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On the 1775-1786 British Creditors

By Dan Byrnes

The oddity of the long list of British merchant names below is that the names have gone unremarked for so long, except, apparently, by Katherine Kellock, whose work is gratefully cited.

WITH FURTHER BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION ON THE BRITISH CREDITORS

See new file posted by 28-9-2012: A review by Dan Byrnes of Dr John Jiggens, Sir Joseph Banks and the Question of Hemp: Hemp, Sea-Power and Empire, 1777-1815. Australia, Jay Jay Publishing, 2012. Paperback, 285pp. ISBN: 978-0-9578684-3-4. At HEMP

A note on forms of citation:

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Some information here has been linked so that it can be expanded, via a number relating to a footnote in the text, eg, "From Note 16". Kellock researched 72 of the 207 British Creditors listed in the original document cited below. See a much-neglected article: Katharine A. Kellock, 'London Merchants and the pre-1776 American Debts', Guildhall Studies in London History, Vol. 1, No 3, October, 1974., pp. 109-149.

There are several contexts which Kellock ignored when she researched the British Creditors. These contexts include Scottish tobacco traders, British whaling and other non-whaling maritime history, (although she did consider the records of Lloyd's of London), convict transportation to both North America and Australia, and some commercial history of the City of London. With some exceptions, only those firms unlisted by Kellock have been allocated a footnote here, indicating where further information on them might be found. As well, a merchant name is footnoted where Kellock's information can be usefully amplified. Often, these sorts of information are complex to cite. For this reason I have provided keys.

KEYS:

@ = Useful references exist including matters of London commerce generally in other contexts. (Some names can be found in the English Dictionary of National Biography or similar compilations).

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To find your way to more files on Merchant Networks topics related either chronologically, or alphabetically by merchant surname, go to the main file of Sitemap.

# = References can be found in the context of trans-Atlantic slavery

* = References can be found in the context of the tobacco trade

+ = References can be found in the context of convict transportation to Australia from 1786

{} = Any other useful contexts

&& = Extensive genealogy is known to exist and has been explored within commercial contexts by various historians

&&& = Including actual and probable relatives, an individual noted otherwise in Duncan Campbell's Letterbooks, apart from the context of British Creditors' affairs.

The list below has been transcribed from a photocopy of the original in the Melville Papers, William Clements Library, University of Michigan. I am grateful to Dr Alan Atkinson, History Dept., University of New England, for forwarding me a copy of this original document.

List of Debts due by the Citizens of the United States of America to the Merchants and Traders of Great Britain contracted previous to the year 1776 with Interest on the same to the 1st January 1790. [One page is marked, "Recd 30th Novemr 1791"]

[Merchants are listed below in the order given in the original]

Red Sand divider

(1) The Estate of Anthony Bacon @ - listed in Kellock (2) John Clark and David Milligan && - listed in Kellock

(3) Christopher Court and Co &&& + - listed in Kellock. Regarding the London tobacco market.... Duncan Campbell in 1792 dealt with another British Creditor in London, Christopher Court, regarding renewed dealing in tobacco. And from 1792, little information arises on Campbell's further dealings regarding his own American debts, since Court's brother Joseph, of ? River, Annapolis, Maryland, was given a power of attorney by Campbell to handle further business in America. Campbell, that is, had grown weary of William Russell of Baltimore failing to attend to such business. Russell had been Campbell's agent since April 1768. During 1792, Campbell's two eldest sons toured the Continent, but one can only speculate if they arranged for their father to again re-export tobacco from London. Campbell on 7 March, 1792 advised John Rose of Virginia that he (Campbell) was still a member of the British Creditors, but not chairman any longer; a suit been initiated in the US Federal Court by a British Creditor, and, that court had declined to give a verdict till they "further deliberate on a point of such magnitude"... As he often did with his Creditors' business, Campbell closed on this note of resignation and his Letterbooks then fell silent on such matters. The Court brothers are largely unknown. All these gaps in information, along with lack of information on the London tobacco market, make it impossible to make any firm suggestions that links between Joseph and Christopher Court, Campbell, and any merchants in Europe, contributed to any extra business for tobacco dealers in Virginia or Maryland. While Lane, Son and Fraser remain a notable and rather mysterious exception, relatively few of the British Creditors were able to renew trading links with North America. It remains impossible to know from Campbell's career whether or not he profited from tobacco trading after 1792. Further speculation on that possibility may have to rely on information on the still-unknown career of Joseph Court in Maryland. (Note 149) Campbell in 1792 began talking with London tobacco merchant Christopher Court. [Duncan Campbell Letterbooks, Vol. 6, p. 334]. On 1 July 1792, Campbell wrote to Joseph Court Esqr of [? River near Annoplis {sic} Maryland]: Campbell with a power of attorney was willing to take all his post-revolutionary business from his former agent William Russell who had acted from him till 1775, and put it into the hands of Joseph Court. (Russell of Baltimore was not Russell the sometime chairman of the British Creditors who had been working with Campbell in London). Campbell by 1792 had found the mouths of his former American agents Mr Ridley and Mr Hodge "shut forever", so Campbell was deprived of information relating to debt recovery matters. Some of the debts Campbell was still concerned about had arisen in 1772 if not earlier, since he mentioned the firm defunct from 1772, Stewart and Campbell.

(4) William Clarke - listed in Kellock

(5) Duncan Campbell @+&& * {} - listed in Kellock. Duncan Campbell's career is an example of a London-based merchant who benefited considerably from the "debt-entrapment" policies inherent in the British financial systems of his day. (He may have had a tendency to avarice - he also had to provide for more than fifteen children!). From a non-commercial Glasgow family of clergy, Campbell began about 1750 as a humble ex-naval midshipman. His only patrons in trade seem to have been his Campbell relatives on Jamaica, who about 1753 had needed a reliable agent/supplier based in London. (Note 150) Campbell fulfilled that role faithfully and apparently honestly all his life. In the process, competing perhaps with up to eight other sons-in-law, he acquired control of the Jamaica plantation, Saltspring, earlier owned by his first father-in-law, Dugald Campbell. Over the years, Campbell became probably the most financially dominant figure in his entire extended family. This could not have happened if he had not been based in London and able to use the financial resources of the City to aid himself and others. That his relatives did less well than himself goes almost without saying; as does the fact that family members often turned to him for financial and other assistance.

From Note 15 - The itinerary of Duncan Campbell's eldest son Dugald on the Continent was: January 1792, Marseille, then Nice. Florence by 24 February and during March, c/- Messrs Donat Oris & fils and receiving from his father two notes (that is, traveller's cheques available from Sir Robert Herries' bank). Then Genoa, at Rome in April in care of Thomas Jenkins Esq. By mid-May to Venice care of Conrade Martens Esq., then Milan care of Monsr Ami Bonnet, then Venice. Dugald planned to come home via Germany. By 13 July, in Zurich in care of Monsr H. Jn Conte Schulthess. (Dugald's brother John had gone to Turin).

This information is drawn from pp. 298-339 of Campbell's Business Letterbooks, Vol. 6, ML A3230. Duncan Campbell had written to the East India Company on 20 February, 1788, offering them his ship Britannia, which Bligh had earlier sailed. Between 1789-1797, his son John sailed often to Madras in family-owned ships such as Henry Dundas and Britannia. John's address in 1801 was Great Queen Street, London. Between 1797 to 1801, probably reluctantly, John came ashore to assist his father as deputy-superintendent of the hulks.

William Russell at Piscataway by 1766 was corresponding with Stewart and Campbell of London; after 1782 he became an agent for Duncan Campbell. William Russell had resided in London in 1762. He was probably the Russell of Russell and Hodge importing convict servants to the Potomac in the 1760s. See Price, 'One Family'.

(6) Eddowes Petrie and Co - listed in Kellock

(7) Thomas Eden and Co && @ + &&& - listed in Kellock. (Note 151) Here, relevant names are Thomas, Robert and William Eden. As secretary to Lord North in 1775-1776, William Eden worked with Campbell to develop the hulks system of incarceration on the River Thames. (Note 152)

(8) Frank and Bickerton @ - listed in Kellock

(9) Samuel Gist @ - listed in Kellock

(10) Graham Johnson and Co - listed in Kellock

(11) Harrison and Ansley - listed in Kellock

(12) William and Robert Molleson @ && {} - listed in Kellock (Note 153)

(13) Byme and Jackson - listed in Kellock (as Prime and Jackson)

(14) The Estate of Thomas Philpott - listed in Kellock

(15) Wakelin Welch @ * {} listed in Kellock. See the text for connection to Thomas Jefferson.

(16) Samuel Waterman - listed in Kellock

(17) Robert and Thomas Wilson - listed in Kellock

(18) Champion and Dickason @ + {} && - listed in Kellock (Note 154)

(19) Amos Hayton @ - listed in Kellock

(20) William Francis - listed in Kellock

(21) The Estate of Thomas Hill - listed in Kellock

(22) Lyonel and Samuel Lyde @ && {} - listed in Kellock

(23) Hanbury and Co @ * {} && - listed in Kellock. [See Fitzpatrick, the editor of Washington's papers, p. 408, p. 485]. Washington dealt with Robert Cary and Co. on 17 May, 1767, and with Capel and Osgood Hanbury, 5 May, 1768. See Maryland Gazette, 3 April, 1766, cited in Price, 'One Family', p. 168.

(24) Mildred and Roberts @ - listed in Kellock

(25) John Blackburn @ - listed in Kellock

(26) John and Gilbert Buchanan @+ - listed in Kellock

(27) Dyson and Rogers - listed in Kellock

(28) Richard Shubrick * # && - listed in Kellock (Note 155)

(29) Bartholomew Pomery - listed in Kellock

(30) Neufville and Rolleston @ - listed in Kellock

(31) John Nutt @ && + # {} - listed in Kellock. (Note 156) From Note 3 - Regarding Nutt and Molleson to Henry Dundas concerning the British Creditors, 31 August, 1791. Duncan Campbell probably knew John Nutt well. John Nutt was probably the brother of Joseph Nutt, who after 1791 was a director of the Bank of England. Joseph was aged 72 in 1797. An indication of the linked complexities of business linkages and genealogy can be provided here. In 1797, Joseph Nutt's company was often sought by alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay (died 1803, listed here as British Creditors, George Abel and Macaulay), who had an interest in the First Fleet ship to Australia, Lady Penrhyn, with a view to sending her to examine prospects for seal fur about Nootka Sound. [See George Mackenzie Macaulay, Occurrences and Observations, Journal 1796-98. Add: 25,038, British Library. Regrettably, Macaulay's surviving diaries cover the period 1796-1797 only]. Research on Nutts and their associates leads one to reconsider slavery and the Carolinas to about 1770, and possibly the career of Henry Laurens, in ways too complex to pursue here. If any mysteries remain here, it is almost certain that solving them would be best assisted by clear information on the maritime history of trans-Atlantic slavery from 1760 to 1800. Marc Egnal's appendices in A Mighty Empire provide helpful lists of commercial names in the Carolinas which could assist in focusing any such research.

(32) Lane, Son and Fraser @ {} && - listed in Kellock. As Furber notes in his article on the first US trade with India, the London firm, Lane, Son and Fraser, by August, 1787 were rumoured to be financing ship-building about Boston for the East India trade, only a few years after American merchants had launched into trade to India and China. At least, John Temple, British consul at Philadelphia, spread such a rumour about Lane and Fraser. (Note 157) Lane, Son and Fraser had a long association with New England prior to the Revolution. (Note 158) Since the debtors of Lane and Fraser were New Englanders, their status as indebted was dissimilar to that of the tobacco planters further south. And here, a broad generalisation needs to be made. American historians seem never to have made a complete survey of the first US shipping sent to China, India, to Java, Mauritius, Manila in the Philippines. Nor of the financial or other results of the trade. This lack of information bears particularly on discussion of the trade policy that Jefferson espoused in 1786 and later, and interpretation of the policy. (Note 159) Tantalising clues can arise. A little-known Capt St Barbe brought Jefferson from Boston to Portsmouth in 1785, on a ship Ceres with Mr Tracy the owner aboard. (Note 160) It is not impossible that Tracy was Nathaniel Tracy, who bankrupted. (Note 161) Kellock (pp. 144ff) informs that one Nathaniel Tracy by 1783 had become linked to Lane, Son and Fraser of London. John Lane (whose father had recently died) in 1784 went to Boston from London, as in 1783 his father had unwisely loaned money to Tracy, who was verging on bankruptcy. Lane stayed five years in US, using the assistance of lawyer John Lowell and of Boston's leading banker, Thomas Russell (seemingly no relation to other Russells mentioned herein). Lane's presence in Boston is consistent with information presented by Bhagat about Lane and Fraser's activities. (Note 162) Lane and Fraser on 18 February, 1784 wrote to Elias Hasket Derby, an Asia merchant, possibly about shipbuilding at Boston? By the later 1780s it appeared Lane and Fraser were trying to creep back into trade to the US. (Note 163) According to Bhagat, pp. 7ff, Richard Derby the father of Elias Hasket Derby (died 1799) had traded to the West Indies, Britain, Spain, Portugal, Gibralter, till the American War. Richard's business was largely liquidated on his death. Derby sent a ship to India in 1784, named Grand Turk. He also sent many ships to Mauritius. At times a US-India ship earned profits of 700 per cent. One of Derby's captains was Capt Jonathan Ingersoll, on Grand Turk in 1784; another captain was John Gibaut [sic]. Derby's son was Elias Derby Jnr. who lived in India at Madras by 1790. Other US-India traders were Benjamin and Jacob Crowninshield, by 1792. Gordinier (p. 153) says that due to his immersion in US-India trade, Derby became the United States' first millionaire.

(33) Perkins, Buchanan and Brown * - listed in Kellock

(34) Grafton and Colson

(35) David Strachan and Co.

(36) Nash, Eddowes and Co [Petrie] - listed in Kellock

(37) John Strettel @ - listed in Kellock

(38) Heneage Robinson @ - listed in Kellock

(39) Richard and John Samuel - listed in Kellock

(40) Tappenden, Stanfield and Co. - listed in Kellock

(41) De Berdt and Burkett @ * && - listed in Kellock

(42) Kilby and Syme @ - listed in Kellock

(43) Abel and Macaulay @ {} && + - listed in Kellock (Note 164) That is, George Abel and alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay, underwriters at Lloyd's. By 21 August, 1786, Macaulay was partner with John Turnbull and Thomas Gregory. This partnership on August 21 offered government enough shipping for what would have become the First Fleet to Australia, but their offer was not taken up. So little is known of them, their motives in making the offer are difficult to establish. See the note above for John Nutt.

(44) Greenwood and Higginson @ - listed in Kellock

(45) John Bland @ - listed in Kellock

(46) Robert Smith - listed in Kellock

(47) Powell and Hopton

(48) The Estate of William Neate @ {} + - listed in Kellock (Note 165)

(49) Cooper and Telfair @ * &&& - listed in Kellock. By about 1772, Duncan Campbell was intending to deal in North American lumber for Jamaica, including shingles. One of the names arising in that context was Telfair, but supportive information is lacking.

(50) Edward and Rene Payne @ {} && - listed in Kellock. These are probably of the Payne family connected with the discreet London merchant bank established from 1758, Smith, Payne and Smith. (Note 166)

(51) Thomas and Rowland Hunt @ - listed in Kellock. These are noted below in information on the Carter family of Virginia.

(52) Pigou and Booth @ {} - listed in Kellock

(53) James (Bissell) (Bussell?) Russell - listed in Kellock [if Russell] (Note 167)

(54) Trecothick and Co @ * && - listed in Kellock

(55) The Estate of George Hayley @ && {} + - Listed in Kellock. [Otherwise in Kellock, William Dickinson and Co.]. Hayley's widow Mary Wilkes died intestate in 1816. Her father was a distiller, Isaac Wilkes. She first married a clothier, Samuel II Storke and secondly, George Hayley of the firm Hayley and Hopkins, investors in whaling. Later she had the assistance of Francis Rotch, whaler, and Patrick Jaffrey. Her brother, the radical alderman John Wilkes was born in 1727, at Clerkenwell, London. A member of the Hell-fire Club, he had married Mary Aylesbury Meade. A prime anecdote about Hayley is that about the time of the Boston Tea Party, George III knew that the Boston merchant John Hancock was deeply indebted to Hayley. So the king must have been given City gossip. The historian purveying this anecdote finds it insignificant. I find it highly significant that the king had information on which outspoken Boston merchant might have been indebted in the City, to which City merchant.

The merchant John Storke Senior had died in 1711, married to Miss Dummer of Boston. His son Samuel died of a sudden stroke of the palsy leaving Alexander Champion in charge of the firm. The firm dealt with Americans such as Robert Livingston Jnr. and Henry Cuyler, who had families in the American fur trade. It also from 1723-1724 dealt with James Logan. who had a connection with the Pennsylvania trade of Quaker John Askew, whose son John Askew Jnr. carried on the fur trade till 1730 when he too died. For the next ten years Storke dealt with Logan and Shippen, In 1746 Storke began dealing with Thomas Lawrence. In Philadelphia, Storke dealt with Isaac Norris Snr. and Isaac Norris Jnr., in wheat sent to Spanish and Mediterranean ports. Storke had agents in Jamaica named Tindale, Manning and Co. A Storke son also worked in Hamburg. Storke dealt among others with four large Boston houses, Joshua Cheever, James Bowdoin, Andrew and Peter Oliver, and Bill & Sewall. In the 1730s, Storke dealt with Holbroide and Pearson at Gibralter, Patrick Purcell and Co. at Cadiz, Winder and Ferrand at Barcelona. Samuel Storke Jnr. entered the family firm in 1742 and soon took as a partner, Alexander Champion. His father's firm had been known as Samuel Storke and Co, Storke and Gainsborough, Storke and Son, Storke and Champion, and dealt with Boston, Philadelphia, New York, Lisbon, Cadiz, Gibralter, Jamaica, St Johns, Newfoundland, and major northern European ports. This firm dealt with Andrew Oliver of Boston and Livingstons of New York. Storke died in 1753, so Champion continued to trade, later linked with Lane, Son and Fraser. Samuel Storke II had married Mary Wilkes, who on his death married alderman George Hayley. After Hayley died, Mary consorted with the American whaler, Francis Rotch. An irony here is that since Mary was sister of the radical John Wilkes, who had influenced political thought in America, the business interests of his sister suffered by the American War. The Hayley estate as a British Creditor claimed 79,599. (Note 168)

American Revolution graphic

(56) Edward and Thomas Hunt @ - listed in Kellock

(57) James Poyas - listed in Kellock

(58) John Masterman - listed in Kellock

(59) George Bague (Bogue?) - listed in Kellock

(60) Dickinson and Lloyd - listed in Kellock

(61) Acton and Eyre - listed in Kellock

(62) Richard Grubb - listed in Kellock (Note 169)

(63) William Dickerson and Co - listed in Kellock

(64) John and Charles Hurst - listed in Kellock

(65) Sandiforth Streatfield @ - listed in Kellock

(66) William Jones @ (Note 170)

(67) Stephenson, Randall and Cheston @ + {} (Note 171)

(68) John Backhouse and Co. @ (Note 172)

(69) William Bolden

(70) Sparking and Bolden

(71) Joseph Daltera @ + (Note 173) - The Daltera family is mentioned briefly in Samuel M. Rosenblatt, 'The Significance of Credit in the Tobacco Consignment Trade: A Study of John Norton and Sons, 1768-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, 29, 1962., pp. 383-399.

(72) John Dixon @ &&& (Note 174)

(73) Henry Fleming @ &&&

(74) Fisher and Bragg @ &&&

(75) Samuel Martin @ (Note 175)

(76) John Nixon

(77) John Sargant and Co.

(78) John Hicks

(79) Spedding, Hicks and Co.

(80) Blackburn, Ramsay and Co.

(81) Bogle, Brown and Co. *

(82) Bogle, Jamieson and Co. *

(83) Peter and William Bogle and Co.

(84) Alexander, Brown and Co. *

(85) Buchanan, Brown and Co. * (Note 176) Various Scottish firms with which Buchanans were associated are often mentioned in articles by historians T. M. Devine and Jacob M. Price. Of course, the major Scots tobacco dealers dealt with Sir Robert Herries in London, whose career has never been fully assessed.

(86) Buchanan, Hastie and Co.

(87) Andrew Buchanan

(88) James Campbell

(89) James Carlisle and Co. and James [Jas] White and Co.

(90) James Chalmers and Co.

(91) Cochrane, Donald and Co.

(92) Cumming, Mackenzie and Co.

(93) Dinwiddie, Crawford and Co.

Here, Dinwiddie may be connected with Robert Dinwiddie, the Lt.-Gov of Virginia 1571-1758, who had been a graduate of the College of Glasgow when Duncan Campbell's father Neil was principal of that College. The list of graduates of the College is studded with names found in history to 1810. The name Pitcairn for example became associated with the legend of Bligh and HMAV Bounty. In London in the 1790s, a Dr. Pitcairn from the same family attended Duncan Campbell's youngest son by Mary Mumford for hydrocephalus ("water on the head").

(94) Donald, Scott and Co.

(95) James and Robert Donald and Co.

(96) Robert, Thomas and Alexander Donald

(97) Thomas and Alexander Donald and Co.

(98) Dreghorn and Murdoch and Co.

(99) Robert and Thomas Duncan

(100) Dunlop and Cross American Revolution graphic

(101) Colin Dunlop and Son and Co.

(102) Dunlop and Montgomerie

(103) Dunmore, Blackburn and Co.

(104) William Gray and Co.

(105) John Hamilton and Co.

(106) James Jamieson

(107) Andrew Johnston and Co.

(108) James Johnston and Co.

(109) James Lawson and James Lawson and Co.

(110) Hector Macome

(111) McCall and Donnistown and Co.

(112) McCall and Elliott

(113) McCall, Snellie and Co.

(114) McCall, Wardrop and Co.

(115) George McCall

(116) George McCall and Co.

(117) James McCall

(118) John McCall and Co.

(119) John McGunn and James Moodie

(120) McDowall, Stirling and Co.

(121) John McDowall

(122) Montgomerie, Scott and D. Montgomerie

(123) James Morton and Co.

(124) Muirhead, Hay and Co.

(125) Murdoch, Donald and Co.

(126) George Murdoch and Co.

(127) James Murdoch and Co.

(128) Oswald Donniston and Co.

(129) James Ritchie @ &&&

(130) James and Henry Ritchie

(131) James Smith and Co.

(132) Alexander Spiers and Co. * &&

(133) Ninian Spence

(134) Thomas Snodgrass and Co. @ &&& (?)

(135) Andrew Thomson

(136) Todd, Menzies and Co.

(137) James Wardrop and Son

(138) John Warrand

(139) Hugh Wylie and Co.

(140) George Yuill

(141) Thomas Yuill and J. and G. Murdoch and Co.

(142) John David and John Cross

(143) George Brown

(144) Ramsay, Monteath and Co.

(145) Brown, Scott and Co.

(146) James Brown and Co.

(147) George and Andrew Buchanan *

(148) Colin Dunlop and Co. *

(149) Speir(s), French and Co. * (Note 177)

(150) Charles Reid and Co.

(160) Hugh Jamieson

(161) William Douglas

(162) Archibald Torrance and Co.

(163) George Brown and Co.

(164) Alston, Young and Co.

(165) John Alston and Co.

(166) William Cunningham and Co.

(167) Cunningham, Finlay and Co.

(168) Cunningham, Brown and Co.

(169) William Cunningham

(170) John Glassford and Co. @ &&& (Note 178) At times in Campbell's Letterbooks, a name appears which resembles Glasscock or Glassock.

(171) Glassford and Henderson

(172) Glassford, Gordon, Monteath and Co.

(173) Henderson, McCall and Co.

(174) George Kippen (?) and Co.

(175) Henry Glassford

(176) Henry Riddell for John Riddell

(177) James Alston and Co.

(178) Patrick Telfair and Co. @ {} &&& (Note 179)

(179) Scott Colquhuon and Co.

(180) Patrick Colquhuon @ + * {} (Note 180) Colquhuon at this time was in Glasgow, shortly to come to London to work as a magistrate. As sociologist he worked definitively on "the state of crime" in London.

(181) James and Robert Buchanan

(182) Stephen Scott and Donald

(183) Andrew Sym and Co.

(184) William Caldorhead

(185) James Gammell and Co.

(186) William and James Donald and Co.

(187) John and James Wilson and Sons

(188) Cumberland Wilson

(189) William Wilson - Unknown. This name would be of too-old a generation to be the William Wilson sailing with Duff Capt James Wilson, the first ship sent in 1796 by the London Missionary Society into the Pacific. Aboard Duff was one William Wilson who later by 1807 was London agent for the Sydney merchant, Robert Campbell. There may be some unknown interconnections between Wilson families here. Robert Campbell of Sydney was not related to Duncan Campbell the hulks overseer.

(190) James Wilson and Sons

(191) John Elam and Son

(192) Emmanuel and Samuel Elam

(193) Emanuel Elam

(194) The Assignees of John Ellis

(195) The Executors of Samuel Elam

(196) Clay and Midgley @ &&&

(197) Hugh Parry

(198) Brigden and Waller - listed in Kellock (Note 181)

(199) Newham (?) and Thresher

(200) John Migglesworth

(201) Robert Empson and William Whitelock

(202) Ralph Elliot

(203) William Dighton

(204) Richard Farr and Sons

(205) John Hay and Co. and B(and?) (?) Hay and Co.

(206) Charles Goodwin

(207) William Thomas

(The list of British Creditors ends)

A firm not in the original document cited above, but listed in Kellock (p. 122) is Davis, Strahan and Co. The same applies to Deberdt and Burkitt, regarding Dennys Deberdt, on whom information is available. Perusal of several sets of original documents would probably expand the final list beyond 207 names.

From Note 2 - Francis Baring by 1792-1793 was chairman of the East India Company. The little that is known of his attitude to any trade the US might conduct in Britain's eastern ports is contained in Philip Ziegler, The Sixth Great Power, Barings 1762-1929. London, Collins, London. 1988; and in Holden Furber, 'The Beginnings of American - Trade with India, 1784-1812', The New England Quarterly, June, 1938., pp. 235-265. Ziegler suggests, p. 59, that by 1783, Baring was corresponding with the Philadelphia financier, Robert Morris, and also [Senator] William Bingham, but so little is known about this, one wonders how meaningful it might be? William Bingham had been an early worker for Morris as revolutionary financier, and married a daughter of Morris' partner, Thomas Willing. Bingham's daughter Anne married Alexander Baring, the first Lord Ashburton. These connections may bear further investigation. A useful reference is Ferguson, Purse, pp. 78ff; GEC (Cockayne), (Ed.), The Complete Peerage, p. 26 of the volume with the entry, Bath; see also, Ashburton. See the entry below on Thomas Willing. On Barings, see R. W. Hidy, Bulletin of the Business Historical Society, Vol. 13, No. 6, December, 1939; R. W. Hidy, 'The House of Baring and American Trade', Bulletin of the Business Historical Society, Vol. 9; Ralph W. Hidy, The House of Baring in American Trade and Finance: English Merchant Bankers at Work. Cambridge, Mass, Harvard University Press, 1949. Items in DNB, various.

From Note 15 - On the buyer of tobacco for the French, Sir Robert Herries, born 1731. Herries developed the traveller's cheque. (See Sayers on Lloyd's, pp. 191ff). Also, Sir William Forbes of Pitsligo, Bart, a second edition of Memoirs of a Banking House. Edinburgh, 1860., pp. 28ff.

From Note 22 - When the defeated British quit their former American colonies in 1783 they took with them more than 30,000 ex-slaves, [figures vary] putting them on Nova Scotia, whence many were later sent to Sierra Leone (though many died). By 1783 the annual British export of slaves was 34,000 per year (about 2/3rds annually of this number within three years would be dead). In 1787, the population of the British West Indies was 58,353 whites, 7706 free negroes, 461,864 slaves, a total of 527,923 people. Eric Williams, pp. 152-153. See also, James Walvin, Black Ivory: A History of British Slavery. London, Harper Collins, 1992., p. 295.

From Note 27 - Captain James Hanna, employed by John Henry Cox, an East India Company interloper, from the China coast pioneered the English trans-Pacific trip for the fur trade to North America. Cox's backers were essentially "illegal". One of the very few London-based East India Company firms willing to invest in any new Canada-China trade was David Scott (a father-son firm), although some stimulus seems also to have come from Bengal, that, is from men with East India Company connections, but possibly, from the Company point of view, of a renegade tendency. The Scotts' interest in Nootka fur has never been fully explained.

From Notes 34-37 - On Thomas Willing, merchant of Philadelphia and partner of Robert Morris. In October 1793, Sydney, Australia was visited by Capt Rogers in Fairy, an American snow from Boston; Rogers was wanting to sail to Nootka for furs for Canton, By 1802, there are a few US ships off the east African coast meeting London whalers, and probably at times off the West Australian coast: see Rhys Richards, 'The Cruise of the Kingston and the Elligood in 1800 and the Wreck Found on King Island in 1802', The Great Circle, Vol. 13, No. 1. 1991., pp. 35-53. Bhagat (p. 13) cites East India Company officials noting in 1806-1807 that American trade in India in that period exceeded "everything of the kind recorded in the Commercial History of British India". Some 23 US ships visited Madras in 1805. Jefferson's trade embargo of December 1807 largely ruined this extensive trade, and there was some consternation amongst the British at the reduction of business turnover overall. Thomas Willing had a son aboard United States, the first US ship sailing to India, which hauled into Pondicherry, the French base, so naturally the English were suspicious of it. According to P. C. F. Smith's article, Robert Morris' scheme to send Empress of China began to take shape in four-six weeks after May, 1783, after the formation of the Society of the Cincinnati, an elite "brotherhood" drawn from the officers of the Continental army and navy (Daniel Parker the trader was not one of them, but Alexander Hamilton was). Several Cincinatti members were interested financially or otherwise. A catalyst of the China plan was John Ledyard, who had been out with Cook's third voyage, and remained interested in the "North-West Passage", furs, and the China market. Also involved with Empress of China were William Duer of New York, Daniel Parker and his associates, Walter Livingston of New York, John Holker; possibly, Turnbull, Marmie and Co. of Philadelphia. Meanwhile, Bhagat, (p. 8, Note 19), suggests that United States as the first US ship to sail to India was owned by Philip Moore, Mark Bird, James Wilson, Joseph Harrison, James Hood, John Redman (with Thomas Redman a surgeon aboard), and Joshua Humphreys. [With the name Bird, there may be no connection, but before Baring became banker for the US government, a bank named Bird, Savage and Bird had that account. See S. R. Cope, `Bird, Savage and Bird of London, merchants and bankers, 1782 to 1803', Guildhall Studies in London History, 1981, pp. 202-207.]. But we note that Holden Furber in his book, John Company at Work, says she was owned by Thomas Willing, and he is supported there by another writer. Lord Macartney in India thought she was owned by Thomas Willing. Bhagat is not convinced Willing was the only owner, as most Philadelphia ships were jointly-owned. A daughter of Thomas Willing married the US Senator William Bingham, a business associate of Robert Morris. Bingham's daughter Anne Louisa married into the Baring family in London, see notes above. Other citations of use here would include: Samuel W. Woodhouse Jr., 'Log and Journal of the ship United States on a Voyage to China in 1784', The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. LV, 1931., pp. 226. G. Bhagat, America's Commercial and Consular Relations with India, 1784-1860. Unpublished Ph.D thesis. Yale, 1963.

From Note 37 - Abernethy in Western Lands, p. 184 suggests that by early 1777, Robert Morris "thus held the keys to America's foreign trade". And, pp. 211ff, Richard Neave of London in association with Wharton and Baynton was interested in the Vandalia Land Co. A large shareholder in this company was Thomas Walpole MP. Robert Morris had 1.5 million acres in Virginia and he once sold four million acres of land to the Holland Land Co. Abernethy does not mention Matthew Ridley in his index. Abernethy suggests (p. 228) that Morris outsmarted Jefferson generally regarding the expanded settlement of Virginia. On 20 February, 1781 Morris was elected Superintendent of Finance by Congress, although Washington had preferred an appointment of Alexander Hamilton. Morris died owing the US about 100,000. Thomas Perkins Abernethy, Western Lands and the American Revolution. New York, D. Appleton-Century Co., (University of Virginia, Institute for Research into the Social Sciences), 1937.

From Note 64 - Carter Braxton was one of the extensive Carter family of Virginia. Braxton worked for Robert Morris in marketing tobacco from about 1776 but his achievements in this work have never been described.

From Note 64 - Inspection of the biographies of many of the British Creditors will also entail inspection of many biographies of colonial families in pre-revolutionary America. Two Creditors listed by 1791 were Thomas and Rowland Hunt, who dealt with the well-known Robert Carter III of "Nomini Hall". A revealing statistic assists further with discussing matters relating to both genealogy and American debt handling. During the American War, Robert Carter of Virginia was obliged to borrow a total of 65,000 from his colonial associates to keep his estates in production. (Note 182) This was a large sum, a sum larger than most of the debts claimed by individual British Creditors. Carter seems to have had little trouble in repaying these monies. Repaying his debts to fellow colonials, Carter of course had to address himself to marketing his tobacco, a question of foreign trade. It was precisely the profitability of such foreign trade which Jefferson had to consider when in Paris and London.

From Note 69 - After the death of his first wife, Matthew Ridley in April 1787 married Catherine Livingstone, daughter of Governor William Livingstone of New Jersey; so he became a brother-in-law to John Jay. Ridley as agent for Maryland sailed to Europe in November, 1781 to later meet John Adams in Holland, and John Jay in France.

From Note 82 - Nathaniel Polhill MP, (1732-1782). His father was William Polhill of Sussex. Polhill became a leading London broker and tobacco merchant, and supported Wilkes. He also supported Gordon's anti-Catholicism that led to the riots of 1780. Duncan Campbell wrote to him in April 1782 on Creditor's business, advising "resignation to God who alone" could support one amid such afflictions. Campbell had called men named by Polhill to a meeting, but they were few. Mr Sainsbury had offered to ask Alderman Newnham to sound the Chancellor of the Exchequer. The group that formed named itself the Committee for British Merchants (of London, Bristol, Liverpool, Whitehaven and Glasgow) Trading to Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina Previous to the Year 1776. A general meeting of the group was held on 19 October, 1785. The committee met again on 22 February, 1790 with Grenville, and with Pitt on 20 March, 1790. Pitt before 3 March, 1790, had desired "that the respective States from which these debts are due might be distinguished". Campbell dreamed of recovering his American money until the late 1790s. See Christopher Hibbert, King Mob: The Story of Lord George Gordon and the Riots of 1780. London, Longmans Green, 1958., p. 56. Early in the riot situation, only six members of Parliament voted with Gordon and Alderman Bull regarding Gordon's motion for the enormous petition for repeal of the Catholic Relief Act, being Sir Philip Jennings Clerke, Sir Michael le Fleming, Sir James Lowther, Sir Joseph Mawley, Mr Polhill and Mr Tollemache. See Valentine, British Establishment, p. 709.

From Note 104 - An American merchant wanting to sell US whale oil to France was Thomas Boylston of Boston. Also interested in whale oil was Nathaniel Barrett. (Note 183) John Adams in 1785 had unsuccessfully attempted to sell American whale products to prime minister Pitt. As he did, America was concentrating her whaling industry and successfully selling whale products to France. (Note 184) A contract had been made for lighting Paris streets with US oil. (Merrill Peterson has conjectured that this flow of capital would have helped check the flight of the Nantucket whalers to either Britain, or France, but assessment here would perhaps depend on which interests in the US were receiving the proceeds?). (Note 185)

From Note 122 - AN INCOMPLETE LIST OF DUNCAN CAMPBELL'S PRE-1776 COLONIAL CORRESPONDENTS.

Duncan Campbell's pre-1775 colonial correspondents of relevance included: (Note 186) members of the Carter family, (Note 187) Allison and Campbell (untraced), Colonel William Brockenbrough and Austin Brockenbrough, Dr John Brockenbrough, Adam Barnes and Johnson (untraced), James Bain (untraced), Rev Mr Beauvoir, James and Robert Buchanan, George Buchanan, Robert Cockerell (untraced), Messrs Campbell and Dickson (untraced), Colin Currie, Stewart Carmichael (untraced), William Dickson, Charles Eyles, Fitzhugh family, Fauntleroy family, Richard Glascock / Glascook / Glassford?, Benjamin and Charles Grimes, Henderson and Glassford, Rhodam Kenner, Abraham Lopez and Son, James Millar Jamaica, Daniel Muse, Hudson Muse, Hugh McLean, Joshua Newall, George Noble, Francis Randall, Major Henry Ridgely, Adam Shipley, William Snydebottom (untraced), Richard Stringer, Alexander Speirs and Co, Speirs, Finch and Co, Dr Sherwin, William and Edward Telfair, the Tayloes of Mount Airy, Virginia, the Thornton family, William Vanderstegan of Cane End (untraced, although a London merchant of the period, Vanderstegan, can be traced in Burke's Extinct Baronetcies) and Charles Worthington (untraced). (Confusingly, some of these traders, or their family members, appear to have been colonials, such as Telfair, but some seem to have identified themselves as non-revolutionary, and ended back in England). (Note 188)

From Note 124 - Regarding Campbell's own efforts at debt recovery... In May 1789 he intended, after having contacted Matthew Ridley, to send to America Frank Mackett, the son of an old friend, on debt collecting business. Mackett caught fever at Gravesend and died. Mackett was to see Austin Brockenbrough, Leeds Town, Virginia. Mr. Russell of Baltimore, Maryland. And Campbell's old attorney in Maryland, Matthew Ridley. After Mackett's departure, Campbell set about re-contacting his Creditor friends. By 1 July, 1789 Campbell was trying to arrange meetings with prime minister Pitt. On 1 July he wrote to John Rose of Leedstown Virginia a heartfelt missive about his losses, to try to sound out American reaction. The subject engrossed Campbell the rest of the year, and he downplayed his Jamaican engagements for the interim. Then he became caught up in embarkations for the Second Fleet to Australia. The Creditors met on 10 February and decided to ask to meet with Pitt. Campbell contacted Pitt's assistant, Smith, on 18 February. (Then died Campbell's brother of Plumstead, London, Neil, on 23 February, 1790). The Creditors met with Grenville after 27 February, 1790, then met with Pitt early in March. Pitt shrewdly (and in fact echoing Jefferson's attitude in 1786) desired the American states in question to be distinguished from one another. It was a matter of federated versus individual states' rights. That was that.

The Creditors met again on 20 March, 1790 (for Campbell, just as Bligh got back to London from his debacle on HMAV Bounty) but they never again had the same force. Pitt remained unhelpful. Campbell continued to fantasize about recovering his American debts into the late 1790s.

From Note 133 - In Sydney, NSW Australia, in 1892 and probably later, there lived a civil engineer at 46 Leinster Street, Paddington, William Dugald Campbell (WDC). This man was descended from Duncan Campbell. WDC kept his ancestor's Letterbooks, which should be regarded as prime historical documents concerning the first transportations of British convicts to Australia, and are now in the Mitchell Library, Sydney, having been acquired as part of the library of Sydney historian George Mackaness. (Mackaness was the first biographer of William Bligh. (Note 189) William Dugald Campbell: born 1848 - died July 26, 1938, buried at Chillagoe Cemetery (34km from Almaden), Mareeba, Queensland.

This information has come from Paul Brunton, archivist with the Mitchell Library, and Colin Campbell, secretary of the Clan Campbell Society of Australia. I have been unable to discover any further information on WDC, who had three children.

From Note 135 - An informant on Duncan Campbell's genealogy has been Miss Marion Campbell of Kilberry, Scotland, who is descended from the same family via the line of John Campbell of Black River, Jamaica, from 1700 "the first Campbell on Jamaica". John Campbell of Black River was an uncle of Duncan Campbell's father, Rev. Neil Campbell (1678-1761), principal of the College of Glasgow between 1728-1761. However, no researcher has yet been able to identify the father of Principal Campbell, and the matter remains a bemusing conundrum for Campbell genealogists.

From Notes 138-140 - WDC took copious notes on his family history, held as ML A3232. The present author has lodged with ML a copy of Campbell's will, courtesy Public record Office, PROB/11/1388, kindly forwarded by Mollie Gillen.

From Note 140 - Duncan Campbell's obituary notice: "Died at Wilmington, in Kent, Duncan Campbell Esq. He is succeeded as governor and overseer of the hulks at Woolwich by his deputy, Mr. Stewart Erskine, a gentleman possessed of great humanity, and of the strictest honesty and integrity and who has had the sole management of that concern for him ever since its first establishment in 1775. Mr. C. died possessed of much property, yet, to the surprise of their best friends, has not left any legacy to Mr E for his long and faithful services; though he seemed always to be considered himself much indebted to that gentleman for his great accumulation of fortune."

From Note 142 - See Olson, 'Virginia Merchants of London', p. 371. By 1725 the Virginia mercantile lobby in London included Richard Perry, Thomas Cary, John Norton, John Flowerdewe and George Hatley, most of whom had close relatives among the tobacco planters, both needing and aiding each other. By 1775, one notices much less intermarriage between London merchants and their families, and the more affluent families of Virginia and Maryland. However, I have not extensively examined families from New York, Boston or Philadelphia for levels of intermarriage with families remaining in England. See also Jacob M. Price, 'Who was John Norton? A Note on the Historical Character of some Eighteenth-Century London Virginia Firms', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 14, 1962., pp. 400-407. Price cites John M. Hemphill, Virginia and the English Commercial System, 1689-1733. London, Garland, 1985. [Facsimile of a 1964 Ph.D thesis, Princeton University].

From Note 144 - Intermarriages in London between English commercial families interested in trading to the West Indies and the American colonies from as early as 1610 are listed in Robert Brenner, Merchants and Revolution: Commercial Change, Political Conflict, and London's Overseas Traders, 1550-1653. CUP, 1993. In particular, Brenner mentions an early surveyor of Virginia, William Claiborne, a promoter of the Kent Island project, whose descendants became notable in Virginia. One descendant, Catherine Claiborne, married John Campbell of Black River, whose brother's sons settled on Jamaica. The descendants of these sons were correspondents of Duncan Campbell in London from 1753. My inspection of Virginian genealogies has not provided any information on further linkages between Claibornes and Campbells on Virginia, and so, since Duncan Campbell's partner from 1758, John Stewart, also remains unknown, I remain unable to speculate on whether these family links from 1700 had anything further to do with Campbell originally entering trade to American tobacco colonies from 1758. Colonel Leonard Claiborne died 1694 at Carlisle Bay, Jamaica. Extensive material exists on the Claibornes of Virginia. Leonard Claiborne, the son of Colonel William Claiborne of Virginia, settled in Jamaica where he was a colonel in the militia of St Elizabeth's; he was killed in a repulse of the French in 1694 at Carlisle Bay. By his wife Martha he is supposed to have had two daughters, Catherine and Elizabeth. Elizabeth remains unknown. Catherine married Capt John Campbell of Inverary, Agyleshire, who was part of the military with the tragic Scottish Darien Company, and on his return to Jamaica was one of the custos of St. Elizabeth's. This John Campbell (Black River) died 29 January 1740/1741 and Katherine died in 1715 aged 34. The published sources available to a Virginian genealogist, John Dorman, do not indicate if Catherine Claiborne/Campbell had any children.

John Frederick Dorman, CG, FASG, 175 Hulls Chapel Road, Fredericksburg, Virginia. 22406-5218. USA. Note: I have used a database for organising genealogical information to compile, recompile, link and cross reference a great deal of previously scattered information on merchants, merchant politicians, mariners and their families relating to the period and events under consideration here. The database is: Personal Ancestry File, (PAFV5). Marketed by the Family History Departments of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Assistance in compiling and annotating the complex Campbell genealogy and related material has been gratefully received from Rev. Richard Borthwick, Perth, Australia. Edward Linn of Sydney. Miss Marion Campbell of Kilberry, Scotland. Mr Alastair Campbell of Airds, Chief Executive, Clan Campbell, Inverary Castle, Inverary, Argyll, PA32 8XF. Scotland. Mr Diarmid A. Campbell, Editor, Journal of the Clan Campbell Society of North America, 284 South Sly, Foxway, Denver, Colorado. 80135, United States of America. also PO Box 4428, Denver, Colorado. 80204 United States of America. Mr Colin Campbell, Secretary, Clan Campbell Society of Australia, 21 Morella Avenue, Sefton NSW 2162.

* * * * *

Jefferson's career after 1786 is well-documented. Campbell's career is not, despite his role as hulks overseer which ensures he was lodged in the literature of convict transportation to Australia. Oddly enough, and making it difficult for anyone researching Campbell, his name was somehow stripped from relationship to three prime land sites in London and Kent. His London address was 3 Robert Street, the Adelphi. He also resided at The Orchard, a well-known site at Blackheath, London (though it is not entirely certain he resided there). Later, he owned the present site of Brandshatch motor raceway, Kent. At least, Campbell's son John, who had sailed with Bligh, inherited farmland named Brandshatch. (Note 190)

Some mysteries remain, not just about the British Creditors, or the rise and fall of the tobacco market in London between 1775 and 1792. Anyone concerned with the chairmen of the British Creditors will be impressed with Jacob M. Price's masterly genealogical treatment, 'One Family's Empire', but with Campbell, matters are even more complex because of his role as hulks overseer. Certain questions of local history and genealogy can be asked about Blackheath and areas of Kent where Campbell bought land. Descendants remain interested. The biographers of William Bligh have remained unaware that the man who helped put Bligh in command of HMAV Bounty once met Thomas Jefferson. The Campbell genealogy and family connections have a far wider spread across the face of the globe than Price has indicated for the relatives of William Molleson and James Russell; and they were involved in hulks management in ways still not fully explored, let alone commented. (As women of similar age, Bligh's wife Elizabeth Betham was good friends with Campbell's second wife, Mary Mumford).

* * * * *

A SHORT NOTE ON METHOD:

This article has necessarily had to tread both the highways and byways of research because Campbell and so many of the British Creditors have remained unstudied, while Jefferson's career is well-known. The most effective way to approach any problems which might have arisen, or were unexpected, was to juxtapose each formal (or, abstract) topic area with as much genealogical information as seemed necessary to prove that no contradictions existed in information being assessed. A problem may arise here, for example, with the biography of Mary Storke/Hayley (nee Wilkes), and her involvements in whaling endeavours could easily inspire a separate article sorting wheat from chaff. One remains intrigued that relatively little work has been done on the US merchants who between 1783 and 1812 carried on the first trade between the US and India and China, South East Asia. One is more intrigued on realising that some of the connections of those merchants might have been voluble in the debate between the Hamiltonians and the Jeffersonians, but I have avoided that area of inquiry, as it would become a separate topic, and since it was more important to concentrate southward, to assess that until 1792, anyway, no Virginian or Marylander attempted to renew trading links with Duncan Campbell, or any other British Creditor on whom a range of information was available. Here, Lane, Son and Fraser remain interesting in respect of the American maritime colonies.

Apart from genealogical inquiry, I have used straightforward methods which appear to have strengthened some impressions already strong in the literature (such as, from Olson's work, the role Campbell played in London's merchant politics to 1775). However, as is apparent, strengthening that impression only makes it more apparent how little has been done on Campbell, or other creditors, such as George Hayley, or Lane, Son and Fraser, during the American War, or relating to its various aftermaths.

Meanwhile, we find that difficulties arise with the maritime history of convict transportation between 1718 and 1800, for if that history was better-organised, two topics would probably become arranged more clearly: (a) the careers of Campbell as a convict contractor as well as a tobacco trader would no longer be divorced, and (b) if the pre-1775 trans-Atlantic carriers of tobacco were better known, as maritime men, perhaps the fate of the London-American tobacco trade would be easier to describe. One of the few titles available which lists a considerable number of mostly American captains engaged in shipping tobacco before 1775 is Jack P. Greene, The Diary of Colonel Landon Carter of Sabine Hall. Two Vols. Virginia Historical Society, University Press of Virginia, 1965. (Note 191)

One could easily refer at length to other pointers to how various types of data could be arranged around stores of more accurate genealogical information. But once we know that the first Campbell to settle on Jamaica circa 1700 was John Campbell of Black River, we also find it intriguing that in an excellent work - Richard S. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624-1730. Chapel Hill, 1972 - there is no mention of people named Campbell. Yet we can remain confident that Dunn's book will help describe the lives of the Jamaican correspondents of Duncan Campbell of London, including, from the mid-1790s, Duncan's eldest son, Dugald.

It is for these sorts of unexpected reasons and situations that the information presented in this appendix is rather scattered. Apart from providing some useful citations, I have confined the information presented to persons, situations or topics which might fruitfully bear further inquiry, but without explanation of why I have made these judgements. Citation became more tortuous as clues become more faint, but even a generalisation such as this could be unexpectedly intersected, as when I found the extraordinarily interesting but only recently arising body of information that Robert Brenner has provided for anyone interested in the origins of the Claiborne family of Virginia, as, methodologically, I had to be, due to a Campbell/Claiborne marriage on Jamaica. (Robert Brenner, Merchants and Revolution: Commercial Change, Political Conflict, and London's Overseas Traders, 1550-1653. CUP, 1993).

Brenner makes it clear that British-London traders to the West Indies and the American tobacco colonies can now be traced genealogically, in detail, from about 1600 to well beyond 1800, possibly in a way never before achievable. I am grateful to Tod Moore for pointing out that Brenner's book had become available.

PLEASE NOTE: THAT THE STYLE USED ABOVE FOR PROVIDING INFORMATION ON ENGLISH MERCHANT NAMES HAS BEEN EXPANDED FOR USE IN A LATER-WRITTEN PROJECT (AFTER 1994) WHICH WILL ALSO SOON BECOME AVAILABLE ON DISK (ON THE BUSINESS LIVES OF THE ENGLISH CONVICT CONTRACTORS, 1718-1835). THE TIME-FRAME HAS ALSO BEEN EXPANDED, SO THAT INFORMATION ON ENGLISH MERCHANT NAMES NOW MOVES FROM 1550 TO NEAR 1900. USING THIS INFORMATION, A HISTORIAN COULD EASILY COVER PERIODS FROM THE INITIATION OF ENGLISH EXPANSIONISM TO BEYOND THE TIME OF THE AUSTRALIAN GOLD RUSHES. IF SUCH INFORMATION WAS COMPREHENSIVE, IT OUGHT TO EMBODY INFORMATION ON CONVICT TRANSPORTATION TO BOTH NORTH AMERICA AND AUSTRALIA. IF CONVICT TRANSPORTATION CAN PROPERLY BE SEEN AS A SUB-SET OF SLAVERY, THEN IT OUGHT ALSO BECOME CLEAR HOW AND WHY CONVICT TRANSPORTATION TO AUSTRALIA CAN BE SEEN IN THAT LIGHT. ONE MIGHT OBSERVE, THAT AFTER 1817-1820, MANY MEMBERS OF BRITAIN'S GENERAL SHIPOWNERS' SOCIETY (GSS) CHARTERED THEIR SHIPS FOR CONVICT TRANSPORTATION TO AUSTRALIA. THE FULL FACTS ON SUCH MATTERS ARE NOT, HOWEVER, PRESENTED IN GENERAL BRITISH MARITIME HISTORY OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY, NOR IN HISTORIES OF CONVICT TRANSPORTATION, NOR IN HISTORIES OF THE GSS ITSELF. WHY NOT? IS INTERESTING TO ASK. WHAT IS FOUND, IS THAT ONE CANNOT GATHER USEFUL BIOGRAPHICAL MATERIAL ON SUCH SHIPOWNERS WITHOUT ALSO GATHERING BIOGRAPHICAL MATERIAL ON LONDON BANKING NAMES. IN THIS CASE, FURTHER RESEARCH OUGHT TO BE FRUITFUL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VARIOUS NEW PERSPECTIVES.

Dan Byrnes, April, 1996- September 1997

Appendix to A Bitter Pill - Finis

Begins the Endnotes to the Appendix to A Bitter Pill

Note 149: Campbell to John Rose, Virginia, London 7 March, 1792, Duncan Campbell Letterbooks, Vol. 6, p. 312. Campbell in London to Joseph Court, Annapolis, Maryland, 1 July, 1792, Duncan Campbell Letterbooks, Vol. 6, p. 334.

Note 150: The first Campbell settling on a Jamaica plantation was Duncan's grand-uncle, Colonel John Campbell of Black River, in 1700. He had been with the ill-fated Scottish Darien Company expeditions, but, probably a Jacobite, he refused to return to a Scotland which might be joined in Union with the Crown of England. John of Black River entreated his Scottish nephews to join him. The sons of John's brother Dugald responded. Their descendants formed Duncan-of-London's kin-based client group about south-west Jamaica. Not long before the American Revolution began, some of these kin were planning from Scotland to begin operations in either Philadelphia or Virginia/Maryland, though they opted for Jamaica. I am unaware however if these pre-1775 plans had anything to do with connections arising from the fact that John Black River had married Catherine Claiborne (died 1735), daughter of Colonel Leonard Claiborne (died 1694) of the noted Virginian family of Claibornes. On ideas of exploiting "Darien sites", or, the area around today's Panama Canal before the 1690s, see Brenner's masterly research in Merchants and Revolution, p. 188 and elsewhere.

Note 151: On Thomas Eden, see Kellock, p. 122. William Eden, later Lord Aukland, was of Beckenham, Kent. (Valentine, British Establishment, p. 284). He was a member of the Board of Trade in 1786. Not long before, his brother Robert (died 1784) had been governor of Maryland (1768-1776) (where Duncan Campbell had been investing in land). See Greene, Diary of Landon Carter, Vol. 2, p. 1031; Tommy Thompson, 'Indebtedness', p. 23.

Note 152: G. C. Bolton, 'William Eden and the Convicts, 1771-1787', Australian Journal of Politics and History, Vol. 26, 1980., pp. 3-44. Also, Wilfrid Oldham, Britain's Convicts to the Colonies. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1990.

Note 153: See Jacob Price, 'One Family'.

Note 154: Champions as investors in the South Whale Fishery are listed in "The Samuel Enderby Book". (See bibliography).

Note 155: The name Shubrick is noticed in the history of slave-dealing about the Carolinas. Available information is sketchy; see the note below.

Note 156: On James Crockat, who dealt sometimes in slaves. In 1760 the Crockat interest took in Alexander Watson and Richard Grubb. A firm formed at Charles Town, Carolina, commercially linked to Crockat's brother John, and Ebenezer Simmons and Benjamin Smith, that dissolved in 1745; Smith then took one John Palmer as a partner, during the 1759 troubles with the Cherokee Indians. Joseph Nutt was in South Carolina handling military supplies, and in 1760 and 1761, Smith and Nutt imported 600 slaves. Here, Nutt and Crockat also dealt with John Beswicke; there were matters also perhaps with South Carolina merchants Henry Laurens, Benjamin Smith and John McQueen. (See Kellock, pp. 127-138). James for a time was possibly a leading merchant at Charleston, Carolina, and in 1736 is supposed to have been prominent in insurance; in 1739 he returned to London where he traded extensively with America and also Canada. In 1749 he became London agent for South Carolina and remained so for seven years. In 1744 Henry Laurens was sent to London to be trained by Crockatt and Laurens hoped a partnership would eventuate, but this was not so due to misunderstandings or worse. One Charles Crockatt was much less a businessman; some of his transactions went awry and he shot himself. In later years one Henry Crockatt was for a time a partner with J. J. Angerstein, one of the noted leaders of Lloyd's of London whose biography is now being researched by Anthony Twist, of Cambridge, England. Mr Twist conveys details such as that once, Angerstein bought a ship, Blagrow, from Duncan Campbell. Both were residents of the Blackheath area, London.

Note 157: After 1787, (Furber, 'Beginnings of Trade with India', p. 242) the British consuls at Philadelphia, Phineas Bond and John Temple, became concerned about US ships being used to remit fortunes from India back to Europe, and about the illegal introduction of India goods into British territory via the same means. In July, 1787, worry arose that a mere three US ships could supply the usual US demand for India goods, while proof of remittances being made came when Capt. Bell came into Madras in May, 1788 with the ship Commerce, with 50,000 worth of goods, some 30,000 by her owners and 20,000 worth on consignments from various Europeans in Madras. An unnamed London City firm was apparently involved; it was possibly Lane, Son and Fraser.

Note 158: Lane and Fraser are mentioned as British Creditors in Kellock, p. 114, p. 131. Kellock finds Lane and Fraser involved in the tea shipments protested at the Boston Tea Party. I have retraced some of the maritime history of the Boston Tea Party in my article, 'The Blackheath Connection', cited elsewhere.

Note 159: For example, in G. Bhagat, 'Americans and American Trade in India, 1784-1814', American Neptune, 1986, 46, 1, pp. 6-15. Here, p. 9, it is noted that in February 1784, Lane and Fraser in London were corresponding with the Salem merchant Elias Hasket Derby, died 1799, who became the first US millionaire by virtue of his trade to India. Derby sent a ship to India in 1784, Grand Turk; later he also sent many ships to Mauritius. (Bhagat, p. 10). Till the American Revolution, Derby's father Richard had traded to the West Indies, Britain, Spain, Portugal and Gibralter. See also, Glenn S. Gordinier, 'Early American trade with India: taking an observation', American Neptune, 1985. 45, 3., pp. 153-166. A full survey of the correspondence the British Creditors had with Americans after 1783 would be interesting in respect of Jeffersonian fears about a resurgence of the power of British capital in North American affairs.

Note 160: Claude G. Bowers, The Young Jefferson, 1743-1789. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1945., p. 347.

American Revolution graphic

Note 161: Kellock, p. 114, Note 13.

Note 162: Bhagat, p. 9, Note 40. See also, Furber on US trade to India.

Note 163: Byrnes, 'The Blackheath Connection', citing Labaree, p. 295.

Note 164: Little new arises on George Abel. Macaulay, a vehement Whig in the 1790s, was London alderman George Macaulay the friend of Joseph Nutt noted elsewhere. I have found no evidence alderman Macaulay was related to the radical, Catherine Macaulay nee Sawbridge, except that Catherine's husband and the alderman both had an uncle named Aulay Macaulay. It is unclear if the uncle is the same man. Aldermen Macaulay and Curtis are pictured in an illustration held at London's Guildhall Library, of "The Administration of the Oath of Allegiance to Ald. Richard Clark in 1782".

Note 165: See the entry for William Neate Chapman, ADB. This young man was one of the few connections of any British Creditor to live in the early Australian colony. His father knew Gov. Arthur Phillip.

Note 166: J. A. S. Leighton-Boyce, Smiths the Bankers. London, National Provincial Bank, 1958.

Note 167: Jacob Price, 'One Family', ibid.

Note 168: See also, Dickinson on Falklands sealing; Stackpole, Whales and Destiny, pp. 102, 145; George Rude, Wilkes and Liberty. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1962. Kellock, p. 111, p. 120. Collected citations include D. A. Farnie, 'The Commercial Empire of the Atlantic, 1607-1783', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 15, 1962., pp. 205-218; G. D. Ramsay, English Overseas Trade during the Centuries of Emergence. London, 1957., esp. Ch. 7. William I. Roberts, 'Samuel Storke: An Eighteenth Century London Merchant Trading to the American Colonies', Business History Review, XXXIX, 1965., pp. 147-170.

Note 169: Carolina merchant Richard Grubb died in 1774. He was partner with one Alexander Watson. See notes on James Crockat above. Kellock, p. 127.

Note 170: This Creditor of Bristol was presumably Jefferson's creditor.

Note 171: See Charles F. Hobson, 'The Recovery of British Debts in the Federal Circuit Court of Virginia, 1790-1797', Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 92, 2, 1984., pp. 176-200.

Note 172: On John Backhouse of Liverpool. See Olson, 'Virginia Merchants in London', p. 383. Also, Robert Polk Thomson, 'The Tobacco Export of the Upper James River Naval District, 1773-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. XVIII, July 1961., p. 405. This dealer received about one third the amount of tobacco imported by Dobson, Daltera and Walker also of Liverpool. See Sheridan, 'British Credit Crisis', p. 175.

Note 173: The Daltera family were Huguenots with a branch in Bristol, See pp. 181-183 in Kenneth Morgan, Bristol and the Atlantic Slave Trade; Evans, 'Planter Indebtedness', p. 524; Fowlers versus Daltera as a debt matter still in 1798.

Note 174: John Dixon (d. 1757). A merchant from Bristol, England, who went to Virginia before 1727 and acquired land and a warehouse at Falmouth, returning to England before he died. See Greene, The Landon Carter Diary, Vol. 1, p. 83.

Note 175: Samuel Martin of Whitehaven. He got his tobacco from Bollint Starke and Greenwood, Ritson and Marsh, who seemed to act as commission agents. See Thomson, 'Upper James River', p. 398.

Note 176: Articles by Devine and Jacob M. Price are helpful here.

Note 177: T. M. Devine, 'A Glasgow Tobacco Merchant during the American War of Independence: Alexander Speirs of Elderslie, 1775 to 1781', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 33, No. 3, July, 1976., pp. 501-513.

Note 178: A Glasgow merchant, John Glassford dealt in Maryland tobacco. See Jacob Price, 'Rise of Glasgow', p. 188; Tommy Thompson, p. 17.

Note 179: This firm was probably related to Telfair and Cooper referred to above.

Note 180: Relevant information is contained in Peter Linebaugh, The London Hanged: Crime and Civil Society in the Eighteenth Century. London, Allen Lane/Penguin Press, 1991. See also, Lillian M. Penson, The Colonial Agents of the British West Indies: A Study in Colonial Administration Mainly in the Eighteenth Century. [Orig. 1924]. London, Frank Cass and Co., 1971.

Note 181: Olson, 'London Mercantile Lobby', p. 27; Kellock, p. 118. GEC, The Complete Peerage, p. 107, for Bellomont.

Note 182: Louis Morton, Robert Carter of Nomini Hall: A Virginia Tobacco Planter of the Eighteenth Century. Dominion Books, Charlottesville, University Press of Virginia, 1945.

Note 183: Boyd, Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Vol. 9. Notes on Boylston's interests in oil are contained in Stackpole, Whales and Destiny, p. 145.

Note 184: Merrill Peterson, Jefferson and the New Nation, p. 322.

Note 185: Karl Brandt, Whale Oil: An Economic Analysis. Fats and Oils Studies, No. 7, Food Research Institute, Stanford University, California, June 1940. Brandt, p. 49, says London whalers by 1786 were searching for the Southern Right Whale, and that by 1804-1807, an annual average of about 8000 southern right whales were taken [by London's South whalers; but perhaps including American ships?]. Many such whales were taken about Australia.

Note 186: This is a partial list of Duncan Campbell's correspondents drawn from the index to his business letterbook for 1772-1776. In 1772, Campbell's aged partner John Stewart died, leaving Campbell to inherit the entire business, presumably including its debts.

American Revolution graphic

Note 187: Some of these colonial families including Carter have members noted in Stella Pickett Hardy, Colonial Families of the Southern States of America, 1968.

Note 188: See Sands' Sydney and Suburban Directory, for 1892. WDC cannot be found in any Sands' Directory earlier than 1892. Information per Paul Brunton, Curator of Manuscripts, Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales, Macquarie Street, Sydney, New South Wales, 2000.

Note 189: See Dan Byrnes, 'Commentary', to Wilfrid Oldham, Britain's Convicts to the Colonies. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1990., a re-editing of a thesis of 1933, written in London and later too-much ignored. See also, A. E. Smith, Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labour in America, 1607-1776. University of Carolina Press, 1947. Gloucester, Mass, Peter Smith, 1965.

Note 190: Duncan Campbell's Will: PRO IR/26/73. The estate duty on his will was 22,684.

Note 191: On Landon Carter, a useful reference is Leonie J. Archer (Ed), Slavery and Other Forms of Unfree Labour. New York, Routledge, 1988. Also, Anon, an article, 'The Diary of Landon Carter', William and Mary Quarterly, 16, 1907, pp. 149-150.

These Endnotes are followed by a bibliography:

Red Sand divider

Below is the bibliography to A BITTER PILL, by Dan Byrnes (1994-1996)

Special Acknowledgements: Thanks for encouragement with this project are due to Dr Alan Atkinson, University of New England. Dr Noel McLachlan, Melbourne University (Ret). Mollie Gillen of London. Philip Russell of Tamworth, Australia. Anthony Twist of Cambridge, England. And Katherine Thomas and Tod Moore of Armidale, NSW. I am grateful for an exchange of information with Mr John F. Dorman, Genealogist, 175 Hulls Chapel Road, Falmouth, Stafford County, Virginia 22406-5218. USA., regarding John Campbell of Black River, Jamaica, c. 1700 and his marriage to Catherine of the Claiborne family of Virginia.

ON GENEALOGY AND BIOGRAPHICAL DETAILS

The Australian Dictionary of Biography.

Zena Bamping, West Kingsdown: The Story of Three Villages in Kent. Second edition. London, Tyger Press Limited, 1991.

Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry. Eighteenth edition. London, Burke's Peerage Ltd.

John Burke and John Bernard Burke, A Genealogical and Heraldic History of Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of England, Ireland and Scotland. Second Edition. London, John Russell Smith. [Facsimile of the 1964 edition].

The Duncan Campbell Letterbooks, ML A3225-3230 are held as: ML A3225, Vol. 1. of Business Letterbooks, March 1772-October 1776; ML A3226, Vol. 2 of Business Letterbooks, 13 December, 1776-21 September, 1779; ML A3227, Vol. 3 of Business Letterbooks, September 30, 1779-March 9, 1782; ML A3228, Vol. 4 of Business Letter books, March 15, 1782-April 6, 1785; ML A3229, Vol. 5 of Business Letterbooks, December 1, 1784-June 17, 1788; ML A3230, Vol. 6 of Business Letterbooks, June 20, 1788-December 31, 1794. Some ML Blighiana is also relevant to Campbell. The breaks of dates which are noted between Business Letterbooks are not in all instances covered by letters entered into Private Letterbooks, ML A3231, comprising three volumes of same (of physically smaller volumes).

K. G. Davies, (Ed.), Documents of the American Revolution, Vol. XIII: A Calendar, 1777-1778. Irish University Press, Shannon, Colonial Office Series, 1972-1981. [This title has notes on some staff at the Woolwich Arsenal assisting as the hulks system was established 1776-1777].

Richard S. Dunn, 'A Tale of Two Plantations: Slave Life at Mesopotamia in Jamaica, and Mount Airy in Virginia, 1799 to 1828', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 34, No. 1, January, 1977., pp. 32-65. [Containing genealogical material on the Tayloe family which can be applied to information available in Stella Pickett Hardy, cited below].

"The Samuel Enderby Book": Whaling Documents 1775-1790. (Originals held at the Pennsylvania Historical Society, 1300 Locust St., Philadelphia, PA. USA. Used by permission of director, James E. Rooney. No accession date. No provenance). Being a list of names of merchants placing vessels in the South Whale Fishery. Ships' names, masters' names, with some information on catches of whale oil, seal skins, areas fished, etc. Copies of these originals are with the Petherick Collection of Manuscripts, Ms 1701. Australian National Library.

English Dictionary of National Biography (DNB).

W. A. Feurtado, Official and Other Personages of Jamaica from 1655 to 1790. Kingston, Jamaica, 1896.

Vicary Gibbs, (Ed.), The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom. [Extinct, extant or dormant]. London, St Catherine's Press, 1910.

Stella Pickett Hardy, Colonial Families of the Southern States of America: A History and Genealogy of Colonial Families who settled in the Colonies prior to the Revolution. (Second edition, revised). Baltimore, Genealogical Publishing Co., 1968.

American Revolution graphic

O. F. Hogg, The Royal Arsenal: Its Background, Origin and Subsequent History. Vol. 1. London, Oxford University Press, 1963. [This title has information on Neil, the brother mentioned above of the hulks overseer, Duncan Campbell].

Dictionary of American Biography. American Council of Learned Societies. 1928ff.

Katharine A. Kellock, 'London Merchants and the pre-1776 American Debts', Guildhall Studies in London History, Vol. 1, No 3, October, 1974., pp. 109-149.

Charles Kidd and David Williamson, (Eds.), Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage. London, Macmillan/Debrett's Peerage Ltd., 1985.

George Mackenzie Macaulay, Occurrences and Observations, Journal 1796-1798. Add: 25,038. [Copy, British Library. Including Letters to Warren Hastings, 1792. 1795. 29,172. f.461. 29174, f.5]

Patrick Montague-Smith, (Ed.), Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage. Australasian edition. London, Debrett's Peerage, 1980.

Samuel M. Rosenblatt, 'The Significance of Credit in the Tobacco consignment Trade: a study of John Norton and Sons, 1768-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, 29, 1962., pp. 383-399. [James Daltera and the Daltera family are mentioned pp. 181-183, too briefly].

Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. [see separate citations]. Also, various information in scattered earlier issues of The William and Mary Quarterly, circa 1900.

Note: I have used a database for organising genealogical information to compile, recompile, link and cross reference a great deal of previously scattered information on merchants, merchant politicians, mariners and their families relating to the period and events under consideration here. The database is: Personal Ancestry File, V 2.2/V5 for MS-DOS/Windows-based computers. Marketed by the Family History Departments of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Assistance in compiling and annotating the complex Campbell genealogy and related material has been gratefully received from Rev Richard Borthwick, Perth, Australia. Edward Linn of Sydney. Miss Marion Campbell of Kilberry, Scotland. Mr Alastair Campbell of Airds, Chief Executive, Clan Campbell, Inverary Castle, Inverary, Argyll, PA32 8XF. Scotland. Mr Diarmid A. Campbell, Editor, Journal of the Clan Campbell Society of North America, 284 South Sly, Foxway, Denver, Colorado. 80135, United States of America. also PO Box 4428, Denver, Colorado. 80204 United States of America. Mr Colin Campbell, Secretary, Clan Campbell Society of Australia, 21 Morella Avenue, Sefton, NSW 2162.

ARTICLES

Alan Atkinson, 'State and Empire and Convict Transportation, 1718-1812', pp. 25-38 in Carl Bridge, (Ed.), New Perspectives in Australian History. London, Sir Robert Menzies Centre for Australian Studies, Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London, 1990.

Alan Atkinson, 'The First Plans for Governing New South Wales, 1786-1787', Australian Historical Studies, Vol. 24, No. 94, April, 1990., pp. 22-40.

Alan Atkinson, 'The Convict Republic', The Push From The Bush: A Bulletin of Social History, No. 18, October, 1984., pp. 66-84.

G. Bhagat, 'Americans and American Trade in India, 1784-1814', The American Neptune, Vol. 46, No. 1, 1986., pp. 6-15.

Dan Byrnes, 'The Blackheath Connection: London Local History and the Settlement at New South Wales, 1786-1806', The Push: A Journal of Early Australian Social History, No. 28, 1990., pp. 50-98.

Dan Byrnes, '"Emptying The Hulks": Duncan Campbell and the First Three Fleets to Australia', The Push From The Bush: A Bulletin of Social History, No. 24, April, 1987., pp. 2-23.

Dan Byrnes, 'From Glasgow to Jamaica to London and Australia: the elusive Duncan Campbell (1726-1803)', Cruachan, (Journal of Clan Campbell Society of Australia), No. 62, December, 1993., pp. 11-16.

Joseph Charles, 'The Jay Treaty: The Origins Of The American Party System', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 12, No. 4, October, 1955., pp. 581-630.

K. N. Chaudhuri, 'The English East India Company's Shipping, (c.1660-1760)', in Jaap R. Bruijan and Femme S. Gaastra, (Eds.) Ships, Sailors and Spices: East India Companies and their shipping in the 16th, 17th and 18th Centuries. Amsterdam, Neha, 1993.

Lester H. Cohen, 'Explaining the Revolution: Ideology and Ethics in Mercy Otis Warren's Historical Theory', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 37, 1980., pp. 200-218.

Edward Countryman, 'The Uses of Capital in Revolutionary America: The Case of the New York Loyalist Merchants', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 49, No. 1, January 1992., pp. 3-28.

T. M. Devine, 'Glasgow Merchants and the Collapse of the Tobacco Trade, 1775-1783', Scottish Historical Review, Vol. 52, 1973., pp. 50-74.

T. M. Devine, 'A Glasgow Tobacco Merchant During the American War of Independence: Alexander Speirs of Elderslie, 1775 to 1781', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 33, No. 3, July, 1976., pp. 501-513.

Anthony Dickinson, 'Some Aspects of the Origin and Implementation of the Eighteenth Century Falkland Islands Sealing Industry', International Journal of Maritime History, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1990., pp. 33-68.

Richard S. Dunn, 'A Tale Of Two Plantations - Slave Life At Mesopotamia In Jamaica, and Mount Airy in Virginia, 1799 to 1828', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 34, No. 1, January 1977., pp. 32-65.

Marc Egnal and Joseph A. Ernst, 'An Economic Interpretation of the American Revolution', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 24, January, 1972., pp. 3-32.

Marc Egnal, 'The Origins of the Revolution in Virginia: a re-interpretation', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 37, July, 1980., pp. 401-428.

Emory G. Evans, 'Planter Indebtedness and the Coming of the Revolution in Virginia', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 19, October, 1962., pp. 511-533.

Roger A. Ekirch, 'Great Britain's Secret Convict Trade to America, 1783-1784', American Historical Review, Vol. 89, No. 5, December, 1984., pp. 1285-1291.

Emory G. Evans, 'Private Indebtedness and the Revolution in Virginia, 1776 to 1796', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 38, July, 1971., pp. 349-374.

Alan Frost, 'Botany Bay: An Imperial Venture of the 1780s', English Historical Review, [with a comment by Mollie Gillen] 1985., pp. 309-330.

Alan Frost, 'The Choice of Botany Bay: The Scheme to supply the East Indies with Naval Stores', in Ged Martin, (Ed.), Founding, pp. 210-228, as cited below.

Alan Frost, 'The Colonisation of New South Wales', pp. 85-93 in John Hardy and Alan Frost, (Eds.), European Voyaging Towards Australia. Canberra, Australian Academy of the Humanities, Occasional Paper No. 9, 1990.

Howard T. Fry, '"Cathay and the way Thither": The Background to Botany Bay', in Ged Martin, (Ed.), Founding, pp. 136-149.

Holden Furber, 'The Beginnings of American Trade with India, 1784-1812', The New England Quarterly, June, 1938., pp. 235-265.

Lawrence Henry Gipson, 'Virginia Planter Debts before the American Revolution', Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 69, 1961., pp. 259-177.

Glenn S. Gordinier, 'Early American trade with India: taking an observation', American Neptune, Vol. 45, No. 3, 1985., pp. 153-166.

Milton Greenblatt, 'Thomas Jefferson's Women', The Psychohistory Review: Studies in Motivation in History and Culture, Vol. 19, No. 2, Winter, 1991., pp. 233-254.

Charles F. Hobson, 'The Recovery of British Debts in the Federal Circuit Court of Virginia, 1790-1797', Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 92, No. 2, 1984., pp. 176-200.

Ronald Hyam, 'British Imperial Expansion in the Late Eighteenth Century', The Historical Journal, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1967., pp. 113-131; a review of The Founding of the Second British Empire, 1763-1793., by Vincent Harlow, Vols. 1 and 2.

Katharine A. Kellock, 'London Merchants and the pre-1776 American Debts', Guildhall Studies in London History, Vol. 1, No 3, October, 1974., pp. 109-149.

Herbert E. Klingelhofer, `Matthew Ridley's Diary during the Peace Negotiations of 1782', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 20, January 1963., pp. 95-133.

Ged Martin, 'The Foundation of Botany Bay, 1778-1790: a re-appraisal', pp. 44-74, in Ronald Hyam and Ged Martin, (Eds.), Re-Appraisals in Imperial History. London, Macmillan, 1975.

Ged Martin, 'The Founding of New South Wales', pp. 37-51 in Pamela Statham, (Ed.), The Origin of Australia's Capital Cities. Sydney, Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Kenneth Morgan, 'The Organisation of the Convict Trade to Maryland: Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston, 1768-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 42, No. 2, April, 1985., pp. 201-227.

Mui Hoh-cheung and Lorna M. Mui, 'William Pitt and the Enforcement of the Commutation Act, 1784-1788', English Historical Review, Vol. 76, No. 300., July 1961., pp. 447-465.

Alison Olson, 'The Virginia Merchants of London: A Study in Eighteenth Century Interest Group Politics', William And Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 40, July, 1983., pp. 363-388.

Alison Olson, 'The London Mercantile Lobby and the Coming of the American Revolution', Journal of American History, Vol. 69, No. 1, June 1982., pp. 21-41.

Alison Olson, 'Coffee House Lobbying', History Today, Vol. 41, January 1991., pp. 35-41.

Merrill D. Peterson, 'Thomas Jefferson and Commercial Policy, 1783-1793', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 22, October, 1965., pp. 584-610.

Jacob M. Price, 'Who was John Norton? A Note on the Historical Character of some Eighteenth-Century London-Virginia Firms', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 29, July 1962., pp. 400-407.

Jacob M. Price, 'The Last Phase of the Virginia-London Consignment Trade: James Buchanan and Co, 1758-1768', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 43, No. 1, January, 1986., pp. 64-98.

Jacob M. Price, 'Buchanan and Simson, 1759-1763: A Different Kind of Glasgow Firm trading to the Chesapeake', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 40, No. 1, January, 1983., pp. 3-41.

Jacob M. Price, 'The Rise of Glasgow in the Chesapeake Tobacco Trade, 1707-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 11, April, 1954., pp. 179-199.

Jacob M. Price, 'One Family's Empire: The Russell-Lee-Clerk Connection in Maryland, Britain and India, 1707-1857', Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 72. 1977., pp. 165-225.

Jacob M. Price, 'The Economic Growth of the Chesapeake and the European Market, 1697-1775', The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1964., pp. 496-516.

E. H. Pritchard, 'The struggle for control of the China Trade during the Eighteenth Century', Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 3, 1934., pp. 280-295.

Rhys Richards, 'The Cruise of the Kingston and the Elligood in 1800, and the Wreck found on King Island in 1802', The Great Circle, Vol. 13, No 1, 1991., pp. 35-53.

Charles R. Ritcheson, '"Loyalist Influence" on British Policy toward the United States after the American Revolution', Eighteenth Century Studies, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1973-1974, Summer, 1974., pp. 1-17.

William I. Roberts III, 'Samuel Storke: An Eighteenth Century London Merchant Trading to the American Colonies', The Business History Review, Vol., 34, Summer 1965., pp. 147-170.

Rosane Rocher and Michael E. Scorgie, `A Family Empire: The Alexander Hamilton Cousins, 1750-1830', The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1994., pp. 189-210.

Samuel M. Rosenblatt, 'The Significance of Credit in the Tobacco Consignment Trade: A Study of John Norton and Sons, 1768-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 29, 1962., pp. 383-399.

John Sainsbury, 'The Pro-Americans of London, 1769 to 1782', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 35, January 1978., pp. 423-454.

Arthur M. Schlesinger, 'The Aristocracy in Colonial America', pp. 528-535 in Paul Goodman, (Ed.), Essays In American Colonial History. New York, Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, 1967.

Arthur M. Schlesinger, 'The Uprising against the East India Company', Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 32, March, 1917., pp. 60-79.

F. H. Schmidt, 'Sold and Driven: Assignment of Convicts in Eighteenth-Century Virginia', The Push From The Bush, No. 23, 1986., pp. 2-27.

Philip Chadwick Foster Smith, 'The Empress of China's Voyage, 1784-1785', American Neptune, Vol. 46, No. 1, 1986., pp. 25-33.

Richard Sheridan, 'The British Credit Crisis of 1772 and the American Colonies', Journal of Economic History, 20, June 1960., pp. 161-182.

James H. Soltow, 'Scottish Traders in Virginia, 1750-1775', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 12, 1959-1960., pp. 83-98.

Clarence Ver Steeg, 'Financing and Outfitting the First United States Ship to China', Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 22, 1953., pp. 1-12.

Robert Polk Thomson, 'The Tobacco Export of the Upper James River Naval District, 1773-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 18, July 1961., pp. 393-407.

Tommy R. Thompson, 'Personal Indebtedness and the American Revolution in Maryland', Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 73, 1978., pp. 13-29.

Gordon S. Wood, 'Rhetoric and Reality in the American Revolution', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. January 1966., pp. 27-32.

BOOKS

Thomas Perkins Abernethy, Western Lands and the American Revolution. New York, D. Appleton-Century Co, (University of Virginia, Institute for Research into the Social Sciences), 1937.

H. C. Allen, The Anglo-American Relationship since 1783. London, Adam and Charles Black, 1959.

B. D. Bargar, Lord Dartmouth and the American Revolution. Columbia, University of South Carolina Press, 1965.

Norman Bartlett, Australia and America through 200 Years, 1776-1976. Sydney, Ure-Smith, 1976.

Samuel Flagg Bemis, Jay's Treaty: A Study in Commerce and Diplomacy. New York, Macmillan, 1923.

Doron C. Ben-Atar, The Origin of Jeffersonian Commercial Policy and Diplomacy. Hampshire, England, Macmillan, 1993.

A. L. Bier and Roger Finlay, (Eds.), London, 1500-1700: The Making of the Metropolis. London, Longman, 1986.

George Blake, Lloyd's Register of Shipping, 1760-1966. Printed by Lloyd's Register of Shipping. London, 1960? nd.

Robin Blackburn, The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery, 1776-1848. London, Verso, 1988.

John Booker, Traveller's Money. London, Alan Sutton Publishing Ltd., 1994.

Claude G. Bowers, Jefferson and Hamilton: The Struggle for Democracy in America. New York, Houghton Mifflin, 1953.

Julian P. Boyd, (Ed.), The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. Vol. 9. (November 1, 1785 to June 22, 1876). Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1954.

Claude G. Bowers, The Young Jefferson, 1743-1789. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1945.

W. Branch-Johnson, The English Prison Hulks. London and Chichester, Phillimore, 1957.

Karl Brandt, Whale Oil: An Economic Analysis. Fats and Oils Studies. No. 7. Food Research Institute, Stanford University, California, June, 1940.

Robert Brenner, Merchants and Revolution: Commercial Change, Political Conflict, and London's Overseas Traders, 1550-1653. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Wallace Brown, The King's Friends: The Composition and Motives of the American Loyalist Claimants. Providence, Rhode Island, Brown University Press, 1965.

Clarence S. Brigham, British Royal Proclamations Relating To America, 1604-1783. New York, Burt Franklin, 1911.

Thomas Burke, The Streets of London Through the Centuries. London, Batsford, 1943.

Charles Campbell, The Intolerable Hulks: British Shipboard Confinement, 1776-1857. Bowie, Maryland, Heritage Books, Inc., 1994.

Milton Cantor, (Ed.), Hamilton. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1971. With essays by Richard B. Morris, 'Alexander Hamilton after Two Centuries', pp. 128-134; Broadus Mitchell, 'Continentalist', pp. 135-156; Cecilia M. Kenyon, 'Alexander Hamilton, Rousseau of the Right', pp., 163-176.

Douglas Parode Capper, (Ed.), Moat Defensive: A History of the Waters of the Nore Command, 55BC to 1961. London, A. Baker Ltd., 1963.

Lester J. Cappon, (Ed.), The Adams-Jefferson Letters. Two Vols. Vol. 1, 1777-1804. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1950.

Anthony Chen, Kuo-tung, The Insolvency of the Chinese Hong Merchants, 1760-1843. Ph.D thesis, Yale University. May 1990. UMI Dissertation Services. [Copy, Dept. Economic History Library, UNE].

L. G. Churchward, Australia and America 1788-1972: An Alternative History. Sydney, Alternative Publishing Co-Op Ltd., 1979.

Ian R. Christie, Stress and Stability in Late Eighteenth Century Britain: Reflections on the British Avoidance of Revolution. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1984.

K. M. Dallas, Trading Posts or Penal Colonies: The Commercial Significance of Cook's New Holland Route to the Pacific. Hobart, Fuller's Bookshop, Pub. Division, 1969.

Ralph Davis, The Rise of the English Shipping Industry in the 17th and 18th Centuries. London, Macmillan, 1962.

Thomas M. Devine, The Tobacco Lords: A Study of the Tobacco Merchants of Glasgow and their Trading Activities, 1740-1790. Edinburgh, Donald, 1975.

Foster Rhea Dulles, The Old China Trade. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1930.

Dwight Lowell Dumond, Anti-Slavery: A Crusade for Freedom in America. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1961.

Richard S. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624-1730. London, Jonathan Cape, 1973.

Marc Egnal, A Mighty Empire: The Origins of the American Revolution. London, Cornell University Press, 1988.

Paul Einzig, The History of Foreign Exchange. (Second edition). London, Macmillan, 1970.

Roger A. Ekirch, Bound For America: The Transportation of British Convicts to the Colonies, 1718-1775. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1987.

E. James Ferguson, The Power of the Purse: A History of American Public Finance, 1776-1790. Williamsburg, Virginia. Institute of Early American History and Culture, Chapel Hill, 1961.

Sidney Fine, Laissez-Faire and the General Welfare State: A Study of Conflict in American Thought, 1865-1901. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1964-1965.

John C. Fitzpatrick, (Ed.), The Writings of George Washington, from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799. Vol. 1, 1745-1756. Washington, US Government Printing Office, 1931.

Thomas Fleming, 1776: Year of Illusions. New York, Norton and Co., 1975.

Alan Frost, Convicts and Empire: A Naval Question, 1776-1811. Oxford University Press, 1980.

Alan Frost, Arthur Phillip 1738-1814: His Voyaging. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1987.

Holden Furber, Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient, 1600-1800. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, c.1976.

Michael Greenberg, British Trade and the Opening of China, 1800-1842. Cambridge University Press, 1951.

Jack P. Green and J. R. Pole, The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Blackwell, 1991.

Sir Percival Griffiths, The History of the Indian Tea Industry. London, Wiedenfeld and Nicolson, 1967.

John Hardy and Alan Frost, (Eds.), Studies from Terra Australis to Australia. Canberra, Occasional Paper No 6, Australian Academy of the Humanities, 1989.

V. T. Harlow, The Founding of the Second British Empire. Vols. One and Two. London, Longmans, 1964.

Christopher Hibbert, The Roots of Evil: A Social History of Crime and Punishment. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1963.

O. F. Hogg, The Royal Arsenal: Its Background, Origin and Subsequent History. Vol. 1. London, Oxford University Press, 1963.

Gordon Jackson, The British Whaling Trade. London, Adam and Charles Black, 1978.

Gavin Kennedy, Bligh. London, Duckworth, 1978.

Richard Ketchum, The Winter Soldiers: George Washington and the Way to Independence. London, Macdonald, 1973.

Peter Linebaugh, The London Hanged: Crime and Civil Society in the Eighteenth Century. London, Allen Lane/Penguin Press, 1991.

Robert W. Love Jr., History of the US Navy. Harrisburg PA, Stackpole Books, 1994.

David Mackay, In the Wake of Cook: Exploration, Science and Empire, 1780-1801. Wellington, Victoria University Press, 1985.

John McCusker, Rum and the American Revolution: The Rum Trade and the Balance of Payments of the Thirteen Continental Colonies. New York, Garland Publishing, 1989.

George Mackaness, The Life of Vice-Admiral William Bligh, RN, FRS. Two Vols. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1931.

Ged Martin, (Ed.), The Founding of Australia: The Argument About Australia's Origins. Sydney, Hale And Iremonger, 1978.

Ernest R. May and James C. Thomson Jnr., (Eds.), American-East Asian Relations: A Survey. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1972

Kenneth Morgan, Bristol and the Atlantic Trade in the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Samuel Eliot Morison, The Oxford History of the American People. London, OUP, 1965.

Richard B. Morris, The Peacemakers: The Great Powers and American Independence. New York, Harper and Row, 1965.

Curtis P. Nettels, Money Supply of American Colonies before 1720. Clifton, USA, A. M. Kelley, 1973.

Arthur Nussbaum, A History of the Dollar. New York, Columbia University Press, 1957.

Eris O'Brien, The Foundation of Australia 1786-1800: A Study in English Criminal Practice and Penal Colonization in the Eighteenth Century. (Second edition). Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1950.

Ellis P. Oberholtzer, Robert Morris, Patriot and Financier. 1903.

Wilfrid Oldham, Britain's Convicts to the Colonies. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1990.

Alison G. Olson, Making The Empire Work: London and American Interest Groups, 1690-1790. London, Harvard University Press, London, 1992.

Richard Pares, Yankees and Creoles: The Trade between North America and the West Indies before the American Revolution. London, Longmans, Green and Co, 1956.

James Bishop Peabody, The Founding Fathers: John Adams, A Biography in his Own Words. New York, Newsweek, 1973.

Lillian M. Penson, The Colonial Agents of the British West Indies: A Study in Colonial Administration Mainly in the Eighteenth Century. 1924. London, Frank Cass and Co., 1971. (Reprint)

Merrill D. Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography. London, Oxford University Press, 1970.

C. H. Philips, The East India Company, 1784-1834. Manchester University Press, 1961.

Clinton Rossiter, Alexander Hamilton and the Constitution. New York, Harcourt, Brace and World, 1964.

Robert A. Rutland, William M. F. Rachal, Barbara D. Ripel and Frederika J. Teute, (Eds.), The Papers of Thomas Madison. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1973.

Mary Elizabeth Ruwell, Eighteenth Century Capitalism: The Formation of American Marine Insurance Companies. New York, Garland Publishing Inc., 1993.

Ernest Samhaber, Merchants Make History: How Trade has influenced the Course of History throughout the World. London, Harrap, 1963.

Arthur M. Schlesinger, The Colonial Merchants and the American Revolution, 1763-1776. New York, F. Ungar Pub. Co., 1957.

William Lytle Schurz, The Manila Galleon. New York, Dutton and Co., 1939.

Jack M. Sosin, Agents and Merchants: British Colonial Policy and the Origins of the American Revolution, 1763-1775. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1965.

Abbot Emerson Smith, Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labour in America, 1607-1776. University of Carolina Press, 1947. Gloucester, Massachusetts, Peter Smith, 1965.

Philip Chadwick Foster Smith, The Empress of China. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Maritime Museum, 1984.

Eduoard A. Stackpole, Whales And Destiny, The Rivalry between America, France, and Britain for Control of the Southern Whale Fishery, 1785-1825. University of Massachusetts Press, 1972.

Margaret Steven, Trade, Tactics and Territory: Britain in the Pacific, 1783-1823. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1983.

William Graham Sumner, The Financier and the Finances of the American Revolution. Two Vols. 1891. Vol. 2. Especially Ch. XVIII.

Howard Swiggett, The Forgotten Leaders of the Revolution. New York, Doubleday, 1955.

Harold C. Syrett and Jacob E. Cooke, (Eds.), The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, Vol. 3, 1782-1786. New York, Columbia University Press, 1962.

Barbara Tuchman, The March of Folly. London, Abacus, 1985.

Barbara Tuchman, The First Salute: A View of the American Revolution. Maine, USA, Thorndike Press, 1988.

Claude M. Van Tynne, The Causes of the War of Independence: Being the First Volume of a History of the Founding of the American Republic. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1922.

W. T. Vincent, The Records of the Woolwich District. Two Vols. London, nd.

Navigation

This directory presents files on merchants working after 1800. Some of these files are on: Plummer and Barham after 1804, Robert Brooks of the Australia Trade, India indigo business, W. S. Lindsay, shipowner, Joseph Somes, shipowner, Norman (bankers), and on Hodson's Lists of notable families of British-India.

Clarence L. Ver Steeg, Robert Morris: Revolutionary Financier (with an analysis of his earlier career). New York, Octagon, 1972.

Alan Valentine, The British Establishment, 1760-1784: An Eighteenth Century Biographical Dictionary. University of Oklahoma Press, 1970.

J. Steven Watson, The Reign of George III, 1760-1815. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1960.

Sidney and Beatrice Webb, English Local Government: English Prisons under Local Government. [Orig. 1922] London, Frank Cass and Co. Ltd., 1963.

Lally Weymouth, Thomas Jefferson: The Man His World His Influence. London, Weidendfeld and Nicolson, 1973.

Leonard D. White, The Jeffersonians: A Study in Administrative History, 1801-1829. New York, Macmillan, 1959.

Eric Williams, From Columbus to Castro: The History of the Caribbean, 1492-1969. London, Andre Deutsch, 1970.

Philip Ziegler, The Sixth Great Power: Barings, 1762-1929. London, Collins, 1988.

- Finis -

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