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Descendants of Brown Progenitor-460036

Third Generation


3. Irish linen merchant Of Belfast, Baltimore, Brown Alexander-101593 (William , Progenitor ) was born in 1764 in Ballymena Ireland. He died in 1834.

Excoriated. He dies after chairing a meeting of merchants concerned re failure in 1834 of Bank of Maryland, on which there is a website. He is migrant to US of 1800, from Belfast, and settles at Baltimore. Has brother Stewart already in US by 1800. Below email is from Linda Minor [mailto:lminor@vvm.com] Sent: Wednesday, March 16, 2005 8:23 AM - Subject: Alexander Brown and his sons - >From Raken's subscription website.
http://www.raken.com/american_wealth/bankers/brown_brothers_1.asp

Alexander Brown and his sons - the leading banking family in pre-civil-war America. In the year 1800, an Irish immigrant with a very common name but uncommon business acumen came to America with the intention to expand his fortune. Unlike most Irish immigrants who would follow him later, Alexander Brown was already a successful linen trader in Belfast, before he decided that he could do even better in America. Brown settled in Baltimore, essentially because his younger brother Stewart Brown had already established a general merchandise business there, three years before him. Baltimore, then a city of 25,000 inhabitants, was also a good compromise in its position between the North and South of the thirteen former colonies which constituted the new United States of America. Less crowded by established merchants than Boston, Philadelphia and New York, it was also closer to the prosperous Virginia and the designated new capital of the young nation. As soon as he had settled, Alexander Brown established a large warehouse and filled it with linen, which he imported from Ireland, then the major producer of the coveted textiles. His close business relations with William Gihon, a large linen trader with roots in Ballymena, Brown's hometown, enabled him to flood Baltimore and America with Irish linen and become a major importer in the country. In 1805 he took his eldest son William Brown into the business and in 1808, his second son George Brown. Both were thoroughly trained by their father, whereas two younger sons, John and James Brown, were still at boarding schools in England.

An aggressive marketer, Alexander Brown early understood two essential principles, which would make his firm one of the most powerful and influential Anglo-American merchant banking houses throughout the 19th century. He acknowledged the need to cover both ends of a trade or financial transaction and he understood the importance of reliable partners or agents in all locations of his activity. Like other successful merchants or founders of banking dynasties, Alexander Brown saw the value of grooming his sons and other family members for the business.

At the beginning, his thorough knowledge of the Irish linen trade and his reliable business partners, the Gihons, were the basis for his success as a linen importer. In times when the money markets were singularly unorganized, Alexander Brown launched his firm into a multi-product import-export trade, which proved exactly right at the beginning of the 19th century. Besides Irish linen, he soon dealt in American tobacco, cotton and flour, supplying England, where he bought manufactured goods, which in turn were resold in the various American cities, he and his agents covered.

This trading pattern was typical of colonial and later mercantile America and resulted more from necessity and opportunity, than strategy. But it worked and the firm known as Alexander Brown & Sons, had a capital stock of some 120,000 $ by 1808, when Brown's second son joined. In this year, Alexander Brown sent his son William to Philadelphia, where he was to open a branch, in an attempt to extend the Brown influence to the Quaker city. Trading under the restrictive Jefferson embargo was difficult and the Philadelphia branch was soon discontinued, partly because it was not successful, but probably also because William's talents were needed elsewhere.

In what happened next lies one of the mysteries of the Brown dynasty's ascension to wealth and prominence, on both sides of the Atlantic. After closing the unsuccessful Philadelphia branch, William Brown returned to Ireland, where he married Sarah Gihon, a daughter of his father's main Irish linen supplier, and then settled in Liverpool (England), to open a business on his own. Neither Alexander Brown nor any of his younger sons were partners in the Liverpool firm William Brown & Co, which was founded by the eldest son in 1810.

The fact that William quit the partnership in his father's (Baltimore) firm reinforces the impression of a conflict between father and son, which may have been caused by the latter's failure in Philadelphia, his marriage or refusal to accept the former as the sole head and absolute master of the firm. Family lore attributes to William Brown a strong will and quick temper, similar to his father's and credits Alexander Brown with the foresight to accept the situation and take his son as a distant, independent and fully self-reliable business partner. The hot tempered William Brown may also just have proved a valuable asset to the Brown businesses, after he had managed to establish himself in Liverpool, which became England's major market for American cotton and other produce.

Whatever the truth, William Brown's establishment in Liverpool became the vital English branch of the Brown's mercantile and financial empire. When the war of 1812 broke out, Alexander Brown had many customers and business partners in England, who owed him large amounts of money. This situation was extremely delicate, as these funds could have been blocked for an
undetermined period or even lost outright, if the Browns did not have William established in Liverpool. Alexander Brown sent his youngest son James as a passenger on a war cartel (a vessel for the exchange of prisoners), with instructions to his eldest son William, as to what he should do in relation of large sums due to the Baltimore house by English merchants. He instructed his son to collect the money, buy manufactured goods and ship them to America as soon as the conditions permitted. He even
urged his son to borrow money in the English market to fund cargoes of English merchandise just after the war was over.

Brown's calculations, that a huge profit could be made supplying the dried-up American markets in Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York with English goods were correct and the firm made a 300% profit. In later years the London Times published an article stating that the Browns had made money during the war of 1812 by privateering. The statement was incorrect but profiteering would probably have been accurate. Many merchants who followed the Browns' example and imported English goods just a bit later after the war's end lost dearly, as a consequence of the post-war recession.

An indication, that it was not entirely by chance, but more by dynastic guidance, that William Brown's Liverpool establishment became such an important pillar to the Browns' business, is the fact that Alexander Brown entrusted William with the apprenticeship of his youngest son James, whose destiny it was to guide the American branch for many years. In 1814, William
Brown established the firm of William & James Brown, in which his three brothers were partners. Alexander Brown did not deem it useful then to become a partner in this firm, but he readmitted William as a partner in the parent house: Alexander Brown & Sons of Baltimore.

In 1818, John Alexander Brown, the third son, founded a new firm (John A. Brown & Company) in Philadelphia. He had been a partner in his father's firm since 1810 and in the English branch since 1814. Although successful this time, the firm later became itself a branch of the company Alexander Brown's youngest son James established seven years later in New York : Brown
Brothers & Company. Because of this relation, the accepted founding date of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co, as the firm was later known, is 1818.

After the War of 1812 the linen import business became secondary to the Browns, who now focused on cotton and general merchandise factoring and the financial services which later became known as merchant banking. As factors, the Browns handled large quantities of goods for other merchants and generally avoided speculation, which ruined so many traders during the short but severe depressions of cotton prices in 1819 and 1826. At a commission of 6%, the merchandising part of the business brought nice and safe profits.

The growing financial services, such as collection of remittances, advances on transactions, guarantees and foreign exchange transactions further added to the Brown coffers. Aside the Second Bank of the United States, the Browns became the major money changers in the USA, a position which was further enhanced when the bank's charter failed to be renewed in 1836. While Nicholas Biddle lost his fortune in the attempt to revive the bank as a private enterprise and support falling cotton prices, the Browns triumphantly collected most of its international business.

Much of the Browns' success is due to their presence in all of America's most important commercial cities, thanks to their network of partnership firms, all owned and managed by family members or reliable partners. Alexander Brown & Sons in Baltimore, William & James Brown & Company in Liverpool, J. A. Brown & Company in Philadelphia and Brown Brothers &
Company in New York were the four main pillars of this merchant banking empire. Each was managed by one of Alexander Brown's four able sons, George in Baltimore, William in Liverpool, John in Philadelphia and James, the youngest, in New York.

The patriarch, Alexander Brown, presided over this empire with mercantile as well as paternal care and determination. This unique network of family firms enabled the Browns to develop lucrative banking operations, such as currency exchange and the issuance of letters of credit. The Browns were so successful in this business, that they became the leading American merchant
bankers and by 1830 they ranked second as financiers of American trade only to the great Baring Brothers of London, a house that had been established in 1763.

Much of this growth resulted from the establishment in 1825 of the New York firm, Brown Brothers & Company. After the establishment by its enterprising merchants of regular packet lines to Liverpool and Le Havre, New York was rapidly outgrowing the other American cities, both in population and in trade, a tendency which would soon be further enhanced by the completion of the Erie Canal. In 1825 the duties collected at the New York Custom House already exceeded those of the five following harbors (Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore, Norfolk and Savannah) combined.

Alexander Brown rightly decided that the establishment of a new firm in New York had priority over the extension of the family's presence to Boston in New England and Charleston or New Orleans in the South. He chose for the task his gifted and meantime also experienced youngest son. James Brown had already headed the Philadelphia branch, when his brother John Alexander
retired to Baltimore after the tragic death of his wife in 1820. After the latter returned in 1823, he was free for a larger enterprise and New York seemed opportune for his endeavor. But the firm's strategic importance for the family as a whole was also clear in Alexander Brown's plan and thus the decision to name it Brown Brothers & Company.

Brown Brothers & Company started in 1825 with an office on Pearl Street, a favorite among the dry goods merchants. In May 1826, they acquired a warehouse at 63 Pine Street, closer to the Liverpool packet docks. In 1835, after ten years in the City, the house moved to Wall Street, where it became famous for its banking operations. Riding on the wave of success, James Brown gathered a number of partners for his bank, including his cousin Stewart Brown jr and Samuel Nicholson, one of the few non-family partners, who later moved to New Orleans (1838), where he opened a branch house and after eighteen years managing it retired a millionaire. Stewart Brown was later followed by his half-brother James Muncaster Brown (1847) and by his
son Stewart Henry Brown (1857). He himself remained a partner of Brown Brothers & Co (New York) until his death in 1880. During the fifty three years as a partner, he assumed much of the operational responsibility of the New York branch, while his cousin James Brown assumed the larger role of heading the Brown Empire.

Alexander Brown died in 1834, an event which brought significant change to the Brown Empire. The patriarch had intended to leave his business to his four sons who should act as equal partners, as far as possible in all firms and branches. Although this was formally achieved by their mutual participations in all four firms, it soon became clear that without the directions of their father, the sons would not get along as well as necessary for further expansion. The brothers consequently started to reorganize the firms, with the clear intention to focus on the lucrative banking operations and relegate merchandising to a secondary activity. In New York, James sold the dry-goods business outright (to Amory Leeds & Co), whereas in Philadelphia, the Browns formed a new firm with William Ezra Bowen, to take it over from J. A. Brown & Company, which became a branch of Brown Brothers & Company, after John Alexander Brown retired from the partnership in 1837. John A. Brown remained a partner of Browns & Bowen
though.

What John Alexander Brown received when he retired from the different Brown businesses was not revealed, but when George Brown parted with the remaining brothers William and James in 1839, he sold his shares in Brown Brothers & Company and William & James Brown & Company for $1,150,000. He also took over the Baltimore house of Alexander Brown & Sons, the eldest private bank in America, but that was probably part of the deal and included in the above figure. As a consequence, Brown Brothers & Company established a branch in Baltimore and the English firm became Brown, Shipley & Company. The latter change reflected the gratitude, the Browns owed to their Liverpool partner Joseph Shipley jr, who saved the firm through his intervention with the Bank of England in 1837.

Although or because it had become the major financier of American business transactions in Liverpool, it could not withstand the tide of failures following the panic of 1837, itself the consequence of cotton speculations and the (politically motivated) end of the Second Bank of the United States. It is true that the failure of William & James Brown & Co in Liverpool would have spelled ruin to scores of merchants and manufacturers in Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Birmingham and Leeds, not to mention the likely backlash of the failure of the American houses on the US economy. Such was the influence of the Brown Brothers as merchants and private bankers at the end of the 1830s, when they ranked second to the Barings only in the
financing of North Atlantic commerce.

Thus by 1840, six years after their father's death, the Brown Brothers in the firm were reduced to two: William Brown, the eldest and senior partner of the English firm now signing as Brown, Shipley & Co and James Brown, the founder and active head of the New York house. The separation with the former mother house, Alexander Brown & Sons of Baltimore, now wholly owned by George Brown, also simplified the structure of the US firm Brown Brothers & Company. Besides its headquarters in New York, of which cousin Stewart Brown jr was the operative head, the firm thenceforth relied on branches in Philadelphia, Baltimore and New Orleans. The last mentioned was under the leadership of the highly successful Samuel Nicholson, who together with
Joseph Shipley, was one of the few non-family partners of the early days.

The Brown Brothers in transportation : packet lines and railroads

The banker's role is one of silent support to his customers : merchants, manufacturers and shippers. Few bankers have thus been recognized for the essential role they played in the development of commerce and industry and in the organization of a transportation network, which allowed and fuelled such industry and commerce. Of course John Pierpont Morgan is remembered for his role in the great consolidation era of the Gilded Age. And the Mellons are known for their great wealth in relation to such industrial powerhouses as the Aluminum Company of America and Gulf Oil. But the early merchant bankers were overlooked as to the part they played in the essential development of economic infrastructure, on which our great nation was built. Being the wealthiest and most influent (US) financiers of Anglo-American trade, the Brown brothers naturally also played a vital role in the setup of the transportation enterprises on which such trade relied.

As importers, Alexander Brown and his sons were naturally drawn to the shipping part of their business. Owning and operating ships greatly increased a merchant's leverage on profits and thus the shipping merchants, as they were called, were the most successful group of businessmen during the mercantile era. The Brown's first ship "Armata" was built in New York in 1811, a 108 feet long 413 ton three-master with two decks. The "William Brown" built in 1824 distinguished itself by a speed record on a voyage from New Orleans to Liverpool in 1827. She needed 26 days. The Browns also owned the "Tobacco Plant", whose name gives an indication on the nature of goods they had added to their initial linen import business. It could as well have been christened "Wheat King" or "Cotton Queen".

In 1822, when James Brown headed the Philadelphia house of John A. Brown & Company, he was approached by Thomas Pym Cope, the great Quaker merchant, who sought support from the Browns to establish a regular packet line between Philadelphia and Liverpool. Unlike other ships, the packets had regular schedules by which they sailed on a line, regardless whether they were full or not. The business was riskier than ordinary shipping, but as it drew the most profitable cargoes (first class passengers, luxury goods and specie) it promised to be extremely lucrative. When the Browns agreed to support the Cope Line, they became their agents in New York and Baltimore, factually shelving the idea of a Liverpool packet line from the latter, which only they would have been able to establish. They assigned the "Alexander", their largest ship, to the Cope Line and William & James Brown & Co also acted as agent of the line in Liverpool.

Brown Brothers & Company was also involved in steam navigation on the Mississippi river, being the agent and part owners of the "Walk-in-the-Water", built in 1826 for New Orleans cotton merchants Reynolds Byrne & Co and Wilkins & Linton. It burnt in 1835 with a cargo of 1400 bales of cotton at the Natchez landing point. The "Natchez", a 791 ton steamship built in 1837, was also owned by the Browns (George Brown was then recorded as sole owner), who started with her to operate a regular service between New York City and Natchez. The venture was unsuccessful though, the "Natchez" sank in a collision in 1842 and the New York-Natchez Steam Packet Company was doomed. By that time, George Brown had sold his interest, but his brother James was still involved, being registered as owner, along with John R. Stanhope of Newport, Rhode Island.

In New York, Brown Brothers & Company was close enough to the operators of Liverpool and Le Havre packet lines but barely involved in their set up and financing, as this was antecedent to the firm's creation in 1825. But James Brown later deeply involved both, his own estate and the firm's credit, in a venture which should have made its promoters very rich. If steam navigation changed the face of the Hudson and later the Mississippi rivers, making the Livingstons and the Cuttings rich, its true potential was still waiting to be revealed in North Atlantic transportation. The technology allowed to move much larger ships at higher speeds and without the uncertainties related to the winds. But larger ships also meant more financial risks, notably when it came to organize scheduled services, to set up a line of steam packets.

Samuel Cunard, a shipper and merchant from Halifax took these risks and became a part-owner in the "Royal William", the first steamship to cross the Atlantic regularly by steam motion only in 1833. But to justify the regular service with the larger steamships, Cunard recognized the needs of lucrative government contracts to carry the mail. In 1839, he bid and won such contracts from the British Government and set up a regular steamship line between Liverpool, Halifax and Boston. Other cities were to follow soon. His British & North American Royal Mail Steam Packet Company dominated the North Atlantic mail service and regular passenger business in the 1840's, severely competing with the traditional packet lines. Generous mail subsidies, which were also motivated by the strategic interest of the British Government in a steam navy, helped the company secure its position and earned its shareholders a fortune. It may be noted that one of the largest original shareholders, besides Samuel Cunard, was William Brown of Brown, Shipley & Company in Liverpool.

Thus, when in 1841, Edward Knight Collins, the operator of the Dramatic Line of sailing packets, known for their speed and luxury, approached the Browns with his idea to set up a line of steam packets between New York City and Liverpool, he fell on deaf ears, at least on the European side of the Ocean. But like most of our pioneering businessmen, E.K. Collins owned the virtue of persistence and by January 1848 he had both, secured an annual mail subsidy of $385'000 from the US Government and convinced James and Stewart Brown of Brown Brothers & Company to finance the venture.

Brown Brothers & Company invested $300'000 into the New York & Liverpool United States Mail Steamship Company, later known as the Collins Line. This was the equivalent of 25% of the share capital originally subscribed and made the Browns the largest stakeholders in the venture. The Brown family thus had a dominating interest in both the British and the American steam
packet lines carrying mail across the Atlantic and getting large subsidies for doing so from both governments.

To motivate such a sizeable investment and enroll his brothers George and William into the scheme, James Brown underlined the estimated profit rates of 25-50% per year, which the company would earn them once its ships would be in operation. It is unclear to what extend the other Browns adhered to the Collins venture, but James Brown clearly suffered a considerable
financial loss, as a consequence of his engagement. Far from returning the promised returns, the company accumulated losses until the wreckage of two ships and the subsequent withdrawal of government subsidies led to its failure in 1858.

The trouble with the Collins line started with the outrageous cost overrun in the construction of the four large ocean liners, the company had expected to fully finance with its $1,200'000 share capital. Instead these ships (the Arctic, Adriatic, Atlantic and Baltic) cost closer to $2,00'000 of which much had to be financed by bonds, at least $624,00 purchased by James Brown
and the other principal stockholders.

Relying on their strong lobby in Washington, Edward Collins and James Brown secured an increase of the yearly mail subsidy to $858'000 (or $33'000 per voyage). The lobbying involved pompous ceremonies, such as the dinner E. K. Collins offered to President Millard Fillmore and members of the Congress on the "Baltic', which he had taken up the Potomac to Alexandria for the purpose. It doubtlessly also included less publicized and more effective means.

The four ocean liners, Collins had built at a cost of $2.8 million were the largest and most luxurious steamships in their days. They were the first to have steam-heated cabins, a barber shop and bell cords allowing passengers to summon the stewards to their cabin. Everything was laid out in luxury and fashion, a strategy which had paid off at Collins' Diamond Line before.
Powered by the heaviest engines, the Collins liners also set one speed record after the other, gaining its operators the notoriety they used to gain congressional support.

But these ships were not economic. E. K. Collins had committed to build five smaller ships at a cost of $240'000 each. Instead he built these four luxury liners, each of which cost almost three times the budgeted costs. Despite their luxury and speed, the ships were unable to get bookings in accordance to their capacity and soon became entirely dependant on the government mail
subsidies. Interest charges on the invested capital and heavy fuel bills had the costs of each voyage soar to $65'000, whereas the receipts averaged only $48'000. The Cunard Line was considerably cheaper and new operators, such as Cornelius Vanderbilt, who claimed he could run a voyage at $15'000, triumphed thanks to their more economic and thus more competitive approach.

An event which seriously put in question the Collins Line by destroying public confidence in its ships, was the sinking of the "Arctic", largest and most splendid of the fleet, on September 27, 1854 off Cape Race, New Foundland. Like the "Titanic" some 58 years later, the "Arctic" hit an iceberg in dense fog, on its way to New York. Almost three hundred people died, most of them passengers, and the confidence in the Collins line was seriously impaired. The disappearance of the "Pacific", another Collins liner which left Liverpool in January 1856, gave another serious blow to the line and accelerated its demise in 1858, after the withdrawal of its congressional subsidy. It may be noted that the Cunard Line, its main competitor never lost as ship until the sinking by a German submarine, of its "Lusitania" on May 7th 1915, fifty years after Samuel Cunard's death.

[On 12-6-2012 this website received the following e-mail intended for correction of an above statement. -Ed -- and Byrnes and Cozens did not write this article in question.
Dear Merchant Networks Project, In the article you co-wrote with Ken Cozen on Descendants of Brown Progenitor 460036 there is an error about the sinking of the "Arctic". It did not hit an iceberg like the "Titanic" but rather it collided with a smaller steamship called the "Vesta" in dense fog. Regards, Craig Prince]


The failure of his steamship line utterly ruined Edward Knight Collins. It heavily affected James Brown too, although his fortune was still carefully sheltered by more conservative investments and his stake in Brown Brothers & Company, then the wealthiest private bank in America.

Both Collins and Brown suffered personal losses as well, as a consequence of the "Arctic" tragedy in 1854. E. K. Collins lost his wife, only daughter and youngest son. Brown's loss was equally distressing. Six members of James Brown's immediate family died on the "Arctic". These included William Benedict Brown, James second son and designated heir, after the firstborn James Alexander Brown had been killed in a shooting accident, shortly after his marriage to Maria Louisa Howland, of the great shipper family, in 1847. William's wife and infant daughter were two more casualties, as were James Brown's daughters Maria Miller "Millie" Brown and his daughter Grace (Brown) Allen with her young son Herbert. The death of William Benedict Brown also affected the succession plans at Brown Brothers & company in a similar way his cousin Alexander Brown (III)'s death ('Sir' William Brown's only son to reach adulthood) had affected the outlook of Brown, Shipley & Company in 1849.

Ironically, only a decade earlier, succession in the Brown dynasty had seemed assured, despite the retirement and subsequent separation of the two middle brothers, George and John Alexander Brown. Both James and William Brown had large families and most important, grown up sons who were in age to marry and join the firm. In a then not uncommon way, the two branches were further united by the marriage in 1838 of William Brown's son Alexander to James Brown's eldest daughter Sarah. This marriage of first cousins also produced children : three sons and a daughter, the main heirs to William Brown's substantial fortune. The deaths of all designated main heirs, James Alexander Brown in 1847, Alexander Brown (III) of the English branch in 1849 and William Benedict Brown in 1854 on the "Arctic" left a void James and William Brown could fill only with external partners, until younger members of the family were ready to take over. Time, their lifetime, was running against them, notably the elder William.

James Brown, who married twice, had three more sons. George Hunter Brown joined the firm in 1858 but retired only four years later because of his deteriorating health. John Crosby Brown became a partner in 1864 and assured the succession into the Twentieth Century, as we may see later. Clarence Stewart Brown served as aide-de-camp to Brigadier General McDowell during Civil War and joined Brown Brothers & Co in 1867. But he retired less than two years later, pursuing other interests, notably the Novelty Iron Works (who had built the steam engines of the Collins liners) and a project to build a subway railway in New York.

In England, William Brown became a Member of Parliament, settled on his country estate "Richmond Hill" and devoted more and more time to the philanthropy of his life, the building for Liverpool's Public Library. Queen Victoria made William Brown a Baronet in December 1862, crowning his career as a banker, businessman and politician. Many see in his knighting the reward for his outstanding generosity. 'Sir' William only enjoyed his new status for two more years as he died in 1864, leaving the affairs of the English House and indeed, Brown Brothers & Company, essentially unsettled. The mantle thus fell entirely on the shoulders of James Brown, the youngest son of patriarch Alexander Brown. He kept full control of the Brown Empire until 1868, when new Articles of Association were drawn and the (English) firm was saved from dissolution through a compromise. The remaining part of the history of Browns will follow later. wikipedia entry on his firm. The first investment bank in the USA.

Alexander married Cousin Davison Grace-93368 daughter of Davison Progenitor-359816 and DNotknown Miss-359817. Grace was born in 1758. She died in 1843.

They had the following children:

+ 7 M i Sir Bart1 MP Liverpool Brown William-48870 was born in 1784. He died on 3 Mar 1864.
+ 8 M ii Of Wm and James Brown, New York, Shipping Brown James-234626 was born in 1791.
  9 M iii Merchant, Philadelphia Brown John A.-359824 was born in 1788. He died in 1873.

His wife dies in 1820. Named in Anon., author of the article Before Skull and Bones, at http://www.smokershistory/before.html, a 43-page article, from a rabid website railing against the US anti-smoking movement, apparently from Carol A. S. Thompson, Madiscon, Wisconsin, USA.
        John married Brown Grace-359822 daughter of Dr MD Brown George-359819 and Davison Ann-359818. Grace died in 1820.

Named in Anon., author of the article Before Skull and Bones, at http://www.smokershistory/before.html, a 43-page article, from a rabid website railing against the US anti-smoking movement, apparently from Carol A. S. Thompson, Madiscon, Wisconsin, USA.

4. Merchant, Baltimore Brown Stewart-234623 (William , Progenitor ) was born in 1769. He died in 1832 in Baltimore MD.

He or his son die in 1880.

Stewart married (1) Wife1 Harman Sarah-234631 daughter of Harman Progenitor-460043 and HNotknown Miss-460045. Sarah was born in 1777.

They had the following children:

+ 10 M i Merchant Brown Stewart Junior-234632 was born in 1802. He died in 1880.
  11 F ii Brown Margarettta-460046 was born in 1798.
  12 M iii Brown William Harman-460047 was born in 1800.

Stewart married (2) wife2 VNotknown Miss-234647.

They had the following children:

  13 M iv Brown James Muncaster-234648.

No notes.

5. Brown John-460041 (William , Progenitor ) was born in 1753 in Ballymena Ireland. He died in 1831.

John married Kington Elizabeth-460067 daughter of Kington Progenitor-460994 and KNotknown Miss-460995. Elizabeth was born in 1754. She died in 1836.

They had the following children:

+ 14 M i Brown William Alexander-460068 was born in 1789. He died in 1859.

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