Helmsman graphicMonitor graphicHelmsman graphic The Cozens/Byrnes Merchants Networks Project - Updated 12 October 2012

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Apologies to netsurfers: Temporarily ... This website is now having its navigation system redesigned. In early 2010, for any navigation question (depending on which page you landed on via a search engine if you did not arrive to this page via the index page), go first to the sitemap. The sitemap presents a complete and hyperlinked list of files comprising the website in alphabetical order - Editor

Future work and problem people

This file is for snippets only by way of reference to individuals, situations, members of half-identified networks which Ken Cozens, Dan Byrnes, or any of their e-mailers wish to follow-up in future. With luck, names noted below may one day become subject of new files on the Merchants Networks Project website. Names are presented chronologically where possible.

E-mailers can feel free to let the webmaster know of their research interests so an item can be placed here in due course. The most problematical names will be rendered in bold type

The producers of this website, Dan Byrnes and Ken Cozens, are currently co-writing a book. After recent discussions, a decision has been made to one day rotate some early versions of some chapters of the book on this website. As might be guessed, the book is mostly about Merchant Networks. The chapters will be footnoted in the usual way. ... On merchant and financier-names of the period of the American Revolution, re US history and wider-world history generally ... as mentioned in many contexts, with an aim here, if possible, of expanding the usually-given lists in a useful way (1770-1790) (-Ed)

Follows a list of February 2012 of convict contractors of the Australian run that we know least about, 1800-1865. Convict contractors being merchants who took contracts with the British government to transport convicts to an Australian port. Where the term ¨no wife¨ means we can find no wife, no family members, or no parents for a given name, and possibly the names of few of their usual business associates; two implications are that the names have never been made subjects of family history, at least not yet on the Internet, or made subject of work by historians. The series is most reliable for names noted to 1829, when Thomas Shelton the official contract-maker died (see Net articles by Dan Byrnes on Shelton´s Contracts). Shelton was followed by two other contract-makers, his nephew John Clark, who was followed by an official named Peake. However, for part of the series to 1829, many contracts were taken ¨in bulk¨ by Joseph Lachlan, who is also little known, on behalf of shipping managers with whom he was in contact, and it is quite possible that Lachlan dealt with merchant names still unknown or little-known. The research situation on such merchant names is thus quite unsatisfactory.

The lesser-known names include (and many by occupation were shipbrokers, many living and working in London): William Abercrombie. Aikin. James Allen. James Atty and Co. (no wife); Buckle, Buckle, Bagster and Buchanan being John William Buckle of Hither Green London (wife known but not helpfully so), possibly Henry Mole Bagster (no wife) and possibly one Walter Buchanan (wife known); Thomas Barrick; John Barry of Whitby (no wife, the Barry genealogy available on the Net is quite confusing); John Bell Robertson (no wife); Birch and Ward. John Blacket (no wife); Henry Blanshard. Robert Carter of emigration agents Carter and Bonus (more is known of John Bonus and descendants). Robert Charnock (no wife); William Christopher. James Duncan of Blackheath. J. R. Edridge. George Faith. G. Forsyth. Gibbon and Co; John Goodson; Robert Granger. Henry Green of the Greens who were owners of docks at Blackwall; Alexander Greig (no wife) or, Alexander Mount Greig (no wife); Thomas Hall. William Hamilton. Captain Thomas Haviside. Hibberson (no wife); James Hill. Joseph Horsley. Hovelds. R. L. Hunter. London whaler Thomas or Yves Hurry (no wife); convict ships Captain Magnus I Johnson (maybe later of Newport Isle of Wight, wife name is known but little else); William Hay Leith (later with Forbes and Forbes and Co. of London to about 1853) Martin Lindsay. George Longster (no wife), John Lubbock (wife known); C. M. Lughrue. Parents of John Henry Luscombe. James McTaggart (no wife); whaler William Mellish (active 1790s, no wife); Alexander John Milne (no wife); Samuel Moates (wife known but not helpfully); John Morley (no wife); Richard Mount. W. L. Oldfield. William Parker. Joseph Pinsent (no wife); W. L. Pope. Charles Rait (no wife); Joshua Reeve. Thomas Robson. John Short. Kennard Smith. Stuart and Co; Henry Taylor (no wife); Tayte. W. H. Tiplady. Samuel Tomkins. Alexander Towers (no wife; Giles Wade. wharfinger Thomas Ward (?? and no wife); Captain Thackeray Wetherell. Arthur Oates Wilkinson (no wife but had a stockbroker son) and James Atty; William Wilkinson. Christopher Willoughby an associate of Samuel Enderby Jnr. John Wilsone (?).

Better-known convict contractor names include: Robert Brooks, Aaron Chapman, Abel Chapman, Abel II Chapman (Chapman being a name from Whitby); Devitt and Moore; Duncan Dunbar II; Samuel Enderby Snr of Blackheath (died 1797 plus the Larkins family of Blackheath, half-known); James Laing; John Henry Luscombe (wife known); George Lyall (wife known); James Mangles (much is known of the Mangles); John Prinsep but not his partners Lambert and Saunders; Samuel Francis Somes (wife known. (Ends list updated per Dan Byrnes Armidale April 2012)

Follows an updated list of May 2011 of problem people for current research efforts. Just one of the problems to be noted with such names, given here alphabetically, not chronologically (sorry if that is confusing), is that they are often given in various books commonly cited in economic history, even in classic old books, but nothing new or additional can be found on them. Most of these problem names are those of English or British-colonial merchants, Despite maybe years of Internet development since 1996, given that many of the said books of economic history would already have been published by 1996. What we do not know, and cannot assess, is whether ignorance of these names will interfere with a discussion that seems otherwise to be of reasonable quality. It remains difficult to know if these names can be seen as important or not? Some problem names are those of Lord Mayors of London, though they are not given in this listing.
... Names Arkwright as connected with New Zealand Co (NZCo). Parents of British army General Charles Auriol, more on the name Auriol generally. JP of England Alfred Backhouse 1822-1888 married to Rachel Barclay.
Slaver investor John Banckes about 1678. John Barkworth merchant of Hull active say 1810-1815 (an emailer has sent data on this name).
Newcastle merchant Joseph Barnes. Sir Hercules Beckwith married to Miss Ferrers. Director of Bank of Bengal, William Berners. British shipbuilders Bilbe. Dirk Birch-Reynardson and Mary Bulteel. Thomas Bird of Barton and wife Elizabeth Bird. Before 1700 Royal Africa Co. (RAC) investor James Blake.
Garnham Blaxcell 1778-1817 died Batavia. Barrister Richard Bligh 1785-1817. Sydney wool dealer about 1846, W. C. Botts. An East India Co. (EICo) name of Madras, James Dewar Bourdillon.
London firm Buckle, Buckle, Bagster and Buchanan plus maybe-associated name Boyd (John William Buckle of Hither Green?). Boyd Brothers of the Australia trade. MP Robert Edward Boyle active 1844 married to Robarts. Africa Co. name of 1696 John Braithwaite. James Brander and Mary Mangles. Hamburg merchants Braumsters. EICo name about 1788 William Broderick. MP and Russia merchant John Brogden d.1800. RAC name died 1712 John Brookes of London. Whaler Thomas Brown. Assam tea producer Charles Alexander Bruce died 1871. Governor of Bank of England Cornelius Buller died 1849. Wife of Charles Rousseau Burney. EICo director Joseph Burnley. Charles James Busk of Blackheath Kent and Cape Town. Various of the name Calthorpe.
Anthony Calvert of the 1790s London firm Camden, Calvert and King. The latest information (July 2011) is that Calvert was so admired by his friends/relatives that several named their sons Anthony Calvert. This involved names such as Anthony Calvert King, Anthony Calvert Hutton, Anthony Calvert Law and Calvert Law, and Anthony Calvert Morton. Amazingly, none of those names are available via netsurfing, indicating that Calvert, his associates and families surrounding him are indeed a tough set of research problems. Calvert seems to have died at his house at Broadstairs, Isle of Thanet, but nor is anything from websites concerned with Broadstairs any assistance. It is now clear that Calvert never married.
Horace Walter Calverley born 1863. Harriet Diana Calvert active 1844. Investor in Australian Agricultural Co. (AACo) John Campbell (1778-1840) of London. Campbell of Jamaica married to Rebecca Launce. London barrister Richard Capper. Major-General Sir Burgess Carnac. MP General John Carnac died 1800. MP George Caulfield married to Taverner. EICo name Sir Thomas Chambers active 1664. London merchant about 1650 Robert Charlton. Major-General Sir Harry Chester married to Harriet Clinton. London banker Richard Child about 1610. London alderman and EICo name Sir George Clarke about 1642. Thomas Clarke nd, slave factor at Oprah, West Africa. Barbados planter(s) about 1674 named Clements. Parents of Colonel John Clerk died 1919. Genealogy surname Coldstream. About 1792 an India-China free trader named Colt. Sir Robert Cordell Baronet died 1680. Cowper married to Dorothy Pepys. Robert Cowper and Elizabeth Buxton. General Spencer Cowper. Alexander Templar Cox. Rt. Hon. James Craggs. John Stephens Creed. London merchant (probably) Colin Currie active 1770 and sasme for one David and for Isaac Currie of New Broad Street. Sir D. Currie (?). Major-General Thomas Dallas KCB. Lane Son and Fraser of London bankrupted 1792-1793, presumably merchant bankers. Larkins of Blackheath London (across three generations), a firm with EICo connections. James Mather a whaling investor of London in the 1790s. More on the Twinings tea family seen as bankers.

Below are other lists of problem people.

Britain during the Napoleonic Wars

The following alphabetical list of merchant names who contracted to the British government to provide good and services to the British army and navy during the Napoleonic Wars is drawn from a variety of sources, but mostly from Roger Knight and Martin Wilcox, Sustaining the Fleet, 1793-1815: War, the British Navy and the Contractor State. Woodbridge, Suffolk, The Boydell press, 2010. ISBN 978 1843835649. 262pp. And from an associated online database, Sustaining the Empire database, Contracts.

Sustaining the Empire: Contractor List2 updated. Identifiable convict contractors [to Australia] ]are asterisked. Abbott and Treffry (grocers of Plymouth 1812). William Adams (?). Abraham de Horne. James Allen/Allan (?) William Allen. Robert Anderson (?). Thomas Appleton. Robert Ardle/London Flour Company. John Arlot. William Arlot (brothers or relatives?). John Armitage. William Ashby. Smyth Atcheson. Abraham Atkins. John Atkins of 36 Old Jewry in 1794. Atkins, French and Co. George Atkinson (?). corn factor Christopher Hale Atkinson (1738-1819). William Atkinson. George Augustin. John Joseph Bacon. James Balfour (1775-1845) of Madras with Joseph Baker, who took over from Basil Cochrane in 1806. James Ball and Co (?). [John] St Barbe and Co/Reeve and Green.*. Stephen Barney and also Thomas Barney (relatives?). Richard Barton. Charles Bell (1805-1869) of Throgmorton St London 1794. Cheese contractor Thomas Bell of 34 Bread St London. Andrew Belcher London merchant 1815. Joseph Benbow. Peter Berthon. Peter Bletchford/Blatchford. William Bignell *. William Birt of Tavistock Street Plymouth 1812. James Blake and Samuel Blake (relatives?). W. H. Bayly. John Bridges. Nicholas Brown. William Brown. Bogle French and Co. (need to be watched). Thomas Bolton (1752-1753-1834) married to a relative of Lord Nelson. Walter Borrows of 25 Mincing Lane in 1794. Engineer Sir Marc Isambard Brunel. James Brymer (and Andrew Belcher). John Bunn. Robert Burge. Daniel Callaghan Jnr. Gerald Callaghan. Richard Cathery maybe related to Desbrow Cathery. Carpenter and Gill. Matthew Chambers. William Champion. William Clancy (presumably in Ireland). Richard Henry Clarke. Channon and Burt. Basil Cochrane (East Indies contractor who is uncle of Captain Thomas Cochrane, brother of John, went to Madras as a junior writer for EICo.). UK barracks Builder Alexander Copland. Gabriel Copland. Richard Cozens. William Cozens, also S. and W. Cozens. William Collier of Southside Street Plymouth Dock in 1812 maybe related to John Collier same address. Nicholas Crimp and Nicholas Crimp Jnr. Nicholas Cummins and/or Cummins and Son. N. and M. Cummins. Edward Curling. George Curling. Robert Curling. Thomas Curling. William Curling. Jacob Curtis. Arthur Cuthbert. Late notes of July 2008 on Davison and Newman, to be regarded as contractors of the Napoleonic War era. Henrique Teixeira de Sampaio in Portugal. Alexander Donaldson maybe of Jamaica with George Glenny of London partnerships dissolved by 1804 (see separately Alexander Glennie). Christopher Dunkin of London. Maybe Thames lighterman John Dunkin. John Elill. Edward Ellice. John Fell London corn and meal factor, 11 St Mary Overy´s Dock 1794. French, Atkins and ?, or French and Co. of 3 Copthall Court, Throgmorton Street 1794 plus other names French. Joseph Flight of London (bisket meal). Charles Flower (London Lord Mayor) and Jordaine and other names Flower. Sir William Fletcher. James Bogle-French. John Garland and Co. Joshua Gibbons. Richard Ginger. James Godwin. Godwin and Co. John Gray. John Green and Sons. Madras contractor William Hart. Harrison and Co. William Harrison. Thomas Hearn baker of Isle of Wight. David Heatley. Richard Hingston. Thomas Hubbert and Rowcroft 1794 London shipbrokers, Sailmakers and Wharfingers of 121 Bishopsgate Within. John and/or Isaac Jacob. Zephaniah Job (based at Polperro) who often traded with Jonathan Binns of Looe corn merchant or maltser and also dealt with Robert Grigg of Looe a corn merchant and see also Job and [Robert] Grigg of Polperro; Job also dealt with grain trader Giles Welsford of French Lane Plymouth in 1812. Andrew Jordaine and Co of London. Andrew Jordaine and Richard Shaw partners since 1768, contractors during American War of Independence/ Jordaine and Shaw. Edward Jukes. Kellaway being Henry, James Jnr., Thomas Kellaway. William King. John Kingdom. Edward Knapp Jnr. Edward and Joshua Knight. John Lance of Lance and Auber Meal and Corn factors at 3 Gould Square Crutched Friars in 1794 and also a C. Lance. Richard Lake. Thomas Larkin (sic not Larkins). McIntosh Lachlan. Alexander Learmouth of Learmouth and Lindsay merchants of 30 Nicholas Lane London 1794. Lyons being Dennis, James Jnr and Dennis Jnr Lyons. William Matthews. Henry Marsh. Thomas Marsh. Peter Mellish and W. Smith, supply contractors during American War and later agents for Victualling Board. William Mellish with William Smith. Charles and Robert Milward London corn dealers of 123 St John´s Street Smithfield of 1794 and maybe John Milward. Mant and Co. Samuel Paget. Thomas Pinkerton. Christopher Potter. Thomas Neave. William Nutt. John Phillips. Thomas Phillips. George Quested. William Randall. Joshua Reeve? Reeve and Green of London at 30 Canterbury Square Southwark of 1794*. William Richardson. George Robson at Plymouth. Ridley Robson. Nathan Meyer Rothschild supplied specie to Wellington´s troops. Thomas Rowcroft ship and insurance broker of London at 121 Bishopsgate Within of 1794 (maybe named in writings by Frost?). Possibly a different Thomas Rowcroft of London. James Russell. Nicholas Salmon. Thomas Salmon. James Saunders. Claude Scott London a corn factor at 17 Fenchurch Street 1794, engaged by government to buy wheat from abroad. Scott Idle and Co., London Wine and Brandy merchants of 381 Strand 1794. Benjamin Shaw. Christopher Shaw. Tallow merchant Richard Shaw. Thomas Shepherd. Isaac Solly. [John] St Barbe and Green ships husbands and insurance brokers at 33 Seething Lane by 1794*. Many names Smith. D. O. Sullivan. Alexander Thomson and Grant (1815, Thomson in London, Grant in Jamaica, maybe a man surnamed Alexander?). John Thomson Jnr of Leith. Navy contractor Alexander Tullock. Thomas Weston. Various names Westlake. Archibald Windeyer 1815 Biscuit Maker maybe of Chatham. Richard Windeyer. George Young. Isaac Young.

From 1680++

1625: Sir John Dutton Colt - Preceding the emigrant to America John Colt (1625-1730) married to first wife Mary Finch, of a West England background.

1687: Thomas Carroll Jnr married to Rebecca Fisher with daughter Mary Carroll (1687-1728) married to John III Sturgis (died 1758)

Scrimshaw art
from USA

A ship in serious trouble: American scrimshaw art.
As used as a logo on the business card
of Scrimshaw Gallery Ltd., Pier 39, San Francisco.

Arrow graphicThis file first placed on the Net on 25 July 2006

(From Pieter Dickson)

Dear Merchants Networks,
Many thanks for copy of the Campbell genealogy. The whole concept of this web site is a tremendous lift and the best news of the year; I've already had a note from a current correspondent (a Samuels, originally from Lucea, now living in USA) who has already hit the site and I've no doubt it will grow for years. As to my own research interests, please see below ...

  Jamaica: County of Cornwall, especially Hanover parish, c.1690-1900.
Families: Dickson, related to Crooks, Brown, Malcolm, Sharp, Donaldson. Campbell (influence & trade connections).
Activities: mercantile, marine, farming, professional and trade.  

Scotland: Midlothian especially, c.1690-1850.
Families: Dickson, related to Reid, Thomson, Simpson, Veitch, Murray, Muir. Clerk of Penicuick (land lords, especially Clerk and Campbell relatives in Argyll with Jamaica connections).
Activities: mercantile, farming, professional and trade.

Aim: to glean a sight, from within, of their activities in Jamaica and of what turned their lives "beyond the seas"– kinship connections, business engagements, external events.  

Why? A G-G-G-G-grandson of John Dickson & Ann Crooks of Jamaica thinks that the pre-eminence given to the sugar economy and its movers veils much detail that is revealing and valuable in the record. There is no doubt that speculation surrounding sugar drew many to Jamaica, but their descendants went beyond that first horizon, adapted and survived as a result. The interest is in Daniel Defoe's "middling sort", generally sober, industrious, diligent and god-fearing in their affairs but not without the usual sprinkling of scoundrels.  
All the best (on 26-7-2006), Pieter Dickson

1708: Thomas Green of Witham Co, Boston married to Anne Calef (born 1708) of Boston daughter of clothier Robert Calef (1674-1722) and Margaret Barton.

Sir Stephen Evance (1654/1655-1712 a suicide), financier to government, goldsmith, Governor of Hudson's Bay Company, and had many business partners. Confusions still exist on the Internet as to whether he was married (to Hester Goodyer?), and about the genealogy of the husband (Sir Caesar Child) of the daughter of Stephen's brother, John Evance, Hester Evance.

1720: South Carolina: Born about 1720, Mary Clapp married to David Deas born about 1720. The entire Deas line in South Carolina needs work to beyond 1800. Similar for Lavinia Randolph Deas (1836-1898) who married Randolph Fitzhugh Mason.

Active 1725: London tobacco trader Benjamin Bradley.

Circa 1730: England, John Flowerdewe (no dates, probably a trader in American tobacco) married to Mary Scott, and had son a tobacco merchant Thomas Flowerdewe (no dates).

From 1750

Dan Byrnes is seeking more information on the family history of his own cousins in Australia named D'Elboux, a name from Marseilles, France, emigrating after the 1750s to England, then to Brazil, and Australia. Some descendants also live in New Zealand. Family legend for the D'Elboux families in Australia, more than any facts, indicate that one Francois Louis D'Elboux worked as a cook in the later 1700s in the household of "Lady F. Leveson-Gower" - all that has been written down, as far as is known at present. This was perhaps (simply a guess) Frances Boscawen, who had a family of seven or so children with Hon. John Leveson-Gower, (1740-1792), MP and Lord Admiralty. Dan Byrnes and relatives would appreciate any extra information on this Leveson-Gower family, more so as a Lord Admiralty might have been involved.
Thanks, Dan Byrnes, July 2006.

Circa 1750: London Lombard Street banker Atton or Aston Leeand family generally.

1753: Forebears of Margaret Galbraith born 1753 who married Lloyd's underwriter and whaling investor John St Barbe of Blackheath (1741/1742-1816).

Born 1753: American merchant Jacob Ammidon.

1759: Re Townsend White the father of Anna White (born 1759) who married to New York merchant William Constable (1752-1803), this White family generally.

Circa 1760

More to come

Circa 1761

More to come

Circa 1762

More to come

Circa 1763

1763: John Barnes, British governor for Sengeal 1763-1766, an Africa merchant into the 1780s.

Circa 1764

1764: John Carr (1764-1817) of County Durham Engand married to Hannah Ellison (1780-1846).

Circa 1765

More to come

Circa 1766

More to come

Circa 1767

1767 Virginia: Frances Burwell (1767-1839) married to Wlliam Nelson.

Active 1767, Gerard Williams Beekman with daughter Elizabeth born 1767 married to Peter William Livingston of the New York Livingstons.

Circa 1768

Active 1768: New England merchant John Amory.

Circa 1769

More to come

Circa 1770

Active circa 1770: London merchant William Backhouse married to Eleanor St Barbe, daughter of Massachusetts merchant George St Barbe and Elizabeth Wyatt.

Circa 1771

Circa 1772

1772: Based in London/Britain, Francis Baring, Bird, Alexander Fordyce (speculator in East India stocks): June 1772, a financial bubble burst in June 1772 when a London Scot merchant Alexander Fordyce, whose operations were mostly financial, lost a fortune in speculating on EICO shares, and absconded, bringing down his merchant house Fordyce Grant and Co, and his bank, Neale, James, Fordyce and Down. A panic ensued and many Scottish firms in London

1772 - A Partial list of London merchant Duncan Campbell's correspondents from index to his business letterbook 1772-1776, inc Allison and Campbell, William Adam, Samuel Athawes, Coll Wm Brockenbrough and Austin Brockenbrough, Dr John Brockenbrough, Adam Barnes and Johnson, James Bain, Rev Mr Beauvoir, James and Robert Buchanan, George Buchanan, Robert Cockerell, Messrs Campbell and Dickson, Colin Currie, Stewart Carmichael, William Dickson, Charles Eyles, Fitzhugh, Fauntleroy, Richard Glascock/Glascook, Benjamin and Charles Grimes, Henderson and Glassford, Rhodam Kenner, Abraham Lopez and Son, James Millar Jamaica, Daniel Muse, Hudson Muse, Hugh McLean, Joshua Newall, George Noble, Francis Randall, Major Henry Ridgely, Adam Shipley, William Snydebottom, Richard Stringer, Alexander Speirs and Co, Speirs, Finch and Co, Dr Sherwin, William and Edward Telfair, Tayloe and Thornton, William Vanderstegan, Charles Worthington.

1772 - . Colonial merchants objecting to Britain's stance were John Hancock, Thomas Wharton and John Dickinson of Philadelphia.

1772 - in 1772 John Hancock deals with Hayley and Hopkins in London. in Philadelphia, Charles Wharton imports Dutch tea using New York firms Ten Eyck and Seaman, John and Cornelius Sebring and John Vanderbilt.

1772 - A Philadelphia merchant Gilbert Barkley (and his partner also of Philadelphia, John Inglis), wanted EICo to establish warehouses in American towns, peferably their towns, to auction tea as was done in England. With an opinion was Thomas Walpole, nephew of famous Robert Walpole, a London merchant-banker, who wanted tea centred in Philadelphia, he is associated with Benjamin Franklin and the Whartons, other prominent Philadelphians in the Vandalia Land Company re Illinois.

1772 - James and Drinker of Philadelphia, . Tea for Philadelphia was jointly for James and Drinker, Thomas and Isaac Wharton, Jonathan Browne (with a brother George in London) and Gilbert Barkley. Quaker merchants of Philadelphia were Abel James, Henry Drinker (deals with Fred Pigou Jnr in London), Thomas and Isaac Wharton (plus brother Samuel in London). After the Boston Tea Party, Whartons urged their London correspondents to drop James and Drinker and replace them with William and Morris.

Circa 1773

Upper James River area, Virginia, the 1773-1775 exporters of tobacco from Upper James included: William Allen, Jerman Baker, Burwell Bassett, Robert Bolling, Thomas Bolling, Carter Braxton, William Byrd, Charles Carter, Colonel Edward Carter, Archibald Cary, Wilson Miles Carey, Rev Wm Coutts, Francis Eppes, Charles Gilmore, John Harmar, William Harwood, Henry Henderson, William Lightfoot, Henry and Edmund Lyne, John Mayo, David Meade, Everard Meade, Richard K. Meade, Joseph Montfort, Robert Munford, Robert Carter Nicholas, John Pankey, John Paradise, John Pleasants, Thomas Prosser, Brett Randolph, John Randolph, Richard Randolph, Thomas Mann Randolph, William Randolph, Henry Skipworth, James Smith, John Throgmorton, Richard Tunstall, Robert Turnbull, Abram Venable, Benjamin Waller, John Wayles, Cary Wilkinson. See pp. 100ff of Nagel, Lees of Virginia, Braxton here by 1776 allied with one Benjamin Harrison. By 1775, the top seven tobacco importers in London were William and Robert Molleson, C. Court and T. Eden, Lyonel Lyde and Co, Dunlop and Wilson, Gale, Fearon and Co, Wallace, Davidson and Johnson, and various other and unknown accounting for 44.3 per cent of overall trade. (Jacob Price, p. 180.)

Circa 1773

In 1773, Annapolis merchants James Dick and Anthony Stewart were in debt to John Buchanan and Sons in London for at least L6775, and declared as unfounded a rumour they were in debt for 10,000. (T. Thompson note 26) - See Emory G. Evans, 'Planter Indebtedness and the Coming of the Revolution in Virginia', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. XIX, Oct. 1962.

1773 - May and later, (letter pers comm Pennie Pemberton of 12 Aug, 1990, she has listed merchants we did not notice in Labaree, involved in the EICO tea deal for the North American colonies. Brook Watson of Watson and Rashleigh, Garlick Hill, London. Joshua Winslow of Boston (late of Nova Scotia), Robarts, Payne and Roberts, Kings Arms Yard (was this Robarts later banker partner with Curtis?). At Charleston, South Carolina, Andrew Lord and George Ancrum; George Hayley and John Blackburn; William Palmer of Devonshire Square; John Nutt, New Broad Street Buildings; and Roger Smith of South Carolina. Were the South Carolina names associated with Abel and Macaulay who later lost over 5000 pounds by the American Revolution? At time of Boston Tea Party, William Palmer of London, in 1773, he sent tea to Gov Thomas Hutchinson qv. See Schlesinger on Uprising against the EICo.

Circa 1774

Scrimshaw art
from USA

A ship in serious trouble: American scrimshaw art.
As used as a logo on the business card
of Scrimshaw Gallery Ltd., Pier 39, San Francisco.

October 1774, Russell had been directly involved in the affair of the ship Peggy Stewart. (Jacob Price, p. 192 and note 94 and see Papenfuse, In Pursuit Of Profit), the Peggy Stewart affair re dispute, see Maryland Gazette 20 October, 1774, between Wallace firm, and the tea importers, Williams and Co, both of Annapolis. After the stoppage of the John Buchanan ship in 1773, the Annapolis firm of Dick and Stewart, owners of the Peggy Stewart, transferred most of their business to Buchanan. Russell was the rep in London, and he had decided to hide parcels of tea in Peggy Stewart. As early as 1771, Joshua Johnson in London had warned his Annapolis partners Charles Wallace and John Davidson, that Russell and others were shipping tea. In 1774, Joshua Johnson warned his partners again re tea and Russell's moves, and this warning led to destruction of tea via the burning of the Peggy Stewart. Wallace had an inflammatory role here. In the aftermath here, Capt Lambert Wickes of the Neptune had once refused to carry tea to Maryland sent by the same London merchant supplying the tea to Russell, Amos Hayton, to the same Annapolis house, Williams and Co.

1774: James Pagan, Sketches Of The History Of Glasgow. Glasgow, 1847. cited in T. Thompson note 14, and Pagan notes that at least 46 different Glasgow firms alone were dealing in the American tobacco trade in 1774.

1774: increase in European prices for American tobacco.

George Washington opposed non-payment of American debts. See Thomson, Upper James River, p. 407, noting DC never received tobacco from Upper James River area, the 1773-1775 exporters of tobacco from Upper James included, William Allen, Jerman Baker, Burwell Bassett, Robert Bolling, Thomas Bolling, Carter Braxton, William Byrd, Charles Carter, Colonel Edward Carter, Archibald Cary, Wilson Miles Carey, Rev Wm Coutts, Francis Eppes, Charles Gilmore, John Harmar, William Harwood, Henry Henderson, William Lightfoot, Henry and Edmund Lyne, John Mayo, David Meade, Everard Meade, Richard K. Meade, Joseph Montfort, Robert Munford, Robert Carter Nicholas, John Pankey, John Paradise, John PLeasants, Thomas Prosser, Brett Randolph, John Randolph, Richard Randolph, Thomas Mann Randolph, William Randolph, Henry Skipworth, James Smith, John Throgmorton, Richard Tunstall, Robert Turnbull, Abram Venable, Benjamin Waller, John Wayles, Cary Wilkinson. (See pp. 100ff of Nagel, Lees of Virginia.) Braxton here by 1776 was allied with one Benjamin Harrison of Virginia. (But there about four Benjamins Harrison of Virginia who might have been involved here.)

In London on 18 March 1774 a merchant committee headed by Champion (Richard, of Bristol?) and Dickinson, Hayley and Hopkins, Lane Son and Fraser, to discuss Boston matters and they offered surety of 16,000 pounds to cool things down, offer not taken up. Citations: (Labaree, letters between Thomas and Adrian Hope to Thomas Hancock, Boston, in 1745-1755, page 268 of Notes). In (page 268), John Kidd in London writes and vice versa to William Gough of Philadelphia in October 1754. John Kidd in Philadelphia writes to Rawlinson and Davison in London in 1761. There is a John Kidd Letterbook extant. Henry Lloyd in Boston p. 268 writes to Aaron Lopez of Newport in 22 march, 1756. John Hancock (p. 270 notes) writes 3 Sep-2 Nov 1767 to George Hayley London and to William Reeve, London. On 10 May 1768 Richard Clarke and Sons London write to London dealer Peter Contincen (sic). John Reynell (Reynell and Coates) of Philadelphia (Labaree, p. 271 notes), writes 25 Aug 1768 to Mildred and Roberts, London, and on 5 Nov 1768 to Welch, Wilkinson and Startin of London. Dennys DeBerdt often writes to Thomas Cushing of Boston. Labaree (Notes, p. 276) has Alexander Mackay of London writes to James Bowdoin Boston on 7 April 1770. In London are merchants Robert and Nathaniel Hude (Huth?) p., 277 of Labaree's notes. Abraham Dupois London writes to Boston merchants Samuel and Stephen Salisbury, Sep 1773 (Labaree pp. 278-282 notes note 27 for pp. 68-74 of text) that William Palmer as tea dealer had objected to Herries' tobacco marketing plan from the start. Labaree (Notes, p. 290) that Brook Watson London has letter from Benjamin Faneuil of Boston of November 1773 (there is little on Brook Watson's partner, Rashleigh.) Labaree's notes (p. 301) hae John Norton of London writes to Peyton Randolph US 6 July 1773. See Francis N. Mason, (Ed)., John Norton and Sons, Merchants of London and Virginia. Richmond, Va, 1937. Richard Champion of Bristol writes to Willing and Morris p. 303 of notes on 30 Sep 1774. Labaree (Notes p. 311), Richard Lechmere of Boston to Lane, Son and Fraser (LSF), London on 30 May 1774.

December 1774: (Olson, London Mercantile Lobby. pp. 35-36), the merchant lobby failed to act quickly in December 1774 when the latest Congress' non-importation of British Goods measure reached London, On Dec 19, 1774, the Wilkesite committee members, wanted a mass meeting of merchants and other Londoners for 23 Dec, when they probably wanted to present a pro-America petition, the wealthier conservatives being on their holidays in the country. But on the day of the meeting for 23 Dec, a conservatives wing, Blackburn, Barclay and Champion put an advertisement in a paper, another meeting for 4 Jan, 1775, so the conservatives finally dominated the meeting. A middle-wing consisted of Samuel Athawes, John Sargent, Brigden, Norton, and Russell, who arranged for a conservative, the respected Lane, to preside, get supportive letters from outports and prepare a non-Wilkesite petition.

17 October, 1774, Duncan Campbell to Messrs Abraham Lopez and Son, re their favour of 14 June, re a lading of 12 Terces Sugar per the Britannia, the sugar of a mean quality, the market is glutted. (See Dickinson on Falklands Sealing and Pares, Yankees and Creoles, pp. 162ff, re Lopez here.) In 1765 Lopez owed 10,000 pounds to the son of Henry Cruger being Henry Cruger Jnr, a merchant of Bristol, taking 4-5 years to extinguish it. Lopez built an even larger debt to Hayley and Hopkins, to whom he transferred his biz via London, in 1774 Lopez owed Hayley Hopkins some 12,000 pounds. Lopez dealt also to West Indies, owned several ships, one in trade Jamaica to London; eg Lopez to Cruger in Bristol, Nov 1770; Pares finds it impossible to quantify any of merchants' dealings such as those of Lopez re capital formations, etc. George Washington (Pares, p. 3) visited Barbados in 1751-1752 and commented on planter indebtedness there. p. 5 James Reynell a Philadelphia merchant of a later generation 1730-1760 in Pares, Yankees, p. 5.

Virginia: Some of the 1773-1775 American exporters of tobacco from the Upper James River area included: William Allen, Jerman Baker, Burwell Bassett, Robert Bolling, Thomas Bolling, Carter Braxton, William Byrd, Charles Carter, Colonel Edward Carter, Archibald Cary, Wilson Miles Carey, Rev William Coutts, Francis Eppes, Charles Gilmore, John Harmar, William Harwood, Henry Henderson, William Lightfoot, Henry and Edmund Lyne, John Mayo, David Meade, Everard Meade, Richard K. Meade, Joseph Montfort, Robert Munford, Robert Carter Nicholas, John Pankey, John Paradise, John Pleasants, Thomas Prosser, Brett Randolph, John Randolph, Richard Randolph, Thomas Mann Randolph, William Randolph, Henry Skipworth, James Smith, John Throgmorton, Richard Tunstall, Robert Turnbull, Abram Venable, Benjamin Waller, John Wayles, Cary Wilkinson.

Circa 1774

1774 - Among the London dealers were Walter Mansell and Co, Arthur Lee, Thomas Walpole, the later alderman Brook Watson and his partner Rashleigh, Champion and Dickinson, Hayley and Hopkins, Lane Son and Fraser, Davidson and Newman, Abraham Dupois, Pigou and Booth; and John Fothergill. Merchants who may have been Londoners, or Americans, it is difficult to say, included James Hall, Hugh Williamson and John D. Whitworth, who with William Rotch later contacted the Privy Council on 19 Feb, 1774 [Labaree, p. 295, Note 36; pp. 89-95].

Circa 1775

1775++: Based in France, see financier Ferdinand Grand, Vergennes, the French Farmers-General as buyers of American tobacco.

Netherlands: Hope(s) and Co. of Amsterdam. Jan (and Jan Jnr.) and Wilhelm (and Wilhelm Jnr.) Willink (Amsterdam bankers). Nicholas van Staphorst. Jan Gabriel van Staphorst.

1775++: Mostly resident in America: Robert Morris,an early partner of Robert Morris being Thomas Willing (Morris and Willing, Philadelphia tobacco traders), John Parish a connection of Robert Morris. William Constable. Alexander Hamilton. Thomas Jefferson (politician/commentator). John Adams (politician, negotiator for Dutch loans). Carter Braxton (of Virginia), Daniel Parker, William Parker, Benjamin Franklin, Gouvenour Morris. Agents for Hope and Co. of Amsterdam, John Holker, Francis Rotch (whaling industry), Matthew Ridley, merchant John Hancock of Boston. John Jay (negotiator of Jay Treaty). One-time partners of Robert Morris were Wallace, Johnson and Muir.

1775 - See Alison Olson, London Mercantile Lobby. p. 26, both James Russell and Dennys DeBerdt Jr both signed the extreme October 1775 petition urging government to take steps to restore peace with America. ... p. 27, Core of the American merchants included Edward Athawes, dean of the Virginia tobacco merchants since the 1750s, John Norton, Quakers David Barclay and Daniel MIldred, the Marquis of Rockingham's friend Sir William Baker and his lawyer son, Carolina merchants John Nutt (and Nutt a pro-American) and Edward Brigden, New England merchants Alexr Champion and Thomas Lane, Maryland merchants James Russell and William Molleson, the Virginia merchant Duncan Campbell, plus traders New York-Penn being William Neate and Frederick Pigou.

1775: Dallas D. Irvine, 'The Newfoundland Fishery: A French objective in the War of American Independence', Canadian Historical Review, 13 Sept., 1932.

1775++: Georges Lemaitre, Beaumarchais. New York, 1949.

1775++ See also, Margaret L. Brown, William Bingham, Agent of the Continental Congress in Martinique', Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 61, 1937.

1775++: Derek Jarrett, The Begetters of Revolution: England's Involvement with France, 1759-1789. Totawam NJ, 1973.

1775++: Britain: Sir James Cockburn MP for Linlithgow, had valuable contract to supply 100,000 gallons of rum to the troops. (Colley, Britons, p. 126.)

In 1775, Lopez, Jarvis, Francis Rotch and one Richard Smith decided to station vessels at the Falkland Islands for the duration of Am Rev hostilities. Whaling mostly, sealing when possible. There was a danger of starvation on Nantucket in 1775 due to shipping blockades. (From Dickinson on Falklands sealing), In Sept 1775 Rotch joined with Leonard Jarvis of Dartmouth, Richard Smith of Boston, Aaron Lopez of Newport for whaleships, see firms of Champion and Hayley, Champion and Dickason. See Dickinson on the Falklands re the affair that Mary Wilkes had with Rotch after George Hayley died. Mary Wilkes also had liason with (American?) whaler Patrick Jaffrey who remains little known.

in 1775-1776- the British Treasury Board contracted with Anthony Merry, merchant, to supply livestock to troops at Boston and New York.

Pre-revolution, 1775, some of the leading Glasgow merchants with influential connections in American colonies are Alexander Speirs and William Cunninghame.

1775 - Jacob M. Price, 'The Economic Growth of the Chesapeake and the European Market, 1697-1775', The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1964., pp. 496-516, [note also that nearby that issue, maybe 1963 or 1965 is an article on French merchants at Lyon which maybe we should read. on p. 499, Note 3, Price writes, "It is virtually impossible to compile a good, long term series of London tobacco prices." (p. 499), since 1670 the Chesapeake tobacco to London was re-exported to markets the Virginians knew little about. there were 100 million pounds shipped annually to Britain in 1771-1775, about 85 per cent of which was re-exported. and p. 502, Note 5, Price cites papers on French Farmers-General, noting that they tend to neglect "commercial and political-personal factors".

Active 1775: Virginian planter Colonel William Brockenbrough.

Circa 1776

Names relevant to pre-revolutionary North America

Gilbert Barkley (sometimes given as Barclay). A tea dealer associated with the tea cargos ruined by the Boston Tea Party. (Died 1799 in England.)

Anna Cuyler and Anthony van Schaick. B. Ledyard Cuyler. Sir Cornelius Cuyler first Baronet (c.1740-1819). Cornelius Cuyler and Margaret Ledyard. New York merchant Philip Cuyler.

John Duncan, an early partner of the notable firm of fur traders, Phyn and Ellice.

Background of merchant in America in the time of the American Revolution, Stephen Girard

Abel James, partner with Henry Drinker in the firm James and Drinker, time of Boston Tea Party.

Lane, Son and Fraser (which failed in London 1793 and created negative ripples as it did so). Hopes and Co. of Amsterdam (which survived to about 1814).

Merchant of Amsterdam John de Neufville, assisted supply of Washington's Continental Army, later emigrated to America.

Other names in Britain to examine further

Alexander and Benjamin Champion, investors in the English south whaler fishery roughly 1776-1786. Surprisingly little is available on their genealogy and careers.

Lane, Son and Fraser (see below re North America).

Vice-Admiral Clark Gayton(died 1787), at one time in command of the naval station at Jamaica. (May relate to work on Lane, Son and Fraser as below, by about 1787.)

Samuel Peach (1725-1790), Bristol banker and MP, bankrupted in 1781, and his lineage generally.

Re George Chalmers - 1776 - Re Virgin Islands, for some time rather unsually had a Liverpool agent, (in Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 106ff), at one time it was thought Sir William Meredith should go out, by 1776, but he was then Controller of the Household, so it was decided to appoint John Pownall, under-sec of State in the American Dept and secretary to Board of Trade. the appointee was one George Suckling. a certain London group had been intriguing about the appoinment. In 1783, Henry Rawlinson of Liverpool was appointed. Penson, (Colonial Agents, p. 167) says George Chalmers a later agent for the Bahamas was appointed after 1782 chief clerk to the committee of Privy Council known as Board of Trade, a Bahamas man till he died in 1825. Chalmers (p. 168) in his day regarded as a notable opinion on the history of the revolt of the Americans. in Penson, Colonial Agents, p.168 citing George Chalmers, An Introduction to the History of the Revolt of the American Colonies. 2 Vols. Boston, 1845. Chalmers also wrote on Britain's Treaties with other powers.

A Robert Morris had partner in 1776 dealing with Martinique, William Bingham, American commissioner; and on Santo Domingo, Morris had his (Secret Committee) agent, Stephen Ceronio. In Williamsburg was Benjamin Harrison Jnr. David Stewart worked at Baltimore. At New Orleans was Oliver Pollock, also dealing for Willing and Morris. Charles Willing was on Barbados. In 1776, one firm was Willing, Morris, (Swanwick) and Co. Operating in Europe were Silas Deane, John Ross and Samuel Beale. Morris had regular European associates, Samuel and J. H. Delap at Bordeaux, Andrew Limozin at Le Havre, Clifford and Teysett of Amsterdam. Deane and Ross began to deal with LeRoy de Chaumont a procurer of supplies for the French army, and John Holker, later the agent of the French navy in America.

29 Feb, 1776, Beaumarchais wrote to king of France, true words, "The famous quarrel between America and England, which will soon divide the world and change the system of Europe ... and he warned the king, if America and England made up, they would attack the French West Indies to make up their losses, so he recommended that France assist the Americans without compromising France - while Vergennes felt that helping the Americans would reduce the power of England, maybe give back the fisheries of Newfoundland the French had long resented losing ... So Vergennes wanted any French aid to America kept secret. Meanwhile the British had brought off the secretary of the weak-and-despised London French ambassador, Guines, and had planted a renegade Jesuit in the French embassy who knew of Canadian affairs, Roubaud (sic ok), and Roubaud as a double agent kept in touch with Lord Dartmouth and John Pownall (an America-hater) - the undersecretary for American Affairs, Roubaud gulled Guines about plans for an Anglo-French alliance against the Americans, saying to the English it was a French idea, so this fuelled British arrogance against the Americans, and Lord Sandwich at the Admiralty sent copies of such a false document to America as a warning to the Americans, but the upshot was the Louis decided to help the Americans. (Fleming, 1776 Illusions, pp. 110-113.)

Scrimshaw art
from USA

A ship in serious trouble: American scrimshaw art.
As used as a logo on the business card
of Scrimshaw Gallery Ltd., Pier 39, San Francisco.

Feb-March 1776, Secret commerce men meeting with French merchants Penet and Pliarne, eager to supply munitions to America, indeed, anything else. gunpowder by the ton, committee chose Silas Deane, aged 39, as representative to go to France. (Fleming, Illusions, pp. 132-133.)

1776, April, (Sumner on Robert Morris, Vol 1, p. 158), Beaumarchais the Frenchman, associate of Arthur Lee, sending supplies to US via West Indies, with the semi-fictional company of Hortales and Co. (Ferguson, Purse, p. 42, Note 42), See Louis Leonard de Lomenie, Beaumarchais and His Times. New York, 1857., surmising p. 278 "that French merchants other than Beaumarchais got subsidies from the French Court in order to give aid to America." Also, the "booming" war trade to the West Indies is described in J. Franklin Jameson, 'St Eustatius in the American Revolution', American History Review, 8, (1902-1903), pp. 683-708.

April 1776, profit on Statia gunpowder had jumped 120 per cent, some shipped to America by Marylander Richard Harrison, and Abraham von Bibber spent time on Statia, Much powder bought with borrowed French money with Statia merchant Isaac van Dam active here, admitting he caried out his trade on behalf of Frenchmen; and in London, Lord Rochford sec of state for Europe accused France of gunrunning to America, and Vergennes disagreed about any breach of agreements here. (Fleming, Illusions, pp. 210ff.)

2 April, 1776, Louis of France decided he would help the Americans separate from England, he ordered the navy to begin rebuilding and army to purchase new equipment. And on 2 May he agreed to back Beaumarchais' dummy company, Roderigue Hortalez and Co, which would supply munitions to Americans. but Louis also decided to dispense with Turgot. whereupon Turgot with great prescience warned Louis of the fate of the necks of kings, and exit Turgot. Vergennes then persuaded Spain to assist Hortalez, and so in all, the French supported a revolution that would lead to the re-arrangement of France! (Fleming, 1776 Illusions, p. 113.)

By May 1776, (Ver Steeg, p. 19), Robert Morris' half brother Thomas went to London to settle the affairs of Willing and Morris (Ver Steeg p. 205 Note 31, about 10,000 pounds), overall, he was a bungler, ending back at Nantes. Some of Robert Morris contacts were with French firm De Pliarne, Penet and Gruel, rather a questionable firm. Eventually Deane complained of Thos Morris indulging in the good life, Morris at Market Street in Philadelphia, and Morris appointed John Ross a Philadelphia merchant to replace Thos Morris for Willing and Morris. Ross here handling deals worth 70,000 pounds sterling by may 1778.
Ferguson, Purse, p. 83, and Note 27, p. 84 Note 29, To Sept 1776, Morris suggesting Deane do deals with Thomas Walpole in Britain, Chaumont in France, and Legrand with branches in France and Holland, to sop up the neutral or indirect trade(s) between Britain and America. Deane tried to interest Delaps in this. p. 83, The British Govt itself connived at the trade, Ferguson writes, which was enabled by transferring ownership and registry of ships to make them appear to be owned by partners in other countries. such arrangements lasted till 1779. By 1781, Ferguson p. 127, many goods acquired by the US in Europe were of British origin.
Aug 1776, Ver Steeg on Morris, p. 206 Note 39, a British merchant Thomas Walpole has his name implicated in a US idea, Morris realised that the American armies could not be adequately supplied except by Great Britain, therefore an idea to set up with 400,000 pounds sterling to include a group of London merchants including Thomas Walpole, some French merchants such as Chaumont, plus Morris and his associates, citing T. P. Abernethy, Commercial Activities of Silas Deane, American Historical Review, XXXIX, p. 478. But Ver Steeg feels the link was much more with French merchants.
(Ketchum, p. 43), By May 1776 the French and Spanish had set up a dummy company, Hortalez (sic) and Cie, to conduct a clandestine arms and munitions business with the Americans so as not to embarrass their governments, one of the American contacts here was Silas Deane, whose life is a confusing story, the son of a Connecticut blacksmith who graduated from Yale in 1758.
Ferguson, Purse, pp. 195-196. Late in 1777 re Beaumarchais, he sent an agent, de Francey to American to collect money due to Beaumarchis for supplies, but discrepancies were in de Francey's accounts, congress dealing with Alderman Arthur Lee was unsure if supplies had not been a gift of the French court, but Congress wanted to settle with Beaumarchais, Silas Deane a dealer here. Beaumarchais paid to January 1782. Matter still not clear, although B's heirs paid something in 1835. Thomas Barclay here reviewed accounts, etc.

Sumner on Robert Morris, Vol 1, p. 158-159, May 3, 1776, Vergennes in France wrote to Grimaldi the Spanish minister that France intending to advance one million livres for aid to the American colonies. Govt would not appear in it, a merchant would arrange matters. Meanwhile a US arrangement from Secret Committee dealing with Penet, Pliarne and Co, interested with the French Farmers-General in American tobacco. Arthur Lee involved here. Silas Deane buying munitions.

William Bingham, aged 24 in 1776, re fitting of the American army due to Abraham van Bibber, Richard Harrison, Thomas Burch (sic) and/or William Bingham, who worked in the West Indies and by mid- 1776 had supplied Wshington with enough gunpowder. (Fleming, Illusions, p. 205.) Also, see Robert C. Alberts, The Golden Voyage: The Life and Times of William Bingham. Boston, 1969.

By 3 June, 1776, Committee of Commerce had sent young William Bingham to Martinique to do business, on American war ship, Reprisal, Capt Lambert Wickes, who actually had a mostly British crew! Wickes who had sailed merchant ships for Willing and Morris. At Martinique a British warship challenged Reprisal and Reprisal sent a broadside, the ships duelled, the British lost, and a minor diplomatic incident occurred, with the British speaking diplomatic tosh and the French saying so, and about now, one American ship operated (half-owned) by Abraham von Bibber was Balitmore Hero. Bingham meantime had a small fleet of privateers and made phenomenal profits he shared with Robert Morris, in one week his men got fourteen prizes. (Fleming, Illusions, p. 213), see Robert C. Alberts, The Golden Voyage: The Life and Times of William Bingham. Boston, 1969.

Mid-1776, by now, Thomas Burch head of Thomas Burch and Co had shipped 50 tons of gunpowder to Thomas Mumford of Groton, Connecticut, a relative of Silas Deane. (Fleming, Illusions, p. 211.)

In the later 1770s, Baltimore merchants worked with a popular party in Maryland led by Charles Carroll of Carrolltown, Samuel Chase, and others, while more radical were John Hall, Mathias Hammond and Rezin Hammond. In 1776, some Baltimore merchants formed a Whig Club, devoted to an idea of deporting anyone opposing independence, which increased general political support for independence. (T. Thompson, p. 23.)

1776: (Ferguson, Purse, p. 83), and Note 27, p. 84 Note 29, To Sept 1776, Morris was suggesting Deane do deals with Thomas Walpole in Britain, Chaumont in France, and Legrand with branches in France and Holland, to sop up the neutral or indirect trade(s) between Britain and America. Deane tried to interest Delaps in this. p. 83, The British Govt itself connived at the trade, Ferguson writes, which was enabled by transferring ownership and registry of ships to make them appear to be owned by partners in other countries. such arrangements lasted till 1779. By 1781, (Ferguson, Purse, p. 127), many goods acquired by the US in Europe were of British origin.
(Ferguson, Purse, p. 89, Note 44), a close friend of Deane was Edward Bancroft, a British spy whom Deane and Franklin employed unwittingly. Bancroft made frequent trips across the Channel and it was said that these trips were linked with stock speculations in which Deane participated, the principal English associate being Thomas Wharton. See Carl Van Doren, Secret History of the American Revolution. New York, 1941.

(Ferguson, Purse, p. 80, Note 19), re firms such as Benjamin Harrison paymaster of the Continental army in Virginia, Carter Braxton, Jennifer and Hooe, J. H. Norton and Samuel Beale of Virginia, Hewes and Smith of North Carolina, John Dorsius of Charleston, John Wereat in Georgia. Circa 1776, another Morris agent was David Stewart at Baltimore.

About July-August 1776, (Ferguson, Purse, pp. 78-81), Morris' partner in 1776 to Martinique was William Bingham, American commissioner, and on Santo Domingo, Morris had his (Secret Committee) agent, Stephen Ceronio. In Williamsburg was Benjamin Harrison Jnr. David Stewart at Baltimore. At New Orleans was Oliver Pollock, also dealing for Willing and Morris. Charles Willing was on Barbados. In 1776, one firm was Willing, Morris, (Swanwick) and Co. In Europe were Silas Deane, John Ross and Samuel Beale. Morris had a regular European client, Samuel and JH Delap at Bordeaux, Andrew Limozin at Le Havre, Clifford and Teysett of Amsterdam. Deane and Ross began to deal with LeRoy de Chaumont, procurer of supplies for French army, and John Holker later the agent of the French navy in America. Clifford and Teyset of Amsterdam.

1776 - (A. Dickinson, Falklands sealing, p. 37), citing Lt Samuel W. Clayton, An Account of the Falkland Islands', Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, LXVI (1776).

1776, Tobacco merchant Molleson's Maryland agent was Matthew Tilghman, a Maryland Congressman. Russell's agent in Maryland was John Grahame of Nantes, presumably related to Charles Grahame. Molleson at William and Robert Molleson, of No 1, America Square, his residence also there. (Jacob Price, p. 196.)

Early 1776 - There was a Virginia firm dealing with Robert Morris (Ver Steeg, p. 21), JH Norton, CM Thurston and Samuel Beale, and Morris using a Capt Ord who had sailed to St Eustatius, and Morris by now was encouraging some privateers. Morris brought tobacco from Carter Braxton of Virginia. Also in tobacco was Benjamin Harrison.

1776: Turgot, his views, one of "the Physiocrats", served Louis XVI, believed all wealth came from the land, eschewed war for commercial advantage in guise of political rivalry, had little interest in foreign policy, wanted to see a France whose wealth and fertility from the soil surpassed perfidious Albion. Did not want paper wealth as created by the Bank of England. Meantime the Farmers-General was "a corporate entity which was virtually a state within a state", with the right to collect the taxes of France, and things were, Turgot's views on reform of tax sent the tax-evasive French aristocracy into hysteria. Turgot especially warned the king against war, as any gunshot would drive the state into bankruptcy! So he did not advise the young Louis in early 1776 to assist the American rebels. at the time the French ambassador to England was Count de Guines, there had been diplomatic veerings in 1775 between England and France over 1775, the upshot with France's foreign minister Vergennes was that France would assure England it would not help the Americans, and then it would secretly help the Americans. Vergennes was wanting cheaper loans from the Dutch to offset the murderous interest rate of the Farmers-General, and as Louis waffled about not stabbing Geo III in the back, Vergennes needed another man and found him in England, Pierre Augustin Canon de Beaumarchais, aged 44. and in 1774 he had the confidence of French officials, unofficial envoy to Spain, secret agent for Louis XV in London, where (apart from adventures with the gender-mysterious French spy, for Louis XV, Chevalier Charles d'Eon de Beaumont) (six ok correct spells) Beaumarchais met radicals John Wilkes Lord Mayor of London and Arthur Lee the American. [Wilkes, said mockingly, he had never been a Wilkite) (Fleming, 1776 Illusions, pp. 102-108ff.)

About mid-1776, when Guines the French ambassador been in London, he had tried unsuccessfully to play the stock market, his bankers being Huguenots Baurieu (sic) and Chollet (sic) who threatened to sue the French king for Guines' debts once courts found in Guines' favour, and Necker soothed them with promises of their handling some millions as he handled France's finances. (Fleming, Illusions, p. 446.)

About mid-1776, Aug-Oct 1776, Vergennes in France seeing Silas Deane, and Necker fitting out French revenges against England. (Fleming, Illusions, p. 447.)

1776: 19 December, 1776, a general assembly of state of Virginia resolved to expel and banish British merchants and factors from the state.
Meantime, British merchants froze the assets of American colonial merchants. The US found it difficult to create extra credit in France as it could not ship produce there. At this time Morris used agents such as Benjamin Harrison Jnr and Carter Braxton of Virginia, plus Stephen Stewart and Jonathan Hudson of Maryland. Men such as Hewes and Smith in North Carolina and John Dorsius in Charleston were buying indigo and rice, sending to the West Indies. In December 1776, Carter Braxton claimed, "I was appointed to purchase tobacco for the [US] Army", and he said due to Robert Morris' insinuation Braxton could use some money for his own purposes, various army supply deals mentioned in 1777. Swiggett writes that Morris would often complicate deals by adding riders which if they came off would turn extra profit, but if not, then only annoy people around him. Also, that in August 1778 when Braxton (who died 1797) was re-establishing in Philadelphia after the British evacuation, that Morris purchased some protested bills of Braxton's and then made financial claims on Carter Braxton, possibly also converting things here into pounds sterling, but apparently still kept money out of Braxton's hands here. Swiggett p. 116, says Washington wanted one of his own nephews to join Tench Tilghman, associated with Robert Morris, for some reason, Thomas McKean the chief justice of Pennsylvania recommended Peter Whitesides about 1788 "a man of Morris-Braxton money morals", to John Adams in London as he had been concerned in trade with Robert Morris and was a skilful merchant. John Nicholson was soon to become Morris partner as Morris splitting with Willing and Morris. Swiggett > p.116 dates Morris' moral decline from 1781, and John Nicholson accelerated the process. Swiggett p. 139 in 1795 apparently, some ratification of the Jay Treaty, long chain of events, re resignation of sec of state of US, by October 24 an American serving on the American Claims Commission in London was Samuel Bayard, Bayard in contact with Tom Paine.

Circa 1777

1777: (Greenberg, p. 21), by about 1777, two large China merchants re Canton were Messrs Hutton and Gordon, Chinese owed them about $1,176,000. One Abraham Leslie an aggressive China resident. A noted semi-pirate was Captain MacClary.

1777, early in year, Admiral Gayton commanding the Jamaica naval station, his yard needs masts and bowsprits. (Albion, Forests and Sea Power, p. 307.)

(Ferguson, Purse, p. 88, Note 42), re Pliarne, Penet and Co, Oct. 1777. a dubious company, also linked with J. Gruel.

(Ferguson, Purse, pp. 195-196.) Late in 1777 re Beaumarchis, he sent an agent, de Francey to America to collect money due to Beaumarchis for supplies, but discrepancies were in de Francey's accounts, congress dealing with Alderman Arthur Lee was unsure if supplies had not been a gift of the French court, but Congress wanted to settle with Beaumarchis, Silas Deane a dealer here. Beaumarchis paid to January 1782. Matter still not clear, although B's heirs paid something in 1835. Thomas Barclay here reviewed accounts, etc.

1777 - (Oberholtzer, p. 323), Dutch bankers so helpful to Morris were Willink and Co.
(Ver Steeg, p. 208, Notes 42- 48), Morris deals with John Parish of Hamburg (who is almost impossible to retrace)) via John Ross who handled Morris and Willing abroad, and Ross had an account with John Parish of up to 200,000 pounds sterling. Ross dealt in his own private capacity with British trade via John and William Craig, Delap and Conyngham. (Ver Steeg citing Account Book of John Ross, PHS, p. 1. p. 59.)

(Ver Steeg, p. 15), Feb 1777, Bingham wrote Morris re they were buying tobacco for France "pretty deeply". But there were few good judges of tobacco commerce to rely on.

(Ver Steeg, pp. 16-18), the trade between North Carolina and Southern states and Martinique quite helpful by April 1777, dealing with Chaumont in France, an influential French merchant,

End of 1777, (Ver Steeg, pp. 28-31, firm of Willing and Morris broke up, but this not announced till 28 July, 1778. Willing wanted to wind up English affairs, Morris disliked working with the French, and between 1778-1781, Morris became acknowledged as the premier merchant in US, now completely private, he continued with Bingham working at Martinique, privateering tapered off, Capt Ord went back to ordinary sailing, and Morris teamed with a partner, Jonathan Hudson, who speculated in salt, then tobacco, then the two did business with tobacco, rum, plantations, lands, Hudson being rather impetuous, and also linked to Peter Whitesides and Co., from July 1778. Hudson buying eg., 2000 hogsheads a time. Morris also dealing much with the French merchant John Holker (There are forty volumes of Holker Papers in the Library of Congress), Morris dealt for Holker in Philadelphia, Virginia and Maryland.

1777 - (A. Dickinson, Falklands sealing, p. 50) - Francis Rotch's ventures to Falklands terminated when Rotch returned from the Falklands in 1777. Charles Hayley died that year, too. (citing Stackpole, but does he mean George Hayley here?) Dickinson says Rotch in 1777 became business adviser to the Company and to Mary Hayley, new widow. Mary Hayley wished to continue as a whaler, although on a reduced scale. Dickinson (p. 51) suggests Hayley and Rotch became romantically involved, and he may have induced her to try the Falkland Islands plan again. Francis' brother William Rotch disliked the plan, William wanted sea otter skins from the Northwest Pacific Ocean to Canton, which would have entailed sailing around Cape Horn.

Battle of Long Island. p 33, Sept 1777, Sir William Howe, Brit, sailed up Chesapeake Bay to the Delaware and occupied Philadelphia. (Tuchman, The First Salute: 1988), p. 122, at least some of the American naval supplies and gunpowder were bought with the proceeds of sales of American tobacco and indigo. >>> p. 159, America used to trans-ship some supplies through Portugal. (Tuchman, The First Salute. 1988, p. 176), Edward Bancroft was a spy for British espionage, he was a correspondent of the American commissioners. Tuchman, The First Salute: 1988., p. 301, Naval officers were generally Whiggish in outlook. Tuchman, The First Salute, 1988., pp. 308-309, Brit's attitude to American War was a matter of planlessness and carelessness, complacency, and the navy was riddled with factionalism. Tuchman, The First Salute: 1988., p. 313, Britain calculated an ending to the American Revolution, by the spring of 1777 - and of course, was wrong.
Tuchman, The First Salute: 1988., p. 332, Graft was a way of life to the English officials.

Scrimshaw art
from USA

A ship in serious trouble: American scrimshaw art.
As used as a logo on the business card
of Scrimshaw Gallery Ltd., Pier 39, San Francisco.

Circa 1777

1777-1778, Navy in London decides on timber supplies from Canada, St John River in New Brunswick, still a part of Nova Scotia, Colbert wanting to supply France from New France. but failed here. Extensive timber trade from Nova Scotia, the timber pioneer at New Brunswick was William Davidson, who began in 1779, an initiative from commissioner at Halifax Andrew Snape Hamond, Davidson worked from Fort Howe. (Albion, Forests and Sea Power, p. 291.)

1777-1778, Scammell went from London, went to the Baltic, St Petersburg for masts, and had made a contract with Riga merchants Wales, Pierson (sic) and Co. of Riga for more masts and that supply lasted for the war. (Albion, Forests and Sea Power, pp. 287-288.)

Circa 1778

To about 1778, the most-named British contractors helping prosecute the American war seemed to be, Nesbitt Drummond and Franks, Mure, Son and Atkinson, Anthony Bacon, John Amyand, Hennicker, Wheler/Wheeler, Wombwell and Devanes, James Bogle French John Durand, see AO Bundles, 197-208. Also, Jones, Smith, Baynes and Atkinson, from www.americanrevolution.org/britisharmy4.html -

New notes from Klingelhofer, after 1779, Matthew Ridley became involved in a new importing business with John Holker Jnr (who had made many enemies in France), Robert Morris, Jonathan Williams, Joshua Johnson (an associate in London of the American William Lee), Donatien Le Ray de Chaumont a shrewd French businessman dealing with the Americans, Edward Bancroft a doctor and a spy for the British at times, sometimes Benj Franklin's secretary, Simeon Deane a merchant in Virginia and others. p. 96 and Kling says, John Holker Jnr. lived in France with his Jacobite father till sent in 1777 by French Govt to report on conditions in US, later he was appointed consul-general in Philadelphia and he helped equip French men-o'-war in American ports and fit French armies, and as an active or silent partner in many businesses he made and lost fortunes, he was a partner with Robert Morris till 1784, when recriminations began, John Holker Papers are in the Library of Congress, (Klingelhofer, p. 96), Thomas Digges was sent by Lord North on a mission to Holland to talk with John Adams on idea of a truce in March 1782, Klingelhofer, p 97, Ridley in a new phase when in March 1781 he was appointed agent for Maryland to obtain a loan for the state in Europe, and he also took two of Robert Morris' sons (Robert and Thomas), to Europe for their education, so Ridley went to France in November 1781, Ridley at times also dealt with Gouvenour Morris, Ridley got no loan in France but after dealing with John Adams in Holland got a loan from Nicolaas and Jacob van Staphorst in Amsterdam. Ridley back in France in August 1782 and became friends with John Jay. few secrets were kept from Ridley, about September-October 1782 when Britain and US negotating, terms of the Jay draft learned in London on October 8, 1782, he knew of animosity between Jay and Franklin, Ridley observed the high level powerplays between France, Spain and Britain which threated to swamp US interests,
Klingelhofer, p. 101, Aug 28, 1782, M Ridley sees Dr Bancroft, Robert Morris p. 102 prefered to deal with French financier Ferdinand Grand. Klingelhofer, p. 102, 31 Aug, 1782, M Ridley sees John Jay and discusses eg Robert Morris dealing with French financier Ferdinand Grand, Klingelhofer, p. 103, 3 Sept., 1782, Matthew Ridley sees Mr Thomas Barclay of the Philadelphia firm of mercantile Barclay, Moyland and Co, and Barclay here is also American consul in France, Klingelhofer, p. 119, on 12 Oct, 1782, Ridley dined with Mr Richard Neave and Son and they complained of Samuel Wharton a Philadelphia merchant, who had let them down as Neaves had backed a firm Boynton, Wharton and Morgan, matter of 33,000 pounds sterling, Wharton of Philadelphia and also a land speculator. Mr Neave now failed. Same discussions on Oct 13, 1782 with Neaves.
Klingelhofer, Matt Ridley knows by 27 Nov, 1782, Thomas Townshend and lord mayor of London been concerned to prevent speculation in the city re war news and ideas about negotiations with America,

Swiggett, p. 207, an example once of Pickering's way of doing things, [during the Rev?] a Philadelphia merchant named Charles Derby received a bill of exchange of the Dutch banking house Hope and Co, in payment for goods purchased by John Pigeon. Pigeon could not be found to exist. Pickering protested the bill, feeling it was a forgery.

Circa 1779

1779 - (Sumner on Robert Morris, Vol 1, p. 129), Carter Braxton seems to have stepped into the gap in tobacco-handling business created when the Scots factors had been thrown out of the colonies, and merchants such as DC and Christopher Court were unable to trade. Jan 1779, Braxton complains of low price of tobacco and wanted to trade with Holland, via Antigua or St Eustatius.

date?

See Pierre Vilar, A History of Gold and Money, 1450-1920. London. Verso. 1991. pp. 268ff, There was a Roux company in Marseilles. Other financiers p. 275 included the Perregaux, Mallets, Hottinguers, Vernes. Royal or Court bankers before french Rev included Paris-Duverney and De Laborde. see here PAF notes re Robert Morris.
Necker an employee of Thellussons, from Lyon then to Geneva, Necker became a great Paris financier, did much business with England as well as with the French EICo, Necker dealt for credit with the English house of James Bourdieu and Samuel Chollet (who are little known), in 1760s, and the enemy of Necker was Isaac Panchaud, who was familiar with English institutions, who had many failures, a Paris bank also was Cottin (sic) at time of American Revolution, Pierre Vilar, A History of Gold and Money, 1450-1920. London. Verso. 1991., pp. 277-278.

France got silver especially from Cadiz, some finance houses involved being English companies Gough and George Browne, and French companies Jolif, Magon and Lefer of Saint-Malo (were Catholics not Protestant), Le Couteulx (Catholics) of Paris and Rouen and (see especially Vilar, p. 276) on them, they were very cautious about the Law system), Lenormand and Cie, Casaubon and Behic, Gilly Freres, Fornier Freres, some Paris bankers were Waters, who dealt with the Gough company of Cadiz where English transactions were considered, (Pierre Vilar, A History of Gold and Money, 1450-1920. London. Verso. 1991., pp. 268ff.) There was a Roux company in Marseilles. Other financiers (p. 275) included the Perregaux, Mallets, Hottinguers, Vernes. Royal or Court bankers before the French Revolution included Paris-Duverney and De Laborde.

Circa 1779

1779 - France - Re Pierre Augustine Caron de BEAUMARCHAIS, died 1799, a dramatist and watchmaker by trade. Wrote two comedies which influenced Rossini, re Barber of Seville; and re Mozart, The Marriage of Figaro which was taken as an attack on privileges of aristocracy. In 1775-1775 he was used as an agent by Silas Deane and Arthur Lee, sent supplies by the dummy company Hortalez and Cie, some payment to be in tobacco never forthcoming, and (B was a noted litigant who wrote wittily about his cases) matters not resolved till 1835 when heirs of B were reimbursed by Congress. See E. S. Kite, Beaumarchais and the War of American Independence. (See Sainsbury, Pro-Americans, p. 437.)

Circa 1780

1780-1786: Free trader firm working India about 1780, Sulivan, Jourdain and de Souza. Who were they? Sulivan was presumably the London-based EICo chairman Laurence Sulivan died 1786. Jourdain unknown, the de Souza might have been Sir Miguel de Souza of Bombay (husband of Anna Maria) who had died by 1810 if not earlier. But none of this is clear.

Circa 1780: Lawyer of Hartford Co., Maryland, Aquila Hall (no parents), married to Ann Tolley daughte of Walter Tolley of Long Green Valley and Unkown.

1780++: (Maybe spurious info?) See Richard Kelly Hoskins, War Cycles - Peace Cycles. nd Virginia Publishing Co. PO Box 997, Lynchburg, VA 24505. USA. in Nexus Magazine, Feb-March 1994. pp. 30ff, in 1780 the ejection of the British left a banking vacuum in America, Alexander Hamilton presented three arguments for a central bank, to do for the US what the Bank of England had done for England, done by himself and his backers some of whom were reputed to be Rothschilds and their Bank of England (were Rothschilds in England at the time?). In 1781 the private Bank of Pennsylvania was replaced by Bank of North America [among those in the original subscription were Benj Franklin, Thos Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, James Monroe, John Jay, John Paul Jones, Commodore John Barry. a leading force was Robert Morris; this bank opened on Jan 1, 1782 with capital assets of $335,000; in four years it had grown 600%; it grew to 68 branches; it possesses the oldest cheque drawn in US dated March 18, 1782. In 1784 was founded Bank of New York, a Hamilton creation. Later was formed Bank of Massachusetts, Virginia settled her areas named Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. In 1786 came first major depression in US as new banks took interest. Banks foreclosed debtors forcing them into poverty and debtors prison. Many farmers ruined. Led by Capt Daniel Shay some 2000 men seized Worcester, Massachusetts and other towns, threatening the establishment of interest-charging banks in US. Gov of Mass took field against "Shay's rebels". on 27 Feb 1787. in 1787 the Constitution was put together in Philadelphia the home of Bank of North America. in 1791 was chartered the First Bank of the US, a private bank to which all govt's money was entrusted with a charter for 20 years and opposed by James Madison of Va on Feb 2, 1791. Its successor was Second bank of the US, discovered about 50 years later to have 64% of its 25,000 shares owned by foreigners, mostly British, friends of the Bank of England. In 1793, George Washington put down what he called "the Whiskey Rebellion",

1780

Circa 1780: Nantucket Island or nearby: Parents of Mary Rotch Eliot who married whaler William Rotch son of William James Rotch and Emily Morgan.

After November 9, 1780, (Sumner on Robert Morris, Vol 1, p. 252), William Lee is mentioning the name of the Dutch banker, Van Berkel, and a contract. and Laurens knows of this. Sumner (p. 252) says that British knowledge of this contract became the immediate reason for the war between Britain and Holland.

1780ff - Ver Steeg p. 51, US had out some 165 ships out privateering, with 6000 men aboard, especially from New England towns. quite a year for business confidence in US. John Holker purchased in US for the French forces, 1781 a peak year for American privateers, the number declined in 1782.

(Ver Steeg pp. 32-33-34), spring of 1780, Morris is now dealing with William Turnbull and Co, and Holker and Morris became partners with Turnbull here. Later Turnbull, Marmie and Co. Holker taught Morris much about dealing with France, Holker let Morris use considerable funds freely. Holker also made links with William Turnbull and Co, Benjamin Harrison Jr and Co, and Stacey Hepburn and Co, re tobacco,indigo and rice, Hepburn sent some goods via St Eustatius. Some of Morris words re morality and judgement by society Ver Steeg p. 35, suggest Morris might have been a Mason.

Ver Steeg p. 227, various letters from Morris to Matthew Ridley in August 1781. Ridley Papers, mostly concentrated with the Massachusets Historical Society. - In 1781, Ver Steeg p. 35, Morris linked with a new Philadelphia house Samuel Inglis and Co, from Virginia, a man ruined by the burning of Norfolk. Inglis engaged in shipping ventures, and Morris also linked with Isaac Hazelhurst to get European goods to US. Then Morris linked with Morris, Samuel Beall and John May to procure unused lands in Virginia. Morris by now linked with Carter Braxton re tobacco and shipping, John Ross for goods shipped from Europe, Conyngham and Nesbitt re privateers, Matthias Slough for commissary needs, Hewes and Smith for tobacco and shipping, and with Thomas Mumford, Thomas Russell and John Bradford for shipping. By 1780, Morris' expansion meant he had nine major partnerships to deal with. - Ver Steeg p. 58, office of Superintendent of Finance in US created by Congress on Feb 7, 1781, many eyes turned to Robert Morris.later dealing with Necker the French minister or director-general of Finance, Morris also worked out a scheme to carry Spanish silver from South America and West Indies the Spanish could not receive due to British squadrons, possibly to use the money for US purposes. Morris also became agent for Pennsylvania. - Ver Steeg, p. 74, Morris writes to Matthew Ridley re troops supplies prior to Yorktown conflict of August 1781-ish, eg 3000 barrels of flour. Ver Steeg p. 139, Matthew Ridley when in France a partner with Holker, agent of the French Marine. Ver Steeg p. 145, Ridley's name appears on scholar's lists of early American corporations. - (Sumner on Robert Morris, Vol 2, p. Chapter XVIII), Sumner has a highly detailed discussion of money in the colonies, exchange rates, the mint, coinage, the history of the weird uses of money, and various different forms of money, in the American colonies, all the product of Britain's ineffective financial system applied for decades to the colonies, Robert Morris being driven to obtain the best assays of the contents of various available coinage just to try to find a rational means of justifying transactions large and small. If Robert Morris had trouble here, any London merchant such as DC from, afar would have exceptional difficulty in measuring US commercial matters, and changes in commercial matters. -

early 1780, Sumner on Robert Morris, Vol 1, p. 239, tobacco to be requisitioned as a commodity to be accumulated and traded, to pay for import of items which could not be furnished by the US, necessary imports. By April 1781, the blockading of the Chesapeake made this almost impossible to succeed.

After November 9, 1780, Sumner on Robert Morris, Vol 1, p. 252, William Lee is mentioning the name of the Dutch banker, Van Berkel, and a contract. and Laurens knows of this. Sumner p. 252 says that British knowledge of this contract became the immediate reason for the war between Britain and Holland.

fix if repated Ver Steeg p. 32-33-34, spring of 1780, Morris is now dealing with William Turnbull and Co, and Holker and Morris became partners with Turnbull here. Later Turnbull, Marmie and Co. Holker taught Morris much about dealing with France, Holker let Morris use considerable funds freely. Holker also made links with William Turnbull and Co, Benjamin Harrison Jnr. and Co., and Stacey Hepburn and Co., re tobacco,indigo and rice, Hepburn sent some goods via St Eustatius. Some of Morris words re morality and judgement by society Ver Steeg, p. 35, suggest Morris might have been a Mason.

See - Ernest Samhaber, Merchants Make History: How Trade Has Influenced the Course of History Throughout The World. London, Harrap, 1963. In 1730, English drank coffee, after heavy propagandizing by the EICo they turned to tea, and from then the Co lived on the tea revenues ... On a man named John Parish, During the American War, with the British naval blockades, a British merchant John Parish worked in the free Hanseatic town of Hamburg, forbidden by Britain to send ships to the West Indies [see Tuchman on Americans getting gunpowder through Eustatia], Parish' ships flew the Hamburg flag, the British consul threatened Parish with confiscations, etc, but Parish protested the usefulness of his shipping, and his neutrality, of the trade from Hamburg, so the consul allowed Parish to keep his passport. Some of Parish' troubles were due to envious competitors in Hamburg, it's said. Hamburg was an entrepot port for British colonial merchandise for Central, northern and eastern Europe, eg in WI sugar and coffee, EICo tea, and the French were striving to obtain the customers of the British.
p. 299, Hope and Co of Amsterdam had significant holdings in Baring Bros and Co., John Parish dealt with them. (pp. 278ff), John Parish was originally a Liverpool-based son of a sea captain, who had settled in Hamburg and begun a ships chandler's business, John took it over at age of 20, about time of the Seven Years War, //p288, Britain supported Frederick the Great with subsidies inc WI goods, paid in silver, transferred ion goods via Hamburg, and Parish' house experienced a boom, he sold sugar, rum, tobacco and coffee, WI goods from Liverpool, to Baltic ports, he was badly hit by the Fordyce problem in 1772-1773, when Fordyce crashed, so did Clifford and Sons in Amsterdam and Terner [sic] in Bremen, Parish lost 4000 pounds sterling, he began using bills of exchange, which the banks discounted, but on which they advanced money, as security, Parish might hand over his ships bills of lading, he dealt to Baltic, England, Portugal, Spain and France, a leading grain merchant, large to America which was risky. He concealed the true nature of his dealings by camouflaging his warehouses and ultimate destinations of cargoes, at one time had had 100,000 pounds worth of bills dishonoured, very risky. Parish lost money in running cargoes to WI, losing 16,000 pounds sterling in just two ships chartered to WI. He was still in Hamburg in 1789, tried speculating in post-1789 French currency, was dealing with Hope and Co. in Amsterdam, and with Harman, Hoare and Co. in London. Parish dealt here also with a partner of the Paris firm, Boyd, Ker and Co., speculators there, and the Marquis de Walkiers, son of a crown banker of Brussels.
pp. 284ff, Walkiers was acquainted with the American banker, Morris, US ambassador to Paris, who stayed at Parish' house, Altona, just outside Hamburg, so Parish became first US Consul in Hamburg, (Foster Dulles, The Old China Trade p. 39), in 1796 the Americans began shipping tea to Hamburg.] this strengthened his capital, in Liverpool, Parish' suppliers were Richard and Mathieson, and G&H Brown, while in London the firm Burton, Forbes and Gregory, who opened up paper credit for Parish, and they supplied money to the Liverpool suppliers. the modern business term for such techniques is kite-flying, an excellent way to go bankrupt, .... a crash in Holland led to the demise of Burtons, and Parish also was damaged.
p. 285, Parish had bought large volumes of grain for British govt, drawing on Scott, the factor of the British PM, Pitt. In 1793, Parish looked as though he might crash due to being out by 2,000,000 Marks Banco [a currency unit based on silver). He also dealt with Caldwell and Co. in London, and he lost 13,000 pounds for example with Burton (5000 pounds slid away on the Hamburg rates of exchange). G. and H. Brown in Liverpool went bankrupt. //p288, the Hamburg firm of Berenberg did business with Constantinople, Venice, Milan, Genoa, Marseilles, Algiers, Cadiz and Lisbon, Nantes, Paris, Amsterdam, London, Bristol, Copenhagen to Archangel. -- Samhaber explains bills of exchange pp. 289-290. /// p290, one firm was Berenberg and Gossler. ///pp. 297ff, David Parish took over from John his father and in 1809 he pulled off a stunning deal in silver that enraged Napoleon. (But we find that John Parish was not a well-known name in London of 1787. How has he escaped attention except from Samhaber?)

1780: New Englander Waity Brown married to Wyllis De Wolf (born 1780).

Active 1780: Caribbean: Marquis de la Motte married to Mary Hylton daughter of Judge William Hylton (1749-1837) of Jamaica and wife Mary Johnson.

Circa 1781

1781++ - (Sumner on Robert Morris, Vol 1, p. 306), Virginia in anarchy due to poor administration. By June 8, 1781, Sumner on Robert Morris, Vol 1, p. 281, Robert Morris wrote to French Paris bankers Le Couteulx (sic) and Co. to open an account with them. at a time when US agent Henry Laurens had been thrown in the Tower of London, Le Couteulx seems to have been Morris' banker. Sumner on Robert Morris, Vol 1, p. 94, about Feb-March 1781, Geo III of opinion that even with French aid, the US could not restore its paper currency. Geo III generally of opinion that British credit would outlast all shocks of this war and assist a victory for the Mother Country. He was not wrong, but events proved otherwise, only just. (Sumner on Robert Morris, Vol 1, p. 36), In 1781 the agent of Virginia complained to Washington that the Virginia troops were "so naked they could not leave their quarters." and various American historians writing on Robert Morris indicate the army was made of the waste people from the lower orders, the affluent found it inconvenient to fight with Washington. - Oberholtzer says, p. 60, Geo III regarded by 1781 the mismanagement of the American finances as his greatest ally - he cannot, (?) have been advised here by anyone but the men of the City. Just as Robert Morris was brought in to shore up American financial behaviour. - Ver Steeg p. 227, various letters from Morris to Matthew Ridley in August 1781. Ridley Papers, mostly concentrated with the Massachusets Historical Society.
In 1781, (Ver Steeg p. 35), Morris linked with a new Philadelphia house Samuel Inglis and Co, from Virginia, a man ruined by the burning of Norfolk. Inglis engaged in shipping ventures, and Morris also linked with Isaac Hazelhurst to get European goods to US. Then Morris linked with Morris, Samuel Beall and John May to procure unused lands in Virginia. Morris by now linked with Carter Braxton re tobacco and shipping, John Ross for goods shipped from Europe, Conyngham and Nesbitt re privateers, Matthias Slough for commissary needs, Hewes and Smith for tobacco and shipping, and with Thomas Mumford, Thomas Russell and John Bradford for shipping.
By 1780, Morris' expansion meant he had nine major partnerships to deal with. - Ver Steeg p. 58, office of Superintendent of Finance in US created by Congress on Feb 7, 1781, many eyes turned to Robert Morris. Later dealing with Necker the French minister or director-general of Finance, Morris also worked out a scheme to carry Spanish silver from South America and West Indies the Spanish could not receive due to British squadrons, possibly to use the money for US purposes. Morris also became agent for Pennsylvania. - Ver Steeg, p. 74, Morris writes to Matthew Ridley re troops supplies prior to Yorktown conflict of August 1781-ish, eg 3000 barrels of flour. Ver Steeg p. 139, Matthew Ridley when in France a partner with Holker, agent of the French Marine. Ver Steeg p. 145, Ridley's name appears on scholar's lists of early American corporations.
- Sumner on Robert Morris, Vol 2, p. Chapter XVIII Sumner has a highly detailed discussion of money in the colonies, exchange rates, the mint, coinage, the history of the weird uses of money, and various different forms of money in the American colonies, all the product of Britain's ineffective financial system applied for decades to the colonies, Robert Morris being driven to obtain the best assays of the contents of various available coinage just to try to find a rational means of justifying transactions large and small. If Robert Morris had trouble here, any London merchant such as Duncan Campbell from, afar would have exceptional difficulty in measuring US commercial matters, and changes in commercial matters. -

1781

(Sumner on Robert Morris, Vol 2, p. 221), in 1781 Robert Morris sent his two sons Robert 12 and Thomas 10, to Europe for the education, in care of Matthew Ridley, commercial agent for Maryland. The boys at Geneva and Leipsic till 1788 when they came home.

Ref Pool, 1782, In the spring of 1782, there were debates in both Houses on a Contractors' Bill designed to prevent members of Parliament from having any interest in Govt contracts. The Act was passed Act 22 Geo III c.45, providing that all persons holding Govt contracts should be incapable of being elected or of sitting in the HOC, subject to a penalty of 500 pounds per day, Every gvt contract was to contain "an express condition that no member of the HOC be admitted to any share of part of such contract, or any benefit to arise therefrom. Samuel Whitbread supported the Bill in the House. Act 22, Geo III c.45, An Act for restraining any person concerned in any contract, Commission or Agreement made for the Publick Service from being elected or sitting or voting as a member of the HOC. This is the Act O