Helmsman graphicMonitor graphicHelmsman graphic The Cozens/Byrnes Merchants Networks Project - Updated 8 October 2012

Network logo png

For 1800-1820 (work-in-progress)

Graphic of Chinese junk, oldFor a page in Chinese
about this website,
click on the image of the junk

This file is devoted to presenting basic Shipping Timeline information in a global perspective for website readers. The items are often sketchy, and some have been extracted from other websites managed by Dan Byrnes. Where possible, ships will have their date-of-departure noted as the compilers believe that a ship's departure date gives some indications of the business plan of the owners, whatever the outcome of the voyage. These Timelines will be added-to intermittently, as new data and new e-mail arrives. Book titles will be entered according to the timeframes they treat.

PayPal preferred graphic

PayPal - safe and secure

If you value the information posted here,
and the projects of these websites in general,
you may like to consider making a donation
to help reduce our production costs?
It would be greatly appreciated.
Options include:
paying via PayPal which this website uses - Ed

This is file Shipping Timeline7 - To go back to the previous file in this Merchant Networks series, Ships Timeline 6

Year 1800

1800: Reference item: - - J. C. H. Gill, 'Notes on the Sealing Industry of Early Australia', Journal of the Royal Historical Society of Queensland, VIII, No. 2, 1967; and D. R. Hainsworth, 'Exploiting The Pacific Frontier: The New South Wales Sealing Industry, 1800-1821', Journal of Pacific History, II, 1967., pp. 59-75.

1800: Reference item: Jean Ingram Brockes, International Rivalry In The Pacific Islands, 1800-1875. Los Angeles. University of California Press. 1941.

1800s

Contractor, convict contractor minor, John Prinsep (1746-1831), earlier an indigo contractor to EICo in India. By 1800 a partner with one Saunders who remains untraceable.

Convict contractor, James Mangles (c1761-1837-1838).

Contractor, navy agent, John Hallett (1744-1812).

Estimated, MP Sir Bart5 John Frederick (1750-1825), from a family of government contractors, civil servants, HEICo employees.

The pro-British American John Jacob Astor (1763-1848), based in New York as fur trader.

England: Miles Peter Andrew MP (1742-1814) contractor for gunpowder with Fredk Pigou (born 1767 died ??) qv. Also William John Andrews (?), drysalter. See also re gunpowder manufacturer Fredrick John Pigou (1767-1830).

Military contractor for West Indies. For 1790s? Brig-General James Cockburn (1723-1809), once court-martialled for malfeasance.

Military contractor in India, 1790s or later, Sir Bart1 Charles Cockerell (1755-1837), Of Paxton, Cockerell and Traill in India.

Contractor, military in India, Sir Bart1 Charles Forbes of Forbes and Co. of Bombay (1774-1849).

1803: Death of Duncan Campbell Overseer of Thames Prison Hulks.

Minor convict contractor, Richard Brooks (1765-1833) later of NSW.

UK builder of army barracks in England, Alexander Copland (1774-1834).

Contractor, military finance, possibly in this timeframe, banker William Mellish (1764-1838). Possibly preceded by one William Mellish (1710-1791) an MP.

1811: Army agent of Castle Street, Leicester Square, Thomas Thompson (1747-1811) married to Margaret ??.

1800: Belle Savage (Sauvage). Owners, Jones and Co. Captain David Ockington. 13 May 1800 at Sydney, 15 Jun 1800. Sealer from Boston. Cumpston's Register. She is a schooner. Later to Rhode Island. From Wace and Lovett, p. 46.

1800: Hunter barque. Owner, Campbell and Co. Captain William Anderson. 13 Feb 1800- 14 Apr 1800. Trader from Calcutta, Java. Rbt Campbell of Sydney. Cumpston's Register.

1800: Royal Admiral (2). Owners Wilson and Gillette. Captain William Wilson. 23 May 1800-20 Nov 1800. Convict transport. Former owner, Thomas Larkins of Blackheath London. Gillette and Co. Cumpston's Register.

1800: Speedy. Owner, Enderbys. Captain George Quested. 1800 - 1 Jan 1801 - 4 Feb 1801. Whaler about New Holland. Cumpston's Register.

1800: Speedy (2nd voyage). Owner Samuel Enderby. Captain George Quested. 1799 - 15 Apr 1800. Whaler, Convict transport. Cumpston's Register.

1800: HM Porpoise. RN. Captain William Scott. 6 Nov 1800 - 16 Feb 1801. Convicts, detachment of NSW Corps. Cumpston's Register.

1800: Minerva. Owner, Robert Charnock. Captain Joseph Salkeld. 11 Jan 1800 - April 1800. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register.

1800: Martha schooner or snow. Owner, Unclear. Captain Wiliam Reid. 1800 - 6 March 1800. Oil, sealer. Cumpston's Register.

1800: Margaret of 1801. Owner, Turnbull and Co. Captain John Buyers. 1800 - 7 Feb 1801 - 7 March 1801. General merchandise, to n/w America. Cumpston's Register.

1800: Litteler. Owners Dorr and Sons. Captain Unknown. 1800- 1802. Trader of Boston. In 1800-1802, Capt John Dorr went to Canton.

1800: HM Lady Nelson. RN. Captain Lt John Grant. 16 Dec 1800 - 6 March 1801. First ship to pass through Bass Strait. See notes. Cumpston's Register

1800: John Jay. US Owners, Brown and Ives. Captain Ben. G. Dexter. 21 Sept 1800. Trader to Whampoa, China from Providence RI. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett

1800: Harbinger (brig renamed). Owner Michael Hogan. Captain John Black. 12 Jan 1801 - May 1801. Spec trade, general. Hogan/Black. Cumpston's Register.

1800: Guatimozin. Owners, Theodore Lyman et al. Captain S. Bumstead. 26 Aug 1800 - 1802. Sealer to n/w America, to Canton. Theodore Lyman of Boston. 211 tons, sailed from Boston on 26 Aug 1800 for n/w coast America in company with Atahualpa. Carried home usual teas and silks, home by 7 May 1802 to Boston.

1800: Greenwich. Owner Enderbys. Captain Alexander Law. 1800 (and in 1802 similar). 29 May 1801 - 18 July 1801. Whaling, Miscellaneous. And in 1802. Cumpston's Register.

1800: Globe (Of Boston). Owners T. H. Perkins, J&T Lamb. Captain Bernard Magee. 1801. Trader of Boston. Ship is owned by T. H. Perkins, Lamb and others, Bernard Magee is killed in 1801.

1800: Follensbee. Owners Vernon and Co. Captain Jas. Perry. 1801 to China, England. 31 Jan 1801. Trader from Newport, RI. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett.

1800: Euphemia brig (prize). Owner Hugh Meehan. Captain Hugh Meehan. 14 Feb 1800. Unclear. Renamed Anna Josepha. Cumpston's Register.

1800: Elligood. Owner Unknown. Captain Chr. Dixon. 1800. Whaler to King Georges Sound. From Wace and Lovett.

1800: Diana (of 1800). Owners Rodman and Co. Captain Jared Gardner. 1800 to China. Sealer from New Bedford. From Wace and Lovett.

1800: Despatch (of 1802). Owners Dorr and Sons. Captain Samuel A. Dorr. 1801-1802. Trader to Canton for Dorr and Sons. Capt Samuel A. Dorr dies on Despatch 106 tons, on her fourth voyage to Canton. Howay's writings.

1800: Chance. Owner Michael Hogan. Captain William White. 1800 - 13 April 1801 - 25 April. Privateer, French, a prize. Cumpston's Register.

1800: Catherine (of Boston). Owner J. Coolidge. Captain Bazilla Worth. 1800. Trader of Boston. Howay's writings.

1800: HM Buffalo. of 1800. RN. Captain Lt William Kent. 1799 - 15 April 1800 - 21 October 1800. Stores, animal stock. Gov Hunter embarks on her. Cumpston's Register.

1800: Britannia of 1801. Owners, Enderby whalers. Captain Robert Turnbull. 1800 - 26 March 1801- May 1801. Whaler, general merchandise. Cumpston's Register.

1800: Anne St Luz. owner John Prinsep. Captain James Stewart. 1800 - 20 Feb 1801 - 9 July 1801. Convict transport for Lambert, Prinsep and Saunders. See Bateson, Cumpston's Register.

1800: Trimmer brig. 1800. Owner Alexander Foggo. Capt Alexander Foggo. 18 Dec 1800-10 March 1801. Speculation trade, to Calcutta. Cumpston's Register.

Prisoner Rules graphic by Phillip Russell

1800: Friendship (1). Owners Mangles Brothers. Captain Hugh Reed. 16 Feb 1800. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1800: Shelton's Accounts, No. 19, Contract taken 29 March, 1800, with Mr Gabriel Gillett in the Royal Admiral. (Note re Scotland, procuring and perusing the documents and writings related to seven convicts sentenced to be transported at the Courts of Justiciary respectively for Perth, Aberdeen, Edinburgh and Ayr.) 426 convicts, Shelton charged £309 plus tuppence, By 1800, Gabriel Gillett, 1 contract (with William Wilson). (See H. E. Maude, Of Islands and Men: Studies in Pacific History. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1968., p. 185), Royal Admiral II got 400-500 hogs at Tahiti (cites HRA, III: p. 334; p. 432.) 29 March, 1800, re Royal Admiral II, the voyage of Royal Admiral I is detailed in:
E. W. Bovill, 'Some Chronicles of the Larkins Family - The Convict Ship, 1792', Mariner's Mirror,, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1954.
John Pascal Larkins lived at alderman George Macaulay's former residence, Dartmouth Hill House, from 1798. Thomas Larkins was a Blackheath resident.
(Bateson, Convict Ships, variously, on this ship, which was later bought by William Wilson; and Gabriel Gillette of Blackheath. On Gillette, see HRNSW, Vol. 4, p. 469; HRA, Series 1, Vol. 2, pp. 470, 483. Gabriel Gillette is listed in Shelton's Accounts as being the contract taker for Royal Admiral II: Contract No 19, dated 29 March, 1800.)
See also, H. E. Maude, 'In Search of a Home: from the mutiny to Pitcairn Island (1789-1790)', Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. 67, 1956., pp. 104-131.

1800: Another convict ship for Australia - Royal Admiral 2, 914 tons: Owned and commanded by Capt. William Wilson, earlier an associate of the LMS, having been nephew and employee of Capt. James Wilson of the first-sailing LMS ship carrying missionaries to Tahiti, Duff. Departing 23 May 1800 - Arriving Sydney 20 November 1800. Regarded as a "fever ship"; surgeon was Samuel Turner, earlier to Tahiti on the first LMS into the Pacific, Duff. William Wilson later became a commercial associate of Sydney merchant, Robert Campbell. Royal Admiral 2 carried eleven missionaries. She had mostly been used by the Larkins family as an East Indiaman, she had been bought from them by William Wilson and his partner Gabriel Gillette, who were recorded as her owners by authorities at Sydney. There is an incorrect legend that when she returned to London she was used as a prison hulk on the Thames, but her name turns up in no listings of such prison hulks.

1800: 1 August, Re whalers Greenwich, Venus, Britannia. Enderbys and Champions wrote to Lord Liverpool that they had established there was a valuable sperm whale fishery on the NSW coast; suggesting that the frequency of visits of whaling ships to there would assist the colony; that exorbitance in the colony might be avoided if whaling ships were used to there; that the Americans were taking advantage of the restrictions they knew the English whalers were bound by.
W. J. Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers in Southern Waters. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1977. [Angus and Robertson Non-Fiction Classics Edition], p. 15; Margaret Steven, Trade, Tactics and Territory: Britain in the Pacific, 1783-1823. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press, 1983., p. 98.

1800: 28 September, Gov. Hunter relinquishes command at Sydney and hands over to P. G. King. P. G. King at NSW wrote to the Duke of Portland concerning English merchants being satisfied with the prospects of the fishery off NSW; recommending the whalers bring out convicts and stores; noting that the whalers had restrictions. Dakin noted that "it was some years before New South Whales ships could trade between the colony and the East."
Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers, p. 16.

1800: NSW: Gov. King's General Order of 1 October, 1800, forced Sydney's private traders to first apply to the Governor for permission before landing spirits. This struck directly at John Macarthur, one of the largest importers.

1800: November: Delivery of copper coinage to the colony at NSW.

1800: 6 November, William Raven admitted a Younger Brother of Trinity House. Made an Elder Brother in 13 Nov., 1806. Raven had earlier often been about the early NSW colony as a respected mariner, sometimes in partnership with John St Barbe.

1800: 17 November: A despatch dated 17 Nov., 1800, to Gov. King, Sydney, brought by Enderby whaler Greenwich, see May 1801; despatch gave impending proclamation of union between Britain and Ireland to be effective January 1801.

1800: Between the First Fleet and the end of 1800, 43 convict ships had been sent to Sydney, including the wrecked HM Guardian and the hijacked Lady Shore. (Bateson, Convict Ships, p. 170.)

By 1800: Some English merchants concerned with East India Company business included: Mangles, Wilkinson, Hamilton and Co. Mangles were contractors who operated in low-key fashion, sending convict service ships regularly from 1800. More successful from 1800 than Prinsep, Mangles can be regarded as having been a force in trade to India, and they also had one family member a director of the East India Company.

1800 poste: India Insurance Co., represented by Hogue, Davidson and Co. of Calcutta. David Scott a director of EICO. Charles Grant a director of EICO. 1800: some merchants concerned with EICo include Mr Mangles, Mr Wilkinson, Hamilton and Co, Mr Wigram, Lyatt and Co.

1800: Lloyd's Green Book, Underwriters. Committee is Angerstein, William Bell, John Bourke, John Campbell, Alexr Champion, George Curling, Charles H. Dubois, William Hamilton. Rbt Hunter, Rbt Pulsford. Edward Vaux. Members include: Angerstein and Rivaz, Thomas Backhouse and Co., Baillie Thornton and Campbell, Leonard Barnard, John Barnes, Thomas Bell and Son, William Borradale, James Boydell, Brown Welbank and Petyt, Richard Buller and Co., John Campbell, A. & B. Champion, George Curling, EICo, Rbt Hamilton, Rt Hon Thomas Harley, Hibbert, Fuhr and Purrier, Rbt Hunter, Yves Hurry and Co., James Inglis, Robert Ingram, J. P. Larkins, Paul Le Mesurier and Haviland. London Assurance Co. William Lushington and Co. Thos Plummer Jnr and Barry. St Barbe Green and Bignell. Smith, St Barbe and Marten, John Shoolbred; Turnbull, Forbes and Co., Brook Watson.

1800: Lloyd's Register (Green Book), Underwriters 1800. 19 June, 1799, Asia Capt. R. Wardlaw for coast and bay built Liverpool in 1798 for R. Charnock, 819 tons. G. Gillette husband sent 6 Nov, 1797 ship Bengal Capt A. Cumine, 818 tons. 8 June, 1798, R. Charnock sent Calcutta Capt W Maxwell, to St Hels and Bengal, 819 tons, and Caledonian, Capt. S. Hawies, China and Bengal. Husband W. Curtis 8 Jan sent ship City of London Capt. A. Green, to Bengal and Bombay, 800 tons. 1 Feb, 1798, J. Duncan sent Earl Spencer, Capt. C. Raitt, 645 tons but not taken up. J. Prinsep on 18 June, 1799 sent Lady Burgess Capt. A Swinton to coast and china, 820 tons. R. Charnock 24 April, 1799 sent Lord Nelson Capt. R. Spottiswood, coast and china, 819 tons. T. Curtis sent Nottingham as usual, but not taken up.

1800: Lloyd's Register 1800, (Red Book). Shipowners. Secretary on 1 Jan, 1800 was Peter Foot. Committee is Norrison Coverdale, Charles Kensington, Robert Curling, Thomas King, Joseph Dowson, William Leighton, Thomas Horncastle, John Lyall, Ives Hurry, J. J. Oddy, Ralph Keddey, William Sims, Thomas Keddey, William Thompson. List of 1800 subscribers includes: Thomas Backhouse, Aston, King and Co., Jonathan Beilby, Robert Bell, Robert Allen Boyd, Jonathan Chapman, John Chapman and Co., N(orrison) Coverdale, Cox and Curling, Robert Curling, James Davies, Thomas Hall, T. Hunter 8 books, Ives Hurry and Co., Thomas Jackson Jnr, James Inglis, Ralph Keddey, Thomas King, Robert Laing, William Leighton, John Lyall, William Martin, Mount and Johnson, Thomas Newnham, J. S. Oddy, Reeve and Green, (John) St Barbe, Green and Co., Robert Wilson.
New Lloyd's Red Book 1799-1800": Subscribers included: Rbt Hunter Jnr, Rbt Grieve, Brown Welbank and Co, The Transport Board, Corporation of Trinity House, George McCall 12 books.

1800: Thomas William Plummer MP died 1817, MP for Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, 1806-1807, Plummer in 1800 married Elizabeth Margaret Thompson daughter of Thomas Thompson, army agent, of 24 Castle St, Leicester Square, later Thompson and Son, later of Charing Cross Road, the house became Thompson and Fell, India and Australia agents, with whom the Macarthurs of NSW stayed when in London. Partner in West Indies house of Plummer, Barham and Co, London agents for Simeon Lord and Co. of Sydney
Hainsworth, Sydney Traders; Pemberton, London Connection, pp. 126-129.

1800-1801: Reporting "the second vessel to pass through Bass Strait" after Grant traversed it in Lady Nelson was the Harbinger, commanded by John Black; he arrived at Sydney on 11 January, 1801. Black named a group of islands after his employer, Hogan.
Andrew Sharp, Discovery, p. 228.


1800: Holden's Directory referring to 1799 addresses, D. & J. Campbell, Merchants, 3 Robert St, Adelphi; Duncan Campbell, merchant, 3 Robert Street, Adelphi; William Currie Esq, MP, 26 George St, Westminster. Leonard Currie Esq, Bromley. John Currie Esq, Bromley. Isaac Currie private, 35 New Broad Street. Timothy and William (Curtis) and Clarke, (ship's) biscuit makers, 236 Wapping. Alderman William Curtis, merchant and MP, Old South Sea House. Charles, Samuel and George Enderby, Oil Merchants, Paul's Wharf, Upper Thames Street in 1799; Samuel Enderby one of men listed under the heading of the Office of Commercial Commissioners for City of London and its Vicinity at 7 Austin Friars. Charles Enderby at 10 Earle Street, Blackfriars. G. & F. Kinlock, merchants, 6 Dyers Ct, Aldermanbury. Richard Mumford, Tottenham Green in 1799. John Nutt; Merchant, Broad St. Buildings, in 1799; John Nutt, merchant, 33 Old Bethlem. Arthur Shakespear Esq 108 Pall Mall in 1799; William Shakespear private 37 Hart St, Bloomsbury.

1800: Circa: Sydney merchant Robert Campbell informs NSW's Gov. P. G. King he has accepted an agency from the London commercial house of David Scott Jnr and Co., that if that firm sent its whaling ships out he, Robert Campbell would be looking after them; there was mention also of an entry into there sealing industry. [This is a new element in NSW whaling industry information to date]. With Gov. King's permission, Campbell settled as a merchant in Sydney.

1800: After 1800, a new set of names began emerging in convict carriage, as Shelton's Accounts/Contracts show. These names - such as Mangles - reflect East India Company links at a time when the whalers were waning in strength. Nor do Lloyd's records appear to support any conclusion that the market had any particularly strong opinions about the Pacific at all. Lloyd's as a market stayed aloof, and if any underwriter, associated with any specific group of shipping interests, generated business by any method at all, that was his business. This it appears Lloyd's as a market merely looked on with a typically abstract disinterest as the whalers and the East India Company between 1786 and 1810 fought their battle over the right to sail the Pacific. In the battle, the East India Company lost the political and practical battle, and if there was any result there discernible in Lloyd's ship registers, it was that after about 1795, no barrier or prejudice was erected, that prevented any pro-whaler or pro-Pacific merchant, if he had the wherewithal, also sending ships into East India service. (Views of Dan Byrnes here).

1800: Anne 1 (Luz St Anna), 384 tons. Capt. James Stewart. Owned by Prinsep and Saunders. Arriving Sydney 21 February 1801.
Note: 1800: To 1830, one Robert Saunders, probably of Mincing Lane, with partners, was a London-Calcutta indigo dealer; he was probably son of the otherwise-unknown partner, Saunders, of John Prinsep, from about 1800. To 1826, a J. Saunders appears as a wool trader and is listed by Le Coteur as a member of the Van Diemens Land Company; but there is no proof he was connected with the original partner, Saunders, with Prinsep.

Convict and other ships 1800-1810 to Australia

Continued....

Year 1800 (continued)

1800-1802, From Howay, Litteler is a Boston brig owned Dorr and Sons. In 1800-1802, Capt. John Dorr is to Canton.

In 1800: Howay lists a small ship of Theodore Lyman.

1800: Howay lists Catherine of Boston 162 tons owned J. Coolidge, Capt. Bazilla Worth.

By 1800, ships were gathering seal skins from Brazil, South Georgia, Isles de Kerguelen, Crozet Islands, Bass Strait, Tasmania, New Zealand, Galapagos and Patagonia. Some of the skins were taken to China to be sold and the ship's owners then bought cargoes of tea, porcelain and other Chinese goods which were taken to North America and Europe. Other skins were taken to Europe and sold for use as material for hats, coats, waistcoats and boots.

1800: Ship John Jay, owned Brown and Ives, Capt. Benjamin G. Dexter. (By 1800, the American Consul at Canton is Samuel Snow.)

1800++: From websites it is found, from about 1800, the British Levant Co. at Smyrna took steps to buy half the finest opium available and re-sell it to US and Europe. About 1800 seems to coincide with an upsurge in medical sophistication of the use of opium in England and elsewhere in Europe.

1800 - Between 1803-1817, Chinese Hong merchants were in horrifying financial straits partly due to abandonment by their Imperial government, but more so since they had never originally been in a financial condition to begin to handle the volume of business which their European colleagues required to be handled. So they needed massive credit. They existed in a state of chronic difficulty due to lack of their own capital and lack of cash, exorbitant interest rates; their final failures were inevitable. By 1817, the debts of five junior Hong merchants had been liquidated, total balance due, $1,108,664. By 1802-1803, Ponqua said he owed $1,540,000 to various Chinese, also $360,000 to Europeans and $300,000 to his own government for duties. (3) An implication is that Hong insolvencies helped to subsidise tea consumption in Europe and Britain. Note: 1765 - See Om Prakash, 'Opium Monopoly In India and Indonesia in the Eighteenth Century', Indian conomic and Social History Review, 24, 1, 1987., pp. 65-66. Prakash p. 67, asserts the new EICo opium monopoly ought to be regarded as a distinct "innovation" with important consequences. From 1765 the Patna EICo men organised all this more rigourously. The first opium buyers were Indian merchants, other British, the Dutch VOC, till the trade steadied itself, when finally opium was sold at a regular EICo auction at Calcutta, Prakash pp. 66-67 notes that profits of 175-300 per cent were obtained from opium. So, radical alterations set in from 1773. Here, Wallenstein comments, “Economic historians often utilise basic concepts such as supply and demand, of elasticity versus inelasticity of demand, more sophisticated concepts (as with Wallenstein) but the historian of Eighteenth Century economic activity needs to remain particularly aware of the increasing sophistication used by financiers, as in London and Amsterdam, as they spun complicated webs of short and long-term credit around the basic activities of gathering and transporting commodities worth exchanging; when of course, advances on credit might have been made in respect of differential profit margins over different time spans. (Note: Immanuel Wallenstein, 'The Great Expansion: the incorporation of vast new zones into the capitalist world economy (1750-1850)', Studies in History, New Series, Vol. 4, Nos. 1&2, January-December 1988., pp. 85-156. “These credit-webs cannot be quantified usefully, but the intents of their use were often linked to coercing native populations into European definitions of productivity, to harnessing traditional, diversely used croplands to what became regionalised monocultures, thereby disrupting societal patterns. These credit-webs, considered as investment lead-times, were often created so that European merchants could outpace their native merchant competitors. (It is revealing and ironic that since the 1970s, the Japanese have successfully applied this tactic in the US and Australia, using a longer investment lead-time, 30 years, than the supposedly sophisticated US traders can compete with). Treatments of world flows of bullion can also provide useful insights on broader financial issues for the period 1750-1800, but such detail is beyond the scope of this essay. Simultaneously, from the point of view of non-Europeans in India, Asia and the Far East, gross inequities were institutionalised as Capitalism was used to re-organise production and consumption in traditional, often Muslim societies, which had often, by 1500 or so, offered a more satisfying life than any non-Mediterranean European country could offer.” [Ends Wallstein quote]

1799-1800-1801: Re New Bedford USA; Capt Andrew Gardner in March 1799 is on whaler and trader Rebecca, owners not-named, for Sydney thence China. In 1800, Jared Gardner has sealer Diana from New Bedford for Rodman and Co., to Sydney then China and in 7/1801 Diana is sealer/trader from New York Capt Jas. McCall, "passed n./w point of New Holland", to Whampoa, China.

1800-1802: Despatch, Dorr and Sons, Captain Samuel A. Dorr.

1800, Guatamozin, owned Theodore Lyman, Capt. S. Bumstead.

1800: US ship Diane, owned Rodman and Co., Captain Jared Gardner. (Note: The Rodman family was heavily intermarried with the Rotch family of Nantucket whalers. A Rodman woman married a noted engineer helping to build the Panama Canal,

1800: Ship Globe, from Boston, owned T. H. Perkins and J. & T. Lamb, Captain Bernard Magee.

1800-1802: Despatch, Dorr and Sons, Captain Samuel A. Dorr.

1800, John Jay, owned Brown and Ives, Capt. Benjamin G. Dexter. (By 1800, the American Consul at Canton was Samuel Snow.)

1800: Howay lists, Guatimozin ex-Boston 211 tons owned Thedore Lyman and others, Capt. S. Bumstead to Canton.

1800: This item is from Howay - GUATIMOZIN.-"A new and handsome ship" of Boston, 211 tons, owned by Theodore Lyman and others. Commander, S. Bumstead. She sailed from Boston on August 26, 1800, for the Northwest Coast in company with the Atahualpa, with a cargo invoiced at $18,036. She was met on June 28, 1801, trading on the coast. In the autumn she left for Boston, by way of China and arrived in Canton, November 19, 1801. She sailed thence on 2 January, 1802, with the usual cargo of teas, silks, etc., and returned to Boston, 7 May, 1802, 120 days from Canton.

1800, US ship Diana Capt Obed Barnard ex-Boston is owned by Stephen Higginson and J. & T. H. Perkins, carried US goods represented as Spanish property.

1800: Howay lists, Guatimozin ex-Boston 211 tons owned Thedore Lyman and others Capt. S. Bumstead to Canton.

Circa 1800: GUATIMOZIN. - The second voyage of this American ship, 211 tons, owned by Theodore Lyman and others of Boston, and commanded by S. Bumstead. For her first voyage, see the Howay entry for 1801. Returning to Boston in May, 1802, she cleared in the following July for the Northwest Coast. She was spoken in November, 118 days later en route to the coast. The Guatimozin traded there in 1803 and 1804, and was met there on 1st September, 1803. Soon afterwards she appears to have left for China; she was seen, 2 November, 1803, in the river bound upward to Canton.

1800: Catherine (of Boston), owned J. Coolidge, Capt. Bazilla Worth.

In 1800, New York merchant fur trader John Jacob Astor made a profit of $55,000 on an experimental fur shipment to Canton. He soon tries a scheme to dominate the fur trade of North America and sales to Canton. He decided he could with his American Fur Co., undercut the British EICo at Canton (which buys from Hudson's Bay Co.) by keeping a shipping point on American west coast which takes furs from Rocky Mountains. So Capt. Jonathan Thorn on Tonquin went to establish a post, Astoria, at mouth of Columbia River in 1811. The 1812 US-British war collapsed the plan and Astor had to sell his operations to the Northwest Fur Company of Montreal.

Circa 1800: JJ Astor kept in the China trade dealing in "a new cargo", (sandalwood supplies from India, Java, Timor and Malabar were becoming depleted), sandalwood, as in 1791, the Bostonian Capt. John Kendrick had discovered sandalwood growing on Hawaii's island of Kauai. Other Bostonians became interested.

Circa 1800: Pegasus. - An American ship of New York, commanded by Otis Liscomb. According to E. B. Hewes, MS. Notes on American Vessels she sailed for the Northwest Coast in 1800, but was seized by the Spaniards at Coquimbo, on 2 January, 1801, and charged with illegal trading -- an accusation that was probably true, in view of her having a cargo valued at $150,000, five or six times as much as the usual venture to the Northwest Coast.

1800: (See Hao, pp. 22ff.) By 1800, no nation but Britain had more ships in Chinese water than the US. Between about 1803-1807 the US had about annually 36 ships to China. By 1805, Hao, p. 22, the US shippers had realised they had no choice but to export specie (silver) to China for use there, US at the time being short of specie, and they had to find Spanish dollars to give the Chinese, so they developed trades with Europe and South America to find Spanish Dollars, and the Americans had no banking facilities to use in China, except what they could provide themselves. Gradually the Americans were forced to use London-based banking facilities, since London-based bills were more acceptable to both Chinese and British.

By 1800: The British Levant Company purchased nearly half of all of the opium coming out of Smyrna, Turkey, strictly for importation to Europe and the United States. (From website based on book: Opium: A History, by Martin Booth, Simon & Schuster, Ltd., 1996. About this time, the [purely?] medical use of opium is rising in European countries.)

1800: Capt. David Ockington, in 5-6/1800 has schooner/sealer Belle Sauvage/Savage from Boston for Jones and Co., to Sydney then Rhode Island, see HRA, 1(2): 572.

1800, American ship Diana Capt Obed Barnard ex-Boston is owned by Stephen Higginson and J. & T. H. Perkins, carried US goods represented as Spanish property.

1799-1800-1801: New Bedford; Capt Andrew Gardner in March 1799 is on whaler and trader Rebecca, owners not named, for Sydney thence China.

In 1800: Jared Gardner has sealer Diana from New Bedford for Rodman and Co., to Sydney then China and in 7/1801 Diana is sealer/trader from New York Capt Jas. McCall, "passed n./w point of New Holland", to Whampoa, China.

1800, Globe, from Boston, owned T. H. Perkins and J&T Lamb. Captain Bernard Magee.

In 1800: New York merchant fur trader John Jacob Astor (fix dates) made a profit of $55,000 on an experimental fur shipment to Canton. He soon tries a scheme to dominate the fur trade of North America and sales to Canton. He decided he could with his American Fur Co., undercut the British EICo at Canton (which buys from Hudson's Bay Co.) by keeping a shipping point on American west coast which takes furs from Rocky Mountains. So Capt. Jonathan Thorn on Tonquin went to establish a post, Astoria, at mouth of Columbia River in 1811. The 1812 US-British war collapsed the plan and Astor had to sell his operations to the Northwest Fur Company of Montreal. Astor kept in the China trade dealing in "a new cargo", (sandalwood supplies from India, Java, Timor and Malabar were becoming depleted), sandalwood, as in 1791, the Bostonian Capt. John Kendrick had discovered sandalwood growing on Hawaii's island of Kauai. Other Bostonians became interested. (Note: From K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways. University of South Carolina Press, 1988., pp. 56-57.

1800: Betsy - British registry; arrived 21 Oct., 1800, departed 28 Oct., 1800. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

Year 1801

1801: John brig of 1801. owner, Chace, Sewell and Co. Captain Samuel Fuller. 1801 from US. 2 June 1801 - 25 July 1801. Misc, general, rum. Cumpston's Register

1801: Ocean of 1801. 1800-1801. Owners, Enderbys. Abraham Bristow. 7 Apr 1801-23 July 1801. Whaler. Cumpston's Register.

1801: Hunter barque of 1801. Owner, Campbell and Co. Captain William Anderson. 30 Aug 1801 - 15 Oct, 15 Nov 1801. General merchandise. Cumpston's Register.

1801: Caroline US schooner. Owner, Swain and Co. Captain S. Tuckerman. Sydney Jan 1801, March 1802. Trader from Boston. From Wace and Lovett, p. 49.

1801: Earl Cornwallis. Owners Hogan or Wilson. Captain James Tennant. 10 June 1801 - 4 October 1801. Convict transport. Wilson, Tennant and Co. Cumpston's Register. She goes to Bengal.

1801: Harrington brig. Owner Chace and Co. Captain William Campbell. 1801 as sealer. 12 Jun 1801 - 2 Sep 1801. Sealing, General from Calcutta. Calcutta. Cumpston's Register. And same about 24 Jan 1802.

1801: Naturaliste. French navy. Captain Louis-Claude de Freycinet. Exploration.

1801: Minorca. Owner British, F. & T. Hurry. Captain John Leith. Convict transport. Owners from Cumpston's Register.

1801: Missouri (US). Owners Willing(s) and Co. Captain William Vickery. 2 May 1801 - 19 June 1801. Trader to China. From Philadelphia. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett

1801: Margaret of 1802. Owners Turnbull and Co. Captain John Buyers/Byers. 18 Feb 1802 - 5 June 1802. Sealing to coast of Peru. Cumpston's Register.

1801: La Fortune. Owners Hamilton and Co, London. Captain Sinclair Halcrow. 1801. Prize to Ruby, tobacco. Cumpston's Register

1801: Geographe. French Navy. Captain Thomas Nicholas Baudin. 1802. Exploration. Also with ship Naturaliste.

1801: Nautilus of 1801. Captain Charles Bishop for R. Simpson, Rt. Berry. 8 Sep 1801 - 6 May 1802. From Calcutta, general merchandise. Cumpston's Register.

1801: Harriot whaler. Owners T. &J. Mather. Captain Samuel Chace. 10 July 1801 - 20 Aug 1801. Whaler, general nerchandise. Similar in 1802. Cumpston's Register.

1801: Caroline (of 1801). Owners Russel Sturgis, J&T Lamb et al. Captain Charles Derby. Trader of Boston. Is Boston based, 150 tons, owned by Russell Sturgis, Ebenezer Preble and Capt Charles Derby (Is he son of Elis Kaskett Derby?). Howay's writings).

1801: General Boyd. Owners Watson and Co. Captain George Hales. 18 Jun 1801 - 25 July 1801. Whaler. Cumpston's Register

1801: HM Investigator. RN. Captain Matthew Flinders. 1802. Exploration, mapping coastlines of Australia.

1801: Hope (of 1801). Owners Duggell and Co. (Little known.) Captain Nathaniel Ray. 1799 as sealer. 2 Nov 1801 - 15 Nov 1801. Sealer, trader from New Haven. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett.

1801: Canada (1). Owners F&T Hurry or Reeve and Green. Captain William Wilkinson. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1801: Anna Josepha brig (2). Owners, Lord and Co. Captain Hugh Meehan. 1801 - 29 May 1801 - 18 July 1801. Whaler, Miscell. Simeon Lord. Cumpston's Register.

1801: HM Bomb. RN. Captain Peter Heywood. 1801. Exploration. Visited Australian Kimberley coast from Amboina.

1801: Ann (of 1801). Owners F. Todrig and T. Duel. Captain Peter Kemp. 1801. Whaling, taken prize 1801. Todrigs. AGE Jones unclear if she was taken or is taken as prize. F. Todrig and T. Duel of Assembly Row, master mariners, in AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 195.

1801: Caroline (of 1802). Owners Swain and Co. Captain S. Tuckerman. 22 Dec 1801- 29 March 1802. Schooner, trader from Boston, to New Bedford. Cumpston's Register.

1801: Nile. Owners F&T Hurry or Reeve and Green. Capt Jas. Sunter. 14 Dec 1801. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register re owners.

1801: Active (whaler2), Owner Daniel Bennett of Blackheath, London, Capt John Dunn. Taken by French. Whaling. (See AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 193)

1801: Albion, Owners Champions. Captain Eber Bunker. 1798 from Deptford, 26 Aug 1801, Whaler, (see Cumpston's Register).

1801: Venus brig. Owners, Bass (the explorer), Bishop and Co. Capt Charles Bishop. 20 Aug 1801-23 Nov 1801. General merchandise. For Creighton, Bass and Bishop. (Cumpston's Register.) She is again about Sydney 4 Nov 1802, re Creighton and Co, Bengal-London, and re Charles Bishop.

1801: Venus whaler. Owners, Champions. Capt B. Gardner. 16 Sep 1801-3 Oct 1801. Whaler. Similar by March 1803. Cumpston's Register.

1801: Howay lists, Capt Bernard Magee is killed October 1801 on Boston ship Globe 245 tons, owned by T. H. Perkins, Lamb and others.

1801: Howay lists, 1801, Caroline, US-Boston 150 tons owned J&T Lamb, Russell Sturgis, Ebenezer Preble and has master Charles Derby. In 1802 Capt. William Sturgis on Caroline 1801 to Canton, net proceeds, $72,034 and 32 cents. September 1802, Capt Derby died at Honolulu.

1801: Capt James Perry in 1/1801 is captain on trader Follensbe from Newport, for Vernon and Co., to Sydney, thence China.

1801-1802: Swain and Co. in 12/01 - 3/02 have trader/schooner Caroline from Boston Capt S. Tuckerman, to Sydney to New Bedford.

1801: Willings and Co. in 1801 from Philadelphia send out trader Missouri, Capt. William Vickery, to Sydney and China. (See HRA, 1 (3), pp. 128-130.)

1801: Caroline, owned Russell Sturgis, Capt. Charles Derby

1801: Notes on Levant Co. merchants of 1801: They also get cotton from Smyrna as port.

(7 March, 1801, Brig Margaret Capt. Byers, owned Turnbull and Co. with Byers, departed Sydney in ballast for n/w America, to seek a cargo of furs, with sundries for n/w coast of America.) (Note: HRNSW, Vol. 4, p. 471.

1801: Howay lists Caroline, US-Boston 150 tons owned J. & T. Lamb, Russell Sturgis, Ebenezer Preble, with master Charles Derby. In 1802 Capt. William Sturgis on Caroline 1801 to Canton, net proceeds, $72,034 and 32 cents. Sept 1802, Capt Derby died at Honolulu.

1801: New Haven: Duggell and Co., in 1801, Capt Nathaniel Ray is on trader/sealer Hope, from New Haven, for Duggell and Co., to Sydney then China. There is also a US ship Hope (maybe not the same one?) a trader/sealer from New York, of 1799, Capt Reuben Bromley, for Fanning and Co., to King George Sound then Sydney to Fiji, in -3/1807.

1801: Newport: Capt James Perry in January 1801 is captain on trader Follensbe for Vernon and Co., to Sydney, thence China.

1801: Canda, Minorca, Nile, owned/managed by Reeve and Green, who are almost impossible to trace despite often being linked to John St Barbe in matters of the use of convict shipping..

1801: Convict ship Canada I, 393 tons, built Shields in 1800, Capt Wm Wilkinson, surgeon John Kelly. Departing Spithead 21 June 1801 via Rio 176 days to arrive Sydney 14 December, 1810, possibly maiden voyage, possibly owned by Hurry and Co. (a whaling firm, see below re settling of Hobart) and later sold to Reeve and Green (asociates of St Barbe), and re-entered in convict service thus in 1810.

1801: George Bass's trading ship Venus was at Sydney on 29 August 1801. Bass' London agent was James Sykes, naval agent for most naval officers at Port Jackson.

1801: 25 September 1801, George Shee at Whitehall to Transport Board re idea that South whalers will be (regularly) employed as convict transports - an idea which did not eventuate.
Historical Records of NSW, Vol. 4, p. 523.

1801: Whalers begin to frequent coast of New Zealand (Bay of Islands). A trade begins between NSW, New Zealand and the South Sea Islands. Dakin suggests Norfolk Island is a useful sperm whale ground. Lord Pelham has suggestions, unsuccessful, that whalers carry out convicts to Australia.
Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers, pp. 19-23; Dallas, Trading Posts or Penal Colonies, p. 86.)

1801: 4 October, 1801, from Sydney sails convict transport Earl Cornwallis for Bengal, with first shipment of Newcastle coal.
Historical Records of Australia I, Vol. II.

1801: John Palmer becomes brother-in-law of Sydney trader Robert Campbell as Campbell marries John's sister, Sophia.
Hainsworth, Builders, pp. 86ff. Gillen, Founders, p. 547.)


Item of 23 March 2002: A new book is coming out on Palmer and Co. of India, operating before and after 1800: For those with an interest in the trading house of Palmer & Company (a PDF file): http://www.edgehill.ac.uk/newsevents/edgeways/archive/issue4/pdf/prince.pdf

1801-1824: A long-time Macarthur contact is W. S. Clarke, former master of East Indiaman Wexford, and by 1824 an EICo Director. He met John Macarthur Snr and Jnr at Ambon in 1801. This Clarke from 1824 becomes an investor in Australian Agricultural Co.
Pemberton, London Connection, p. 52.)

Circa 1801: US ship CAROLINE. - See entry for 1801. She traded on the coast again in 1802 under William Sturgis; and the seas on being ended took the usual route homeward. Her Captain Derby died in Honolulu in September, 1802. Arriving in Canton on September 30, 1802. She reached Boston on 24 March, 1803, 115 days from Canton. The net proceeds of her voyage were $73,034.32.

1801: Joseph Somes has three vessels in South Whaler Fishery but by 1801 was getting out as it did not pay. Somes later took contracts to send many convict transports to Australia. (Jackson, Whale, p. 141.)

1801: London sends 60 vessels into its whale fishery, Bristol sends 1, Yarmouth 1. 1801: Charnock, (See Parkinson on the East, p. 188.) lists some chief managing owners of EICo shipping, as Robert Charnock, William Fraser, Robert Wigram and John Woolmore. (From A. G. E. Jones, whaling historian, various writings).

1801: Hugh Inglis an EICo director wites to to Sir Joseph Banks re hemp supplies.

1801-1802: Convict ship Coromandel 1, owned Reeve and Green or Brown, Welbank and Petyt. Arriving Sydney 13 June, 1802.

1801-1802: Hercules 1, Probably owned by John St Barbe. Arriving Sydney 26 June 1802.

1801-1802: Convict shop Atlas 1, (I), Arriving Sydney 7 July 1802.

1801: Coromandel (1). Owners Reeve and Green. Captain Alex Sterling. 13 June 1802- 22 July 1802. Convict transport. Via China. Cumpston's Register.

1801: Cumberland of 1801. Local Sydney ship. Captain Not given. 26 May 1801 launched. Cumpston's Register. In late 1802 she is sailed by J. Rushworth.

1801: Diana (of 1801). Owners Unknown. Captain Jas. McCall. 1801 to China. Sealer, trader. New York. From Wace and Lovett.

1801: Diana. Owners Notknown, US. Captain Jas. McCall. 1801 off n/w Australia. 1801 to China. Sealer trader.

1801: Perseverance - American registry; Masa Delano, master; arrived December 10, 1801, departed December 20, 1801. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1801: On Charnock earlier, Parkinson on the East (p. 188) has the chief managing owners of EICO shipping, as Robert Charnock, William Fraser, Robert Wigram and J Woolmore.

Year 1802

1802: General Boyd of 1802. Owner Watson and Co. Captain Owen Bunker. 1801. 26 June 1802 - 10 Aug 1802. Whaler. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Fanny of 1802. Owner Harris and Smith, Captain E. Smith. 9 July 1802. 7 Nov 1802. To Batavia, trader. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Duff. Owners, London Missionary Society. Captain William Wilson. 12 Feb 1802. 1802. Missionaries to Tahiti. (See also, Byrnes, in a chapter of The Blackheath Connection.)

1802: Duke of Portland (of 1802). Owners Unknown. Captain Lovat Mellon. 1802. Trader from Boston. From Wace and Lovett.

1802: Surprise schooner wrecked. Owners Not given. Captain Alexr Le Corre. 9 Sep 1802 - 4 Oct 1802. Merchandise, sealing, China, wrecked in Bass Strait. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Lady Nelson (of 1802). RN. Captain John Murray. 1802. Exploration. Surveys Bass Strait area.

1802: Endeavour schooner of 1802. Owners Not given. Captain J. Oliphant. Nov 1802. Sealer. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Hercules. Owners John St Barbe or Rbt Brooks. Captain Luckyn Betts. 26 June 1802 - 12 Aug 1802. Convict transport. Simn Semple. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Fly of 1802. Owners, EICo. Captain Turner. 1 Jan 1802 - 6 Feb 1802. From Bombay, EICo cruiser. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Caledonia whaler of 1802. Owner Daniel Bennett. Captain John Page. 1802. Whaling.

1802: About 1802, AGE Jones writing in 1968 on Bennet -- Daniel Bennet bought from Mr Bush the oil wharf by the King's Mill, Rotherhithe, there he had, Jones writes, for another forty years or more, by the entrance to the Grand Surrey Canal, warehouses, a cooperage, sheds, a dwelling house, cottage and gardens. In 1806 he was assured at 220 pounds for land tax. Today it is site for a ballast merchant's yard. He moved to Blackheath, where there is still a road called Bennet Park, then one of the best residential districts south of the river, convenient to his works. Bennet's wife Elizabeth. In 1818 he moved out of London, as less active in business, he died in 1826. His son William (died 1844) was bequeathed the Blackheath and Rotherhithe Estates and a house at West Cowes. sums etc amounting to 13,000 pounds. AGE Jones in Appendix IV gives following list of Daniel Bennett's whalers out: 1787, Lively 240 tons to Trinidad, 1790-1792, the Lord Hawkesbury 229 tons on Guinea Coast, 1794, Lord Hawkesbury to Walvis Bay, 1794, the Lively to Brazil, 1794, the Kingston 293 tons to Brazils, 1796 the Indispensable 351 tons to NSW, 1797 the Sally to Brazil, 1797, the Fanny 242 tons, captured, 1797, Young William, South Georgia, 1799, Diana 230 tons to Falklands Islands, 1800 the Betsy 326 tons to Port Jackson, 1801 the Diana to Delagon Bay, 1801 Indispensable to Walvis Bay, 1801 the Flirt 189 tons to Walvis bay, 1801 the Favourite 323 tons to Walvis Bay, 1801 the Caledonia 250 tons to Walvis Bay, 1803 the Sally to Walvis Bay, 1804, the Betsy 230 tons to Kergeluen, 1804, the Ferrett 207 tons to NSW and Norfolk Island, 1805 the Indispensable to Peru, 1805 the Kingston to Kergeluen, 1805, the Active 400 tons to Kergeluen, 1805 the Ferrett to New Zealand, 1807 the Young William to NSW, 1807, the Indispensable to New Zealand. 1808, the New Zealander 258 tons to New Zealand, 1810, Indispensable to Norfolk Island.

1802: Castle of Good Hope. 1000 tons. Owners [David Snr] Scott and Company of London in Styles on Captain Michael Hogan (p. 385, Note32) ] Owner not given by Cumpston. Arrived NSW on 14 February, 1803. Captain A. McAskill. 1802- 12 Feb 1803. Livestock import to NSW from Calcutta. Depoarted in ballast for Calcutta on 21 March 1803. (HRNSW 5, 165, 270.) Cumpston's Register.

1802: Casuarina. French navy. Captain Lt Louis de Freycinet. 17 Nov 1802. Exploration, Bass Strait. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Caroline (of 1802, Boston). Owners Russell Sturgis, J. &T. Lamb and others. Captain William Sturgis. 1802. Sealer of Boston. Proceeds of sale is more than $72,000.

1802: Alexander of 1802. Owner John Locke, maybe. Captain James Norman. 16 Oct 1802 - 3 Jan 1803. Prisoners. Cumpston's Register. Does she appear in other records?

1802: Atlas (Brooks). Owners Messrs Clays. Captain Richard Brooks. 1801 - 6 July 1802 - 7 Oct 1802. Convict transport. Bateson. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Atlas (Musgrave). Owners Beatson and Co. Catain Thomas Musgrave. 30 Oct 1802 - >3-8 Jan 1803. Convict transport.

Bateson. Extra from Cumpston's Register.

1802: Arthur (US snow or brig). Owners Brown and Ives. Captain Scott Jenckes. 1802, Sydney, to China. 22 July 1802. Trader from Providence, RI. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett, p. 45.

1802: Arthur (US-1) snow or brig. Owners Brown and Ives. Captain Henry Barber. 1793? 1794-1796 at Sydney. Trader, Sydney, Bengal, from Providence, RI. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Arthur (US-2). Owners Brown and Ives. Captain Scott Jenckes. 1801? 1802 at Sydney, to China. Trader, wrecked off Hawaii, from Providence, RI. From Wace and Lovett, p. 45.

1802: Perseus of 1802. Owners Reeve and Green. Capt John Davison. 12 Feb 1802. 4 Aug 1802. 7 Oct 1802. Convict transport,later to China. Cumpston's Register.

1801-1802 dies Capt. Samuel A. Dorr in 1800 sails for Dorr and Sons, on Despatch, 106 tons, on her fourth voyage to Canton.

1801-1802: Swain and Co. in 12/01 - 3/02 have trader/schooner Caroline from Boston Capt S. Tuckerman, to Sydney to New Bedford;

1802: US Capt. Lovat Mellon is on trader Duke of Portland, from Boston, owners not-named, in 1802, for Norfolk Island and Tongabatu; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1802: British Southern whaler General Boyd, Capt. Owen Bunker, owned by Watson and Co. See Australian Encyclopaedia, Whales, p. 275. See also 14 February, 1805.)

1802: Arthur, US snow, owned by Brown and Ives, Capt. Henry Bate (?) Alternatively, 1802, Arthur, owned by Brown and Ives, Capt. Scott Jenckes.

1802: Lloyd''s Green Book - Register. Usual names include: George Curling, NO; W, Curtis, EICo; George Forbes; Turnbull Forbes and Co.; Rt Hon Thomas Harley; J. P. Larkins; Plummer; Barry and Upham; St Barbe, Green and Bignell; John Shoolbred (Africa Co.); Smith; St Barbe, and Marten; Thorntons; New 1802 Green members included: Benjamin Bunn Jnr; Campbell and Geddes; and Thos Powditch.

1802: Perseus, owned Reeve and Green or Brown, Welbank and Petyt (once owners of Bethia which became HM Bounty). Arriving Sydney 4 August, 1802.

1802: March: Peace of Amiens, ending war between Britain and France. Britain retains Ceylon. Cape of Good Hope retained by Dutch.

1802: Convict ship Atlas 2. Arriving Sydney 30 October, 1802.

1802: Sir Robert Wigram ... had started life as surgeon's mate in the EICo's service etc. Twice a surgeon on ships. The next stage in his career was the opening of a small shop for the supply of drugs to ships, and by buying shares in Indiamen he laid the foundation for a fortune, which when Farrington writes of him in 1809 was "thought to be more than half a million". He owned most of the shares in Meux's brewery (UK) and was head of a great agency in Crosby Square, Bishopgate. Three fourths of the shares in the Blackwall Docks of London were also his, acquired about the year 1802 from William Wells, a retired" Company's captain" and his brother. Here, Wigram built the numerous Indiamen which he chartered to the Company, and which were the forerunner of the celebrated 'Money Wigram clippers".
From "East Indiamen" by Sir Evan Cotton and edited by Sir Charles Fawcett.)

Reference item 1802: Rhys Richards, `The Cruise of the Kingston and the Elligood in 1800 and the Wreck Found on King Island in 1802', The Great Circle, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1991., pp. 35-53. (Note 28).

1802-1803: HMS Glatton, arriving Sydney 11 March, 1803.

1802-1803: Rolla, arriving Sydney 12 May, 1803.

1802: Atahualpa - Boston registry; Capt. Wildes, master; arrived Aug. 5, 1802, departed Nov. 4, 1802. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1802: Margaret - British registry; John Buyers, master; arrived Dec 17, 1802, departed Jan. 21, 1803. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1802: Ann - American registry; arrived Dec. 25, 1802, departed 28 Dec, 1802. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1802: Southern whaler General Boyd, Capt. Owen Bunker, owned by Watson and Co. See Australian Encyclopaedia, Whales, p. 275. See also 14 Feb, 1805.

Year 1803

1803: Betsy of 1803. Owners, McTaggart and Co. Captain R. Eastwick. From Calcutta in 1803. 24 December 1803. 20 April 1804. General merchandise, get coal and timber. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Hazard (US brig). Owners, Perkins and Co. Benjamin Swift. 1803-1804. Trader. Re Perkins et al

1803: Harrington of 1804. Owners Chace and Co. Captain William Campbell. 1803- 9 Jan 1804. May 1804. Merchandise, sugar, rum, arrack. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Dart brig. Owner, J. M'Kenzie. Captain D. McLennan. 29 Sep 1803 - 24 Oct 1803. Sealer. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Rolla. Owners, Messrs Brown. Captain Robert Cumming. 12 May 1803. Convict transport, timber, seals. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Nautilus renamed L'Enfant d'Adele. Owner, Berry, Simpson and R. Coutance, Merle and Co. Captain James Black. Little known. Logs, cedar. Cumpston's Register.

1803: O'Cain (of 1803). Owners, Winships (US). Captain Notknown. Trader. Abiel & Jonathan Winship. From New York in 1803.

1803: Mary or Mary Ann. Owner, Boardman and Co. Captain Samuel Balch. 1803 - 24 Jan 1804 - 12 Feb 1804. General merchandise, to Manila. US owners. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Scorpion whaler. Owner, Mathers and Co. Captain William Dagg. 1803 - 10 May 1804 - 5 May 1804. Whaler/sealer. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Rambler (of 1803). Owner, Perkins and Co. Captain Bowditch. 1803-1804. Trader to Canton. T. H. Perkins to Samuel Snow at Canton on this vyage.

1803: Ocean of 1803. Owners, Hurry and Co. Captain John Mertho. 24 Nov 1803 from Newcastle, UK. Whaling. Cumpston's Register has her again in Sydney Capt Mertho for 24 Aug 1804 to 7 October 1804.

1803: Calcutta (of 1803). RN. Captain Dan Woodriff RN. 26 Dec 1803 - 16 March 1804. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Cato of 1803. Owners, Reeve and Green of London. Captain John Park. 9 April 1803. Timber, trader, lost at sea. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Charles. US-owned. Captain Unknown. Sealing in Bass Strait in 1803. Or, 1803: Charles (of 1803). Owner, Dorr and Co? Captain Isaac Percival. Sealer, Bass Strait. Boston. From Wace and Lovett.

1803: Bee colonial vessel. Local Sydney ship. Owner Not given. 16 Dec 1803 - 18 Dec 1803. 16 Dec 1803. Gather lime at Broken Bay. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1803: Bridgewater of 1803. Owners, Princes and Co. (Prinsep?) Captain E. H. Palmer. 1802 - 12 Mar 1803. May, 10 Aug 1803. Oak timber, to China. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Britannia of 1804. Owner Enderbys. Captain George Quested. 1803. 13 May 1804. Whaler, some merchandise. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Albion of 1803, Owner Champions, Captain Eber Bunker. 6 July 1803, 30 Aug 1803, Whaler, Cumpston's Register. She is again at Sydney with Eber Bunker on 4-21 August.

1803: Alexander of 1803. Owners Hurrys. Captain Robert Rhodes. 1802 - June 1803 - 19 Sep 1803. Whaler, pork to Norfolk Island. Cumpston's Register has her in Sydney again 14 Dec 1804 to 27 Feb 1805. See re Jorgen Lorgenson aboard her, later. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Independence schooner. Owner, Fanning and Co. O. F. Smith et al. 1803 - 1805. Sealer, lost Pentantipodes. New York, built Kangaroo Island. Cumpston's Register has her again at Sydney Capt O. F. Smith or J. Townsend, or Master Wilkinson, arrives 28 June leaaving 29 August, sealing in Bass Strait and to China. From Wace and Lovett

1803: Wertha Ann. US Owners, Lawrence and Co. Capt Gibbs West. Trader to n/w America and Canton. New York. From Wace and Lovett

1803: Patterson. US Owners Munro or Lawrence and Co. Capt J. Aborn. 24 Nov 1803. Sealer, trader. Providence, Rhode Island. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett

1803: Union. US-owned. Captin Unknown. Sealing with Charles in Bass Strait by 1803.

1803: Union (of 1803). Owners, Americans, Fanning and Co. Capt Isaac Pendleton. 1803-1804. 19 Jan 1804. Sealer, wrecked Fiji. From New York. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett.

Circa 1803: this item is from Howay - GUATIMOZIN. - "A new and handsome ship" of Boston, 211 tons, owned by Theodore Lyman and others. Commander, S. Bumstead. She sailed from Boston on August 26, 1800, for the Northwest Coast in company with the Atahualpa, with a cargo invoiced at $18,036. She was met on June 28, 1801, trading on the coast. In the autumn she left for Boston, by way of China and arrived in Canton, November 19, 1801. She sailed thence on January 2, 1802, with the usual cargo of teas, silks, etc., and returned to Boston, 7 May, 1802, 120 days from Canton.

Fairbank in introduction says the Old China Trade to the time of American Civil War was both exotic and llucrative, and in China trade, US often got in ahead of British, trade with China as part of the western moving American "manifest destiny" under the invisible hand of divine providence. the US trade began under the same compulsions that pressured Britain into the opium trade, how to lay down funds at Canton with which to buy China teas and silks. Early traders were "reduced to loading ice from Boston's lakes", or sandalwood from Hawaii. or shipping ginseng root from New England, or selling sea-otter pelts and furs from the north-west coast. Here, oddly enough regarding the rise of US Manifest Destiny, this coincided roughly with the period 1800-1810 when Protestant Evangelical Christianity in Britain became more "muscular", and more racist in its effects in India, etc, a complicated ideological trend culminating in the British fantasy of the tribulations of "the white man's burden".

Hao goes on in his essay, till 1775-1776, American relied on England for their tea, some mention of smuggled Dutch tea, after the Am Rev, US had idle ships, in December 1783 p. 12, New England traders tried to initiate direct trade with China by sending ship Harriet, a Boston sloop of 55 tons, to Canton with ginseng, at CGH the American captain found the British traders who were alarmed at an American incursion and who bought his entire cargo for twice its price in tea.

1803-1804: TJ Perkins firm to Samuel Snow at Canton re Capt Bowditch of Rambler, sugar and teas.

From July 1803, Perkins are to receive 6 per cent interest of $20,000 of capital for Ephraim Bumstead and Co. operated at Canton by Ephraim Bumstead who went to China in Zenobia in 1803 and John Perkins Cushing is Bumstead's clerk. Later Ephraim is on a ship Guatimozin Capt S. Bumstead his brother, both Bumsteads died within a few years.

In 1803-1804, Capt Benjamin Swift on US brig Hazard 216 tons owned T. H. Perkins and others.

In 1803: Abiel and Jonathan Winship Jnr. re ship O'Cain of New York in 1803.

1803: US Capt Jonathan Aborn in 11-12/1803 is on sealer/trader Patterson, for owners either Munro and Co. or Lawrence and Co., to Sydney, out sealing, see HRA, 1 (4), pp. 525-526 and HRA, 1 (5), pp. 69; Dorr and Co.

In 1803: Sealer Charles Capt Isaac Percival from Boston to Bass Strait and King George Sound; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1803-1804: In 1803-1804, Fanning and Co. are owners of Union brig/sealer from New York, Capt Isaac Pendleton, to King George Sound, Kangaroo Island, Bass Strait, Sydney, to China, wrecked by Fiji. (See HRA, 1 (4,) p. 583 and HRA, 1 (5) pp. 120-122ff;

In November 1803, Lawrence and Co. are owners for sealer/trader Wertha Ann of New York, Capt Gibbs West, Sydney then China, see HRA, 1 (4), p. 427.

December 1803, Capt W. R. Eastwick, from Sydney to Madras, trade with Simeon Lord of Sydney, a captain noticed (by Parkinson) as an opium trafficker.

1803: Gov. King at Sydney orders the settlement of Tasmania, his reasons given being (1) to prevent any French occupation (2) for timber getting (3) to divide the convicts (4) to raise grain (5) to promote sealing. Capt Eber Bunker, still on the whaler Albion, assisted an expedition, 12 September, 1803.
Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers, p. 30.

1803: 12 February, 1803: Arrives Sydney/Port Jackson the largest ship to thus far enter the harbour, Castle of Good Hope, 1000 tons, 307 head Bengal cattle, some Zebu, donkeys, rice and sugar, under contract, and 14000 gals spirits. Shop for Rbt Campbell and Co.

1803: 12 September: John Bowen arrives to "the future Tasmania", Hobart, with convicts to set up a new British colony.
See Philip Tardif, Notorious Strumpets and Dangerous Girls: Convict Women in Van Diemen's Land, 1803-1829. North Ryde, NSW, Angus and Robertson, 1990.

1803: 1803+: On treatment of convicts convicted in India, mostly, indigenous people.
(See also, C. M. Turnbull, 'Convicts in the Straits Settlements', 1826-1867', Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 43, Part 1, No. 217, July 1970., pp. 87-103.)

1803: Lloyd's Green Book Committee: Angerstein, John Burke, William Bell, John Campbell, Alexr. Champion, George Curling, Charles Henry Dubois, Effingham Laurence, Robert Pulsford, Robert Shelden, Edward Vaux. At Register Office of Shipping, No 4 Castle Court, Birchin Lane. New 1803 members are David Scott and Co, John Shee and Thomas.

1803: Lloyd's Red Book Subscribers List includes: Moses Agar, J. & A. Atkins, Thomas Backhouse and Co., John Blackett, William Bewnett (? - Bennett?), Brown, Welbank and Co., Norrison Coverdale; Camden Calvert and Co., Cox and Curling, Robert Curling, Duncan and Lachlan, Thomas Hall, Hodgson and Co., Humble, Holland and Hurry, Ives Hurry and Co., Peter Kennion, John Lyall, Thomas Newnham, Reeve and Green, Thomas Rowcroft, St. Barbe, Green and Co., F. S. Secretan, Society of Ship Owners of Great Britain. Transport Board (2 books).

1803: The man who named Australia: Matthew Flinders (died 1814), a "naval prodigy". Son of Lincolnshire surgeons. By 1801 he had sailed to Tahiti with William Bligh, and sailed with Capt. John Hunter to NSW, later surveying Bass Strait with Bass. Been first to circumnavigate Tasmania, and developed ambition of doing the same for the entire continent. (Flinders married Ann Chapell and had a daughter Anne who was mother of the explorer/Egyptologist, Flinders Petrie). By 1801, Flinders was sailing about Australia (Terra Australis. At Encounter Bay off South Australia he met French explorer Nicholas Baudin (who died of dysentery on Mauritius). Baudin was using a map Flinders himself had drawn! In 1803, Flinders' voyage home was interrupted, and he called in to Ile-de-France (Mauritius). The governor General de Caen imprisoned Flinders for seven years as a "spy". Flinders did not reach England till 1810, and almost killed himself with work on his discoveries, and met bureaucratic inertia from the Admiralty.

1803-1805: A schooner/sealer Independence, from New York, (Kangaroo Islands off the South Australian coast?) Capt O. F. Smith with ? Wilkinson and J. Townsend, for Fanning and Co., to Kangaroo Island, King George Sound, Bass Strait, Sydney, and same in 1804 and 1805, to Norfolk Island, lost Penantipodes, see Fanning, 1924.

(NB: 12 Feb, 1803, see chron card, arrives PJ the largest ship to thus far enter the harbour, Castle of Good Hope, 1000 tons, 307 head Bengal cattle, some Zebu, donkeys, rice and sugar, under contract, and 14000 gals spirits. Shop for Robert Campbell and Co. of Sydney) (1802, Southern whaler General Boyd, Capt. Owen Bunker, owned by Watson and Co. See Austn Encyclopaedia, Whales, p. 275. See also Feb. 14, 1805.) 1802: Southern whaler General Boyd, Capt. Owen Bunker, owned by Watson and Co. See Australian Encyclopaedia, Whales, p. 275. (NB: 12 February, 1803: arrives to Sydney the largest ship to thus far enter the harbour, Castle of Good Hope, 1000 tons, 307 head Bengal cattle, some Zebu, donkeys, rice and sugar, under contract, and 14000 gals spirits. Ship for Robert Campbell and Co. of Sydney)

In 1803, Perkins firm to J. M. Forbes London, re coffee and St Domingo. In 1803 to Joseph Marryatt in London.

From July 1803: T. H. Perkins firm is to receive 6 per cent interest of $20,000 of capital for Ephraim Bumstead and Co. operated at Canton by Ephraim Bumstead who went to China in Zenobia in 1803; John Perkins Cushing is Bumstead's clerk. Later Ephraim is on a ship Guatimozin Capt S. Bumstead his brother; both Bumsteads died within a few years.

In 1803, Thomas H. Perkins and Co. of Boston opened a branch at Canton, with John P. Cushing in charge. Another firm was C. B. C. Wilcocks of Philadelphia and Daniel Stansbury of Baltimore also resident at Canton. The legendary John Jacob Astor was later represented at Canton by Nicholas G. Ogden and Cornelius Sowle. Samuel Russell was resident at Canton seemingly on his own account.

1803: and in 1803 we find a schooner/sealer Independence, from New York, (Kangaroo Islands near South Australia?) Capt O. F. Smith with ? Wilkinson and J. Townsend, for Fanning and Co., to Kangaroo Island, King George Sound, Bass Strait, Sydney, and same in 1804 and 1805, to Norfolk Island, lost Penantipodes, see Fanning, 1924; Henry Trapp, L. C. Tripp; ? Trotter, is Captain of snow/trader, Susan, from Providence, owners notnamed, to Sydney thence Canton, see HRA 1 (9), p. 47.

In 1803: Abiel and Jonathan Winship Jnr. re ship O'Cain of New York in 1803.

1803: US Capt. Jonathan Aborn in 11-12/1803 is on sealer/trader Patterson, for owners either Munro and Co. or Lawrence and Co., to Sydney, out sealing, see HRA, 1 (4), pp. 525-526 and HRA, 1 (5), pp. 69;

1803: Dorr and Co. in 1803 have sealer Charles Capt Isaac Percival from Boston to Bass Strait and King George Sound; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett)

Circa 1803: GUATIMOZIN. The Guatimozin must have soon returned from China and probably reached the coast again near the Columbia River; for Alexander Henry states that in 1813 he deciphered on a tree near Baker’s Bay or Cape Disappointment the following inscription: "H. Thompson, ship Guatimozin of Boston, February 20, 1804." She completed her trading early in 1804 and took regular route back to Boston. She arrived in Canton, according to E. B. Hewes, MS. Notes on American Vessels, on 23 August, 1804, and departed thence for home port, 26 November, 1804. In the Straits of Sunda Captain Bumstead was lost overboard, and the mate Glanville brought her to Boston, which she reached on 26 April, 1805, 150 days.

1803-1804: In 1803-1804, Fanning and Co. are owners of Union brig/sealer from New York, Capt Isaac Pendleton, to King George Sound, Kangaroo Island, Bass Strait, Sydney, to China, wrecked by Fiji, see HRA, 1 (4,) p. 583 and HRA, 1 (5) pp. 120-122ff;

1804-1805: Champlin and Minturn in December 1804 and 1805 have trader Aeolus from Sumerset (sic) NY, Capt Andrew Mather, to Sydney, thence China; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

In 1803-1804: T. H. Perkins firm to Samuel Snow at Canton re Capt Bowditch of Rambler, sugar and teas.

In 1803-1804: Capt Benjamin Swift on US brig Hazard 216 tons, owned Perkins and others.

1803: L'Adele snow. Owners, M. S. G. Courtans. Captain R. Coutance. 15 July 1803 - 4 Sep 1803. From Mauritius, timber. Cumpston's Register.

1803: John sealer. Owner, Chace. Captain not given. 26 Dec 1803 - 26 Dec 1803. Seal skins, oil, Bass Strait. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1803: James of 1803. Owner, Thomas Raby of Sydney. Captain not given. 23 Dec 1803. Gathering lime at Broken Bay. Lost at Broken Bay by 25 April. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1803: Governor King. Owner, Kable and Underwood of Sydney. Captain Moody. 26 Dec 1803 - 7 Jan 1804. Sealing or whaling. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1803: HM Glatton. RN. Captain James Colnett RN. 1802 - 11 Mar 1803 - 17 May 1803. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register.

1803: Ferrett whaler. Owner, Daniel Bennett. Captain Philip Skelton. 1803 - 22 Jan 1804 - 31 Jan 1804. Whaler, to Derwent River. Owner been misgiven as "David Bennett". Cumpston's Register. This ship was under Skelton at Sydney 8 Sep 1805 then to NZ's Bay of Islands, 20 Sep 1805. (See Robert McNab, From Tasman to Marsden, 1914. Aspects of NZ Maritime History)

1803: Lelia Byrd - American registry; William Shaler, master; arrived June 21, 1803, departed July 7, 1803; brought first horse to Hawaii. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1803: First cricket match played in Aust by officers of HM Calcutta, in Sydney on a boxing day.

1803: On early Freemasonry in Australia. See Kent Henderson, The Masonic Grandmasters Of Australia. Melbourne. Ian Drakeford Publishing. 1988. p 10, First freemasonry in Australia, 1803, first meeting, first lodge is Military, in 1813, then 1820, and the NSW English Provincial Grand Lodge in 1839. New colonies re grand lodge of NSW in 1834, formed in London two years before then in SA by 1838, colony was founded. Victoria's first lodge in 1834. In Tasmania the premier lodge established in 1834 though preceded in Tasmania (VDL) by one in 1825. Freemasonry in Western Australia in 1843. In Queensland, in 1859.

Year 1804

1804: MP and noted dandy, John Hare (1747-1804), married Hannah Hume/Home. (A name difficult to research)

1804: Nadeshda -Russian; Capt. Lieut. Adam John von Krusenstern in command; arrived June 7, 1804, departed June 10, 1804. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

Neva - Russian; Capt. Lieut. Urey Lisiansky in command under von Krusenstern; arrived Jun 8, 1804, departed Jun 20, 1804. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1804: HM Buffalo of 1804. RN. Lt William Kent. 12 June 1804 - 15 October 1804. Cattle, horses. Cumpston's Register, p. 5

1804: Contest (44 tons). Owners, Kable and Underwood. Captain not given. Launched May 1804. Local Sydney ship. Cumpston's Register, p. 49.

1804: Coromandel (2). Owners, Reeve and Green. Captain John Robinson then George Blakey. 1803 - 7-8 May 1804 - 19 July 1804. Convict transport. Reeve and Co. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Rose. Owner P. Gardner. Captain James Carey. Sealer, trader to China from Nantucket Island. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett.

1804: Fair American of 1804. Owner, J. E. Farrell M/O. Captain J. E. Farrell. 26 March 1804 - 12 Nov 1804. Also to Manila. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Hannah and Eliza. Owner, W. Rotch. Captain Micajah Gardner. 1806. Whaler, sealer from New Bedford. From Wace and Lovett.

1804: Raven. (11 tons). Owner, Thomas Raby of Sydney. Captain not given. New by 1804. 23 May 1804. Light coals, cedar timber. Cumpston's Register, p. 49.

1804: Surprise sealer. Owner, Kable and Underwood of Sydney. Capt Rushworth. 19 April 1804 - 9 April 1804. Bass Strait sealing. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1804: Sophia of 1804. Owners, Not given. Captain William Collins. 1804- 16 Jan 1805. Convicts, stores. Cumpston's Register, p. 51

1804: Policy whaler. Owners, Hurrys. Captain C. S. Foster, Rbt. Sparrow. 1804 - 17 Nov 1804 - 10 May 1805. Timor, Mollucccas, England, seal/whale oil. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Richard and Mary of 1804. Owners, Spencer and Co. Captain James Lucas. 1804 - 5 January 1805 - 26 January 1805. Whaling, to England and Moluccas. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Mandarin (of 1804). Owners, Notknown. Captain James Magee. 1804 - Trader. Letter T. H. Perkins by Mandarain Capt James Magee to E. Bumstead at Canton on Madeira wine, other goods, by which time the Perkins firm has ships on N/w coast America, Malay coast, Isle of France/Mauritius. In 1804, THP to Grant, Forbes and Co. in London who are still unidentified.

1804: Lady Barlow Owners, Campbell and Co. Captain A. McAskill. 21 Jan 1804. Skins, timber, curios, for Campbell Family. Robert Campbell, Sydney. Cumpston's Register, p. 51, has her to Pegu, Bengal, England via Derwent.

1804: Experiment (1). Owner, Wigram and Co., of London. Captain Francis J. Withers. 24 June 1804. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register, p. 51.

1804: Mary Owners, Boardman and Co. Captain Samuel Balch. Trader from Boston to Manila. From Wace and Lovett

1804: Mersey. James Wilson M/O. Captain James Wilson. 16 April 1804 - 24 May 1804. Trader from Fort William. Cumpston's Register. Consignment for Robert Campbell Snr, Sydney.

1804: Pilgrim (of 1804). Owners Boardman and Co. Captain Samuel Delano. 22 Aug 1804 - 31 Aug 1804. Sealer. Boston, Bradbury and Co. Cumpston's Register, she is sealing in Bass Strait. From Wace and Lovett.

1804: Pilgrim of 1804. US-owned. Captain Unknown. Sealer. Sealing in Bass Strait by 1804. Aboard is O. F. Smith, an American, who applied to live at Sydney but was refused by Gov. King.

1804: Endeavour (of 1804). Owner not given. Captain Murrell. 1804 - 22 Jan 1805 to Bass Strait. Sealing, fine skins. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Marcia. Owners, Unknown. Captain J. Aicken. 5 July 1804. Wrecked, salvage, taking beche-de-mer. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1804: Endeavour. Owners, Kable and Underwood of Sydney. Captain J. Oliphant. 17 Jan 1804 - 8 Feb 1804 - 17 Jan 1804. Sealing. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1804: Myrtle. Owners, Wm. Kinlock and Co. Captain Henry Barber. 18 Oct 1804 - 31 Dec 1804. Misc, general, spirits, ordered to sea. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Edwin sloop. Sydney owned. Captain William Stewart. 8 Feb 1804. Bass Strait sealing. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1804: Brook Watson. Owners, Goodall and Turner. Captain Obed Worth. Whaling. Goodall and Turner. AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 199.

1804: Antelope. Owner, Daniel Bennett. Captain James Mortlock, John Samuel Parker. Captured. AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 196.

1804: Caroline (of 1804). Owner, Russell Sturgis et al. Captain William Sturgis. 1804. Trader of 214 tons. T. H. Perkins, J. &T. Lamb and Russell Sturgis. Of Boston.

1804: Caroline, owned Russell Sturgis, Capt. William Sturgis. In 1804: T. H. Perkins firm to Capt Charles Cabot at Calcutta and re opium Bengal to Batavia.

1804: Aeolus (US). Champlin and Minturn. Captain Andrew Mather. 1804-1805. Sydney 1804-1805. 9 Feb 1805 . Whaler, to China. Sumerset, New York. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett.

1804: African (of 1804). Owner Daniel Bennett, Blackheath. Captain Ranson Jones. 1804. Whaling. Formerly Minerve, captured by HMS Circe in 1800. Other captain is John Brown, as in AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 194.

1804: Active (whaler3), Owner Daniel Bennet, Rotherhithe. Capt Louis Blair. Whaling, AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 193.

1804: Adonis of 1804. Owners Unknown. Captain Robert Turnbull (See above). 25 Aug 1804 - 19 Sep 1804. Whaling NZ. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Swift prize. Bought by Campbell and Co. J. Lawrence. 1804, taken as prize. 17 Nov 1804. Beef, clothing, wine, arrack. Earlier owned by Dutch. Cumpston's Register sees her condemned in Sydney.

1804: Perseverance. US-owned. Captain Unknown. Sealing in Bass Strait by 1804. 1804: Perseverance (of 1804). Owners Fanning and Co. Capt Amasa Delano. Sealer from Boston. From Wace and Lovett

1804: Integrity HMC. Sydney owned. Capt Rushworth. Feb 1804 maybe. Port Phillip, Derwent. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1804: Union of 1804. US Owners Fanning and Co. Capt J. Pendleton. 27 June 1804-29 August 1804. Sealing, Bass Strait, China. Cumpston's Register.

1804: P. Gardner is owner in 1804 for sealer/trader Rose, of Nantucket, Capt James Carey, to Sydney, Dampier Straits south of Tasmania, thence Canton, (note re R. Caldwell, Nantucket), see HRA, 1 (5), pp. 120-122;

1804: T. H. Perkins firm to E. Bumstead by Mandarin Capt James Magee, Madeira wine, Dutch butter kegs, cotton goods, in 1804, the firm has ships on n/w coast America, Malay coast, Isle of France/Mauritius. In 1804, Perkins to Grant, Forbes and Co. in London; in 1804, James Gorham is at Havana for the firm.

12 February, 1804: T. H. Perkins firm to Josiah Sturgis re rum.

March 1804: T. H. Perkins firm to J. M. Forbes at Hamburg. In 1804, Perkins deals with Manila-Acapulco-Manila. At the time, Aaron Burr kills Alexander Hamilton; "the ruthless hand of Burr", comments Perkins.

1804: Caroline Capt William Sturgis 214 tons of Boston, owned J&T Lamb, T. H. Perkins and Russell Sturgis.

1804-1805: Champlin and Minturn in December 1804 and 1805 have trader Aeolus from Sumerset (sic) NY, Capt Andrew Mather, to Sydney, thence China; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

In 1804-1805, for not-named owners, ship Herald of Salem, Capt Zachary Silsbee, to Tasmania, see Langdon, 1971;

1804: P. Gardner is owner in 1804 for sealer/trader Rose, of Nantucket, Capt James Carey, to Sydney, Dampier Straits south of Tasmania, thence Canton. (Note re R. Caldwell, Nantucket), (See HRA, 1 (5), pp. 120-122.)

1804: US Capt. Amasa Delano, in March-November 1804 is on sealer Perseverance, of Boston, for Fanning and Co., to Cape Barren Island and Bass Strait then S/W coast of New Holland. (See HRA, 1 (5), pp. 168-173.)

1804: Capt Samuel Delano in late 1804 is on schooner/sealer Pilgrim, of Boston, for Boardman and Co., to Sydney and Bass Strait, then New Zealand, see HRA, 1 (5), pp. 173-176; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1804-1806: In 1804-1806 sails whaler/sealer Hannah and Eliza from New Bedford. Capt Micajah Gardner, for owner W. Rotch to Tasmania, Norfolk Island, Broken Bay, Norfolk Island, then New Zealand and Cape Horn. (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1804: US merchants Boardman and Co. in 1804 are owners for Mary (or Marion or Mary Ann), from Boston, Capt. Samuel Balch, to Sydney, thence Manila, see HRA I (5), pp. 151-152. (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1804: P. Gardner is owner in 1804 for sealer/trader Rose, of Nantucket, Capt James Carey, to Sydney, Dampier Straits south of Tasmania, thence Canton, , see HRA, 1 (5), pp. 120-122.

In 1804: T. H. Perkins firm to Capt Charles Cabot at Calcutta and re opium Bengal to Batavia.

1804, T. H. Perkins firm to E. Bumstead by Mandarin, Capt James Magee, Madeira wine, Dutch butter kegs, cotton goods, in 1804, P firm has ships on n/w coast, Malay coast, Isle of France/Mauritius. In 1804, Perkins to Grant, Forbes and Co. in London; in 1804, James Gorham is at Havana.

Feb 1804: Perkins firm to Josiah Sturgis re rum.

1804, Caroline Capt Wm Sturgis 214 tons of Boston, owned J&T Lamb, THP and Russell Sturgis.

1804, Caroline, owned Russell Sturgis, Capt. William Sturgis.

In 1804-1805: for owners not-named, ship Herald, of Salem, Capt Zachary Silsbee, to Tasmania, see Langdon, 1971.

1804: Circa: Date becomes relevant for the London-based Green-Wigram partnerships. Some information is extant on Wigrams, a large family with some men operating as convict contractors. Greens seem resistant to genealogical research, although they are referred to in E. Keble Chatterton, The Mercantile Marine. London, William Heinemann Ltd., 1923., pp. 94ff. On Wigrams, see Burke's Landed Gentry for Arkwright of Sutton Scarsdale and Long of Sydenham. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Wigram. There is no date in Shelton's Contracts No 25, for convict ships Coromandel and Experiment, contracts with Messrs Reeve and Wigram, 382 cons, Shelton charged £381/14/8d. with three Scotch convicts; as found in Byrnes, `The Blackheath Connection', p. 97, Note 156.

1804: 4 March, 1804, Sunday, Convict rebellion at Castle Hill, Sydney, the only battle (as reported) ever fought by the NSW Corps. Otherwise, soldiers' conflict with Aboriginals was not exactly "officially reported".

1804: Convict ship Coromandel 1 (2), probably owned as Coromandel I above. Arriving Sydney 7 May 1804.

1804: Convict shipExperiment 1, Arriving Sydney 24 June, 1804.

1804: Active at Penang by 1804: Robert Townsend Farquhar (1776-1830), governor at Penang, succeeding Leith, very energetic, and he reconstructs Fort Cornwallis. French privateers still sail about. Farquar is succeeded by Philip Dundas, brother of Henry Dundas (Lord Melville). In 1804, Acheen has a civil war, due to a family squabble, the displaced sultan offers Penang a fort and settlement at Acheen, re pepper trade, but the EICo procrastinates. Then the EICo directors went for a Acheen fort, maybe to command northern approach to the Straits of Malacca. Philip Dundas also shilly-shallied. But in 1805, ambitions grew. EICo, Directors very keen, mentioning Pegu timber nearby as well.
Clodd, Francis Light, pp. 140-148.

1804: By 1804, New Zealand "did its bit" re providing naval timber. Captains had been enthusiastic about the woods of NSW and NZ, and by 1804, England was receiving masts of NZ kaurie or NSW jarrah. (But in 1809, New Zealand cannibals "ate the crew" of Boyd, loading NZ spars for the Cape Town dockyard. High freight rates precluded too much business here, but for many years the navy continued to draw masts from such remote sources.) See Albion also also re ships of Indian teak, Malabar coast, as EICo now already built many of its own ships in India, the Bombay shipbuilder, the Parsi, Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy being involved . Jeejeebhoy later becomes first Parsi Baronet and a freeman of City of London.
(Albion, Forests and Sea Power, p. 197, pp. 364-368.)

1804: John Prinsep in London by 1804 laid plans - interesting but premature - to import wool from eastern Australia. The plans involved John Maitland, John Macarthur, Mr. Coles, Mr. Wilson at Monument Yard, Capt. Waterhouse and Mr. Stewart. John Maitland, of Basinghall Street, was an influential wool merchant who had links with Sir Joseph Banks and Macarthur. (See Harold B. Carter, His Majesty's Spanish Flock: Sir Joseph Banks and the Merinoes of George III of England. Sydney, Angus And Robertson, 1964. Harold B. Carter, Sir Joseph Banks, 1743-1820. London, British Museum (Natural History), 1988.) At an 1804 auction of the King's sheep, Maitland was interested in Macarthur's proposal for a company to produce wool in New South Wales and supported it in company with Hulletts, who'd dummy-bought two ewes for Macarthur, and owned the Argo. At the sale, Banks warned Macarthur of the Obstructive Act of 1788 preventing export of sheep. Later, Macarthur suggested to Lord Camden a Treasury warrant be drawn for the export. A company with a capital of £10,000 was proposed, but the plan went awry. By July 1804, John Prinsep was examined in Council Chamber at Whitehall. (See Sibella Macarthur-Onslow, Some Early Records of the Macarthurs of Camden, pp. 92-95.)
1804: 11 July 1804, wool gentlemen meet inc. Hunter and Waterhouse, both RN, Capts Prentice and Townson of New South Wales Corps, William Wilson of Monument Yard, agent for Rbt Campbell and Marsden, and William Stewart Master Mariner of Lambert, Prinsep and Saunders, shipping and East India agents of 147 Leadenhall St, owners of Anne to NSW in 1800. (See also, Sibella Macarthur-Onslow, Some Early Records of the Macarthurs of Camden. [Orig. 1914] Sydney, Rigby, 1973. Pemberton, London Connection, p. 121).

1804:Aurora US owned. Captain - Hussy. 1803? 1804, at "New Holland". Whaler from Nantucket Island. From Wace and Lovett, p. 45.

1804: Prinsep and Saunders tendered 16 ships to EICo, see July 1804, (Parkinson p. 143 on Eastern Trade.)

Year 1805

1805: Catherine (US). Owner, Fanning and Co. Captain Henry Fanning. 1804? Sydney 1805, King George Sound. Sealer. From New York, 1804? (From Wace and Lovett, p. 49.)

1805: Mr Dominicus, the EICO husband in the matter of the seizure of cargo of the Lady Barlow belonging to Robert Campbell. 1805, Lady Barlow affair, Sir Stephen Cottrell, at Council Office (EICO?).

1805: Ceres whaler of 1805. Owner, D. Stevens. Captain Ed Sharp(e). 1804 -- 10 Apr 1805 - 18 June 1805. South whaler. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Aurora. Owners, Daniel Starbuck/Sterbeck. Captain Andrew Merrick/Meryck. 1805 - 21 Apr 1806 - 24 Apr 1806. Whaler. Milford, Bideford. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Eagle brig of 1805. Owners, Campbell and Co. Captain Thomas Graham. 5 Apr 1805 - 28 Jun 1805. To Calcutta. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Honduras packet. Owners, Hurry and Co. Captain Owen Bunker. 1804 - 20 July 1805 - 20 Sep 1805. Seal skins, 7000. Also re William Edwards. Ship a Spanish prize. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Myrtle. Owners, Kinlock and Co. Captain Henry Barber. 4 March 1805- 7 March 1805. Rum, sugar, sundry, to Fort William, East Indies. Also to n/w America. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Nancy. M/O. Captain A. Thompson. 14 Aug 1804. Oil, Bass Strait. Cumpston's Register, p. 50.

1805: Star ship. Owner, Birnie and Co. Captain James Birnie. 22 Feb 1806- 25 March 1806. Whaling off New Zealand. Of London. Plus J. Wilkinson. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Lucy privateer. Owner Daniel Bennett. Captain Alexander Ferguson. 21 April 1806. Whaling or sealing, Peru, a prize ship. Of London. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Sophia. Owners, Campbell and Co. of Sydney. Captain William Collins. 19 Apr 1805 - 12 July 1805. To Hobart, King Island, Bass Strait. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Lady Barlow. Owner, Robert Campbell. Captain A. McAskill probably. 1805 on Thames River. Sealer, trader. McAskill is ex-Castle of Good Hope. This ship about Sydney in May - July 1804, with cattle and stores. Cargo seized in London by London interests protecting their own investments in Australasia.

1805: Herald. Owner, Unknown. Captain Zachary T. Silsbee. 1804 - 1805. To Tasmania from Salem. From Wace and Lovett.

1805: Criterion. Owners, Hussey and Co. Captain Peter Chase/Chace. 23 Apr 1805- 28 May 1805. Sealer, trader to China. Tobacco. From Nantucket. She is back in Sydney May-July 806, China and teas, etc. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett.

1805: Harrington5. Owners, Chace and Co. Captain William Campbell. 27 Jan 1805-27 Feb 1805. General merchandise, then whaling, Peru. Takes two prizes. Cumpston's Register.

1805 circa: King George. Owners, Henry Kable et al. Captain Unknown. Re James Underwood, Simeon Lord. Ship King George built in Sydney for Henry Kable, James Underwood, Simeon Lord and David Dickenson Mann and launched on 30 April 1805. Cumpston's Register, p. 8.

1805: HM Buffalo. RN. Lt. Houston. 27 Nov 1805 - 10 Feb 1806. To Hobart, carries Gov. King and family. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Elizabeth and Mary. Owners, Spencer and Co. Captain John Hingston. 27 Sep 1805 - 8 Nov 1805. Whaling, New Zealand. Cumpston's Register.

1805: More to come US owned. -- Unknown. 1805. Trader from Salem. From Wace and Lovett.

1805: Harriott whaler. Owners, Mathers and Co. Thaddeus Coffin. 1804 - 24 Apr 1805 - 29 May 1805. Whaling, sperm oil. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Hazard. American Owner, Wm. F. Megee. Captain Notknown. 1805. US Trader to EI and China. Supercargo is Saml III Nightingale.

1805: Favorite. American Owner, P. Gardner and D. Whitney. Captain Jonathan Paddock. 1805 - 24 Apr 1805 and 1806 - 11 Jun 1805. Whaler, sealer. New Zealand, Canton, general merchandise. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett.

1805: Britannia whaler of 1805. Owner, John T. Hill. Captain Amiel Hussey. 1805 - June 1806. Whaler, sealer, off California. Up to 20,000 skins, full whale oil. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Favourite. Owners, Gardiner and Co. Captain John Paddock. 10 March 1806 - 29 July 1806. Sealing, 60,000 skins. Of Nantucket. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Commerce brig. British Owners, James Birnie and Co., London. Captain John Wilkinson. 9 Oct 1805 - 7 Feb 1806. Sealing, timber. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Britannia South Sea whaler. 1805. Details not given. Re Nathaniel Goodspeed.

1805: Brothers (US). Owner, O. Mitchell. Captain Benjamin Worth. 1804-1805. 1805 to Sydney. Whaler from Nantucket Island. From Wace and Lovett, p. 48.

1805: Brothers whaler of 1805. Owner, O. Mitchell. Captain Benjamin Worth. 10 July 1805- 1 Nov 1805. Whaling, New Zealand coast. Driven back. Cumpston's Register. --- 1806: Brothers whaler of 1806. Owner O. Mitchell. Captain Benjamin Worth. 21 July 1806- 17 August 1806. Whaling, NZ coast. Re Obh Mitchell. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Amiante brig. Spanish, presumably. Captain A. Fisk. 1804-1805. 17 May 1805. Prize to Harrington. Sent by Chile, Kent's Group. Name was Santa Francisco y Santo Paulo. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Argo of 1805. Owners, Hulletts and Co. of London. John Baden/Bader. 7 June 1805-15 Sep 1805. Whaling, probably, as by NZ. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Atlantic whaler. Owners, Enderby and Co. Captain William Swain. 3 May 1806 - 29 May 1806. Whaling. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Anne (US). Owner, William Rotch. Captain Jas. Gwinn/Gwynn. 1803 - 1805 to Sydney. Whaler, Sydney, China, England. From New Bedford Named in records is William Rock Jnr. To China. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett

1805: Sydney of 1805. Owners, Campbell and Co. Captain Austin Forrest. 18 Apr 1805 - 5 October 1805. Cattle for Port Dalrymple. Calcutta to Hobart. She is lost on coast of New Guinea by maybe Feb 1807. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Independence of 1805. Owners, Fanning and Co. Captain Jsh. Townsend. 21 Apr 1805 - 11 Jun 1805. Sealer, Kangaroo Island, Norfolk Island, Canton. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Venus small brig. Campbell and Co of Sydney. Capt John Calder. 7 May 1805-29 July 1805. Sealing, Bass Strait, coast Peru, Calcutta. Link to William Stewart. Cumpston's Register. She is under Jas. Stewart to Derwent and Penantipodes, skins, by 24 Jan 1806.

1805: Vulture whaler. Owners Mathers and Co. Capt Thomas Folger. 22 Juy 1806-20 Aug 1806. Whaler, Chile and Peru. Cumpston's Register.

1805, US ship Hazard, Wm. F. Megee (probably supercargo), Capt ?

1805, US ship Catherine, Fanning and Co, Capt. Henry Fanning.

1805: and in 7-11/1805 and 7-8-1806, Capt Benjamin Worth is on whaler Brothers from Nantucket, for O. Mitchell, Sydney and New Zealand;

In late 1805, the T. H. Perkins firm told Gorham and Green that he (Perkins) wished to get out of West India trade.

In 1805: J. P. Cushing is still at Canton re Turkish opium for China to Macao. and re fur ships of 1805. Samuel Williams is the T. H. Perkins agent in London who knows of P's desire re inquiry into coasting trade of India, Bombay cotton to China? Who are the Grant, Forbes and Co. in London in 1805 that the Perkins firm writes to?

1805: Perkins' captain Capt Bumstead dies at sea in Straits of Sunda.

1805-1806: Salem: J. Pierce is owner in 1805/1806 of trader Eliza with Capt. Wm. Richardson, with log keeper Philip Payn Pinel, to Sydney and Norfolk Island, thence China.

no date American William Richardson as master has brig trader Active, from Salem, owned by Jas Cooke, to Hobart, Sydney, Fiji, Canton, Manila in 12/10 and 2/11; William P. Richardson, Freeman Richmond, I. B. Richmond as owner in 2/42 and 7-8/42 has whaler Addison Capt Thos. West from New Bedford, Hobart.

1805: S. C. Phillips in a confused entry in 1805 and maybe 1806 has US trader/whaler (barque) Elizabeth, from Freetown, then Salem, no captain named on one trip, trip has Capt. Isaac Hodge/Hedge, with Jonathan P. Saunders as log keeper; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1805: US Capt. Henry Fanning in 1805 is on sealer Catherine from New York (by 1804?) for Fanning and Co., Sydney and King George Sound; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1805-1806: US merchants Hussey and Co. have sealer and trader Criterion from Nantucket, Capt. Peter Chase, to Sydney and Hobart, then Fiji, Canton and Nantucket. (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1805-1806: US merchant J. Pierce is owner in 1805/1806 of trader Eliza, from Salem, with Capt. Wm. Richardson, with log keeper Philip Payn Pinel, to Sydney and Norfolk Island, thence China; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett)

1805: A smuggler from Boston, Massachusetts, Charles Cabot, attempts to purchase opium from the British, then smuggle it into China under the auspices of British smugglers. (From website based on book: Opium: A History, by Martin Booth Simon & Schuster, Ltd., 1996.)

Late 1805: T. H. Perkins firm tells Gorham and Green that he now wishes to get out of West India trade. In 1805, J. P. Cushing is still at Canton re Turkish opium for China to Macao. and re fur ships of 1805. Samuel Williams is the THP agent in London who knows of P's desire re inquiry into coasting trade of India, Bombay cotton to China? Who are the Grant, Forbes and Co. in London in 1805 that P firm writes to?

1805 and later: McLardie are traders at Calcutta, in the context of Robert Campbell's trading from Sydney.

About 1805, Evan Nepean formerly under-secretary of Home Office, becomes Governor of Bombay.

1805: The prison on convict transport Tellicherry was insufficiently ventilated, it was complained at the Irish port involved. NB: This ship owned by John St Barbe of Blackheath, London; she was lost, and was the last ship St Barbe ever sent to NSW.
Con Costello, Botany Bay: The Story of the Convicts Transported from Ireland to Australia, 1791-1853. Cork-Dublin, Mercier, 1987., p. 68

St Barbe's Tellicherry had aboard eight supporters of Robert Emmet. (Shaw, Convicts and the Colonies, pp. 170-171.) St Barbe lost Tellicherry about the Philippines about 1806. Bateson describes St. Barbe as "a prominent London merchant and shipowner", but not as an influential underwriter helping manage the Lloyd's Red Book. Tellicherry was to load China tea, a good indication that by 1805, a former whaler could deal with the East India Company without animosity.
Bateson, Convict Ships, p. 190.

1805: Chace, Chinnery and Co. of Madras, bankrupt in 1805. In 1805: Chace, Chinnery and Co. of Madras, send ships to Sydney.

1805: Patrick Colquhuon, LLD, when writing his major work, A Treatise On The Police Of The Metropolis, was acting as a magistrate for the counties of Middlesex, Surry, Kent and Essex. He recommended a water police be created for the Thames River. Patrick Colquhuon was agent for West Indies Nevis 1806-1821 as Patrick and James Colquhuon; and for Nevis, 1821-1848, James Colquhuon, 1825-1851; James Colquhuon agent for St Christopher; from 1802-1845 Patrick and James Colquhuon were the agents for Virgin Islands; from 1842-1850, James Colquhuon the agent for Tobago; from 1806-1844, Patrick and James Colquhuon agents for St Vincent; from 1845-1850, the agent for St Vincent is James Colquhuon; 1816-1826, Patrick and James Colquhuon agents for Dominica, James 1826 till 1852. James and Patrick Junior Colquhuon being nephews of Patrick LLD.


See Lillian M. Penson, The Colonial Agents of the British West Indies: A Study in Colonial Administration mainly in the Eighteenth Century. Orig. 1924. London, Frank Cass and Co., reprint 1971., pp. 251ff. Patrick Colquhuon, LL.D., A Treatise On The Police Of The Metropolis. London, 1805.

1805: Sir John Hayes who annexed New Guinea, (New Albion), visits London and is deputised by EICo, made Deputy Master Attendant at Calcutta, succeeds to senior position in 1809, holds position for 21 years.

1805?: Sir Lionel Hook (d. 1810 or 1811) of EICo military Dept., secretary to Gov. of Bengal, brother of Charles Hook a sometime-trader at Sydney, NSW and once an agent for Robert Campbell the Sydney merchant.

1805: Capt. Abraham Bristow discovered the Aukland Islands. Bristow later worked for the London based whalers, Mellishes.

1805: The impeachment of Henry Dundas, First Lord of Melville, who had "smeared the image of the admiralty with corruption". See DNB entry on Dundas.

1805: Convict ship William Pitt, owned by Peter Mestaers or Hulletts Bros, 604 tons, Capt. John Boyce. Departing 31 August 1805 from Cork, via Mad., S. Salvadore, Cape, 223 days to Sydney arriving 11 April, 1806. Contractor, Peter Everitt Mestaer. Shelton Contract No. 26, with Peter Everitt Mestaer, dated 15 July, 1805 for 142 convicts. (Bateson, Convict Ships, p. 338.)

1805: Hullett Bros, partners with Macarthur in Argo, are partners with Blaxland Bros in ship William Pitt which sailed 1 September 1805, with Gregory Blaxland. (Pemberton, London Connection, p. 134).

1805: 18 December 18, 1805, Whitehall, (Under-sec) J. King to Commissioners for the Transport Service, King being directed by Lord Hawkesbury they shall permit Mrs Wiseman the wife of the convict Solomon Wiseman, for embarkation on the transport Alexander, to have passage with her husband in lieu of Mrs Henshall who has declined such an indulgence. (HO 13/17, pp. 134-135, cited in David T. Hawkings, Bound for Australia. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1988., p. 13, pp. 23-27. (A book helpful for genealogists.)
1805: 19 December, Lord Hawkesbury to A. H. Bradley, Commissioner of Convicts, giving Bradley a list of convicts in his care and asking that he allow 150 free of any infectious disease to be selected from the list and put on board Alexander and Fortune. Hawkings writes that no logs for the Fortune or Alexander have ever been located.

1805: Re London Docks, First West India Docks, almost as large as the EICo docks then in existence. Finished in 1805, at a cost of £168,000. Note: Australian wool when sent in larger quantities to London was unloaded at London Dock, upriver from West India Docks. London Dock, founded by private subscription, opened on 31 January, 1805; the first ship entering this dock is unknown.
Upriver of Limehouse Reach, the only docks on Thames southside were the Surrey Commercial Docks, which included Greenland Dock, Russian Dock (a small dock), Albion and Canada Docks. Joseph Moore about 1809 organised what became Lady Dock. Brunswick Dock at Blackwall was owned by Perry the shipbuilder, and used only by East Indiamen, Howland's Greenland Dock at Rotherhithe had been used by the South Sea Company.

1805-1806: The Hurry shipyard and complex at Howdon Pans [Newcastle, England], is declared bankrupt in 1806 and assets are gradually sold off. (Tony Barrow, 'The Newcastle Whaling Trade, 1752-1849, The Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 75, 1989., pp. 231ff.

1805: Lelia Byrd - American registry; William Shaler, master; arrived Aug. 22, 1805. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1805: Tamana - John Hudson, master; built in Hawaii 1805

1805: Atahualpa - Boston; Capt. Adams, master; arrived Aug. 1805, departed Oct. 6, 1805. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

Yarmouth - arrived Dec. 8, 1805; Samuel Patterson; departed Dec. 22, 1805. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1805:: Southern whaler Ferrett, Capt. Skelton, been to Derwent.

1805: Sept., Sydney, Capt. John Hingston, whaler Elizabeth and Mary.

Year 1806

1806: Sophia. Owner, Campbell and Co. Captain James Lelohf. 14 Feb 1806-21 Feb 1806. Sealing, Bass Strait, a prize named Policy. (Cumpston's Register)

1806: General Wellesley. Owner and Captain not known. 1806 - 13 Feb 1807 - 24 April 1807. Merchant, to New Zealand for spars, Pulo Penang. For Dalrymple and Co. Cumpston's Register.

25 February 1806: Ship Lady Nelson leaves Sydney to return Maori Te Pahi and his sons to the Bay of Islands. The Maori have been given bricks, a house frame and other goods. Te Pahi becomes ill and is nursed by ex-convict George Bruce. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: Dart of 1807. Owners, Hulletts and Co. Captain Richard Smith. 1806 - 8 March 1807 - 9 April 1807. Whaling. Cumpston's Register.

18 March 1806: New Zealand: Ship Argo Captain John Bader again vists Bay of Islands NZ. Maori Ruatara and some others are aboard. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: Elizabeth of 1807. Captain J. Walker. Owner McArthur and Co. 1806 - March 1807. Sydney to Tahiti.

Cumpston's Register.

1806: Brothers of 1807. British Owners, Hulletts and Blaxland. Captain Oliver Russell. 1806 - 3 April 1807 - 13 Jun 1807. London, fishery, schooner in frame. Re Blaxland. Cumpston's Register.

20 April 1806: New Zealand: Ex-convict George Bruce on Lady Nelson has been lately flogged. When the vessel reaches North Cape he jumps ship and goes to Bay of Islands. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

27 April 1806: London-New Zealand: Whaler Ferret reaches London with aboard Maori Te Mahanga (Morehanga). The first Maori known to have visited England. He meets John Savage again and in London also meets King George III and Queen Charlotte. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

Late April 1806: New Zealand: Lady Nelson again visits Bay of Islands and returns Maori Te Pahi and his sons. The ship's carpenter starts to erect Te Pahi's house. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: Jefferson. Owner, B. Rotch. Captain Robert Barnes/Brock. 1806 - 1814 - 1813. Whaler from New Bedford. From Wace and Lovett

12 June 1806: Ship Alexander reaches Portsmouth with Maori Teina and Maki aboard. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

13 June 1806: Whaler Ferret leaves London for Sydney with Maori Te Mahanga aboard. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

17 June 1806: Ship Venus, Captain Samuel Chace, is taken piratically by convicts at Port Dalrymple (Launceston). Is sailed to New Zealand. Aboard her are two women, Charlotte Badger and Catherine Hagerty. The ship is about Bay of Islands July and August. Some of her people are left at Rangihoua Bay. The ship then went down the east coast of the North Island, kidnapping several Maori women who are sold to rival tribes whio eventually kiled them. These problems become subject of a retaliatory raid in 1818. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

27 June 1806: Ship Alexander arrives to London. Maori Teina and Maki come under the care of Rev. Joseph Hardcastle of the London Missionary Society and he tries to find them a passage back to Sydney. Unfortunately, Teina died and Maki was kidnapped by a crime and became lost. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: Fortune EICo extra ship. Owner, Mestier and Co. Captain Henry Moore. 1805 - 12 July 1806 - 21 Aug 1806. Prize, carries pigs, coal, copper, timber. Cumpston's Register.

18 August 1806: Ship Ocean, Captain Bristow, discovers the Auckland Islands. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: Fortune. Owner, Peter Evet Mestaers (?), Captain Henry Moore. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1806: Sinclair extra ship. Owner William Osbourne? Captain J. H. Jackson. 1805 - 5 Aug 1806 - 5 Oct 1806. China, seal skins, coal, timber. Transport Hon Co's Extra Ship. (Cumpston's Register)

1806: More to come 25 August 1806 ship wrecked Middleton Reef. Name not given. (Cumpston's Register)

1806: Eliza (of 1806). Owner J. Pierce. Captain William Richardson. Trader to China. From Salem. Also to Norfolk Island.

1806: Alexander (2). Owner, John Locke. Captain Richard Brooks. 1805 - 20 Aug 1806 - 12 Nov 1806. Convict transport, then oil and skins. Earlier named Atlas. Cumpston's Register names Locke here. Bateson.

1806: Young William storeship, Owner Daniel Bennett, Capt William Watson. 7 July 1807, 14 Sep 1807. Govt storeship, whaling. Cumpston's Register.

1806: Adonis of 1806. Owners, Daniel Starbuck et al, Milford. Captain Robert Turnbull. 1806. Whaling. "And others". Also captains Robert Thomson and William Melville. (AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 194.)

1806: Adventure (of 1806). Owner, Daniel Bennett, Blackheath. Captain John Page, Wm Parker. Whaling. AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 194.

1806: Tellicherry. Owner, John St Barbe. Captain Thomas Cuzens. 15 Feb 1806 - 6 Apr 1806. Convict transport. Intended for China, Bengal. Lost about the Philippines, Bateson. (Cumpston's Register.)

1806: William Pitt of 1806. Owners, Hulletts. Captain John Boyce. 1805 - 11 Apr 1806 - 25 Jun 1806. Convict transport, then to China. Re Peter Everitt or Peter Evet Maesters. (Cumpston's Register. Bateson.)

1806: Parramatta of 1807. Owners Hulletts and Co. Capt John Glenn/Glynn. 3 April 1807-17 Jun 1807. Merchant, to Tahiti for pork. (Cumpston's Register.)

In 1805-1806: James Gwinn (sic), in 5-6/05, 2-3/06 is captain of whaler Anne from New Bedford, for owner William Rotch, Sydney and Norfolk Island, whaling, China and England and in 9-11/1808 Gwinn on same ship whaling for B. Rotch and in 1812 also similar by New Zealand.

1805-1806: in 7-11/1805 and 7-8-1806, Capt Benjamin Worth is on whaler Brothers from Nantucket, for O. Mitchell, Sydney and New Zealand.

In April 1806: T. H. Perkins tells John P. Cushing to warn the Chinese against the wiles of (other) US merchants. In 1806 John P. Cushing is alone at Canton till arrival of William F. Paine who joins after a voyage on ship Mandarin. Cushing leaves business in charge of Thomas Tunno Forbes - who drowns in Canton River in 1829.

1806: T. H. Perkins firm to Joseph Russell in Paris. In 1806 to S. Williams in London re Burr's conspiracy in Washington turns out to signify nothing (The "Shakespearian nothing", sound and fury, signifying nothing).

By 1806, William Bignell (who remains little known), 1 contract for a convict ship with Shelton. By 1806, Messrs Mestaer and Locke, 2 contracts with Shelton for convict ships.
Note: It is known that the whaler investor John St Barbe had a sister Catharine who married William Bignell, but it is not known for certain if her husband was a partner of her brother John. He probably was, as part of a family firm.

1806: 9 January, 1806: Convicts Hawkins and Cording were sent on board Fortune, then to sail for NSW. Fortune's muster of convicts was mixed with the muster of Alexander. On Fortune was Capt Henry Moore (Lt, RN). These transports were to sail with a ship commanded by William Bligh, who was going out to become governor of NSW. Hawkings says the two transports had 306 convicts, which conflicts with Shelton's naming of 298 cons. Hawkings lists the other ships, which set sail on 28 January, 1806, with Henry Moore complaining he had not got all his guard aboard. The inventory of private goods sent in Fortune is printed in Sydney Gazette for 13 July, 1806. Fortune (1) departed England 28 January 1806 arriving Sydney 12 July, 1806. Convict Hawkins was put to government work at Castle Hill. (Hawkings, Bound for Australia, p. 3-4, pp.27-32.
Shelton's Contracts No 27, dated 23 January, 1806, with Messrs Mestaer and Locke, with ships Alexander and Fortune for 298 convicts. Shelton charged £322/14/6d.
Departing 28 January 1806 from England, convict ship Fortune 1, 620 tons, possibly owned Mestaers, Capt. Henry Moore. Arriving Sydney 12 July, 1806. Contractors Mestaer and Locke. Shelton's Contract No. 27, with Messrs Mestaer and Locke, in the Alexander and Fortune, dated 23 January, 1806, for a total of 298 convicts.
Bateson, Convict Ships, p. 338. By now, see for example, J. D. Shearer, Bound for Botany Bay: Impressions of Transportation and Convict Life. Sydney, Summit Books, 1976.)

1806: Departing March 1806 from England, convict ship Alexander I, 278 tons. Capt. Richard Brooks. Contractors, Messrs Mestaer and Locke. Arriving Sydney 20 August, 1806. (He had a descendant in Armidale, writer Geoff Blomfield.)
By 1810, Capt Richard Brooks was using a trading ship, Simon Cock. By 1810, Birnies are said to be the only merchant and general agents regularly trading to NSW.

Convict ship William Pitt. Arriving Sydney 11 April, 1806.

8 September 1806: New Zealand: Ship Richard and Mary Captain Leikins leaves Port Jackson for England carrying Maori (Maa)Tara, son of Te Pahi.

(From a wikipedia page on year 1806 in New Zealand)

September 1806: New Zealand: Ship Argo returns to Port Jackson. Captain Bader discharges Maori Ruatara without pay., Ruatara meets Rev. Samuel Marsden for the first time. (From a wikipedia page on year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: Traders at Calcutta are Ferguson and Fairlie; in October 1806 William Wilson, years before on the London Missionary Society ship Duff, and one William Fairlie offered to act as guarantors of Robert Campbell of Sydney (By about 1811, a firm was Fairlie Gilmore and Co. of Calcutta, and Robert Campbell had London agents, David Scott Jnr of London.)
1806: In October, 1806, in London, William Fairlie, of the India house Fairlie Ferguson and Co., and William Wilson, offered themselves as security for the further financial good behaviour of Robert Campbell. However, the Lady Barlow affair had destabilised Wilson's own affairs too much, and after Wilson's bankruptcy in February, 1811, he ceases to act as agent for Robert Campbell. (On Lady Barlow affair see Margaret Steven, Trade, Tactics and Territory: Britain in the Pacific, 1783-1823. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press, 1983., p. 102.)

12 October 1806: Whaling ship Albion Captain Cuthbert RObertson, leaves Port Jackson. Maori Ruatara joins the crew. (From a wikipedia page on year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: After 1806, female convicts were sent in separate ships, except for the Providence in 1811. (Shaw, Convicts and the Colonies, p. 125.)

Handcuffs graphic by Phillip Russell

1806: 18 December, 1806: Shelton's Contract No. 28, taken with William Bignell in ship Sydney Cove, Capt. William Edwards, re 113 convicts. Shelton charged £192/pounds, 15/4d. (Bignell was a sometime-associate of St Barbe.) Departing 11 January 1807 from Falmouth - Arriving Sydney 18 June, 1807.
However, 11 July, 1807, (See Hainsworth, Builders, pp. 82-91), re a letter from Sydney merchant Simeon Lord to Gov. Bligh, a suggestion Sydney Cove was technically owned by Thos. W. Plummer of London, and Bligh was inquisitive about this. (?)

1806: Hamilton - Boston; Capt. Porter (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1806: Perseverance - American; Amasa Delano, master; arrived Hawaii Sept. 8, departed Sept. 30. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1806: Port au Prince - London; Mr Brown, master; arrived Sept. 29, 1806, departed Oct. 26, 1806 (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

18106: Pearl - Boston; Capt. Ebetts, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1806: O'Cain - Boston; Jonathan Winship, master (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1806: Tamana - John Hudson, master (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

December 1806: Whaler Ferret returns to Sydney from England with Maori Te Mahanga on board. (From a wikipedia page on year 1806 in New Zealand)

Year 1807

1807: Duke of Portland. Owner Daniel Bennett. Captain John C. Spence. 1807. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1807: Hannah and Sally. Owners Nath Cogswell and Henry Kable (?). Captain Nathaniel Cogswell. 1807 as American brig. 5 April 1807, to Canton. 25 Aug 1807. Sealer, trader in China goods. From Philadelphia. Cumpston's Register notes H Kable Jnr is aboard. From Wace and Lovett.

1807: Jenny/Jeanette. Owner, John Dorr and Co. of Boston Captain William Dorr, Jnr. 2 Nov 1807 - 22 March 1808. Smuggling spirits into Sydney and apprehended for it. Provisions, merchandise, to Fiji. Wm Dorr died at Macao in 1815after being captured by British in War of 1812. Cumpston's Register. (Editor's Note - This man has a mariner brother. William is mentioned in a jstor article available on the Net. His death is while on ship Ontario is recorded in Sydney Gazette No. 663. of 3 Aug 1816. William in 1808 is on Jenny owned by John Dorr and Co [he is their nephew] and is involved in smuggling booze into Sydney/Parramatta and is caught, at the time his chief mate is William Lockerby whose journal is available at www.archive.org/stream. In 1808 Dorr became interested in Pacific sandalwood. Dorr once marooned Lockerby on an island. Cf, Sullivan Dorr Papers, 1799-1852, Rhode Island Historical Society, Manuscripts Division.

1807: Duchess of York brig. Owners, Campbell and Hook. Captain Austin Forrest. 3 April 1807 - 9 May 1807. Calcutta and Derwent. Charles Hook? Cumpston's Register.

1807: HM Cornwallis, frigate. RN. Captain Charles James Johnstone. 1806 - 12 April 1807 - 23 April 1807. Madras, Peru coast, exploration. Cumpston's Register.

1807: Amethyst (US). Owner, John Dorr. Captain Seth Smith. 1807 at Sydney. Sealer from Salem/Boston. From Wace and Lovett.

1807: Eliza US brig of 1807. Owner, Brown and Ives. Captain E. Hill. Correy. 7 Dec 1807.

1807: Hope (of 1807). Owner, Fanning and Co. Captain Reuben Bromley. 1807- 1808. Trader, King George Sound, from New York. From Wace and Lovett.

1807: Hope of 1807. Owner, Fanning and Co. Captain Reuben Bromley. 1806 - 17 March 1807 - 2 April 1807. Refresh, no merchandise, for Sth Sea Islands. Of Connecticut, New York. Cumpston's Register.

1807: Amethyst of 1807. Owner, John Dorr. Captain Seth Smith, Jnr. 16 Dec 1807 - 19 Dec 1807. Whaling, sealing. Dorr of Salem, Boston. Cumpston's Register.

1807: Topaz. Americans Boardman and Pope. Capt William Mayhew Folger. Sealer, trader. From Boston. From Wace and Lovett.

1807: Departing February 1807 from England?, convict ship Duke of Portland (1), for whaler Daniel Bennet (of Blackheath), whalers, 523 tons, built Bordeaux in 1790, Capt. John C. Spence, surgeon unlisted, to Sydney arriving 27 July, 1807. Contractor, Daniel Bennett. Shelton's Contract No 29, with whaler Daniel Bennett dated 1 January, 1807, for 224 convicts. Shelton charged £313/17/6dto write the contract.
(Bateson, Convict Ships, p. 338.)

1807: US Capt. Coffin Whippey in 9/1807 is on whaler Grand Sachem from Newbury, for owner B. Rotch, to Sydney thence Fishery, see HRA 1 (6), pp. 618-619.

See re 1826. To 1807, both British and US ships bought furs at n/w American coast, and swapped them for tea. The US had unrestricted trade, but the British fur traders had to have special EICo permission, and could not freely swap for various Chinese goods, /sell furs, but sell them and deposit the specie gained with the Co (see Byrnes’ article, the first bank at Canton.), and the Co then issued bills redeemable in London at 12 months sight. In contrast, the US men bartered freely, underselling British pelts by up to 20 per cent, and took tea wherever they liked, writes Hao (p. 13). From p. 18, Hao writes on early US supercargoes as tea buyers, then the establishment of resident US trading firms which dealt on commission in their own right or acted for other US mercantile houses.

16 March 1807: T. H. Perkins firm to D. Parish at Philadelphia and re ship Mandarin to China. It is probably the same Parish, who suicided in 1826.

26 May 1807: T. H. Perkins to J. P. Cushing re supercargo of ship Levant Capt Proctor to Gibraltar, and to Hope and Co. re a ship wrecked on the coast of Holland.

To 1807, an annual average of 36 American ships arrived in China. US merchants had freedom from restrictions of Europen monopolies, and US ships purchased furs at American n/w coast and sold them in Canton in exchange for tea. English vessels could only go to n-w America with special permission from EICo, and could exchange furs not for commodities but for specie which had to be deposited with the EICo at Canton, (Hao, pp. 13-18), for which specie the EICo. issues bills at 12 months' sight payable in London. but the US could barter freely at Canton, undersell British pelts and carry tea where they pleased, early US ships used supercargoes, then resident trading firms at Canton.

1807 – US ship Amethyst owned by John Dorr, Capt Seth Smith. (June 1807, James Drummond, Superintendent of Supercargoes, Canton, as in Dawson, Banks Letters, p. 275, to Sir Joseph Banks re botanical matters. Mentions ship the David Scott.)

Bhagat (p. 13) cites EICo officials noting in 1806-1807 that American trade in India in that period exceeded "everything of the kind recorded in the Commercial History of British India". Some 23 US ships visited Madras in 1805. Jefferson's embargo of December 1807 largely ruined this extensive trade, there was some consternation with the British at the reduction of cashflow and turnover. This man had a son aboard United States to India. Note this US ship at India, Pondicherry, the French base, so naturally the English were suspicious of it. He is probably the man in Holden Furber article re the United States the first US ship to India, on board which was this man's son. Partners with Robert Morris.

1807: American Seth Smith is captain in 12/07 for owner John Dorr, of Amethyst sealer from Salem Boston to Sydney and fishing, see HRA, 1 (6): 319-319; Hao, p. 29, has it that in 1797-1798, US ship Betsy had profits of $53,118.

By about 1807, T. H. Perkins was using agents at Smyrna, named Woodman (nil genealogy to be found) and Offley (nil genealogy). However, as Brenner indicates, one Robert Offley had been a charter member of the original English Levant Co. One Offley was once a governor of Massachusetts.

1807: US merchants Boardman and Pope are owners for sealer/trader Topaz, of Boston, Capt. William Mayhew Folger, to Adventure Bay, Hobart, Storm Bay, Bruny Islands, see HRA, 1 (6), pp. 553-554; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett) For various Folger-Starbuck family history see website: http://www.s-starbuck.com/dat10.html

1807: US Capt Nathaniel Cogswell, in 1807 is on trader/sealer Hannah and Sally, from Philadelphia, for owners Nathaniel Cogswell and/or Henry Kable (of Sydney?), to Sydney thence Canton (where she may have been sold; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1807-1808: US Capt William Dorr in 1807-1808 is on trader Jenny, from Boston for owner John Dorr, to Sydney - Broken Bay, China, Fiji; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1807-1808: - 1798: Benjamin Page is captain in October 1798, of trader Ann and Hope from Providence, for Brown and Ives, to Sydney, then China, as noted by Dunbabin 1950 and 1955 and Churchward in 1948.

And in 12/1807 and 4/1808, Brown and Ives are owners for trader Eliza, from Providence, Capt. E. Hill Correy, to Fiji, wrecked.

To 1807, an annual average of 36 American ships arrived in China. US merchants had freedom from restrictions of Euro monopolies, and US ships purchased furs at American n/w coast and sold them in Canton in exchange for tea. English vessels could only go to n-w America with special permission from EICo, and could exchange furs not for commodities but for specie which had to be deposited with the EICo at Canton (Hao, pp. 13-18), for which specie the Co. issues bills at 12 months' sight payable in London. but the US could barter freely at Canton, undersell British pelts and carry tea where they pleased, p. 13, now see p. 18, early US ships used supercargoes, then resident trading firms at Canton.

1807: Walter Stevenson Davidson visits China as part of a trading venture with John Macarthur, Robert Campbell and Garnham Blaxcell. Returned to England in 1809 after deposition of Gov. Bligh in NSW.
Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 123.

1807: First bales of Australian wool arrive in London.

1807: T. H. Perkins in 26 May, 1807, to J. P. Cushing re supercargo of ship Levant Capt Proctor to Gibraltar, and to Hope and Co re a ship wrecked on the coast of Holland. About 1824, in an item from the Cabot genealogy, p. 639, ship Levant 264 tons about 1824 is commanded by Capt. Edward Cabot, brother of Samuel Cabot. A favourite ship of Perkins and Cushing.

1807-1808: City of Edinburgh of 1808. Owner, Alexr Berry s/cargo. Captain Simeon Pattison. 12 Jan 1808 - 26 May 1808. Spirits, wine, etc. Cumpston's Register.

1807: Sydney Cove. Owner Wm. Wilson or Rbt Campbell. Captain William Edwards. Convict transport

1807: Rose of 1808. Owners, Campbell and Co, Richard Brookes/ Penson/Brookes. 15 April 1808 - 15 Sep 1808. Merchant, oil and skins. Richard Brookes, s/cargo, Campbell as part-owner. Cumpston's Register.

1807: Grand Sachem. Owner, Benjamin Rotch. Captain Coffin Whippey. 11 Sep 1807, whaling - 26 Sep 1807. Whaler. Cumpston's Register, From Wace and Lovett.

1807: Maryland - New York; Jonathan Perry, jr., master; arrived May 19, 1807, departed July 19, 1807. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

Year 1808

22 April 1808 ship name? Sth Seas trade, wrecked Fiji, loses $20-30,000. From Providence, Rhode Island. Cumpston's Register. 1805? Elizabeth (of 1805 US)

1808: Speke (1). Owner, Unknown. Captain John Hingston. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1808: Argo (of 1808). Owner, Thos and Jn Hullett, Jn Macarthur, Thos Thompson. Captain John Gradon. Whaling. Owners are Thomas and John Hullett and John Macarthur, Broad Street, Place, merchants and Thomas Thompson of Castle St., Leciester Sq, and others, in AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 196.

1808: Admiral Gambier (1-1)/Owners, Buckles. Captain Edward Harrison. 29 March 1808. Convict transport

1808: Brothers of 1808. 1807. John Blaxland, Thos Hullett, Jn Hullett. Oliver Russell. 30 Jan 1808 - 2 May 1808. Sealing, possibly whaling. Hullett and Blaxland. Cumpston's Register.

1808: Eliza (of 1808). Owners Brown and Ives. Captain E. Hill Correy. Trader, brig to Fiji, wrecked. Providence, Rhode Island. From Wace and Lovett.

1808: Hero (of 1808). Owners Jn & Wm Jacob. Capt Micajah Gardner. 1808 to Peru, Chile. Contraband fabric. From Nantucket Island. Capt is probably Barnabas Gardner, owners Jn and Wm Jacob from Chris Maxworthy emailer. She is captured in 1809 by Spanish corsair La Flecha. From Wace and Lovett

1808: Jenny. Owner John Dorr. Capt William Dorr. 1807-1808. Trader from Boston. From Wace and Lovett

1808: Favorite brig. Owner Garnham Blaxcell. Capt Dundas. 1813-1808. Trader, brig to Calcutta. Six voyages. She moves Calcutta, Sydney, Fiji, China, is American-built.

1808: Tonquin. US Owners, Fanning and Co. Capt Reuben Bromley. Sealer, trader to Fiji. From New York. From Wace and Lovett.

1808: Topaz (Folger). US ship. Capt Mayhew Folger. 1808. Finds Pitcairn Island. US whaler. On 6 Feb 1808 Folger sees smoke on Pitcairn Island, hideout of the Bounty Mutineers, which he had thought was uninhabited.

(1808: Notes from Paul R. Johnson, (Ed), The Economics of the Tobacco Industry. New York. Praeger.  1984. p. 35, Relations British-US deteriorated rapidly when in 1808, the USA tried to prohibit her merchants dealing with either Britain or Europe.) Capt Micajah Gardner, in ship Hero, from Nantucket, in 1808, owners not named, is to Sydney then Peru and Chile, (presumably whaling), see HRA 1 (9):47 see Dunbabin, 1950. (Note: See HRA, I (9): 47. See also Thomas Dunbabin, 'William Raven RN and his Britannia, 1792-95', The Mariner’s Mirror, Vol. 46, No. 4, November 1960., pp. 297-303.

Not until after February 1808, was it known that Pitcairn Island had become Fletcher Christian's hideaway. Fletcher Christian was 23 when he became Bligh's master's mate on Bounty.) 6 February, a Saturday, 1808, Capt Mayhew Folger in ship Topaz off Pitcairn Island thought he saw smoke, surprised as he thought Cartaret had described the island as unpopulated.

1808: Capt Micajah Gardner, ship Hero, from Nantucket, in 1808, owners not-named, is to Sydney then Peru and Chile, (presumably whaling), see HRA, 1 (9):47 see Dunbabin, 1950;

However, on 4 July 2005 arrives an e-mail from Chris Maxworthy who has been working on a book on US families Jacob, and Gardner: “Dear Dan, Can I offer a suggestion re some of your content On page “Merchants9a” there is a reference to Micajah Gardner being the master of the Hero of 1808. This is not correct. The Hero was commanded by Barnabas Gardner, a former Nantucket whaleman, who was employed by John and William Jacob. The ship was British-registered, and was not a whaler, but was smuggling contraband goods, mainly fabrics, into the Spanish colonies. The Thomas Dunbabin article of 1950, and restated in Cumpston's Register of Shipping Arrivals and Departures, was wrong. In fact, Tom Dunbabin corrected the item in the following issue of American Neptune. The Hero sailed from Port Jackson in September 1808 and was captured on the coast of Chile by the Spanish corsair “La Flecha” on 28 January 1809. I have acquired the above information in the process of compiling my book on Jacobs and Gardner. I will be in London next month, at which stage I hope to put some more flesh on the bones. Cheers, Chris Maxworthy.

1808: Saturday 6 February, 1808: American Capt. Mayhew Folger in Topaz is off Pitcairn Island and thinks he sees smoke. He is surprised as he thought Cartaret had described the island as unpopulated. Not until after February 1808, was it known that Pitcairn Island had become Fletcher Christian's hideaway.
See Robert V. J. Varman, The Bounty-Tahitian Genealogies of Pitcairn Island descendants on Norfolk Island. Central Coast, NSW, 1992

Shelton's Contract, No. 30, dated 22 March 1808, account with William Wilson, for Speke, 98 convicts. Shelton charged £117/11/-.
Speke I (1), 473 tons, Capt. John Hingston, surgeon J. Macmillan. Departing Falmouth on 18 May, 1808 - Arriving Sydney 18 November 1808. (Counting Royal Admiral 2, this was Wilson's second attempt at contracting.)

1808: (Shelton's Contract No. 31, taken with Messrs Buckle and Boyd, in the ship Admiral Gambier. And Eolus. Dated 22 June, 1808, 278 convicts, Shelton charged £383/6/6d to make the contract. Departing 2 July 1808: Arriving - (Something is known of the genealogy of Buckle here, but not of Boyd.)

1808: Shelton's Contract No 31, taken with Messrs Buckle and Boyd, in the ship Admiral Gambier 1. (And Aeolus?) Dated 22 June, 1808, 278 convicts. Shelton charged £383/6/6d. Departing 2 July 1808 - Arriving Sydney 20 December 1808.

Departing 2 July, 1808 from Portsmouth, convict ship Admiral Gambier (1), Capt Edward Harrison, possibly for Buckles, 501 tons, Capt. Edward Harrison - Arriving Sydney 20 December, 1808. Contractors, Buckle and Boyd. Shelton's Contract No. 31 dated 22 June, 1808, for 278 convicts.

1808: Late 1808 departed from, unknown, convict ship Aeolus 289 tons, Capt. Robert Addie - Arriving Sydney 26 January, 1809. Possible contractors were Buckle and Boyd.

Year 1809

1809: Neva - Russian; Capt. Hargemeister; arrived Jan. 27, 1809. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1809: Dromo - American; arrived Feb. 24, 1809, departed Mar. 15, 1809. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1809: Boyd ??. Owner Unknown. Captain Unknown. 1809? Convict transport. See Bateson.

1809: Experiment II. Owner Peter Evet Mestaers of London. Capt Joseph Dodds. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1809: Aeolus. Owners Unknown. Capt Robert Addie. Convict transport

1809: Boyd (of 1809 to NSW). Simeon Lord of Sydney charters her to NZ. Capt John Thompson. 2 March 1809-18 Aug 1809. Trader. Owners Brown of London maybe. See email from Richard Quinn of 2004.

1809: Union of 1810. Owners Loane and Co. Capt Williams Collins. 1809-17 Jan 1810. 7 March 1810. Calcutta, spars, provisions, convicts. Of Calcutta?. Cumpston's Register.

1809: Indispensable (2). Owner Unknown. Capt Henry Best. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1809: Convict ship Experiment II, contractor, P. E. Mestears (Peter Evet, of London), 146 tons, built Georgia, Capt. Joseph Dodds, surgeon unlisted. Departing from Cork, 21 January, 1809 - Arriving Sydney 25 June, 1809. She early sailed from Cork with a West India convoy.

1809: Convict ship Indispensable 2, 350 tons. Capt. Hy Best, surgeon William Evans. Departing 2 March 1809 - Arriving Sydney 18 August, 1809. Indispensable, Contractor, whaler of Blackheath, Daniel Bennett. Shelton Contract No. 32, with Bennett dated 24 February, 1809, for 62 convicts.

1809: Convict ship Boyd, 392 tons. Capt. Jn. Thompson. Surgeon unnamed. Departing from Cork, 2/3 March, 1809 - Arriving 14 August, 1809. The contract does not appear to have been made out by Shelton.

1809: Shelton's Contract No 33, with Messrs Buckle and Boyd, their second contract, dated 12 August, 1809, for ship Ann 2. Capt. Charles Clarke, 221 convicts. Shelton charged £298/17/6d. Departing late 1809 - Arriving Sydney 27 February, 1810. Owner unknown, surgeon unlisted, no other details. (Pemberton has suggested the owners or contractors may have been J. & W. Jacob (?) She sailed from NSW with some wool cargo. (Pemberton, The London Connection, pp. 420ff.)

1809: London Docks: Joseph Moore acquired what became Lady Dock, part of Surry Commercial Docks.

Convict and other ships 1810-1820 to Australia

Continued....

May 1810: Maurice Charles O'Connel, soldier, married Mary Putland/Bligh, and on 26 March, 1814, Sir Maurice Charles O'Connel, Lt-Gov of NSW, transferred with the 73rd Regt to Ceylon, his son, Sir Maurice Charles, born 1812, Jan at Port Jackson, in June 1838 commissioned a Capt in 28th Regt, accompanying his father as military secretary. He later bred horses, and entered politics, 1845-48, he represented Port Phillip in the Legislative Council, in the first Ministry of QLD, President of QLD Turf Club etc, died in Brisbane in 1879.

1810: Ship Cyclops from Trincomalee Ceylon comesto Sydney, is bought by "Sydney Interests", sent to collect sandalwood at Fiji. See James Broadbent, Suzanne Rickard and Margaret Steven, India, China, Australia: Trade and Society, 1788-1850. Sydney, Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales, 2003., p. 47.

Year 1810

1810 or so: Convict contractor Alexander Mount Greig. (A name difficult to trace)

Date unspecified, John Archer Houblon MP. (A name difficult to research)

Date unspecified, Sir Roger Hudson of Sunbury married Emma Susanna Vansittart. (A name difficult to research)

Unspecified, banker with Child's Bank, William Backwell (no dates) son of alderman Tyringham Backwell and Elizabeth Child. (A name difficult to research)

Date unspecified, John Archer Houblon MP. (A name difficult to research)

Date unspecified, Merchant banker William Masterman (died 1845? with a son John MP for City of London?). Married to one Miss Mildred. Maybe firm Daniel Mildred, Wm Masterman and Thomas Walker of Lombard Street, later Masterman Peters Walker and Co with Gerald Scorer and James Moore. One address is 35 Nicholas Lane. What of the Agra and Masterman bank? (Names difficult to research)

Date unspecified? Francis Holyoake Goodricke of bankers Holyoake Goodricke and Co. of Wolverhampton. (See Goodricke Baronets?). (A name difficult to research)

Date unspecified, maybe active 1808, English gunpowder supplier Thomas Davy, partner with Josiah Roberts, supplied saltpetre for the Du Pont gunpowder makers in America. MNP's data on British gunpowder makers from whenever is still not well organised. (Names difficult to research)

1809: Contractor military, to government, banker, Sir Bart2 Colebrook (1729-1809). (From MNP's specialist sub-lists on merchants who are contractors to goverment)

1810s

Contractor, Naval and EICo shipping, Thomas Pitcher shipbuilder (nd), possibly guilty of malfeasance.

1810s or 1820s, Contractor, to military in India, John "King" Palmer (1767-1836).

Contractor to military re War of 1812 with America, John Maberley (1770-1845).

Contractor, re military during Napoleonic Wars, later a convict contractor to Australia, George Lyall (died 1853). Member NZCo.

Estimated, Convict contractor, minor, Alexander Grieg/Greig (?) (nd)

Contractor, British naval vessels, Joseph Fletcher Green with R. H. Green and Silley Weir Ltd., also building hospital ships.

Contractor, army, musket supplies. Samuel III Galton (c. 1752-1832).

Convict contractor, minor, Magnus Johnson (died 1832 at sea).

Contractor, banker, Patrick Crauford Bruce (1748-1820), HEICo figure.

Convict contractor, John William Buckle of Hither Green, London, (died 1846) of firm Buckle, Buckle, Bagster and Buchanan.

Convict contractor, Aaron Chapman (1771-1850). See also re convict contractor Abel II Chapman (1752-1849). Same, Abel III Chapman (1758-1852).

Contractor for military remittances, John Charles Herries (1778-1855). Also employed as a financial analyst to look into any corruptions by other contractors to the military.

Contractor, British naval timber, John Larking (active 1815).

Contractor, military, once London Lord Mayor, Sir Bart Charles Flower (died 1834).

Contractor, loans to government, David Ricardo (1772-1823).

1810: Canada (2). Owners, Reeve and Green. Captain John B. Ward. 1810. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1810: Hunter (of 1810). Owner not known. Captain Thomas Folger. Trader from Salem or New Bedford. From Wace and Lovett.

1810: Hunter of 1810. Owner, John Gilmore and Co. Captain James Robson. 20 Aug 1810 - 24 Nov 1810. Calcutta, Fiji, Derwent, Bengal. Jn Giilmore, shipbuilder. Cumpston's Register.

1810: Aurora of 1810. Owner S. R. Chace, New York. Captain O. F. Smith. 17 July 1810- 18 Sep 1810. Virginia, New York. Thos Wolden? Provisions and trade for n/w coast America. Cumpston's Register.

1810: Perseverance (of 1810). Owner, Robert Campbell of Sydney. Capt Frederick Hasselburg. Sealing, exploration, discovers Macquarie Island

1810: New Zealander. Owner, Daniel Bennett. Capt Wm Elder/Alder. 1 Oct 1810-13 Oct 1810. London, sperm fishery.

Cumpston's Register.

1810: Indian. Owner Unknown. Andrew Barclay. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1810: Shelton's Contract No 34, contract with George Faith (an unknown name), ship Canada 2, dated 3 March, 1810, for 135 convicts. Shelton charged £245/8/-. Departing 23 March, 1810, from England, 393 tons, owned Reeve and Green, Capt. John B. Ward, surgeon unlisted. Arriving Sydney 8 September, 1810.

1810: Britain occupies Mauritius and Bengal firms are asked to sell food to the island. About this time, Indian convicts under sentence of life transportation began to be sent there from Bengal (meaning NSW remained a destination for Caucasian convicts only). In 1815 the first batch of Indians went from the Allypore jail to Mauritius, the island's government had to borrow from Fairlie Fergusson and Co. at Calcutta, eg., $30,000 per month; such deals went on into the 1820s. (S. B. Singh, Agency Houses, p. 97.)

1810: Shelton's Contract No. 35, with George Garnett Huske Mannings/Munnings, Esqr. (an unknown name), for ship Indian, dated 5 July, 1810 for one man only. Otherwise, for 276 convicts. Shelton charged £253/12/2d. Indian, 522 tons, Capt. Andrew Barclay, destined for more such voyages; surgeon Maine, Departing 18 July 1810 - Arriving 16 December, 1810. The last convict ship departing in 1810.

Marjorie Tipping, Convicts Unbound: The Story of the Calcutta Convicts and their Settlement in Australia. South Yarra, Vic., Viking O'Neil, 1988.

By April-May 1787, the First Fleet ship, Lady Penrhyn, had presumably been given an EICo licence to take a tea cargo from Canton. In which case, she can be regarded as making a commercial reconnaissance voyage, via Australia, to NW America, then to China. At least, this was the original plan. By April 1787, London aldermen Curtis and Macaulay had decided to send Lt. Watts on Lady Penrhyn to NSW as part of the First Fleet. As a man who had been out with Cook, (a midshipman on Resolution, sailing with William Bligh), Watts has been greatly overlooked. A rare mention of him is contained in David Howarth, Tahiti: A Paradise Lost. (London, Harvill Press, 1983.. pp. 143ff).

Howarth is one of the few writers treating Lady Penrhyn's voyage to Tahiti after she left Sydney. (And it is remarkable how it is easy enough in books to track commercial motives for the departure of British ships to any destination - such as NW America, the West Indies, to India or China, but not regarding the convict ships to Australia - as though it is a taboo subject that somehow risks slandering the prestige of Captain Cook!)

More will be detailed below on Lady Penrhyn's voyage to Tahiti, arriving there before Bounty arrived. By 26 October, 1788, Bligh on Bounty had entered Matavi Bay, Tahiti. By 27 October, 1788, (Howarth, p. 147), Lady Penrhyn had been about a week at Macao, China.

Relevant dates: By 8 August, Lady Penrhyn was by Penrhyn Island, named by Capt. Sever. By 15 September, by the Isle of Saypan. On 17 September she refreshed at Tinian. By 15 October she was by Grafton isle. By 19 October, she sailed up Macao Roads, readying to take her cargo of tea. About China, Lady met a ship named Talbot.
The meeting with Talbot is confirmed in Ruth Campbell, 'New South Wales and the Glocester Journal, 1787-1790', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 68, Part 3, December 1982., pp. 169-180.
Then Lady Penrhyn went home, presumably to the enrichment of Curtis and Macaulay, and possibly William Richards. And to be remembered mainly because she had carried only women to Botany Bay, not because she represented a mystery about the tenor of London's commercial instincts about the Pacific. On Tahiti, on 26 October, 1788, Bligh entered Matavi Bay on Bounty.
Some of Lt. Watts' writings can be found in Arthur Phillip, The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay, With an Account of the Establishment of the Colonies of Port Jackson and Norfolk Island, including the journals of Lts. Shortland, Watts, Ball and Capt. Marshall. Melbourne, Facsimile edition for Georgian House, 1950.

Note: At least two stories appear as to why Lady Penrhyn did not go to North-West America. One is that she had developed a bad bottom (worm-ridden), by the time she got to Tahiti. Or, that the crew was too weak from scurvy. The ship's surgeon, Bowes-Smythe, opted for the scurvy explanation (see Bowes-Smythe's Journal, pp. 98ff). Watts took command of the ship on 18 May 1788. She was near Tahiti on 16 June, and arrived there 10 July, staying at Tahiti only ten days, not long enough to improve the crew's health. A decision not to go to America had possibly been made by 3 July. Scurvy symptoms began to dissipate by 3 August. By 18 October she was at Macao, then to Whampoa by 21-23 October. By 14 January 1789 she was leaving Macao to make for Java, Pulare of Malaya, then St Helena, to the Isle of Wight.


Reference item 1810++: H. E. Maude, Of Islands and Men: Studies in Pacific History. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1968.

Reference item 1810++ D. R. Hainsworth, The Sydney Traders: Simeon Lord and his Contemporaries, 1788-1821. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1972.

Year 1810

By 25 September 1810 re New Zealand. Court case in Sydney, John Robinson vs Charles Hook agent of Robert Campbell. Hook had employed John Robinson as a mariner. Robert Mason had been given command of ship Brothers and departed Sydney for sealing, with Robinson acting as overseer of the sailing gang. Campbell and others had agreed on all business by 10 February 1810. Mason went to an open bay on west coast of NZ then to north coast and to Cooks Straits, then south to Banks Island. Then south to Port Daniels, where he found two men left out of eleven he had once left at Isle of Wight for seal-killing (had the other nine deserted their post?). The nine missing men had had contact with ship Governor Bligh Captain Chaser. Robinson had then been caught up in an argument with Mason about feeding the nine missing men, and methods by which they were to be paid regarding any seals they had caugyht. The plaintiff Robinson won the case. (Aspects of NZ Maritime History)

1810: Duke of Portland - Capt. Spence, master; arrived Feb., departed 4 Mar. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1810: Albatross - American. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1810: Anne II. Owner Unknown. Captain Charles Clarke. Convict transport.

1810: Britain occupies Mauritius and Bengal houses are asked to sell the island food. About this time, Indian convicts under sentence of life transportation began to be sent from Bengal (meaning NSW remained destination for Caucasian convicts only). In 1815 the first batch of Indians went from the Allypore jail to Mauritius, the island's government had to borrow from Fairlie Fergusson and Co. at Calcutta, eg., $30,000 per month; such deals went on into the 1820s. (S. B. Singh, Agency Houses, p. 97.

1810-1812 circa: (Bartlett, p. 23), on US-Aust links over 20 years, between 1 Nov., 1792 and war of 1812, over 60 US ships visited Sydney, at least 20 bound for China, later came sealers and whalers.

Year 1811

1811: Army agent of Castle St Leicester Sq Thomas Thompson (1747-1811) married to Margaret ??.

1811: Friends. Owner Unknown. Captain James Ralph. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1811: Providence 1. Owner Unknown. Andrew Barclay. 20 Oct 1811. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1811: Milwood. Owner B. Minturn. Captain Elihu Smith. Trader to Fiji, China. From New York. From Wace and Lovett

1811: The Rapid. Owners, Dorr of US. Captain Henry Dorr. Wrecks at Ningaloo Reef. Mixed cargo to Canton. She is reputed to have lost 330,000 Spanish dollars, which has not been verified by marine archaeology. -Ed

Update of 29-12-2011 - Dear Merchant Networks Project, I notice you have a reference to Captain Henry Dorr of the ship Rapid bound for Canton that was wrecked on the coast of WA (at an area inhabited by savages only), on 7 January 1811; the captain and crew were all saved; and after 37 days of great suffering in their boats, they reached different parts of Java. Capt Dorr reported the incident in a letter written from Philadelphia on 30 July 1811. According to your notes, the site was vacuumed by the WA Museum and none of the alleged treasure' was ever located. I can tell you that the money that was left behind was taken up by a vessel from Batavia, under French colours, carried to or near Batavia, and subsequently taken possession of by the British (the British occupied the Batavia republic, 1811-1815). Estimates of the amount of money involved vary, although Captain Dorr stated 280,000 dollars. Captain Dorr lived in Boston and sailed the seas for what appears to have been an eternity. He had arrived in Boston on the Rapid on 2 July 1810 from Canton, which may have been his last completed trip in that vessel. I hope these notes are of some interest. Yours sincerely, Don Wilkey (29-12-2011), 4 Hardy Place, Kambah ACT 2902. (Thank you, much appreciated, Ed)

1811: Admiral Gambier (2). Owners, Buckles. Captain Edward Sindrey. 1811. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1811: Brutus. Owner Dorr. Capt Unknown. Ship or brig from Boston. US owned.

1811: Brutus (US). Owner Dorr. Capt Unknown. 1811, Launceston, Hobart. Ship or brig from Boston. From Wace and Lovett, p. 48.

1811: American one Capt Dorr for unnamed owners had the ship or brig Brutus from Boston to Launceston and Hobart.)

1811: Tonquin of 1811. Owner JJ Astor. Capt Jonathan Thorn. To Columbia River. Sealer. 1812 war ruins Astor's plan.

Jan or Jun 1811, John M. Forbes is at Hamburg re the T. H. Perkins firm, Perkins firm to T. P. Doubleday in 1811, and Wm Fitz Paine (who has a brother Frederic or Frederick) is on Mauritius, Isle of France, in 1811, associated.

19 July 1811, TH Perkins to John Grant in London - Mr. I. Thorndike Jnr. has just married to a daughter of Mrs Otis. (Ths John Grant is so far still unidentified.)

By 1811 when he died of consumption, Capt. Charles G. Cabot, son of George Cabot (1752-1823), sailed for T. H. Perkins selling opium, also tin from Malaysia. Young Charles George by 16 April 1806 had a letter from T. H. Perkins re a voyage to the Mediterranean re opium in a vessel "better adapted to the Malay trade".

1811, The US ship Rapid, lost, supposedly carrying 330,000 Spanish dollars. Capt. Henry Dorr. (From a US website on Dorr family) The Rapid was a three-masted wooden schooner of 367 tons, built in 1807 and registered at Boston, Capt Herny Dorr of Rapid was one of the syndicate owning her; she wrecked at Ningaloo Reef near Point Cloates on the north-west Western Australian coast on the night of 7 January, 1811. She had left Boston for Canton, with a mixed cargo including [it is said] 330,000 Spanish dollars. The Rapid went to pieces the day after her wrecking. (This wreck has been assessed by West Australian marine archaeologists and the site weel vacuumed. No salvage fortune in Spanish dollars was ever found.) (Note: From a website on the Dorr family which hasn't accurately updated its family legend, by the look of things. -Ed)

1810-1811: William Richardson as master has brig trader Active, from Salem, owned by Jas Cooke, to Hobart, Sydney, Fiji, Canton, Manila in 12/10 and 2/11; William P. Richardson, Freeman Richmond, I. B. Richmond as owner in 2/42 and 7-8/42 has whaler Addison Capt Thos. West from New Bedford, Hobart.

1811: B. Minturn in 4-7/1811 is owner for trader ship Milwood, from Philadelphia, Capt. Elihu Smith, to Sydney then to Fiji and China, see HRA, 1 (7), p. 432.

1811: Tonquin - American; Capt. Jonathan Thorn, master; arrived Feb. 13, 1811, departed Feb. 28. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

Year 1812

1812: Minstrel (1). Owner Unknown. Captain John Reid. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1812: Emu. RN? Lt Alex. Bissett, RN. 1812. Convict transport. See Bateson.

Essay section by Dan Byrnes

But for Americans ….?

But for Americans? 1791: As the Australian, Churchward, wrote, "The Americans were also to perceive the value of Pacific whales and began a fifty-year period of whaling finally using the largest whaling fleet the world had ever known." (Note: See Adele Ogden, ‘The Californians in Spain's Pacific Otter Trade, 1775-1795’, Pacific Historical Review, Vols. 1-4, 1932., pp. 424-444. See also on Coffin, Kerr on whalers, p. 34. Dakin,

Whalemen Adventurers, p. 12.

So here we try to examine American patterns of shipping ... (Note: See L. G. Churchward, Australia and America 1788-1972: An Alternative History. Alternative Publishing Co-Op Ltd., Sydney, 1979,pp. 5ff.

The American early trade with Sydney was a direct outgrowth of trade with China, and less so with the East Indies. By 1788, Boston merchant Joseph Barrell had read on Cook's third voyage and joined with four other Boston merchants plus John Derby of Salem and sent two ships to N/W America to collect furs. British merchants till 1798 dominated the Am. N/w trade, when sea otter furs sold for $80-$120 on the China market in the 1790s.  (See Churchward p. 6, on ship's profits, $30,000 to $100,000, or between 58% and 100%.) 

In May and Fairbank, we find that, (Intro, p. 1), Fairbank acknowledges that the opportunities the British provided the US shippers, and writes, “Because the British did not open the India-China trade to us, we [the Americans] did less well in supplying opium to China; but that only enhanced our sense of moral superiority. It was not Americans who fought the Opium War of 1839-1842, and the second war that finally opened China in 1860. Our [US] conscience could be clear. From that experience between 1784 and the 1860s we inherited a national image of the China trade as a good thing, an American success story.” [Although, that trade had never amounted to much, statistically - Ed] – (Note: Ernest R. May and John K. Fairbank, (Eds.), America’s China Trade in Historical Perspective: The Chinese and American Performance. Published by The Committee on American-East Asian Relations of the Dept. of History, in collaboration with the Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, London, Harvard University Press, 1986. In all, this volume is a mainstream historians’ treatment of Sino-US trade relations. See especially the section, Chinese Teas to America, a Synopsis, in three parts, by Yen-Ping Hao.

Fairbank (p. 2) writes, from 1898, when China became victim of international rivalry, … “Soon the Leninist and other theories of Imperialism linked America’s economic expansion with the lure of the China market, and a great deal has since been written about the influence of economic interests on our China policy. This is a large subject that does not diminish with time.” Still, Fairbanks feels that revisions on the US-China scenarios are required.

Hao (p. 3) writes, “The international trade at Canton, which the Americans joined in after 1784, was only an offshoot of China’s burgeoning domestic commerce. The teas and silks that went abroad were only a part of the growing domestic product. After all, while the merchants who took the initiative in the Canton trade came from Europe and America, the staple goods of the trade came mainly from China. The American trade at Canton began under the same compulsion that pressured British India into the opium trade – how to lay down funds at Canton with which to buy China’s teas and silks. For Yankee merchants, the main problem in the Canton trade was that the Chinese were self-sufficient and wanted nothing from America.

US traders were “reduced” to loading ice from Boston’s lakes and shipping ginseng root from the New England or sea-otter pelts and furs from the northwest coast, or even sandalwood from the Sandwich (Hawaiian) Islands.” Fairbanks then remarks on the often uncommented, but large size of the Chinese economy. Fairbanks et al then treat the tea trade (see work by Yen-p’ing Hao), and goes on, (p. 4) ... On opium as in Part Two. Opium is not a special focus, the heyday of the American opium trade was between 1800 and 1860, was never more than one-tenth the size of the Anglo-Indian opium import into China. US shippers could not buy opium at the Calcutta auctions of opium and so got opium from Smyrna, Turkey. Though some US traders did make a fortune, US trade in opium never acted as a means of laying down funds for teas and silks. The American govt, writes Fairbanks, ”never derived essential revenues from the [opium] trade, which remains largely an aspect of British imperial history.” So the book moves on to the cotton trade.

The US-China trade began from 1784, Yen-ping Hao notes, (p. 12), re the early American colonies' taste for tea, after the American Revolution. US shippers realised the market as New England ginseng was prized in China as a restorative. In December 1783, New England traders attempted to initiate direct trade with China by sending from Boston the 55-ton sloop Harriet to Canton with ginseng. At Cape of Good Hope, this ship alarmed some British traders, re competition from US, and sothey bought her cargo for double its weight in Hyson tea. The US captain profited, but then he lost his chance to go down in history.

Direct trade began without diplomacy, write Hao, (p. 12, an extremely important point about US trade in this formative timeframe for the US -Ed).

The first US ship to enter Chinese waters was Empress of China Captain John Green, got up by Robert Morris and Daniel Parker, loaded with ginseng and other commodities; Empress got 3000 piculs of Hyson and Bohea tea. The profit says Hao (p. 29) was 25 per cent, or, about $30,727 - Boston merchants got excited at news of success, (p. 12) and Boston men fitted out Captain Steward Deane, “an old privateersman”, who went for Canton in a sloop of 84 tons. In June 1787, (p. 12), Robert Morris sent Alliance with a cargo said to be worth $500,000. In December 1787, from Providence, John Browne sent a ship General Washington, which went for Canton and got home in July 1789. Other vessels going to Canton were Jenny and Eleonora of New York, Astrea of Salem, Massachusetts of Boston, and by 1790, the US-China tea trade had become regular.

Hao (p. 29) has in 1797-1798, US ship Betsy with profits of $53,118. By 1800, no nation but Britain had more ships in Chinese waters than the US. Between about 1803-1807 the US had about annually 36 ships to China. By 1805, (Hao, p. 22), the US shippers had realised they had no choice but to export specie to China for use there, the US at the time being short of specie, and they had to find Spanish dollars to give the Chinese, so they developed trades with Europe and South America to find Spanish Dollars, and the Americans had no bamking facilities to use in China, except what they could provide themselves. Gradually the Americans were forced to use London-based banking facilities, since London-based bills were more acceptable to both Chinese and British. 1807, both British and US ships bought furs at n/w American coast, and swapped them for tea.

The US had unrestricted trade, but the British fur traders had to have special EICo permission to visit the Nootka area, and could not freely swap for various Chinese goods, /sell furs, but had to sell them and deposit the specie gained with the EICo (see Byrnes’ article, "the first bank at Canton.), and the EICo then issued the Americans bills redeemable in London at 12 months sight. In contrast, (Hao, p. 13), the US men bartered freely, underselling British pelts by up to 20 per cent, and took tea wherever they liked.

Hao (p. 18) writes on early US supercargoes as tea buyers, then the establishment of resident US trading firms which dealt on commission in their own right or acted for other US mercantile houses. In 1795, Samuel Shaw was a supercargo on Ann and Hope, by 1800 he had established as a resident commission agent in China on his own account, and (Hao, p. 19), T. H. Perkins and Co. of Boston opened a branch at Canton, with John P. Cushing in charge (Cushing in Hao, pp. 29ff came home with a fortune of $600,000, retired by 1828 and let William Sturgis manage the funds.)

Cushing later withdrew from China trade and went into railroads, textiles and various “modern” investments). Then resident agents acted for B. C. Wilcocks of Philadelphia, and Daniel Stansbury of Baltimore. John J. Astor was represented by Nicholas G. Ogden and Cornelius Stowle. Samuel Russell a former supercargo appeared as a resident agent (He in Hao, p. 29 had partners Samuel Russell, Philip Ammidon, John C. Green and Joseph Coolidge). Hao (p. 22), says the Americans began to emphasise opium from 1820s to 1830s or so as they had run out of Hawaiian sandalwood, and ginseng and beche-de-mer were limited trades. American cotton was more expensive than indigenous-grown Chinese cotton. Between 1820s and 1830s, financed by London bankers, US shippers monopolized the Turkish opium output. They also sold smuggled Indian-sourced opium brought in by British country traders. Hao (p. 22) says opium played an insignificant economic role, here, statistically. Between 1820 and 1828, about 80 per cent of US tea trade was dominated by Perkins and Co., James Oakford and Co., Archer and Co. and T. H. Smith and Co. with others being Olyphant and Co., Russell and Co. (using John M. Forbes and (Hao, p. 30) says Forbes later invested his fortune from his retirement in 1837 in ironworks, steamships, railroads eg., Michigan Central Railroad. Forbes invested in Western railroads with money coming directly from the family of the famed Hong merchant , Houqua), and Westmore and Co. Philadelphia houses active had earlier been, Robert Morris, Stephen Gerard and Samuel Archer, but they gave way to New York houses. Hao (p. 19), also notes the activity of Augustine Heard Jnr., and that the boom in the fur trade ended in the early 1830s.

Hao (p. 24) writes that by 1826 onwards, the London bankers involved in US trade in China were Barings, the Browns, and Wiggens, Wildes and Wilson (the three Ws). By the 1860s, US merchants in the tea trade began to partner with Chinese merchants in promoting steamship navigation about China, eg Shanghai Steam Navigation Co. and China Merchants Steam Navigation Company (the first steamship company owned and operated by Chinese).

1820s: (Hao p. 19), the resident agents plus the mercantile houses gradually replaced the supercargoes as principal purchasers. By the 1820s a few large firms dominated US tea purchasing, at Canton including Perkins and Co, James Oakford and Co, Archer and Co, TH Smith and Co, Olyphant and Co, Russell and Co, Westmore and Co, with the first four here controlling about 80 per cent of the trade to 1828. Philadelphia houses represented the interests of Robert Morris, Stephen Girard and Samuel Archer among others had the lead for 20 years before yielding to New York merchants. Hao (p. 19), indicates that John P. Cushing and John Murray Forbes developed unusually cordial relationships with the dean of the Hong merchants, the renowned Houqua, or, Wu Ping-chien.

(Ends this essay by Dan Byrnes)

1812: See E. Daniel Potts and Annette Potts, 'James Hartwell Williams: First American Consul in Australia', The New England Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 2, June 1975., pp. 269-276. The 1812 war interrupted American shipping to Australia. When the trade resumed, it was taken up by the Salem firm Nathaniel B. Rogers and Brothers, who traded to Australia, Madagascar and Zanzibar as well as dealing with American whalers. See also, Werner Levi, 'The Earliest Relations between the United States of America and Australia', The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1943., pp. 351-361.

For 1812: (1812 - mid-1812, mysterious, departs ??, convict ship (HMS?) Emu, (Bateson p. 340), Lt Alex Bissett, RN, captured by the American privateer Holkar on 30-11-1812 and taken into New York as a prize. Did Shelton make out a contract for this ship? If not, perhaps she left from Ireland?) (Whalers sent by the Rotches are not noticed here, as some may have been sent from Dunkirk, France.) (Note: Reference items: A relevant title here is: John C. Dorraine, The United States and the Pacific Islands. Westport, Connecticut, Praeger, 1992. Geoffrey C. Ingleton, Matthew Flinders: Navigator and Chartmaker. Genesis Pubs Ltd/Hendley Australia., 1986. Paul M. Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery. London, Allen Lane, 1976.

Bartlett, p. 23, on US-Aust links over 20 years, between 1 Nov., 1792 and war of 1812, over 60 US ships visited Sydney, at least 20 bound for China, later came sealers and whalers.

American T. H. Perkins in 1812 is talking to Sir John Coghill, though it is unclear why, and who Coghill was.

1812: War between Britain and US.

September 1812: TH Perkins firm to Carter and Storr at Liverpool. Decries the 1812 war as "wicked" - in 1812 to Charles S. Cartlett at Alexandria re "the madmen in Washington". In Sept 1812, a Perkins letter to Vaughans in London and to William Vaughan in Sept 1812.

27 August 1812: TH Perkins firm to Hope and Co. (is that Hopes of Amsterdam?) re the French Imperial Factory at Canton re Houqua to receive per HEICo (British EICo?), $72,738.67 at interest of 1 per cent.

1812: In London in 1812, the invention of a better means of dressing seal skins arose so that a fur of much higher quality could be produced. This innovation caused another surge in the search for new seal colonies as the skins would now be worth so much more.

Allegation - 1812: American John Cushing, under the employ of his uncles' business, James and Thomas H. Perkins Company of Boston, acquires his wealth from smuggling Turkish opium to Canton. (From website based on book: Opium: A History, by Martin Booth, Simon & Schuster, Ltd., 1996.)

1812: (From Gaylene Mansfield-Smith of NZ), re the War of 1812 US-UK, all US whale ships were scuttled at harbours to blockade the British, the reason no US whalers were seen in the Pacific for 15 years, and as fact, this has never been notably commented by any Australian historian so far. - Re the US-UK war of 1812 (brief notes), it firstly an imperial quarrel, carried on mainly by British money, and essentially a contest over Canada. See James Hannay, History of the War of 1812 between Great Britain and the United States of America. Toronto. Morang and Co. 1905. A Canadian view mentions Jefferson's extreme hostility to the UK. War between GB-France 1792, raged for 20 years, Canada the scene of most of the wars, to separate Canada from the British Crown, or not. The Canadians remain loyal to the British Crown. John Jay was excoriated for the Jay Treaty by the US' Jeffersonian faction, while Hannay viewed the Jay Treaty as favourable enough to US trade. (Whalers sent by the Rotches are not counted here as US industry, as some may have been sent from Dunkirk, France.) (Note: See also, Bartlett, p. 23, on US-Aust links over 20 years, between 1 Nov., 1792 and war of 1812, over 60 US ships visited Sydney, at least 20 bound for China, later came sealers and whalers.

1812: Active brig (US). Owner James Cooke (US). Captain William Richardson. Trader, at Sydney from Salem. From Wace and Lovett.

1812: Indefatigable (1). Owners, James Atty and Co. Captain John Cross. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1812: Guildford (1). Owners Mangles Brothers. Captain Magnus Johnson. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1812: Anne (US-2). Owner B. Rotch. Captain Jas. Gwinn. 1811-1814. 1812 at Sydney. Whaler from New Bedford. From Wace and Lovett.

1812: Beaver - American; Capt. Cornelius Sowles, master; arrived Mar 26, 1812, departed Apr. 6, 1812 (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

Year 1813

1813: Earl Spencer. Owner Unknown. Captain William Mitchell. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1813: Fortune (2) (of 1813). Owner, Peter Evet Mestaers of London. Captain Thomas Walker. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1813: Archduke Charles. Owner Unknown. Captain J. P. Jeffries. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1813: T. H. Perkins firm correspondence re Fred W. Paine son of Dr Paine to [got to China or work for P?]

1813: Lark - American; Capt. Northcop, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

Year 1814

1814: Catherine. Owner Unknown. Captain William Simmonds. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1814: Somersetshire (1). Owner Unknown. Captain Alex. Scott. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1814: Surrey I (1) (of 1814). Owners Mangles Brothers (?). Captain James Patterson. Convict transport. See Bateson.

March 1814: Ship Active sails from Sydney to NZ, Bay of Islands area, having bought at Hobart various muskets etc from Captain Brooks of the ship Spring. Chief Ruatara of the area, who had earlier visited Sydney anyway, began to develop notions of arming his warriors. (From Richard Quin, Altar Ego (Wellington NZ, Dunmore Publishing, 2008) on Rev. Samuel Marsden, pp. 78-79

1814: Three Bees. Owners, Buckles. Captain John Wallis. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1814: Wanstead. Owner Unknown. Captain Henry Moore. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1814: General Hewart/Hewitt. Owner Unknown. Captain Percy Earl. 10 Feb 1814. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1814: Broxbornebury. Owner Unknown. Captain Thomas Pitcher Jnr. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1814: Sir Andrew Hammond - U.S. ship of war; commanded by Lieut. John Gamble of Marine Corps; arrived May 23, 1814, departed June 11, 1814. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1814: Cherub - British ship of war; Capt. Tucker; arrived Jun 22, departed July 15. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1814: Atahualpa - Boston; sold to Russians, renamed to Bering; wrecked off Kauai during attempted occupation by Russians. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1814: Isabella, Othrytie, Kodiak, Ilmen and Bering - Russian vessels. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

November 1814: New Zealand: Re ship Active, 136 tons, by Australia 28 Nov 1814, to Bay of Islands NZ 16 December 1814, Captain Thomas Hansen (with his son Thomas). Passengers included: Rev. Samuel Marsden, missionaries William Hall and wife Dinah, Thomas Kendall and wife Jane, John King and wife Hannah, free settler John Liddiard Nicholas. Chief Duaterra of Bay of Islands. Shungi, chief from Bay of Islands. Plus a few convicts especially allowed to assist. (See New Zealand's Heritage, Vol. 5, p. 579 and JL Nicholas, Narrative of a Voyage to NZ, 1817. Aspects of NZ Maritime History)

17 December 1814: New Zealand: Active Captain Hansen anchors off NZ's northern tip. A chief aboard and complained that he'd not long been defrauded in trade by the captain of the ship Jefferson (presumably an American ship). However, the Jefferson's captain had given the chief a musket in exhcnage for pigs and potatoes. Quin here notes that Marsden failed to forbid the use of guns as trade goods. There was aleready at this point a belief held by some Maori (eg chief Ruatara of Bay of Islands) that white men were coming to NZ to steal land, as land had been stolen from Aborginals in NSW. Marsden (who had met Ruatara earlier in Sydney) denied this was so, and probably knew that his access to European goods was valued by the Maori. Quin feels Ruatara outwitted Marsden in negotiations and gave his missionaries steep land unsuitable for cropping. Ruatara shortly had acquired about 23 firearms. So began NZ's Maori Musket Wars. Marsden in February 1815 took about 10 Maori back to Sydney for education. (From Richard Quin, Altar Ego (Wellington NZ, Dunmore Publishing, 2008) on Rev. Samuel Marsden, p. 77

Year 1815

1815: Northampton. Owner Unknown. Captain John O. Tween. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1815: Canada (next). Owners, Hurry or Reeve. Captain Unknown. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1815: Canada (3). Owner Unknown. Captain John Grigg. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1815: Barwell. Owner Unknown. Captain John Cameron. 7 Nov 1797- 18 May 1798. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1815: Baring. Owner, Buckles. Captain John Lamb. Convict transport.

23 August 1815: T. H. Perkins firm to John Harrod, supercargo brig Monkey in Trieste with coffee and sugar proceeds into opium and quicksilver unless other goods pay better, "Opium is generally plenty at Malta". (By which time we wonder if C19th dope-running is not more widespread than has been imagined - what about opium use in Spain, Germany, France, Scandinavia etc? - Ed)

In 1815: T. H. Perkins firm to John P. Higginson and G. W. Sturgis, re a ship to Malaya.

By 1815 per AGE Jones: Sealing hunting was occurring at 35 different places around the world including Macquarie Island. In 1821 the industry reached its peak when, according to Lloyd's Register, there were 48,000 tons of shipping (about 164 ships) engaged in sealing and whaling activities from Great Britain alone. There are records of another 27 ships from USA sailing the southern oceans at this time looking for fur seals. For example, there were 47 British and American sealing ships working the beaches at the New South Shetland Islands in 1820-21. It has been estimated that over 250,000 fur seals were taken from these islands in one season.

18 January 1815: T. H. Perkins firm to Messrs Idle, Coates and Co. London, re their ship Hero Captain Fenwick, is taken by US as a prize. In 1815 to William McGillveray of Montreal re n/w America fur ships.

1815: Indefatigable (2). Owners, James Atty and Co. Captain Matthew Bowles. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1815: Francis and Eliza. Owners, Reeve and Green. Captain William Harrison. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1815: Marquis of Wellington. Owner Unknown. Captain George Betham. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1815: Columbia - British; Anthony Robson, master; arrived Jan 16, 1815, departed Jan 18, 1815. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1815: Millwood - from New York; Samuel G. Bailey, master; arrived Dec. 7, departed Feb. 16. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1815: Columbia - British; Capt. Jennings; arrived Dec. 10, departed Jan 4, 1816. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

Year 1816

1816-1822: Australia. It was calculated in 1824 by William Charles Wentworth that betweeen 1816-1822, nearly 55 percent of goods imported to the colony of NSW came from Indian and Chinese ports (103,840 pounds worth). (See James Broadbent, Suzanne Rickardand Maergaret Steven, India, China Australia: Trade and Society, 1788-1850. Sydney, Historic Houses Trust of NSW, 2003., p. 10)

1816: Atlas III (of 1816). Owner Unknown. Captain Walter Meriton. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1816: Surrey I (2) (of 1816). Owners, Mangles Brothers. Captain Thomas Raine. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1816: Ocean I. Owner Unknown. Captain Alex. L. Johnson. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1816: Mariner. Owner, Abel Chapman. Captain John Herbert. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1816: Elizabeth I (1). Owners, Birch and Ward. Captain William Ostler. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1816: Fanny I. Owner Unknown. Captain John Wallis. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1816: Traveller. Owner, J. J. Wilcocks (US). Captain William French. Left Canton. March 1816. Freight with Walter Davidson, Canton. Has freight to Sydney from Canton from Walter S. Davidson, the 42nd US ship to visit Sydney. See Cumpston's Register, p. 18.

1816: Correio da Azia. Portuguese. Captain Joao Joaquim de Freitas. Exploration, wrecked. See notes.

1816: Admiral Colpys. Owners, Francis and James Todrig. Captain unknown. 1816-1817 lost. Whaling. James Todrig mariner of Hackney and Francis Todrig of Mile End. AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 194.

1816: Alexander II. Owner Unknown. Captain William Hamilton. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1816: Arab (whaler). Daniel and Wm Bennett. Captain Jn Brown, Wm Barclay. Whaling. AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 196

1816: Ontario. Owner, Plympton and Co. Captain Nathaniel Dorr. Trader to China from Boston. From Wace and Lovett

1816: Guildford (2). Owners, Mangles Brothers. Captain Magnus Johnson. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1816: Mary Anne I (1). Owner Unknown. Captain John R. Arbuthnot. Convict transport. See Bateson.

18 April 1816: T. H. Perkins firm to J. J. Astor re not accept a deal in $10,000 US dollars.

26 December, 1816: T. H. Perkins firm to Thos P. Doubleday as supercargo on Sally Capt Bertody, re 40,000 Spanish dollars.

1816: In 1816, American brig trader Ontario from Boston with Capt. Nathaniel Dorr for owners Plympton and Co., to Sydney and Hobart, thence Marquesa Islands and China. (HRA, 3 (2), p. 50. Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1816: By 1816, Bombay country [British] ships regularly carry opium with their other general cargo for China. Involved here also is "a Goan aristocrat", Sir Roger de Faria, who sometimes employs British captain Thomas Crawford. (Bulley, Bombay Ships, p. 155.) Note: 1822: Portuguese ship Angelica carries opium to China for Remington Crawford, Jamsetjee JeeJeebhoy and Sir Roger de Faria.

1816: Loose notes re JJ Astor -- Earlier a fur trader, John Jacob Astor of New York City joins the opium smuggling trade. His American Fur Company purchased ten tons of Turkish opium then shipped the contraband item to Canton on Macedonian. Astor would later leave the China opium trade and sell solely to England. (From website based on book: Opium: A History, by Martin Booth. Simon & Schuster, Ltd., 1996.)
1800-1812: New York merchant John Jacob Astor in 1800 makes profit of $55,000 on an experimental fur shipment to Canton. He soon tries a scheme to dominate the fur trade of North America and sales to Canton. He decided he could with his American Fur Co., undercut the British EICo at Canton (which buys from Hudson's Bay Co.) by keeping a shipping point on American west coast which takes furs from Rocky Mountains. So Capt. Jonathan Thorn on Tonquin went to establish a post, Astoria, at mouth of Columbia River in 1811. The 1812 US-British war collapsed the plan and Astor had to sell his operations to the Northwest Fur Company of Montreal. Astor kept in the China trade dealing in "a new cargo", (sandalwood supplies from India, Java, Timor and Malabar were becoming depleted), sandalwood, as in 1791, the Bostonian Capt. John Kendrick had discovered sandalwood growing on Hawaii's island of Kauai. Other Bostonians became interested. (As noted earlier, the American Dana of California later interested himself in sandalwood from Hawaii to China.)

1816: Rurick - Russian; Lieut. Otto von Kotzenbue; arrived Nov 21, departed Dec 14. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1816-1817: Lord Melville I. Departed England 15 Sep 1816. Arrived Sydney 24 February 1817. Owners, Bell-Wilkinson. Captain Thackray Wetherell. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1816-1817: Sir William Bensley. Departed About November 1816. Arrived Sydney 10 March 1817. Owner, Unknown. Captain Lew. E. Williams. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1816-1817: Morley (1) (of 1817). Departed England 18 December 1816. Arrived Sydney 10 April, 1817. Owner John Morley. Captain Robert R. Brown. Convict transport.

Year 1817

4 January 1817: Re New Zealand and missionaries there from Sydney: Secretary to governor Macquarie, J. T. Campbell, has taken a dislike to Rev Samuel Marsden's gunrunning activities to New Zealand, and writes to Sydney Gazette about it using the non-de-plume Philo Free. The ship Active had a week before arrived from NZ to Sydney after an eleven-month voyage with NZ timber and pork from the Society Islands. (From Richard Quin, Altar Ego (Wellington NZ, Dunmore Publishing, 2008) on Rev. Samuel Marsden, p. 93)

1817: Reference item:: Stephen Nicholas, Convict Workers: Britain, Ireland and New South Wales. CUP. 1988. Dept. Econ. Hist, University NSW. 300p. $40. Nicholas, Stephen, (Ed.), Convict Workers - Re-Interpreting Australia's Past. Examines records on 20,000 male and female convicts, 1/3rd of those transported to NSW 1817-1840. 246 p. $45.

1817: By 1817, the debts of five junior Hong merchants had been liquidated, total balance due, $1,108,664. By 1802-1803, Ponqua said he owed $1,540,000 to various Chinese, also $360,000 to Europeans and $300,000 to his own government for duties. An implication is that Hong merchant insolvencies subsidised tea consumption in Europe and Britain.

1817: T. H. Perkins also in 1817 wants Cushing to have all possible info on opium from Gulf of Persia. By 16 Jan 1817, TH Perkins firm aware the Chinese govt has issues a strong edict against opium.

7 February 1817: T. H. Perkins firm to Bernard Henry at Gibraltar re Ophelia sailing China to Gibraltar, wants opium and quicksilver, for 20,000 lbs Turkish opium, and re a new firm of Samuel Cabot Jnr. and J. Perkins Jr. and T. H. Perkins Jr each with $10,000 capital for seven years, witnesses are T. H. Perkins and Robert B. Forbes.

15 March 1817: T. H. Perkins firm to F. W. Paine, re a large quantity of opium. By March 1817 Perkins learns the price of Smyrna opium and that Houqua and Perkins Co have asked re getting Bengal opium in England - eg 15,000 lbs, about this time, Baring Bros. has a contract on quicksilver from the mines of Austria.

1817: Chapman (of 1817). Departed Cork 14 March, 1817, Arrived Sydney Cork on 26 July 1817. Owner Abel Chapman. Captain John Drake. Convict transport.

in 1817, Mr. Gen (General?) Perkins is dealing for Perkins Bros. at Smyrna for opium, re £10,000 in opium.

8 September 1817: T. H. Perkins firm tells FW Paine that Oliver of Baltimore has sold opium at Trieste and re $300,000 in silks.

1817: Lord Eldon. Owner, Buckles. Captain James T. Lamb. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1817: Pilot. Departed 9 March 1817 from Cork. Arrived Sydney 29 July 1817. Owner, Joseph Somes of Durham. Captain William Pexton. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1817: Canada (4) (of 1817). Departed 21 March 1817 from Cork. Arrived Sydney 6 August 1718. Owners, Reeve and Green. Captain John Grigg. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1817: Almorah (of 1817). Departed 26 April 1817 from Downs, England. Arrived Sydney 29 August 1817. Owner, Unknown. Captain William McKissock. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1817: Larkins. Departed 29 July 1817 from Portsmouth. Arrived Sydney 22 Nov, 1817. Owner, John Pascal Larkins. Captain Henry R. Wilkinson. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1817: Fame. Owner, Unknown. Captain Henry Dale.

1817: Shipley (of 1817). Departed 18 December 1816 from England. Arrived Sydney 24 April 1817. Owner, Lyall. Captain Lew. W. Moncrief. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1817: Columbia - British; Capt. Jennings; arrived January 27, departed Apr. 16. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1817: Bordeaux Packet - American; Andrew Blanchard, master; arrived Aug 12; sold to Kalaimoku in Dec. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1817: Rurick - Russian; Lieut. Otto von Kotzebue; arrived Sept 27, departed Oct. 14, 1817. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1817: Columbia - British; Capt. Jennings, master; arrived December 6; sold to Kamehameha I, May 2, 1818. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1817-1818: Elizabeth I (2) (of 1818). Owners, Birch and Ward. Captain William Ostler. Departing Cork 26 July 1817. Arriving Sydney 19 November 1818. Convict transport. See Bateson.

Year 1818

1818-1823: A trader from Charlestown, South Carolina, from a well-known family there, Charles Izard Manigault, has a role in American Pacific trade, to South Pacific Islands, Asia and Australian colonies.

1818: Minerva I (1) (of 1818). Departing Ireland 1 January 1818. Arriving VDL or Sydney 30 April 1818. Owner, Stuart and Co. Captain John Bell. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1818: Morley (2) (of 1818). Owner, John Morley. Captain Robert R. Brown. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1818: Guildford (3) (of 1818). Owners, Mangles Brothers. Captain Magnus Johnson. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1818: Isabella. Owner, Unknown. Captain Robert Berry. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1818: Ocean II (of 1818). Owner, James Atty and Co. Captain Sam. Remmington. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1818: Hadlow. Owners, Unknown, From Hull (?). Captain John Craigie. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1818: Glory. Owner, Unknown. Captain Ed Pounder

1818: General Stewart. Owner, Unknown. Captain Robert Granger.

1818: General Washington.

1818: Martha, Owner, John Blackett. Captain John Apsey. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1818: Lady Castlereagh. Owner, Unknown. Captain George Weltden.

1818: Maria I (1). Owner, Unknown. Captain Henry Williams. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1818: Mermaid HM. RN. Captain Philip Parker King. Exploration.

1818: L'Uranie. French. Captain Louis-Claude de Freycinet. Exploration.

1818: Lord Meville I (2) (of 1818 to VDL). Owners, Bell/Wilkinson? Captain Thackray Wetherell. July 1818. 17 Dec 1818. Convict transport. See Bateson.

Bateson, The Convict Ships, 1959.

1818: Tottenham. Owner, Robert Wigram. Captain Dugald McDougall

1818: Earl St Vincent (1). Owner, Buckles. Captain Samuel Simpson. See Bateson.

Early 1818: a T. H. Perkins ship recently has shifted 30,000 lbs opium.

11 February, 1818: American T. H. Perkins firm to Woodman and Offley at Smyrna re opium smuggling, but Perkins will be large in opium if possible.

1818: T. H. Perkins firm thinks that last year's opium (from where?) is only 150,000 lbs, with 50,000 to Europe and 100,000 to China, and re jealousy of EICo re Turkish vs Bengal opium, and good prospects of opium from Gulf of Persia, and P ship got 80,000 lbs to China and got 25 per cent above the price of Turkish opium and it cost less.

1818: By 1818 the US traders in Turkish-sourced opium are beginning to eclipse the British opium traders. (Bulley, Bombay Ships, p. 154.)

1818: Batavia (of 1818). Owner, Buckles. Captain William B. Lamb.

1818: HM Bathurst. RN. Captain Philip Parker King. Exploration.

1818: Friendship (of 1818). Owner, Unknown. Captain And. Armet.

1818: Brussa. Owners, Ralph Middleton et al. Captain William Dunbar. Whaling. James Warwick, shipbuilder Rotherhithe.

1818: Clarion. Owner Unknown. Captain Henry Gyzelaar. Sealer, trader from Boston. From Wace and Lovett.

1818:

Shipley (2) (of 1818). Owner, Lyall. Captain Lewis W. Moncrief

1818: Neptune I (1) (0f 1818). Owner, Unknown. Robert Cairns/Carns

1818: Santa Rosa - A pirate ship under Capt. Turner; arrived May, departed Oct. 20. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1818: Osprey - arrived 28 Aug, 1818, departed 20 Sept., 1818. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1818: Argentina - belonged to independents of South America; Capt. Hippolyte Bouchard; arrived Sept, departed Oct. 20. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1818: Kamschatka - Russian; Capt. Golovnin; arrived 20 Oct., 1818. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819) (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

Year 1819

By 24 July 1819: New Zealand: the first-appointed superintendent of Christian missions to New Zealand, John Butler, is sailing from Sydney to NZ to take up his duties. (From Richard Quin, Altar Ego (Wellington NZ, Dunmore Publishing, 2008) on Rev. Samuel Marsden, p. 95)

1819: Atlas I (2) (of 1819). Owner Unknown. Captain Joseph Short. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1819: Grenada (of 1819). Owner, Blackett of Hull. Captain Andrew Donald. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1819: Recovery (1) (of 1819). Owner, Chapman. Captain William Fotherly. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1819: Globe. Owner Unknown. Captain Joseph Blyth.

1819: Minerva I (2) (of 1819). Owner, Stuart and Co. Captain John Bell. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1819: John Barry (1) (of 1819). Owner Unknown. Captain Stephenson Ellerby. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1819: Mary I (of 1819). Owner Unknown. Captain John Lusk. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1819: Malabar (1) (of 1819). Owner, Johnson and Sons. Captain William Ascough. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1819: Lord Sidmouth (1) (of 1819). Owner Unknown. Captain William Gunner. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1819: Canada (5) (of 1819). Owner, J. Green and Co. Captain Alex. Spain. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1819: Hibernia (1) (of 1819). Owner Unknown. Captain John Lennon. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1819: Daphne. Owner Unknown. Captain Hugh Mattison. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1819: Surrey I (3) (of 1819). Owner Mangles Brothers. Captain Thomas Raine. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1819: Surrey I (3) (of 1819a). Owner Mangles Brothers. Captain Thomas Raine. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1819: Bencoolen (of 1819). Owner Unknown. Captain John B. Anstice. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1819: Tyne. Owner Unknown. Captain Casey Bell.

1819: Baring (2) (of 1819). Owner Buckles. Captain John Lamb. Convict transport.

1819: British poet John Keats and other English literary luminaries experiment with opium intended for strict recreational use - simply for the high and taken at extended, non-addictive intervals. (Though see below re the writer of Confessions of an Opium Eater - and his doses of laudanum. From website based on book: Opium: A History, by Martin Booth, Simon & Schuster, Ltd., 1996. 1821: Thomas De Quincey publishes his autobiographical account of opium addiction, Confessions of an English Opium-eater.

1819: Alarmed by the extent of British opium-carrying, the Portuguese at Macao try to come to "an accommodation" with British traders - who are not interested since they can now use depot ships at nearby Lintin and do not need Macao. (Bulley, Bombay Ships, p. 156.)

1819, Mr. Cabot is resident at Smyrna re commodities not including opium. In 31 October T. H. Perkins firm to F. W. Paine at Gibraltar, re Woodman and Offley at Smyrna re 300,000 lbs of opium at Perkins' direction.

Year 1820

1820: New Zealand: British army captain Richard Cruise is aboard Dromedary about Whangaroa, NZ, and he noted a Maori fascination with guns, the price being ten large pigs for one musket. The ship later took various Maori back to Sydney for training. (From Richard Quin, Altar Ego, (Wellington NZ, Dunmore Publishing, 2008) on Rev. Samuel Marsden, p. 131.)

Below are items still uncollected

Circa January 1822: Re New Zealand: Ship Westmoreland Captain John Potton, hired by Samuel Marsden to take John Butler back to NZ. Potton sold a musket or two to Maori for potatoes and pigs. (From Richard Quin, Altar Ego (Wellington NZ, Dunmore Publishing, 2008) on Rev. Samuel Marsden, p. 130.

May 1822: Re New Zealand: William Hall leaves Sydney for NZ on ship Vansittart. Hall was to report on activities of missionary Kendall. Hall at some point had also sailed on ship St Michael Captain Beveridge. (From Richard Quin, Altar Ego (Wellington NZ, Dunmore Publishing, 2008) on Rev. Samuel Marsden, pp. 130-131.

Circa 1823 and later: On the life of Richard (Dickey) Barrett in New Zealand. Born in 1807 in Durham, Dicky aged about 16 takes employment with an English whaling and trading company operating into Polynesia. He spent about three years on their ship, meantime learning to speak Maori. About 1827 he partnered with Love, Williams, Keenan and Holmes (all supposedly born in Durham except for Love, who was born on Isle of Skye, Scotland). They left Sydney in 1827 with trade goods to arrive to Kororareka in the north island, disposed of some cargo, went to Cooks Strait, then to Te-awa-iti where they decided to base. Then back to Cooks Strait for flax and potatoes. Then for Kororareka to load cargo and make for Sydney where they sold cargo to an English trader. Dicky Barrett amongst other things bought arms and ammunition to trade in NZ. The party sailed again for NZ in late 1827, and Love and Barrett were given Maori (Ngati-te-whiti) wives. They also made friends with the Atiawa tribe. They then set about killing pigs and curing pork. However, their ship Tahora was sunk by an accisdent at her moorings, and the party decided to build a boat from the ruins of the old. A trading ship came by, Captain Le Quesne, who would take them or some of their cargo back to England. Barrett thought the cargo he would send to England would have been the first direct shipment from NZ to England. The party completed their new boat, and tested it in 1829. Barrett and Love decided to re-base at Moturoa Island, partly due to warning that Northern Maoris would become warlike. They tried to raise pigs and to grow barley, wheat and indian corn and flax. Things continued to 1832. And at one point, Barrett's party had an arsenal of 750 guns plus cannon. Warlike Maori raided and a battle lasted about eight hours and some 400 or so bodies had to be buried. Between 1831-1835 Love and Barrett travelled much to the south, and trading ships were increasing in number. By late 1835 Love and Barrett had decided to buy land at Port Nicholson and settle there. Barrett had remained in touch with Captain Le Quesne. Barrett decided to trade as an exporter-importer and various goods for his activities arrived by February 1838, by when Barrett had had various talks with New Zealand Co. representative Edward Wakefield. There was little law and order to notice, and Barrett had written to Mr Busby asking for more policing, but it was impossible. In 1839 Barrett started brewing and had ideas of a newspaper being started. By 1840 the New Zealand Company had decided to concentrate on Wellington, and then came the arrival of (new Governor) Captain Hobson, who insisted on Auckland as a major centre, and insisted on trying to apply British sovereignty, which Barrett thought was a theoretical notion and not based in terms of what had actually been taking place in New Zealand, so Barrett and Hobson argued over how land deals could be handled. The missionaries Rev and Mrs Creed came ashore about the time Barrett had sorted out a (rather unsatisfactory as it turned out) land deal with the New Zealand Co. and Maoris. By now Barrett had avbout 1000 cattle, about 15 sheep and some poultry and goats, plus his brewery, and management of a hotel. Settlers around him varied from riff-raff and outcasts to fine English gentlemen such as his lawyer friend William Fox. Wellington was beginning to take a shape. Hobson died and a new governor, Fitzroy, arrived. By 1845, Barrett had decided to concentrate on farming and flax exporting, but he died in 1847. Prior to which he had lost popularity since he had been an interpreter for land deals with Maori and had allegedly done a poor job, his negotiations leading to various trouble. His daughters married white settlers named Honeyfield. (Taken from a typed extract from Barrett's own journal made about 1940 by Unknown, a copy of which has been sent to this website. Aspects of NZ Maritime History)

3 August 1823: New Zealand: Rev. Samuel Marsden arrives to NZ on ship Brampton. (From Richard Quin, Altar Ego (Wellington NZ, Dunmore Publishing, 2008) on Rev. Samuel Marsden, p. 137.)

1826: Contractor, military for domestic military encamping, John Willan Hemming (died 1826).

1833: Re New Zealand: Captain Knights of ship Spy, is about NZ remarking on the Bay of Islands missionaries, whom he regarded as sharpers in trading matters. (From Richard Quin, Altar Ego (Wellington NZ, Dunmore Publishing, 2008) on Rev. Samuel Marsden, p. 132.

1840: Re New Zealand: American Commodore Wilkes is about NZ on ship Vincennes, exploring. (From Richard Quin, Altar Ego (Wellington NZ, Dunmore Publishing, 2008) on Rev. Samuel Marsden, p. 145.)

Item mislaid - -- James Sibbald. Sibbald. Unknown. From India. Opium.

Item mislaid -- -- Amelia (nd). Owners, Jn, Wm and Thos. Henry Buckle. Not given. Whaling. Buckles. Cited no date in AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 195.



Internal Site Search Engine For This Website:

This free script provided by
JavaScript Kit


View web stats from www.statcounter.com/ for this website begun 4 July 2006


View The Merchant Networks Stats Feather graphic

Helmsman graphicHelmsman graphicHelmsman graphicHelmsman graphicHelmsman graphicHelmsman graphicHelmsman graphicHelmsman graphicHelmsman graphicHelmsman graphic