Helmsman graphicMonitor graphicHelmsman graphic The Cozens/Byrnes Merchants Networks Project - Updated 11 April 2017

E-mail from before 2017 ...

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Arrow graphicThis is a page to carry quite old email on topics to be addressed by this Merchant Networks website. Most of the e-mail seen here was sent originally to Dan Byrnes, but some of it had been re-send from various original recipients of the e-mail. Permission has not been re-sought from the original senders to lodge e-mail or parts of it here, and anyone wishing to complain about a lodgement should feel free to e-mail and any offending items will be shortly removed. The e-mail address of senders (as mailto: code) might not be lodged if there is any risk that displaying it will result in the e-mail address being harvested by spammers with the result that the e-mail addresses receive more spam than usual.

Wells shipbuilders in England

The below descendancy on English shipbuilders Wells has been posted in this file at the request of some descendants now resident in UK - Ed

Descendants of David WELLS
1. David WELLS sp: Miss NOTKNOWN
2. Shipbuilder Abraham WELLS (d.1678) sp: Alice NOTKNOWN
3. Shipbuilder John WELLS (b.1662;d.1702) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN
3. Shipbuilder Richard WELLS (b.1664;d.1710) sp: (Brensden) Susannah BRONSDEN (m.1689)
4. Shipbuilder Abraham WELLS sp: Elizabeth BUTTALL (m.1715)
5. Shipbuilder William WELLS (b.1729;d.1805) sp: Susanna or Elizabeth NEAVE (d.1810)
6. Shipbuilder William WELLS (b.1768;d.1847) sp: Mary HUGHES (d.1818)
7. Bengal CS, Judge Frederick Octavius WELLS (d.1847) sp: Maria SCOTT (d.1856)
8. KCB Admiral Sir Richard WELLS (b.1833;d.1896) sp: Augusta Jane NORMAN (d.1927)
9. Constance Nora WELLS (d.1944) sp: Admiral John Scott LUARD (b.1865)
8. Sarah Bridget WELLS (b.1834;d.1924) sp: JP John CRAWLEY (SAMBROOKE-CRAWLY)
8. Mary Julia WELLS (b.1842;d.1922) sp: Rt Hon MP Thomas Frederick HALSEY (b.1839;d.1927
) 9. Mary Cecilia HALSEY sp: Walter Edward BARNETT
10. Hugh Philip BARNETT sp: Ruth Edgerton BROWN
8. ICS, William Sutherland WELLS sp: de Lautour Georgina Catherine LATOUR (d.1870)
9. Sir Lionel LATOUR 9. Lillian Mary WELLS
sp: Brig-General Bryan James CURLING 10. Diana Mary CURLING sp: Mr FRANKLYN
7. Susannah WELLS (b.1763;d.1808) sp: Rev Henry Roger DRUMMOND (d.1806)
6. Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas WELLS (b.1759;d.1811) sp: Sarah Bridget FREMANTLE (m.1784)
7. Capt RN William WELLS (b.1788;d.1826) sp: Lady Elizabeth PROBY (d.1869)
8. MP William WELLS (b.1818;d.1889) sp: Louisa CHARTERIS
7. Grenville Granville WELLS (b.1821;d.1901) sp: Hon Allada Hariot JOLLIFFE (d.1908)
6. Shipbuilder, banker, John WELLS of Blackwall Yard (b.1761;d.1848) sp: Esther PUGET (d.1848)
7. Rev Henry George WELLS (b.1806;d.1852) sp: Charlotte BARING (m.1833)
7. Elizabeth WELLS wife1 (b.1812;d.1888) sp: Sir Percival Hart DYKE, Bart6 (b.1799;m.1835;d.1875)
8. Treasury official Sir William Hart DYKE, Bart7 (b.1837;d.1931) sp: Lady Emily Caroline MONTAGU (m.1870;d.1931)
8. Philadelphia DYKE (d.1904) sp: William KNAPP (d.1887) sp: Rev James MACKENZIE (b.1819;d.1857)
8. Frances Julia DYKE (c.1877;d.1925) sp: MP Abel SMITH(c.1877;m.1877;d.1898)
8. Gertrude DYKE sp: Reynolds Moreton MORETON (m.1894)

Dampier and pirates of the old Caribbean ...

From Gail Selinger, 29 January 2005

Of course you can use my comment. And I would love to read your take on Dampier. I am now contracted to write "the complete idiot's guide to pirates" which covers Phoenicians to modern South China Seas. I've heavily used the slavery angle as much as they'd let me, also. I think you are right on the mark with your observations. I also think it is quite gracious that you put such a wonderful work (English Business of Slavery) on the web for people to read.
Gail Selinger
Subject: Re: Message from Gail Selinger
Gail Selinger also wrote:
This [English Business of Slavery] is one of the most interesting books I've ever read on this subject. I was up until 3am "caught " in the history. Thank you. Is there a way I can obtain the end of the book? Thank you again for all the work you've put into this
Regards, Gail Selinger

Referer: http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/business/business15.html

The name Samson/Sampson

Dear Dan, Time has slipped by hasn't it? I must apologise for the tardiness in responding to your email.
My nearest Samson ancestor was Eliza Samson who was born in Bethnal Green in 1853. Eliza was my gt-gt-Grandmother. She married a Cornishman by the name of Charles Richards. Her parents were recorded on her birth Certificate as Charles Samson [a Weaver] and Mary Ann Gay. Other certificates recorded her father Charles's occupation as Greengrocer. I think that Charles was born circa 1810 also in Bethnal Green. I have not found a great deal of information on this part of the family, although there seems to some unusual information. Eliza's mother Mary Ann appears in the 1881 census as Mary Ann Ward, staying with Eliza. Eliza's father Charles Samson is recorded with other family members in 1881 [aged 91, but most likely only 71 - suspected transcription error]. Perhaps the house was too small. Charles and Mary Ann Samson had at least four children. James [also a Greengrocer], Eunice, Sarah and my Eliza.
I am afraid I don't have any more information than that at present. James Samson the son was recorded in the 1881 census as James Sampson, which was the reason for the alternate spelling in my search list. This is all at the edge of your search period and may be of no interest at all. Once again, apologies for the delay in responding to your email. Good luck with your own research. Kind regards, Simon Newton, Canberra.

An earlier, origin message here had been ----- Sent: 08 July 2004 22:11 To: simonnewton@bigpond.com Subject: London Ancestor - Yates, Yeats, Groyer, Samson, Sampson
Dear Simon, I am interested in the genealogy of the Sampson family of around Greenwich, Blackheath, maybe Deptford, Woolwich, London, in period 1780-1810, members of which family married to the Blackheath names Enderby (the whalers) and Larkins (family of EICo ships husbands). Have been blocked for some years with them, do you have any information on Sampson you'd like to discuss, pls see chapters of my "Blackheath Connection" website in the relevant timeframe. (Samsons?) Kind regards, Dan Byrnes.

Captain Henry Delano

Hello from George English, You'll be pleased to know that my article on Captain Henry Delano has just been published in the latest Mayflower Quarterly. So I'm delighted to send you the latest version (we keep adding to it as we find out more!). Thank you for your help - you'll see that you're credited as a reference. Did you ever come across the pages from the Samuel Enderby Book? You'll be amused that we've found that Sir John Hawkins was possibly an ancestor of Henry's mother, Elizabeth Swain. Keep in touch. Kind regards, George

----- Follows part an original Message ----- From: Dan Byrnes To: GEORGE ENGLISH Sent: Thursday, August 12, 2004 1:08 PM Subject: Re: sorry, but oh yes indeed! Excellent, George, I read Jackson of industry practices, more so than discussions of whalers involved - this area of this particular book was rather good. Cheers, Dan. ----- Original Message ----- From: GEORGE ENGLISH - Re, The British Whaling Trade by Gordon Jackson publ A & C Black London 1978. It had a lot of references from our Board of Trade and Customs. I suspect you know the following; if not, they might interest you:
[Here George English mentions an origins for Enderbys of which this editor remains sceptical - Ed]
I hadn't realised Samuel Enderby, and his sons, were from Boston and only came to England in 1775, along with Alexander Champion, his son and John St Barbe ... A series of letters were taken to New Zealand by Charles Enderby in 1849, and are now preserved in the Mitchell Library, Sydney. They are partially printed in W.J. Dakin's book, Whalemen Adventurers, which I notice you quote from extensively ... I was in touch with the International Whaling Commission re history - they recommended "Men and Whales" by Richard Ellis, published by Alfred A. Knopf, New York (542pp) 1991; have you come across it?
Kind regards George

Biography on Thomas Law

Dear Dan, (from Tapan Mukherjee, PhD),
Thanks for your e-mail. My interest is historical not genealogical. I am interested in writing a biography of Thomas Law who went to Calcutta around 1773-4 as "writer" in the East India Company located in Fort William, Calcutta. He rose through the ranks writer, factor, junior merchant, senior merchant, judge, collector/magistrate, and finally member of the review board before returning to England in 1791. He brought back with him three "natural sons" of an (?) Indian mistress. In 1793 he arrived in New York and invested heavily in the founding of the capital city, Washington, DC. He married Eliza Parke Custis, the granddaughter of Martha Washington, wife of George Washington, first president of the USA. Eliza was daughter of Martha's son by a previous marriage. Thomas lived in Washington till his death in 1834. Two of his natural sons, John and Edmond, did quite well but unfortunately both died in their thirties.
Thomas law was one of the sons of Rev. Edmond Thomas, Bishop of Carlisle. One son was Sir Edward law, baron of Ellenborough. Edward's son was governor- general of India for two years. Another son, in whom I am interested, Ewan, went to India to work in the East India Company. On his return he settled in the Isle of Wight (not Isle of Man). Ewan was a member of the parliament. He had many descendants. Rev. Edmond's two other sons were bishops, one in Ireland. You are right. Law is a widespread name and not restricted to Scottish people.
Regards, Tapan
Subject: Re: Earlier message from Tapan K. Mukherjee: I notice the under "Fresh Burst of Research for 2004" you have listed: Ewan Law of East India Company and his second wife Joanna who was sister of Thomas Law (1756-1834). I am doing research, on and off, for several years to write a book on Thomas Law and his ex-wife Eliza Parke Custis Law. I have lots of material on both but I am searching for personal correspondence between Thomas Law and his family in England. I am particularly interested in a biography of Ewan Law and Joanna. Ewan is not in the New Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. I know they settled in the Isle of Wight (UK) and their vast property was inherited by many descendants. I am looking for the family papers and letters of Ewan Law.
Tapan K. Mukherjee, Ph.D., D.Sc.
10608 Democracy Lane
Potomac, MD 20854, USA
e-mail: tapanmukherjee@comcast.net

Campbells of Barbeck a mystery

Hello Dan, (from Nicholas Balmer), In your research into the Campbells, have you ever come across Campbells of Barbeck?
One of my 4xgreat-grandfathers, Samuel Hawkins, was a solicitor and later banker in London from about 1780 until about 1811. Eventually after his retirement, his bank went bust leaving him financially embarrassed. He left England and moved to Tours in France. In 1817 he wrote an 80-page diary which has turned up in a possession of a "very distant "cousin". This has enabled me to make some considerable breakthroughs into another twig of my family tree. Samuel's wife was Sarah Calland, daughter of John Calland and Elizabeth De Morgan. Sarah's sister was married into the Campbell family, probably in India.
The diary has several funny passages about the Scots and the Campbells particularly, and it is clear that my 5xgrandmother was close to her Campbell relatives. One of these relatives was a lady in waiting to Marie Antoinette, and she introduced Sarah to Marie Antoinette the year before the French Revolution broke out. I know this because I have a piece of the dress that she wore on that occasion, with a small note to that effect pinned to it.
John De Morgan my 6xgreat-grandfather must have been quite a character. He was apparently a Huguenot refugee in London, who signed up as a soldier in the East India Company, arriving in India in 1711. He rose up though the ranks and gained a commission. In 1746 he commanded Fort St David at Cuddalore which, whilst only 12 miles from Pondicherry, held out when Madras fell to Dupleix. He recruited and trained the first Sepoys for the East India company. These were the men that Clive and Stringer Lawrence commanded in 1746. Given the very small numbers of British people involved in India at this time, and the very large proportion of them who were Campbells, there may be some connection, as many of these colonial families had previously been sending sons and daughters to the West Indies.
You didn't need this additional query! Don't worry if you cannot see a connection, but if you do, I would be amused to hear about it.
Regards, Nick Balmer
See re: John DE MORGAN, b. 1684, m1. Sep 1717 Sarah CLARK (m1. 18 Nov 1706 George TOURVILLE, m2. 13 Dec 1715 Peter DE POMMARE, d. 1720), m2. 14 Jan 1733/4 Ann ORRILL (m1. TURBERVILLE or TURVILL, d. 1747 at Negapatam, daughter of Capt. Edward ORRILL), d. 1 Dec 1760 at Pullecat. Sailed to India in the Des Bouveris, 1705. Gazetted ensign in English East India Company, 1715. Promoted to captain. Governor of Fort St. George, Madras. Of Huguenot heritage. His brother William DE MORGAN, lieutenant, d. 1747. [ref. 1,3]
1.. Elizabeth DE MORGAN, b. 21 Oct 1734, chr. 9 Jan 1736/7 at Fort St. David, m1. John DES VOEUX (d. without issue two months after the marriage), m2. 1 Aug 1750 James WILSON (d. without issue 1761), m3. 11 Jun 1762 John CALLAND. [ref. 3] 1.. John CALLAND, b. 24 Apr 1763. [ref. 3] 2.. Elizabeth CALLAND, b. 10 Dec 1764, d. 3 Dec 1765. [ref. 3] 3.. Elizabeth CALLAND, b. 4 Nov 1766, d. 12 Jan 1768. [ref. 3] 4.. Sarah CALLAND, b. 30 May 1768, m. HAWKINS. [ref. 3] 5.. Charles CALLAND, b. 12 Nov 1771. [ref. 3] 6.. George CALLAND, b. 23 Apr 1772. [ref. 3] 7.. Augustus CALLAND, b. 23 Apr 1773. [ref. 3] 2.. Susanna DE MORGAN, b. 21 Oct 1735, chr. 9 Jan 1736/7 at Fort St. David, m. 11 Jul 1750 Charles CAMPBELL (of Barbreck, colonel). [ref. 3] 1.. Donald CAMPBELL, b. 14 Jun 1751, m. 6 Aug 1778 Mary CAMPBELL (eldest daughter of Lord Frederick CAMPBELL). [ref. 3] 2.. Lawrence CAMPBELL, b. 27 Aug 1753. [ref. 3] 3.. Isabella CAMPBELL, b. 24 Oct 1754. [ref. 3] 4.. Archibald CAMPBELL, b. 11 Nov 1755. [ref. 3] 5.. Charlotte CAMPBELL, 30 Nov 1757. [ref. 3] 6.. Amelia CAMPBELL, b. 30 Dec 1758. [ref. 3] 7.. Charles Colin CAMPBELL, b. Feb 1762, m. Elizabeth. Major general. [ref. 3] 8.. George CAMPBELL, b. 25 Jan 1763. [ref. 3] 9.. A child, b. 1764, d. young. [ref. 3] 10.. Sophia CAMPBELL, b. 24 Aug 1767. [ref. 3] 11.. Harriet Frances CAMPBELL, b. 4 Jan 1769. [ref. 3] 3.. Mary DE MORGAN, b. 8 Dec 1736, chr. 9 Jan 1736/7 at Fort St. David, m1. 18 Jul 1750 Thomas TAYLOR, m2. 14 Jun 1755 Robert TURING, d. 9 Jan 1800, bur. 17 Jan 1800. [ref. 1,3,4] 1.. John TAYLOR, b. 4 May 1751, m. his cousin Catherine MAITLAND (below). [ref. 3] 2.. Mary TAYLOR, b. 7 Feb 1753. [ref. 3] 4.. Edward DE MORGAN, b. 31 Oct 1737, chr. 20 May 1739 at Fort St. David, d. young. [ref. 3] 5.. Anne or Ann DE MORGAN, b. 18 Jun 1739 (ref. 3) or 30 Dec 1739 (ref. 1), chr. 14 Nov 1739 at Fort St. David, m1. 24 Oct 1753 John INNES (d. 29 Sep 1760, captain), m2. 21 Apr 1761 James WEST (d. 28 Nov 1802, lieutenant, 79th Foot, later captain). [ref. 1,3] 1.. Ann INNES, b. 6 Oct 1755. [ref. 3] 2.. John INNES, b. 21 Mar 1757. [ref. 3] 3.. George INNES, b. 15 Oct 1758. [ref. 3] 4.. James INNES, b. 9 Jan 1760, m. Sarah RICHARDS, d. 12 Apr 1804. Lieutenant colonel, Madras Native Infantry. [ref. 3] 1.. Mary Anne Wolfe INNES. [ref. 3] 5.. Sarah WEST, b. 13 May 1762. [ref. 3] 6.. James WEST, b. 1 May 1764. [ref. 3] 7.. Mary WEST, b. 23 Jun 1765, m. PARRY. [ref. 3] 8.. Charles WEST, b. 22 Jun 1766. Lieutenant colonel. [ref. 3] 9.. A child, b. 17 Dec 1767, d. young. [ref. 3] 10.. Ann WEST, b. 30 Dec 1768, m. 1789 at Palamcotta, Madras, John Alexander BANNERMAN, alive 1819. [ref. 1,3] 11.. Thomas WEST, b. 15 Jul 1773. [ref. 3] 12.. Elizabeth WEST, b. 17 Aug 1774, m1. STEVENSON (general), m2. FRANKLIN. [ref. 3] 13.. William WEST, 20 Aug 1775. [ref. 3] 14.. Richard WEST, 21 Aug 1776, m. COTTLE, d. 15 Sep 1866. Colonel, 4th Madras Native Infantry. [ref. 3] 1.. A daughter. [ref. 3] 15.. Harriet WEST, b. 15 Sep 1778. [ref. 3] 16.. Charlotte WEST, b. 4 Aug 1779, m. WALKER (colonel). [ref. 3] 17.. Frances WEST, b. 1781, d. young. [ref. 3] 18.. Montagu WEST, b. 5 Apr 1782. [ref. 3] 19.. A daughter, one of the above, m. MANN. [ref. 2] 6.. Augustus DE MORGAN, b. 22 Oct 1740, chr. 4 Sep 1742 at Fort St. David, m. 31 Jul 1768 Christina HUTTEMAN (daughter of Danish missionary George Conrad HUTTEMAN), k. 11 Oct 1778 at the siege of Pondicherry. [ref. 3]
1.. George Augustus DE MORGAN, b. 30 Jun 1771, chr. 1 Jul 1771. Madras Cavalry, killed in action. [ref. 3] 2.. John DE MORGAN, b. 5 Oct 1772, chr. 21 Dec 1772 at Fort St. George, m. 1798 at Colombo, Ceylon, Elizabeth DODSON (d. 1856, daughter of John DODSON of Custom House, London, and granddaughter of James DODSON, F.R.S.), d. 27 Nov 1816 on board Larkins in passage to England. Lieutenant colonel, Madras Native Infantry. [ref. 3] 1.. John Augustus DE MORGAN, b. 16 May 1799, chr. 29 Ju 1799, k. ca. 1804 in the wreck of the Prince of Wales, on passage home from India. [ref. 3] 2.. James DE MORGAN, k. ca. 1804 in the wreck of the Prince of Wales. [ref. 3] 3.. Eliza DE MORGAN, b. 27 Sep 1801, chr. 6 May 1802 at Pondicherry, m. Lewis HENSLEY. [ref. 3] 1.. Eliza HENSLEY, b. Jan 1831. [ref. 3] 2.. Emily Martha HENSLEY, 1833. [ref. 3] 3.. Augustus De Morgan HENSLEY, b. 1834. [ref. 3] 4.. Harriet Georgiana HENSLEY, b. 1836. [ref. 3] 4.. Georgiana DE MORGAN, chr. 26 Mar 1805 at St. Mary's, Madras, d. young. [ref. 3] 5.. Augustus DE MORGAN, b. 27 Jun 1806, chr. 20 Oct 1806 at Madras, m. 1837 Sophia Elizabeth FREND, d. 3 Mar 1871 at London. Mathematician (see Dictionary of National Biography). [ref. 3] 1.. Elizabeth Alice DE MORGAN, b. Jun 1838. [ref. 3] 2.. William Frend DE MORGAN, b. Nov 1839. [ref. 3] 3.. George Campbell DE MORGAN, b. Oct 1841. [ref. 3] 4.. Edward I. DE MORGAN, b. Jun 1843. [ref. 3] 5.. Annie DE MORGAN. [ref. 3] 6.. Christiana DE MORGAN. [ref. 3] 7.. Mary DE MORGAN. [ref. 3] 6.. George DE MORGAN, b. 15 Jul 1808, m. Josephine COGHILL (b. Nov 1813, d. 1905, daughter of Sir Josiah Coghill COGHILL, Bt.), d. 1890. Barrister. [ref. 3] 1.. Edith E. H. DE MORGAN. [ref. 3] 2.. Henry DE MORGAN. [ref. 3] 3.. Joscelyn A. DE MORGAN, b. 4 Jul 1847, m. G. WHITMORE, d. 1890. [ref. 3] 4.. Sydney Aylmer DE MORGAN, b. 19 Feb 1850, m. 26 Oct 1886 Sarah Waring PITTAR (d. 17 Apr 1905 at Tunbridge Wells, daughter of Richard Waring PITTAR, barrister), d. 14 Feb 1920 at Coniston, Weybridge, Surrey. [ref. 3] 1.. Richard Coghill DE MORGAN, b. 15 Aug 1887, m. Helen McGREGOR. [ref. 3] 1.. Colin R.C. DE MORGAN, k. 1941. [ref. 3] 2.. Helen Joan DE MORGAN, b. 6 Dec 1919, m. John Francis YERBURY. [ref. 3] 1.. Three children. [ref. 3] 2.. Arthur Claude DE MORGAN, b. 19 Aug 1889, m. Oct 1914 Imogen Grace KNIGHT (daughter of Philip KNIGHT of Calcutta). [ref. 3] 1.. Barry Wentworth DE MORGAN, b. 7 Nov 1933. [ref. 3] 2.. Marilyn DE MORGAN. [ref. 3] 3.. Harold Aylmer DE MORGAN, b. 7 Jan 1891, m1. Gretel L. BARTON (d.s.p.), m2. Joan KELLY. [ref. 3] 1.. Three children. [ref. 3] 4.. Egerton Sydney George DE MORGAN, b. 1 Sep 1895, m. Elsie. [ref. 3] 1.. John Egerton Claridge DE MORGAN. [ref. 3] 2.. Robin Arthur DE MORGAN. [ref. 3] 5.. Elsie Coghill DE MORGAN, b. 16 Apr 1898, m. Percival Walter PARTRIDGE (Madras solicitor). [ref. 3] 1.. Reginald PARTRIDGE, m. Kate. [ref. 3] 2.. Michael PARTRIDGE. [ref. 3] 3.. Ann PARTRIDGE. [ref. 3] 4.. Susan PARTRIDGE, m. Peter BLAIR. [ref. 3] 5.. Emmeline T.S. DE MORGAN. [ref. 3] 6.. A child, twin with Emmeline. [ref. 3] 7.. Campbell Greig DE MORGAN, b. 22 Nov 1811, m. Kate HUDSON, d. 1876. Surgeon (see Dictionary of National Biography). [ref. 3] 1.. Walter Campbell DE MORGAN, b. 1 Mar 1852, chr. 1 May 1852 at Marylebone. Worked in Indian Telegraph Office. [ref. 3] 2.. John DE MORGAN. [ref. 3] 3.. Edward DE MORGAN, b. 19 Aug 1773, chr. 15 Sep 1773. [ref. 3] 7.. Jane DE MORGAN, b. Jul 1742, m1. 3 Feb 1761 Richard Thomas Rakes MAITLAND (d. 1764 at Madura), m2. 17 Apr 1767 Duncan BUCHANAN, d. 1818. [ref. 3] 1.. Catherine MAITLAND, b. 10 Apr 1762, m1. her cousin John TAYLOR (above), m2. ROEBUCK. [ref. 3] 2.. Sophia MAITLAND, b. 8 Aug 1763. [ref. 3] 3.. Richard Arthur MAITLAND, b. 8 Sep 1764. Student at Westminster School. [ref. 3] 4.. John BUCHANAN, b. 13 Sep 1768. [ref. 3] 5.. Elizabeth BUCHANAN, b. 5 Jan 1770. [ref. 3] 6.. James BUCHANAN, b. 22 Sep 1772. [ref. 3] 7.. Janet Helen BUCHANAN, b. 11 Nov 1774. [ref. 3] 8.. Charles DE MORGAN, 17 Dec 1744, chr. 14 Sep 1745 at Fort St. David, d. young. [ref. 3] 9.. George DE MORGAN, b. Oct 1746, d. young. [ref. 3]

On Montefiore, a banker name, from Linda Minor

See: http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=741≤

M = Anglo-Jewish family which derives its name from a town in Italy. In 1856 there were three towns so named in the Pontifical States, but from which of the three the family came is not definitely known. As far back as 1630 the Montefiores were settled at Ancona as merchants. From Ancona they, or some of them, seem to have gone to Leghorn. Thither, about the end of the seventeenth or the commencement of the eighteenth century, Judah Montefiore went, and was taken into business by his uncle, Isach Vita Montefiore. Judah married a daughter of the Medinas, by whom he had four sons. The third son, Moses Vita (Haim) Montefiore, married, in 1752, Esther Hannah, daughter of Massahod Racah, a Moorish merchant of Leghorn.

Moses had seventeen children. The third, Samuel, married Grace, daughter of Abraham Mocatta, and became the grandfather of Haim Guedalla. The fourth, Joseph Elias, was the father of Sir Moses Montefiore. The seventh, Eliezer, married a granddaughter of Simon Barrow of Amsterdam, and emigrated to the West Indies. He became the father of Joseph Barrow Montefiore (1803-93) and Jacob Montefiore (1801-95), both of whom were among the early pioneers of Australia. But the most notable was the sixth son, Joshua, who had seven children by a second marriage.

Abraham Montefiore: Stock-broker; born in London 1788; died at Lyons 1824; son of Joseph Elias Montefiore and brother of Sir Moses Montefiore, with whose commercial career he was afterward identified. He first adopted a trade and was apprenticed to Mr. Flower, silk-merchant of Watling street. In the silk trade he realized a small fortune, but being ambitious to push forward more rapidly, he joined his brother Moses in business; the firm of Montefiore Brothers thus formed carried on business in Shorters' court, Throgmorton street. Montefiore was exceptionally fortunate on the Stock Exchange and left behind him a very large fortune. In 1824 he died at Lyons, on his way home from Cannes, whither he had gone for the reestablishment of his health. He was twice married: by his first wife, a daughter of George Hall of the London Stock Exchange, he had one daughter, Mary, who married Benjamin Mocatta; and by his second wife, Henrietta Rothschild, he had two sons and two daughters.
Bibliography: L. Wolf, Life of Sir Moses Montefiore, pp. 13, 15, 18, 25, London, 1885.

Charlotte Montefiore: Authoress; born in London 1818; died there 2 July, 1854. She took an active part in the Jewish Ladies' Benevolent Loan and Visiting Society as well as in the Jewish Emigration Society, of which she was one of the founders. She was the active friend of the Jews' Free School, the Jews' Infant School, the West Metropolitan School, and of many other educational establishments. Her reading was extensive, especially in moral and ethical philosophy. She was a contributor to many publications calculated to improve and elevate Jewish youth. For the "Cheap Jewish Library" she wrote "The Way to Get Rich," "The Birthday," "Caleb Asher," etc.; she wrote also "A Few Words to the Jews" (London, 1851).
Bibliography: Jew. Chron. July 14, 1854; Kayserling, Die Jüdischen Frauen, pp. 275-276.

Claude Goldsmid Montefiore: English scholar and philanthropist; younger son of Nathaniel Montefiore; born in 1858. He was educated at Balliol College, Oxford, where he obtained a first class in the classical final examination, and where he came under the influence of Jowett and T. H. Green. Intended originally for the ministry of the Reform congregation of England, he studied theology in Berlin, but finding himself unable to sympathize with the arrest of the Reform Movement, he devoted himself instead to scholarly and philanthropic pursuits. He nevertheless continued to be a spiritual teacher and preacher, though in a lay capacity, and published a volume of sermons, in conjunction with Israel Abrahams, entitled "Aspects of Judaism" (London, 1894). In 1886 he was selected by the Hibbert trustees to deliver the Hibbert course of lectures for 1892 ("The Origin of Religion as Illustrated by the Ancient Hebrews"). In these lectures Montefiore made a permanent contribution to the science of theology.

In 1896 he published the first volume of his "Bible for Home Reading," forming a commentary on the Bible with moral reflections from the standpoint of the "higher criticism"; the second volume appeared in 1899. In 1890 Montefiore founded and edited, in conjunction with Israel Abrahams, the "Jewish Quarterly Review," a journal that stood on the very highest level of contemporary Jewish scholarship, and in which numerous contributions from his pen have appeared.

Montefiore is one of the leading authorities on questions of education; he was for some time a member of the School Board for London, and he is (1904) president of the Froebel Society and the Jews' Infant School, London, and a member of numerous other educational bodies. Montefiore has been mainly instrumental in enabling Jewish pupil teachers at elementary schools to enjoy the advantages of training in classes held for the purpose at the universities; he is on the council of Jews' College and of the Jewish Religious Education Board. He ranks as one of the leading philanthropists in the Anglo-Jewish community and holds office in various important bodies. He was elected president of the Anglo-Jewish Association in 1895, and he is a prominent member of the Council of the Jewish Colonization Association. Montefiore has shown great sympathy with all liberal tendencies in Jewish religious movements in London and is president of the recently formed Jewish Religious Union. He was president of the Jewish Historical Society in 1899-1900.
Bibliography: J. Jacobs, in Young Israel, June, 1897. J. G. L.

Sir Francis Abraham Montefiore (Bart.): English communal worker and Zionist; son of Joseph M. Montefiore, president of the Board of Deputies; born 10 Oct., 1860. In 1886 he took up the baronetcy previously held by Sir Moses Montefiore. He became high sheriff of the county of Kent in 1894, and of Sussex in 1895. He is chairman of the executive committee of the English Zionist Federation and has represented the English section at recent Zionist congresses. Montefiore was recently elected chairman of Elders of the Spanish and Portuguese congregation.
Bibliography: Jewish Year Book (London), 5659 (=1898-1899). J. V. E.

Jacob Montefiore: Merchant; born in Bridgetown, England, 23 Nov., 1801; died 3 November, 1895. He entered into business with his brother Moses, and when in the early thirties the movement for the financing of Australian colonization from London was incepted Montefiore, who had been connected with the Colonial produce trade, became active in the various public schemes as a member of the South Australian Colonization Association, organized to settle South Australia on the Wakefield system. He was also appointed member of the first board of commissioners entrusted by the British government with the administration of the colony.

He visited the colony in the year 1843 and again in 1854. His reception on his first visit by the governor, Sir George Grey, and the people was enthusiastic. During his visit to South Australia in 1843 he acted as an agent for the Rothschilds, at the same time holding a partnership with his brother Joseph Barrow in the firm of Montefiore Brothers of London and Sydney. The township of Montefiore, at the confluence of the Bell and MacQuarie rivers, in Wellington Valley, was founded by the brothers, and they contributed actively to the establishment there of places of worship for all denominations. The organization of the Bank of Australasia was largely due to their efforts. In Adelaide there is a hill named after them. In 1885, at the request of the directors of the Art Union Gallery of Adelaide, Jacob sat for the artist B. S. Marks, the portrait being hung in that gallery.

Jacob Isaac Levi Montefiore: Australian merchant; son of Isaac Levi and Esther Hannah Levi (daughter of Eliezer Montefiore); born at Bridgetown, Barbados, 11 January. 1819; died at Norwood, London, 1885. In 1837 he proceeded to Sydney, where he assumed his mother's maiden name. There he became one of the leading merchants and took an active part in the development of the city. In 1857 he was nominated a member of the first legislative council of the colony of New South Wales. He acted as president of the chamber of commerce, and was for many years a director of the Bank of Australasia. In 1876 he left Australia and settled in England, where he became a director of the Queensland National Bank, the Queensland Investment Company, and several other important commercial undertakings. One of his brothers is Edward Levi Montefiore, a member of the financial house of Cahen d'Anvers et Cie., and another, George Levi Montefiore, of Brussels, is a member of the Belgian Senate; both are still living (1904).
Bibliography: Jewish World, 30 Jan. and 2 Feb., 1885. J. I. H.

Joseph Barrow Montefiore: Merchant; son of Eliezer Montefiore; born in London 24 June, 1803; died at Brighton, England, 4 Sept., 1893. In 1826, during the mayoralty of Sir William Magnay, he became one of the twelve "Jew brokers " in the city of London, purchasing the privilege for £1,500. He did not remain long in the city, but seized a favorable opportunity of emigrating to Australia, where several members of his family were already settled. In New South Wales he traded in partnership with his brother and made many fortunate speculations in town allotments. He helped to found the township of Montefiore and the Bank of Australasia, and was one of the chief agents in the organization of the Jewish congregation in Sydney. In 1832 he obtained a grant of land from the government for a Jewish burial-place. At the same time he helped to organize the society which developed into the Sydney Hebrew Congregation. On retiring from business Montefiore settled in London and joined the Reform Congregation.
Bibliography: Jew. Chron. and Jew. World, Sept., 1893.

Joseph Elias Montefiore: Son of Moses Vita (Haim) Montefiore; born in London 1759; married Rachel Mocatta (1783). He became the father of three sons and five daughters, the eldest son being Sir Moses Montefiore. The second son, Abraham,was twice married, and by his second wife, Henrietta Rothschild, became the father of Joseph Mayer (father of Sir Francis Montefiore), Nathaniel (father of Claude G. Montefiore), Charlotte (d. 1854; author of "A Few Words to the Jews"), and Louisa (afterward Lady Anthony de Rothschild). The third son, Horatio (1798-1867), became a merchant in London, and was one of the principal founders of the London Reform Community (1841). He married a daughter of David Mocatta, by whom he had six sons and six daughters.

The youngest of these sons, Emanuel Montefiore (b. 1842), became a lieutenant-colonel in the Royal Artillery, assistant secretary of the London Charity Organization Society, commandant of the Jewish Lads' Brigade, and a member of the council of the West London Reform Synagogue. Of the daughters of Joseph Montefiore the eldest, Sarah, married Solomon Sebag of London; she became the mother of Joseph Sebag, afterward Sir Joseph Sebag-Montefiore (1822-1903), who had three sons — Arthur (father of Robert Sebag-Montefiore), Cecil, and Edmund. Sarah had also five daughters: Jemima (married Haim Guedalla), Esther (died prematurely), Abigail (wife of Benjamin Gompertz, the mathematician), Rebecca (married Joseph Salomons; brother of the late Sir David Salomons), and Justina (married Benjamin Cohen, father of Arthur Cohen and Lionel Benjamin Cohen).
Bibliography: Lucien Wolf, Life of Sir Moses Montefiore. London, 1883; Jew. Chron. 28 April, 1876. J. I. H.

Joseph Mayer Montefiore: English communal worker; nephew of Sir Moses Montefiore; born in London 10 May, 1816; died there 9 Oct., 1880. In 1844 he was elected a member of the Board of Deputies, London, as one of the representatives of the Spanish-Portuguese congregation. He retired from the office in 1853, but was re-elected in 1857. In 1858 he became vice-president of the board, acting as president during the absence abroad of Sir Moses, whom he succeeded, Oct., 1874. Montefiore was elected treasurer of the Spanish-Portuguese Synagogue in 1846, and warden in 1851. He was a liberal subscriber to and took much interest in the charitable and educational institutions connected with the congregation. He was a director of the Alliance Insurance Company for twenty-three years, and acted for some years as director of the National Provincial Bank of Ireland. He was a justice of the peace and deputy-lieutenant for Sussex, and served as high sheriff of that county in 1870.
Bibliography: Jew. Chron. and Jew. World, 15 Oct., 1880.

Sir Joseph Sebag-Montefiore: Stock-broker; son of Solomon Sebag and Sarah, eldest sister of Sir Moses Montefiore; born in 1822; died at London 18 Jan., 1903. On succeeding (1885) to the estate of his maternal uncle he assumed the name of Montefiore by royal license. He was one of the leading members of the London Stock Exchange, on which he amassed a large fortune. He was a justice of the peace for Kent and the Cinque Ports and lieutenant of the city of London; and in 1889 he served as high sheriff for Kent. He was for many years a leading member of the Spanish-Portuguese congregation and was president of the elders of that body. In 1895 he became president of the Board of Deputies, after having been vice-president for many years; and in 1896 he was appointed by the King of Italy Italian consul general in London. He was knighted in 1896.
Bibliography: Jew. Chron. 22 May, 1896; Jewish Year Book (London), 5659 (=1898-99).

Joshua Montefiore: English lawyer, soldier, and journalist; born in London 10 Aug., 1762; died at St. Albans, Vt., 26 June, 1843. After graduating at Oxford he studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1784. While practising in London he attained considerable success as an author, his "Commercial Dictionary" being regarded as the standard work of its kind. In 1791 he joined a band of adventurers under Moses Ximenes, who purposed establishing a colony on the coast of Africa; Montefiore took charge of the military side of the expedition. The party occupied the Island of Bulama and raised the British flag; but after several conflicts with the natives, they were compelled to withdraw. Of this early attempt at African colonization he has left a lively account. Before the settlement was broken up Montefiore attempted to establish schools for the children of his companions.

On his return to England he declined the honour of knighthood and entered the army as a captain, being the first Jew to hold a military commission in England. He was present as an officer of the York Light Infantry at the taking of Martinique and Guadalupe in 1809. After serving in various parts of the world, he resigned his commission and emigrated to the United States; for some time he published and edited in New York "Men and Measures," a weekly political journal; he afterward took up his residence at St. Albans, Vt. Montefiore published: "Commercial Dictionary" (1803); Commercial and Notarial Precedents" (1804); "Trader's Compendium"; "United States Trader's Compendium": "Law of Copyright"; "Synopsis of Mercantile Laws" (1830); "Law and Treatise on Bookkeeping" (1831); "Laws of Land and Sea" (1831).
Bibliography: Jew. World, 31 Oct., 1884; L. Wolf, Centennial Biog. of Sir Moses Montefiore, London, 1884; Cyclopedia of American Biography.

Lady Judith Montefiore: Wife of Sir Moses Montefiore; daughter of Levi Barent Cohen; born in London in 1784; died 1 Oct., 1862. She was an accomplished linguist and musician. She married Moses Montefiore in 1812. For thirteen years they lived at New Court, Saint Swithin's Lane, London. Her prudence and intelligence influenced all her husband's undertakings, and when he retired from business the administration of his fortune in philanthropic endeavors was largely directed by her. Lady Montefiore accompanied her husband in all his foreign missions up to 1859, and was the beneficent genius of his memorable expeditions to the Holy Land, Damascus, St. Petersburg, and Rome. By her linguistic abilities she was enabled to materially assist her husband in his self-imposed tasks. During the journey to Russia, in 1846, she was indefatigable in her efforts to alleviate the misery she saw everywhere around her. The wife and daughter of the Russian governor paid her a ceremonious visit and expressed the admiration she had inspired among all classes. Her sympathies were greatly widened by travel; two journals of some of these travels were published anonymously by her. The last years of her life were spent alternately in London and Ramsgate. At her death Sir Moses founded in her memory the Judith Montefiore College at the latter place.
Bibliography: Lucien Wolf, Life of Sir Moses Montefiore, pp. 189-212; Morais, Eminent Israelites, pp. 240-242; Jew. Chron. 3 Oct., 1862; Kayserling, Die Jüdischen Frauen, pp. 272-275, 308; L. Loewe, Diaries of Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore. 1890. J. G. L.

Leonard Montefiore: English author and philanthropist; brother of Claude G. Montefiore; born in London 4 May, 1853; died at Newport 6 Sept, 1879; educated at Balliol College, Oxford, where he came under the influence of Jowett, T. H. Green, and of his fellow student Arnold Toynbee. Even before he left college he had contributed to some of the principal periodicals, as "The Nineteenth Century" and "The Fortnightly Review," and was at the time of his death devoting himself to the study of the German struggle for emancipation, on which he published some preliminary essays. Montefiore was associated with many philanthropic movements, especially with the movement for women's emancipation. His "Literary Remains" were privately printed by his family after his death (1880).
Bibliography: Memoir in his Literary Remains; Athenœum and Examiner, 13 Sept., 1879; Women's Union Journal, Nov., 1879; Jew. Chron. and Jew. World, 12 Sept., 1879.

Sir Moses Montefiore (Bart.): Jewish Broker: English philanthropist; born in Leghorn, Italy, 28 Oct., 1784; died at Ramsgate, England, 25 July, 1885. Moses ?ayyim Montefiore and his wife, both of Leghorn, settled in London in the middle of the eighteenth century. One of their seventeen children, Joseph Elias Montefiore, took his young wife, Rachel, daughter of Abraham Lumbroso de Mattos Mocatta, on a business journey to Leghorn, where their eldest child, Moses, the subject of this article, was born. On their return they lived at Kennington, where Moses went to school and was apprenticed to a provision merchant. Later he entered a counting house in the city of London, and ultimately became one of the twelve Jewish brokers then licensed by the city.

His career was not entirely uncheckered by adversity. In 1806 he was deceived by a man whom he had trusted in a large transaction in Exchequer bills, and had to ask for time in which to settle certain obligations. This his high character and popularity enabled him to secure. His brother Abraham joined him in business; and they remained in partnership till 1816. Moses married (1812) Judith, daughter of Levi Barent Cohen. Levi Barent Cohen was an Ashkenazi, and it was a sign of indifference, on the part of the Montefiores, to current prejudice that, although they belonged to the London Sephardim, they married German Jewesses. Moses lived in New Court, close to his friend Rothschild; and the brothers Montefiore, as the brokers of that financial genius, became wealthy men. Moses was able to retire from the Stock Exchange in 1821; and in 1824 he assisted in founding the Alliance Assurance Company, of which he was the first president.
Dignities: He was among the founders of the Imperial Continental Gas Association, which extended gaslighting to the principal European cities; and he was one of the original directors (1825) of the Provincial Bank of Ireland, which gained for him the honorary freedom of Londonderry. For a short time he was also a director of the South Eastern Railway.

In 1836 he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society; and in 1837 he was elected sheriff of the city of London, being the second Jew to fill that office (see Salomons, Sir David). In the same year he was knighted by Queen Victoria on her accession. He had become acquainted with her in 1834, while she was staying at Broadstairs with her mother, the Duchess of Kent, to whom he had been able to show courtesy by placing at her disposal the secluded grounds of his house near that seaside resort. In 1846 he was created a baronet, and in 1847 became high sheriff for Kent. He was a deputy lieutenant and a magistrate in more than one jurisdiction. At an earlier period of his life (1810-1814)he had been captain in the Surrey local militia and practised assiduously the bugle calls and drill. In part he owed his stately bearing to these early days of military training. While Sir Moses was winning wealth and social distinction, he was living the life of a most pious and observant Jew. His diaries record his regular attendance at the synagogue, his scrupulous performance of the functions of a member of the ancient Society of Lavadores, which made it a sacred duty to perform the last rites for members of the synagogue; and they show also that under great difficulties he strictly complied with the dietary laws as well as with those which enjoin rest and forbid travel upon Sabbaths and festivals. In pursuance of inflexible principle, he resisted all attempts at congregational reform.

The following is an account in his own language of his life in 1820: "With God's blessing, rise, say prayers at 7 o'clock. Breakfast at 9. Attend the Stock Exchange, if in London, 10. Dinner, 5. Read, write, and learn, if possible, Hebrew and French, 6. Read Bible and say prayers, 10. Then retire. Monday and Thursday mornings attend the Synagogue. Tuesday and Thursday evenings for visiting." "I attended," he says on another occasion, "many meetings at the City of London Tavern, also several charitable meetings at Bevis Marks, in connection with the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue; sometimes passing the whole day there from ten in the morning till half-past eleven at night (25 Jan., 1820), excepting two hours for dinner in the committee-room; answered in the evening 350 petitions from poor women, and also made frequent visits to the Villa Real School." He cooperated also with the Rothschilds and the Goldsmids in the movement for parliamentary emancipation of the Jews. In 1814 he became treasurer of the Sephardic Synagogue in London, and in due course passed through all its highest offices, being six times warden-president. From 1838 to 1874 he was president of the Board of Deputies of British Jews; and on his retirement £12,000 was subscribed as a testimonial to him and was used by his wish in aid of building industrial dwellings at Jerusalem. His time in office was vigorously employed in the relief of his suffering brethren.
Visits to Palestine: Seven times Sir Moses Montefiore visited Palestine, in 1827, 1838, 1849, 1855, 1857, 1866, and 1875; being accompanied by his wife each time before her death in 1862, and making the last journey when he was ninety-one years old. Another regular companion was Dr. L. Loewe, who became his literary executor. In the Holy Land he endowed hospitals and almshouses, set on foot agricultural enterprises, planted gardens, and built synagogues and tombs. He not only gave bounteously of his own means, but administered public and private subventions, among others a fund bequeathed by Judah Touro of New Orleans, who left $50,000 to be applied, as Sir Moses thought fit, for the benefit of the Jews in the Holy Land. The events of these journeys were carefully narrated in his own diaries and in those of Lady Montefiore, some of which have been published in full, while others have unfortunately been destroyed, though not till extracts from them had been printed. Besides passing references to interesting personages whom the travelers met, the diaries furnish incidentally a history of the gradual development of the means of travel. In their early adventures the courageous couple encountered serious dangers; even in England they were shot at, presumably by highwaymen, on the Dover Road. But they were not deterred by the fears of slavery and imprisonment which then beset travelers in the East, or by breaking ice or by wolves in Russia. On one of his journeys (1840) Sir Moses obtained from the Sultan of Turkey a firman denouncing the inveterate charge of ritual murder brought against the Jews. (There is an image from a photograph when 100 years old.)
Visits Morocco: He obtained promises of friendliness from two czars (1846 and 1872), crossed the desert of the Atlas and at the age of seventy-nine won for his brethren the favor of the Sultan of Morocco; made an unsuccessful journey to Rome to obtain the return to his parents of the boy Mortara (1858), and went to Rumania (1867), where he presented himself at an open window to a mob at the imminent risk of his life. It was at the age of seventy-six that he went to the office of the London "Times" after midnight, with a letter soliciting relief for the Christians of Syria. His own contribution was £200, and he collected over £20,000.
His Popularity: The affection which his magnetic personality and his native goodness inspired can not be exaggerated. In Palestinehis brethren flocked to kiss the hem of his garment. On his entering into his one hundredth year (8 Nov., 1883) Queen Victoria, Albert Edward Prince of Wales, and many hundreds of his most distinguished fellow citizens sent telegrams of congratulation. The birthday was a public festival at Ramsgate, where he passed the evening of his days.
Sir Moses was buried at Ramsgate, near the synagogue he had founded, side by side with his wife in the mausoleum which he had erected for the purpose, a reproduction of the building known as the Tomb of Rachel on the Bethlehem road. By his will (proved at £370,000) he directed the continuance of many and various charities, and among others added to the endowment of the Montefiore College and Library, Ramsgate, which he had first established in memory of his wife. The college is now devoted to a few learned men who spend their days in the study of the Law. For a time an institution for younger students was also maintained, but the trustees in lieu thereof make an annual subvention to Jews' College, London. Sir Moses Montefiore had no children; but the baronetcy was revived by the crown in favor of Francis Montefiore, grandson of Abraham, Sir Moses' brother and partner; while his seat at Ramsgate became by his will the property of Joseph Sebag (afterward Sir Joseph Sebag-Montefiore), son of Sir Moses' sister.

Bibliography: The Times (London), 22-23 Oct., 1883; 29 July, 1885; Jew. Chron. Aug. 28, 1885; 13 and 20 June, 1902; L. Loewe, Diaries of Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, 1890; Israel Davis, Sir Moses Montefiore: a Biographical Sketch, 1884; Lucien Wolf, Sir Moses Montefiore: a Centennial Biography, London, 1884; Lady Judith Montefiore, Diary, of a Visit to Egypt (privately printed, n.d.); Liebermann, Internationales Montefiore-Album, 1884; ?ayyim Guedalla, Keter Shem ?ob, 1887. J. I. Da.

Nathaniel Montefiore: See Synagogue And Tomb of Sir Moses Montefiore, Ramsgate England.
English communal worker; second son of Abraham Montefiore and Henrietta, daughter of Mayer A. de Rothschild; born in London 1819; died there 1883. He married Emma, the youngest daughter of Sir Isaac Lyon Goldsmid. He was trained for the medical profession at Guy's Hospital and was elected a member of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1858. He did not establish a practise, but used his medical knowledge for the benefit of the inmates of the Beth Holim Hospital, an ancient charity of the Spanish-Portuguese, Jews of London of which he was treasurer for over a quarter of a century. He filled also numerous other communal offices.

He was president of the Jewish and General Literary Institution, in Leadenhall street, which was known as "Sussex Hall"; president of the Jews' Infant Schools; and president of the Jews' Emigration Society. But most of his communal work was in connection with the Spanish-Portuguese congregation, to which most members of his family belonged. He served as senior warden of the congregation, president of the board of elders, president of the Gates of Hope school, and representative of the congregation on the Board of Deputies. He was buried in the Balls Pond Cemetery of the West London Reform Synagogue, by the side of his son Leonard. Bibliography: Jew. Chron. and Jew. World, 30 March, 1883.J.
===See ==== http://www.engl.uvic.ca/Faculty/MBHomePage/engl366c/merchant3.html
Jews in Medieval and Early Modern England - A number of political actions taken in the years before The Merchant of Venice illuminate official attitudes of the time towards such things as the status of Jews and the legality of lending money at interest. Here are some examples:


To find your way to more files on Merchant Networks topics related either chronologically, or alphabetically by merchant surname, go to the main file of Listings.

1. In 1290, under Edward IV, the Jews in England were deported en masse to France - which they were forced to flee less than twenty years later. Not until Cromwell's Commonwealth (1656) were Jews allowed to establish communities in England. Amsterdam and Venice, both centers of commerce, allowed flourishing communities of professing Jews. Elsewhere they had to preserve at least the appearance of conversion to Christianity to avoid persecution and deportation.
2. There was a sensational trial just before Shakespeare wrote The Merchant of Venice. In 1593 Dr. Rodrigo Lopez, a converted Jew and physician to Queen Elizabeth, was condemned to death for conspiracy against her life. He died protesting his innocence, and there is evidence that Elizabeth did not believe that he was guilty, but the trial publicized all the old accusations against the Jewish people. Lopez was well-known to the Earl of Essex, who was a close friend of Henry Wriothesley, third Earl of Southampton, to whom in turn Shakespeare dedicated two of his works (Venus and Adonis in 1593, The Rape of Lucrece in 1594). The chain of connection may be rather long, but there is no doubt that Shakespeare would have known of the trial, and may have actually met Lopez.
3. The politics of moneylending in the period were complex. For centuries, "usury"-- lending money and charging interest-- had been forbidden as contrary to the Law of God, but the increasing demands of capitalism made the policy unworkable. Henry VIII passed a law allowing interest rates of up to 10%, but it was repealed by his son, Edward VI, who outlawed usury again. The result was hardship, and a black market of far higher rates. Under Elizabeth a complicated law was passed, instituting heavy penalties for those who charged more than 10% interest. While it allowed charges of less than 10%, those borrowing could not be forced legally to pay the interest--just the principal.

From Pieter Dickson on Jamaica -

Arrow graphicOn the below, see a gallery on Jamaica, (on "galjamaica1.htm">Jamaica), and on Duncan Campbell (1726-1803).

24 September 2004, Dear Merchant Networks, I said I would leave you in peace for a while. I cannot, after a casual chat with my dad late this afternoon. I need another, longer conversation with him, with the tape recorder again, as he can place several names whose whereabouts I did not know - the old Binns and Campbell properties in Lucea - as being adjacent. (There is continually more warp and weft to his recollections since our visit to the island).
He also has, buried somewhere at home, something about the Scots settlers and founders of Johnson Town, on the waterfront; this may relate to Scott Malcolm's recent correspondence to you about Susannah Mary Johnson, Ricketts and Campbell. Other names worth a look at around Lucea, Jamaica, are McCallum and McFarlane. I'll be in touch later as I need to put names and places on to an outline map to clarify things in my own mind. Let me know if a copy of this will interest you.
Correction: I note that I typed William Bligh's chart as dating from 1783! It is 1786. Correction: Binns to Bing is a red herring - I am told that the Bings were a Jewish family who settled in Lucea, probably in the 19th century.
I'll be back in a while. Regards, Pieter

Arrow graphicBibliographical Sources, various for any of the above:

More to come

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