for 276 convicts. Shelton charged £253/12/2d. Indian, 522 tons, Capt. Andrew Barclay, destined for more such voyages; surgeon Maine, Departing 18 July 1810 - Arriving 16 December, 1810. The last convict ship departing in 1810.

1810: Shelton's Contract No 34, contract with George Faith (an unknown name), ship Canada 2, dated 3 March, 1810, for 135 convicts. Shelton charged £245/8/-. Departing 23 March, 1810, from England, 393 tons, owned Reeve and Green, Capt. John B. Ward, surgeon unlisted. Arriving Sydney 8 September, 1810.

1810: Britain occupies Mauritius and Bengal firms are asked to sell food to the island. About this time, Indian convicts under sentence of life transportation began to be sent there from Bengal (meaning NSW remained a destination for Caucasian convicts only). In 1815 the first batch of Indians went from the Allypore jail to Mauritius, the island's government had to borrow from Fairlie Fergusson and Co. at Calcutta, eg., $30,000 per month; such deals went on into the 1820s. (S. B. Singh, Agency Houses, p. 97.)

Marjorie Tipping, Convicts Unbound: The Story of the Calcutta Convicts and their Settlement in Australia. South Yarra, Vic., Viking O'Neil, 1988.

By April-May 1787, the First Fleet ship, Lady Penrhyn, had presumably been given an EICo licence to take a tea cargo from Canton. In which case, she can be regarded as making a commercial reconnaissance voyage, via Australia, to NW America, then to China. At least, this was the original plan. By April 1787, London aldermen Curtis and Macaulay had decided to send Lt. Watts on Lady Penrhyn to NSW as part of the First Fleet. As a man who had been out with Cook, (a midshipman on Resolution, sailing with William Bligh), Watts has been greatly overlooked. A rare mention of him is contained in David Howarth, Tahiti: A Paradise Lost. (London, Harvill Press, 1983.. pp. 143ff).

Howarth is one of the few writers treating Lady Penrhyn's voyage to Tahiti after she left Sydney. (And it is remarkable how it is easy enough in books to track commercial motives for the departure of British ships to any destination - such as NW America, the West Indies, to India or China, but not regarding the convict ships to Australia - as though it is a taboo subject that somehow risks slandering the prestige of Captain Cook!)

More will be detailed below on Lady Penrhyn's voyage to Tahiti, arriving there before Bounty arrived. By 26 October, 1788, Bligh on Bounty had entered Matavi Bay, Tahiti. By 27 October, 1788, (Howarth, p. 147), Lady Penrhyn had been about a week at Macao, China.

Relevant dates: By 8 August, Lady Penrhyn was by Penrhyn Island, named by Capt. Sever. By 15 September, by the Isle of Saypan. On 17 September she refreshed at Tinian. By 15 October she was by Grafton isle. By 19 October, she sailed up Macao Roads, readying to take her cargo of tea. About China, Lady met a ship named Talbot.
The meeting with Talbot is confirmed in Ruth Campbell, 'New South Wales and the Glocester Journal, 1787-1790', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 68, Part 3, December 1982., pp. 169-180.
Then Lady Penrhyn went home, presumably to the enrichment of Curtis and Macaulay, and possibly William Richards. And to be remembered mainly because she had carried only women to Botany Bay, not because she represented a mystery about the tenor of London's commercial instincts about the Pacific. On Tahiti, on 26 October, 1788, Bligh entered Matavi Bay on Bounty.
Some of Lt. Watts' writings can be found in Arthur Phillip, The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay, With an Account of the Establishment of the Colonies of Port Jackson and Norfolk Island, including the journals of Lts. Shortland, Watts, Ball and Capt. Marshall. Melbourne, Facsimile edition for Georgian House, 1950.

Note: At least two stories appear as to why Lady Penrhyn did not go to North-West America. One is that she had developed a bad bottom (worm-ridden), by the time she got to Tahiti. Or, that the crew was too weak from scurvy. The ship's surgeon, Bowes-Smythe, opted for the scurvy explanation (see Bowes-Smythe's Journal, pp. 98ff). Watts took command of the ship on 18 May 1788. She was near Tahiti on 16 June, and arrived there 10 July, staying at Tahiti only ten days, not long enough to improve the crew's health. A decision not to go to America had possibly been made by 3 July. Scurvy symptoms began to dissipate by 3 August. By 18 October she was at Macao, then to Whampoa by 21-23 October. By 14 January 1789 she was leaving Macao to make for Java, Pulare of Malaya, then St Helena, to the Isle of Wight.

Reference item 1810++: H. E. Maude, Of Islands and Men: Studies in Pacific History. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1968.

Reference item 1810++ D. R. Hainsworth, The Sydney Traders: Simeon Lord and his Contemporaries, 1788-1821. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1972.

Year 1810

By 25 September 1810 re New Zealand. Court case in Sydney, John Robinson vs Charles Hook agent of Robert Campbell. Hook had employed John Robinson as a mariner. Robert Mason had been given command of ship Brothers and departed Sydney for sealing, with Robinson acting as overseer of the sailing gang. Campbell and others had agreed on all business by 10 February 1810. Mason went to an open bay on west coast of NZ then to north coast and to Cooks Straits, then south to Banks Island. Then south to Port Daniels, where he found two men left out of eleven he had once left at Isle of Wight for seal-killing (had the other nine deserted their post?). The nine missing men had had contact with ship Governor Bligh Captain Chaser. Robinson had then been caught up in an argument with Mason about feeding the nine missing men, and methods by which they were to be paid regarding any seals they had caugyht. The plaintiff Robinson won the case. (Aspects of NZ Maritime History)

1810: Anne II. Owner Unknown. Captain Charles Clarke. Convict transport.

1810: Britain occupies Mauritius and Bengal houses are asked to sell the island food. About this time, Indian convicts under sentence of life transportation began to be sent from Bengal (meaning NSW remained destination for Caucasian convicts only). In 1815 the first batch of Indians went from the Allypore jail to Mauritius, the island's government had to borrow from Fairlie Fergusson and Co. at Calcutta, eg., $30,000 per month; such deals went on into the 1820s. (S. B. Singh, Agency Houses, p. 97.

1810-1812 circa: (Bartlett, p. 23), on US-Australian links over 20 years, between 1 Nov., 1792 and war of 1812, over 60 US ships visited Sydney, at least 20 bound for China, later came sealers and whalers.

5 July 1810: To George Garnett Huske Munnings (his first contract). Convict transport Indian. Shelton´s Accounts No. 35. On George Garnett Huske Munnings: Of Bishopsgate Street, London, and of a place called Thorpe-le-Soken. He once owned a ships Courier of 150 tons for the London Germany trade, sometimes used at a privateer with a Letter of Marque. Operated as a privateer in 1812. Somes referred to as Captain GGH Mannings. In 1828 had ship Sunbury to Calcutta. Some relevant records on him are at Essex Records Office.

Year 1811

23 March 1811: To John William Buckle (his firm´s third contract). Convict transports Admiral Gambier and Friends. Shelton´s Accounts No. 36.

1811: Friends. Owner Unknown. Captain James Ralph. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1811: Providence 1. Owner Unknown. Andrew Barclay. 20 Oct 1811. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1811: The Rapid. Owners, Dorr of US. Captain Henry Dorr. Wrecks at Ningaloo Reef, n/w Australia. Mixed cargo to Canton. She is reputed to have lost 330,000 Spanish dollars, which has not been verified by marine archaeology. -Ed

Update of 29-12-2011 - Dear Merchant Networks Project, I notice you have a reference to Captain Henry Dorr of the ship Rapid bound for Canton that was wrecked on the coast of WA (at an area inhabited by savages only), on 7 January 1811; the captain and crew were all saved; and after 37 days of great suffering in their boats, they reached different parts of Java. Capt Dorr reported the incident in a letter written from Philadelphia on 30 July 1811. According to your notes, the site was vacuumed by the WA Museum and none of the alleged treasure' was ever located. I can tell you that the money that was left behind was taken up by a vessel from Batavia, under French colours, carried to or near Batavia, and subsequently taken possession of by the British (the British occupied the Batavia republic, 1811-1815). Estimates of the amount of money involved vary, although Captain Dorr stated 280,000 dollars. Captain Dorr lived in Boston and sailed the seas for what appears to have been an eternity. He had arrived in Boston on the Rapid on 2 July 1810 from Canton, which may have been his last completed trip in that vessel. I hope these notes are of some interest. Yours sincerely, Don Wilkey (29-12-2011), 4 Hardy Place, Kambah ACT 2902. (Thank you, much appreciated, Ed)

1811: Admiral Gambier (2). Owners, Buckles. Captain Edward Sindrey. 1811. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1811: Brutus (US). Owner Dorr. Capt Unknown. 1811, Launceston, Hobart. Ship or brig from Boston. From Wace and Lovett, p. 48. 1811: American one Capt Dorr for unnamed owners had the ship or brig Brutus from Boston to Launceston and Hobart.)

1811, The US ship Rapid, lost, supposedly carrying 330,000 Spanish dollars. Capt. Henry Dorr. (From a US website on Dorr family) The Rapid was a three-masted wooden schooner of 367 tons, built in 1807 and registered at Boston, Capt Herny Dorr of Rapid was one of the syndicate owning her; she wrecked at Ningaloo Reef near Point Cloates on the north-west Western Australian coast on the night of 7 January, 1811. She had left Boston for Canton, with a mixed cargo including [it is said] 330,000 Spanish dollars. The Rapid went to pieces the day after her wrecking. (This wreck has been assessed by West Australian marine archaeologists and the site weel vacuumed. No salvage fortune in Spanish dollars was ever found.) (Note: From a website on the Dorr family which hasn't accurately updated its family legend, by the look of things. -Ed)

1810-1811: William Richardson as master has brig trader Active, from Salem, owned by Jas Cooke, to Hobart, Sydney, Fiji, Canton, Manila in 12/10 and 2/11; William P. Richardson, Freeman Richmond, I. B. Richmond as owner in 2/42 and 7-8/42 has whaler Addison Capt Thos. West from New Bedford, Hobart.

1811: B. Minturn in 4-7/1811 is owner for trader ship Milwood, from Philadelphia, Capt. Elihu Smith, to Sydney then to Fiji and China, see HRA, 1 (7), p. 432.

26 August 1811: To Magnus Johnson (his first contract). Convict transport Guildford. Shelton´s Accounts No. 37.

Year 1812

9 May 1812: To Messrs Wilkinson and Atty (this firm´s first contract). Convict transports Minstrel and Indefatigable. Shelton´s Accounts No. 38.

James Atty

On James Atty see the entry for Arthur Oates Wilkinson below re convict transports Indefatigable and Minstrel (1812). (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

This file remains Work-in-Progress

Re James Atty: Convict contractor listed in Bateson's index. A website notes that the Indefatigable, having embarked 200 prisoners, sailed from London on 4 June 1812 in company with the Minstrel, bound for New South Wales and making her second voyage as a convict ship. Built at Whitby in 1799 by Ing. Eskdale, the Indefatigable, a first-class ship of 549 tons, was owned by the well-known shipping firm of James Atty & Co. Website notes that in 1812, James Atty and Arthur Oates Wilkinson (of 22 Threadneedle St maybe born 1815?) took contracts for Indefatigable Capt John Cross and Minstrel Captain John Reed. 1812, Vessel: Indefatigable - Transport Ship, Date: 6/8 Dec, Master: J Cross, Owner: Jas Atty & Co., Tons: 549, Guns: 14, Men: 45, Wence & Wither: London, Rio, Hobart Town - Canton, England, Cargo: 199 male prisoners: landed at Derwent - Hobart Town. J. Gordon went b. The first transport to reach Tasmania direct from England was the Indefatigable, which arrived at Hobart on 19 October, 1812. She had been preparing to sail for Port Jackson when a despatch was received in London from Macquarie urging that a convict ship should be despatched direct to Tasmania. Hitherto, with the exception of the prisoners transferred from Port Phillip by Collins in 1804 all the convicts to reach Tasmania had been transhipped from Sydney. Usually they were despatched in small batches in the brigs and schooners owned by the colonial government or in locally-owned traders hired for the purpose. This system, however, was uneconomical, and, in addition, prevented the convict population in Tasmania being built up rapidly. Gov. Macquarie's suggestion had been prompted by these considerations, and, the British authorities concurring with it, the Indefatigable's destination was altered.
Indefatigable, East India Co, Convict Transport, 549t, Jn Cross: Lon 4.6 Rio - Htn 19.10 w. 1812 - 149 male prisoners (1st convict transport ship to Tasmania) - then on to Sydney - Canton - England.
Derwent 19 Oct, 1812 Indefatigable - John Cross, Eng 4/6 Rio de Janeiro 11/8 199m convicts & guard 73 d. First convict transport directed to proceed to Hobart Town.
To all to whom these presents shall come Arthur Oates Wilkinson of Kingston upon Hull in the County of York Merchant and James Atty of Whitby in the said County Merchant send greeting. Whereas in and by certain Indentures bearing date the ninth day of May instant made between Thomas Shelton of the Session House in the City of London Esquire of the one part and the said Arthur Oates Wilkinson and James Atty of the other part. Reciting the Convictions Sentences and orders of transportation of the several Convicts named and contained in the list or Schedule hereunto annexed and also reciting that His Royal Highness the Prince Regent in the name and on the Behalf of His Majesty by his Royal sign. Manual bearing date the eighth day of May instant had been pleased to give directions for the transportation of the said Convicts and had graciously thought fit to authorize and empower the said Thomas Shelton to make a ???????????????? Persons for the effectual transportation of the said Convicts and to take Security form the Person or Persons so Contracting for the effectual transportation of them pursuant to the Sentences and orders of the said Indentures recited concerning them respectively. It is witnessed that the said Thomas Shelton by virtue of such power and authority and in consideration of the Contracts and Agreements of the said Arthur Oates Wilkinson and James Atty therein mentioned and of the Securities given by them the said Arthur Oates Wilkinson and James Atty by Bonds or Writings Obligatory ? even date with the said Indentures for the effectual performance thereof did contract with the said Arthur Oates Wilkinson and James Atty they being fit persons for the performance of the transportation of the said Convicts and further reciting that the said Arthur Oates Wilkinson and James Atty in Consideration of the property which they the said Arthur Oates Wilkinson and James Atty their Executors administrators and Assigns would have in the Service of the said Convicts for and During the remainder of the terms of their transportation and for div?? Other good caused and valuable considerations them thereunto moving. Did covenant contract and agree to and with the said Thomas Shelton that they the said Arthur Oates Wilkinson and James Atty their Executors Administrators and Assigns should and would forthwith take and receive the said Convicts and transport them or cause them to be transported effectually as soon as conveniently might be to the Coast of New South Wales or some one or other of the Islands adjacent pursuant to the Sentences and orders concerning them in the said Indentures mentioned and should and would procure such evidence as the nature of the case would admit of the landing there of the said Convicts (Death and Casualties by Sea excepted) and produce the same to whom it might concern when lawfully called upon and should not no? would by the ?? Defaults of them the said Arthur Oates Wilkinson and James Atty their Executors Administrators or Assigns suffer the said Convicts or any or either of them to return to Great Britain or Ireland during the terms for which they were respectively ordered to be transported the Dates and terms of which said Sentences are mentioned and set forth against the names of the said Convicts respectively in the said list or Schedule hereunto annexed And Whereas the said Arthur Oates Wilkinson and James Atty have taken and received part of the said Convict (towit) the Male Convicts on board a certain Ship or Vessell called the Indefatigable of which John Cross is Master and commander and the other part of the said Convicts (towit) the female Convicts on board a certain Ship or Vessell called the Minstrel of which John Reed is Master and Commander both of which said Ships are now lying at Portsmouth bound to New South Wales aforesaid in order to transport the said Convicts pursuant to their said respective Sentences and Orders. Now know ye that ...
We have noticed a name at Whitby, Atty, married to Holt. But nothing further.

On Arthur Oates Wilkinson

Kingston-upon-Hull: Pathway to convict contractor Arthur Oates Wilkinson (nd) - little information so far. He was of Kingston-on-Hull. Possibly also was a merchant working in London (?). Convict contractor 1812 with Indefatigable in association with James Atty. Contractor re ship Minstrel with James Atty (at which time Thomas Shelton the legal official had legal clerks Thomas Clark and John James Holland of Sessions, Old Bailey). Wilkinson possibly had son of the same name born 1815, who was later a stockbroker in London? Noted from an online archive re Jardine-Matheson. Separately online is information that Arthur Oates Wilkinson was a merchant and insurance broker with partner James Wilkinson at Old Broad Street London till they dissolved their partnership in 31 December 1817. Their firm had been known and James and Arthur Wilkinson.(Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

17 November 1812: To Peter Everitt Mestaer (his third contract). Convict transport Fortune. Shelton´s Accounts No. 39.

6 May 1813: To Martin Lindsay (his first contract). Convict transport Earl Spencer. Shelton´s Accounts No. 40.

On Martin Lindsay

Martin Lindsay. Still a problem person for research by October 2012. He is probably the Martin Lindsay who for her 7th-8th-9th voyages under Captain John Collins owned the EICo ship Warley 1475 tons which sailed mostly directly to China 1796-1819. Built by John Perry at Blackwall Yard and sailed for her first five voyages by Captain Henry Wilson. Collins worked at ports such as China/Whampoa, Simons Bay, Penang, St Helena, Madras, Malaccas. Warley was broken up in 1816. Captain Wilson is noticed on his own Wikipedia page. Lindsay may have had commercial links to Sir William Leighton noted above, it remains unclear.

2 August 1813: To Henry Moore (his first contract). Convict transport Wanstead. Shelton´s Accounts No. 41. Moore remains a problem person for research by October 2012.

On Henry Moore

More to come.

26 August 1813: To James McTaggart [of Mincing Lane, his first contract]. Convict transport General Hewett. Shelton´s Accounts No. 42.

James McTaggart

Pathway to convict contractor James McTaggart (active 1813). Still a problem person for research by October 2012. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

Year 1814

28 January 1814: To James Smith (his first contract). Convict transport Surrey. Shelton´s Accounts No. 43.

28 February 1814: To Kennard Smith (his first contract). Convict transport Broxbornbury. Shelton´s Accounts No. 44.

Kennard Smith

Kennard Smith. Probably of Chapel Street Portland Place, Midx by 1839 (?). Still a problem person for research by October 2012. See an online item re Australia and the China Sea, Journal of a Voyage from London towards Canton in China in the Ship Minerva of London Kennard Smith Esq Commander kept by Christopher Rawson Midshipman, describing her voyage from England to China, in company with six ships of the line (two of 98 guns) and a frigate, and her return voyage from Whampoa via St Helenea. Rawson was apparently connected (as son?) with William Rawson and Co., warehousemen and bay factors of No. 3 Corbet Court, Gracechurch Street, London. His book was more a logbook. Minerva was 798, in usual EICo service 1786-1801, Rawson was aboard her on her third voyage.

6 April 1814: To John Goodson (his first contract). Convict transport Somersetshire. Shelton´s Accounts No. 45. Still a problem person for research by October 2012.

9 August 1814: To James McCallum [of No. 2 Christopher Street, Finsbury Square, Middlesex, his first contract]. Convict transport Marquis of Wellington. Shelton´s Accounts No. 46. (Some Scotch convicts, some from courts martial.)

James McCallum

James McCallum. Of 2 Christopher Street, Finsbury Square, Midx. Otherwise still a problem person for research by October 2012.

5 October 1814: To Thomas Robson (his first contract). Convict transport Indefatigable. Shelton´s Accounts No. 47. Ship´s master was Matthew Bowles. Power of attorney to Joseph Lachlan authorising him to seal and deliver all Bonds and Instruments necessary for said Matthew Bowles to execute on account of the said Convicts ... [This seems to mark the first entry of the name Lachlan into convict contracting business - Ed.]

Thomas Robson

Thomas Robson. Still a problem person for research by October 2012.

26 December 1814: To John Robertson Bell (his first contract). Convict transport Northampton. Shelton´s Accounts No. 48. Still a problem person for research by 2012.

Year 1815

19 April 1815: To Thomas Henry Buckle (firm´s fourth contract). Convict transport Baring. Shelton´s Accounts No. 49.

7 July 1815: To Alexander John Milne (his first contract). Convict transport Mary Anne. Shelton´s Accounts No. 50.

Alexander John Milne

Pathway to convict contractor Alexander John Milne active 1815 - little information so far. Still a problem person for research by October 2012. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

19 August 1815: To Walter Buchanan (probably of Buckle, Buckle, Bagster and Buchanan, this firm´s fifth contract). Convict transport Fanny. Shelton´s Accounts No. 51.

Walter L. Buchanan

Pathway to convict contractor Walter L. Buchanan - Little information so far. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

John William Buckle

Hither Green, London: Pathway to convict contractor John William Buckle, who resided at Hither Green, Lewisham London, an area near Blackheath and Greenwich, and today, Catford in Lewisham. He married Sarah Boyd. Of the firm Buckle Buckle, Bagster and Buchanan. The firm consisted of John William Buckle, Thomas Henry Buckle (1779-1840), Henry Mole Bagster and Buchanan. And a link to famed Sydney trader Mary Reiby, who, an ex-convict, once visited them in London in business, probably the only known case of an ex-convict, once freed, meeting a convict contractor. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

Thomas Henry Buckle (1779-1840) married Jane Middleton.

Henry Mole Bagster (Mowle?) born 1798 according to IGI data. Is little known. Convict contractor. Of Buckle, Buckle, Bagster and Buchanan, of Mark Lane. Bagster resided apparently at Guilford St, Russell Square, Bloomsbury. (Bateson, Convict Ships, p. 236. Pemberton, London Connection, p. 346.) Henry seems from websites in 1832 to have married Mary Burrough (1802-1863), from his home area, Brampton, Cumberland, only daughter of Captain Charles Burrough and Anne Ewart. Mary Burrough had to up six siblings, presumably all brothers. Email from: peter barrett in Oct 2010. Hello Merchant Networks team, drawn to your site investigating relevance of the trio "Boyd, Bagster and Buchanan" in relation to convict ships. Some convict ships carried not only convicts, but on at least two occasions, honey bees. The Isabella in 1822 under Captain Wallace and the Phoenix in 1824 both brought bees to Sydney. In 1814, Wallace was also captain of "The Three B's" not Bees, as some have translated the "B's". The ship was owned by, I believe, "Boyd, Buckles, and Boyd," hence the name. Regards, Peter, Caloundra, Queensland. Genealogy per ancestry.com.

25 August 1815: To Charles Raitt (his first contract). Convict transport Ocean. Shelton´s Accounts No. 52.

Charles Raitt

Pathway to convict contractor Charles Raitt active 1815 - little information so far. Still a problem person for research by October 2012. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)


Internal Site Search Engine For This Website:

This free script provided by
JavaScript Kit


View web stats from www.statcounter.com/ for this website begun 4 July 2006


View The Merchant Networks Stats

Helmsman graphicHelmsman graphicHelmsman graphicHelmsman graphicHelmsman graphicHelmsman graphicHelmsman graphicHelmsman graphicHelmsman graphicHelmsman graphic