Problem people for researchers
Helmsman graphicMonitor graphicHelmsman graphicThe Cozens/Byrnes Merchants Networks Project - Updated 11 July 2010

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Problem people for researchers


A project seldom if ever developed for the Internet ... a website to return to ...

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A website intended to be of greatest use for anyone interested in economic history ... maritime history ...

By August 2009, this is a new page for The Merchant Networks Project. Research and the website itself have moved into new zones. This page of the website is devoted to presenting sketchy information on historical characters - mostly merchant names - who prove difficult to research for a variety of reasons. (-Ed)

 The approach of this website is to examine merchants in terms of the networks they are part of, where concentration on individual merchants is reduced. Merchant networks tend to work in an organic way. They behave, they adapt or die. They expand or contract, or change in response to new opportunities, in response to the loss of old opportunities. They can act to exclude members who behave badly. They can actively recruit new members or passively ignore those who want to become new members. They can fade away as technology changes. Members of networks can engage in political activity to advance their interests. Merchant networks  can also, as shown by The Anglo-Chinese Opium Wars (circa 1839, as those tragedies have been called), cause serious conflict on the world stage, if not prevented by the responsible foreign policies of their home nation(s). 

Explanation of a book project
Image of a book cover
Mason's book depicted above (published 1985) treats many merchant names but also the names of British administrators in India.
The Byrnes-Cozens book will concentrate more on merchant names, often in contexts where merchants (or their lobby groups) try to influence administrators and politicians.

It often happens that when economic historians are writing new articles, challenges arise to expand the population of merchant names to be mentioned. Simultaneously, it is often more productive to deepen/widen our knowledge of names which so far are known or partly-known. The names listed below tend to be names long known, but names about which more could be known. They are names Ken Cozens and Dan Byrnes are remaining a little frustrated about as they re-draft the book they have been co-writing since early 2006.

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The Byrnes-Cozens team has actively used this website to solicit e-mail from people interested in the topics addressed. But it has to be said that many e-mailers are concerned only with genealogy in general, or, with their own family history, not the general issues which arise when merchants are discussed in greater detail. Sometimes the resulting discussion are fruitful, sometimes not.

This webpage is presented simply to list merchant names, or names associated with them, which are still proving troublesome to research. A great many of the names have been extracted from a wide variety of books, and/or from recently-revised websites. But the fact that names are mentioned, even in books of economic history now regarded as classics, does not necessarily mean that a great deal of information is available on them. The Byrnes-Cozens team hopes that by now, we have dealt research-wise with enough merchant names to become informative on which names are still resistant to research.

We could note in passing, a variety of issues which can arise. For example, the notion that with the American Revolution, disgruntled American colonists successfully scattered British merchants whom they felt had been restricting and harrassing them without caring if the Americans were given political representation in return for taxation.&c &c. The fact is, American historians do not chortle about the scattered British merchants, and seldom name them. Nor do British historians. This amounts to an oversight, and one result is a series of gaps-in-information (lacunae) about Anglo-American relations that have been exploited by US producers of a variety of weird conspiracy theories, which are often vituperatively anti-British in outlook, as well as relying implicitly on ignorance of various relevant issues in commercial history. Meanwhile, British book writers and webmasters remain quiet about such matters.

The only context in which American historians tend to mention the name of such British merchants is where they produce micro-studies of mostly elite American colonial names who had been dealing with the said British merchants. And micro-studies tend to be relatively unconcerned with wider-scale historiography, general political issues, and broad trends in history, except perhaps to point to interesting innovations in commercial life. Meaning, a great many interesting merchant names have fallen through the floorboards, been neglected, or overlooked.

The e-mail received by the Byrnes-Cozens team, often excessively concerned with questions of family historians, at least indicates that family historians have also noticed that a great many names have been neglected. And so, to the listings as we hope to discover more ...

This listing to be updated irregularly. The compilers would be very pleased to hear from anyone who can provide new or extra information.

Re-examining London bankers, Lane, Son and Fraser

Based in London, and prior to the American Revolution, Lane, Son and Fraser, by reputation at least, were powerful bankers influencing several American colonies. The Revolution largely destroyed their place in Anglo-American commercial affairs, and many of their American agents seem to have been Loyalists, that is, men scattered by the force of the Revolution. In London itself, Lane, Son and Fraser failed in 1793, and it is said that the Bank of England considered whether to attempt to save them or not, and refrained from the attempt. If the firm was important enough to preoccupy the Bank of England in 1793, it also seems they shortly sank without trace, which seems to be a quite unreasonable sort of researching situation. Whether Lane, Son and Fraser really were influential in pre-Revolutionary America remains near-impossible to actually prove. Below is an attempt to re-assess what remains of the evidence.

In general, working on Lane, Son and Fraser post-1775 is to sit inspecting lists of names representing either nests of Loyalists, or nests of Revolutionaries. It is convenient to divide data on them into periods, or phases (1) 1720s-1750 (2) 1750-1775 (3) 1776-1783 (4) 1783 to 1793 and the firm's failure. Firstly-given below is registration of data which is surfacing as new clues on Lane, Son and Fraser. And UK researcher James Brennan has decided to provide some assistance. If surnames indicated below are hyperlinked, it means you can easily click to a genealogy on that individual's lineage.

1783-1793

It is easiest to work backwards in time. The firm failed in 1793. By 1793, the firm's principals were Thomas Fraser, John Lane (probable family here re his son), and their close associate, the bachelor American Thomas Boylston. Little information arises on Thomas Fraser and Clan Fraser genealogical information seems to be little help on him. Across generations, information on the Lanes is rendered unhelpful due to lack of family history, in particular, lack of the names of wives/daughters. (Lane is a not-uncommon English surname.) We now find the following names to be of fresh interest. (1) John Langdon Sullivan, an American. By 1803, J. L. Sullivan was still trying to collect debts due to Lane, Son and Fraser with respect to Mount Desert Island, Maine (see below on the island). By 1803, the name George W. Irving (George W. Erving) may also be relevant in this Sullivan context. An 1880s issue of the Maine Historical Magazine may be relevant (?). Was Mount Desert Island relevant and did it point to Thomas Boylston? (2) Richard Lechmere of Cambridge Massachusetts (1727-1814 died at Bristol, England), an American Loyalist. Lechmere was once an agent for Lane, Son and Fraser. Lechmere married Mary Phipps; their daughter Mary Lechmere married Loyalist James Russell (1749-1832), and James Russell had two daughters who married Britishers. Names earlier seen in James Russell's background include the American colonial names, Sparhawk and Avery. (3) Thomas Boylston (1721-1798), an American, the son of Boston saddler and storekeeper Thomas Boylston (died 1739) and Sarah Moorcock (died 1774). (Massachusetts Historical Society has Boylston Family Papers 1688-1979.)


A variety of names arises for inspection as mere clues. Whether there is any pattern in the evident variety remains to be seen. It is not so far clear what financial links, if any, any of these names ever had with Lane Son and Fraser (LSF) or LSF's agents in America or anywhere else. We find:
US Canal Engineer, Middlesex Canal project, Loammi Baldwin, (1780-1838).
Various American persons with the name Langdon (marriages of Langdon- Sherburne with links to the American name Sullivan of a one-time LSF agent in America, John Langdon Sullivan as above). The name Sullivan also connects with the probably-Loyalist name Russell.
Thomas Boylston (1721-1798) circa 1786 as a salesman for American whaling product.
Persons said to be connected with personnel of Lane Son and Fraser circa 1786 and also possibly personal acquaintances of Gov. Arthur Phillip, the first governor of NSW. Calmady and Pollexfen. Everitt (names of mostly naval men re Lane-Everitt marriages). Gayton. Rawlins of Boston, America, plus American Benjamin Pinkman.
American shipping merchants John and Richard Codman. (?)
The Salem-based US-India merchant Elias Haskett Derby (1739-1799).
John Lane Boylston Hallowell (1789-1847), plus a nephew of Thomas Boylston with a confusing name-change due to an inheritance from an uncle, Ward Nicholas Hallowell-Boylston (1747-1749-1828) who spent the latter part of his life as a "merchant" engaged in unspecified types of business in England, not America; who had a second wife born in Yarmouth, England.
Very complicated matters of probable links between LSF and American merchant, regarded as "a financier of the American Revolution" second only to Robert Morris, Nathaniel Tracy (1751-1796). Tracy was badly failing by 1786 or so and had been loaned money by Lane.
American merchant John Wendell (1731-108) who had a variety of correspondence with LSF across years. He had one wife named Wentworth of a Loyalist family, and one wife surnamed Sherburne (see Sherburne above).
South Carolina merchant Thomas L. Winthrop connected to Nathaniel Tracy above and also possibly connected to a one-time LSF agent in America, American George Dickinson.


John Wendell (1731-1808) wrote to Lane Son and Fraser March 1778, 8 Sept 1778, Dec 1780, July 1783, May-June 1784, Feb and Sep 1785, July 1786, October 1792. (From http://www.portsmouthathaneum.org/ on Papers of Wendell Family 1800-1967 MS025.)

On Mount Desert Island, Hancock County, Maine, largest island off Maine (MDI, 280sq/km), today a population of about 10,000. Gov Francis Bernard of Massachusetts in about 1759-1760 obtained a royal land grant on MDI and tried to secure this grant by offering settlers free land. Abraham Somes and James Richardson took up the offer. The outbreak of the American Revolution destroyed Bernard's plan, and he remained a Loyalist. Bernard's son was a Revolutionary, and he thus gained half of MDI. The second half of the island went to Marie Therese de Gregoire, grand-daughter of Cadillac. Both these new American owners (of an original British royal land grant) sold out to non-resident landlords (who finally included Lane Son and Fraser). But some of the grant of Bernard Senior lay unused, (John Bernard went to England and became a Baronet) and came into the hands by mortgage of Lane Son and Fraser of London who used an agent, Thomas Russell of Boston, who used an administrator, John Langdon Sullivan. Hon. John Lowell also helped administer this land held by Lane Son and Fraser (John lane and Thomas Fraser) after 1793. Also involved was George W. Irving (Erving) of Boston but now in London, who in turn in 26 March 1822 sold to Thomas Boylston's heir, Ward Nicholas Boylston (resident in England), for which transaction Irving used lawyer Thomas W. Winthrop, Ward Nicholas B by then being an assignee of Lane Son and Fraser. (Maine and Massachussetts were separated in 1820.) The MDI settler name Enoch Bartlett appears by 1775-1783. (See Maine Historical Magazine as an item on www.archive.org/stream/.)

After 1783, a rush of former American Rev soldiers wanted to settle in Maine or on MDI. Towns were proposed (on six square mile allotments). Maine lands were put to sale by lottery, which move was unsuccessful, and big-finance names such as General Henry Jackson of Boston and Royal Flint of New York, William Duer of New York and William Bingham of Philadelphia, plus Secretary of War Henry Knox moved in. Bingham later moved to England and died at Bath. By 1807, Messrs Barings, Gilmore, Willing and Huse were moved to undertake legal action on the Bingham holdings. MDI settlers worked in farming (wheat, rye, corn, potatoes), lumbering, shipbuilding, finished wood products, plus granite quarrying. By 1850 the island had become popular with city folk (especially journalists, painters) wanting to enjoy rustic simplicity. By the 1890s, New York's richest had built mansion-cottages on the island. (wikipedia page on MDI). MDI has a Frazer (sic) Mountain.

1776-1783

To make matters worse, for the period 1786-1793, it is said that the first governor of NSW, Arthur Phillip, was personal friends with the younger members of the family Lane of Lane Son and Fraser. Here the relevant names are: Lane, Everitt and Gayton. Information on Lane and Gaytons to be found on the Internet is still inadequate.

Otherwise ... there arises the difficult-to-disuss business of Nathaniel Tracy.

1750-1775

More to come

1720-1750

More to come


A London-Scotland network on the brink of discovery?
Henry Davidson and Charles Graham

Generally with merchant networks, a family-based network is relatively easy to identify, since the business history will conform a good deal with the family history. Lately (June 2010) we suspect we have touched on a family network that is an exception to this. It may be that the family history has so far camouflaged the business history, it is hard to say. The hub of this seeming network is a London firm, Davidson and Graham, which ended its career about 1827. The senior businessman was Henry Davidson, West India merchant, of Bedford Square London, died 1827. His long-term partner was Charles Graham (Eighth of Drynie, Black Isle, Co Cromarty, of Fenchurch Buildings, London) died 1806) also of London.

Henry Davidson was of the Davidsons of Tulloch Castle, Dingwall, Scotland, on whom the Merchant Networks team has received email from UK. Which we examined. A website is available on these Davidsons of Tulloch. Charles Graham's situation is outlined on a website based on Scotland, mounted by people named Graeme/Graham who state they are interested in modern multimedia, including websites, and operate The Byre, the best sound recording studio in Scotland. (Their website is http://inchbrakie.tripod.com/inchbrakie/id39.html on the Graemes of Inchbrakie and Grahams of Jamaica. The spellings Graeme/Graham are sometimes interchangeable.)

This Charles Graham married Miss Mackenzie (nil parents) of Haiburn and had a son, George Graham, Ninth of Drynie.

This Henry Davidson married Carolina Blake, daughter of W. Blake. They were the parents of a London-born Queensland Australia sugar planter and sugar miller, John Ewen Davidson (1841-1923), who has an entry in Australian Dictionary of Biogaphy Online. it is John Ewen's background regarding sugar which is hard to assess. Added to which, if Henry Davidson and Carolina Blake had a son born in 1841, Henry can't have died in 1827, so he is not the Henry died about 1827 who was partner with Charles Graham. John Ewen's father was a son of Henry Davidson (1771-1827) of Tulloch (listed on the peerage.com) and Caroline Elizabeth Diffel (a daughter of John Diffel, Diffel being a rare surname). This latter Henry (1771-1827) has about five generations listed in his genealogy prior to his appearance. Amongst his forebears are a lawyer (called in Scotland a Writer); a man a Town Clerk of Cromarty; so we know the family respects education. Henry married to Diffel was son of Duncan Davison (died 1799) of Tulloch, who had two wives, (1) Louisa Spencer and (2) Magdalen Gemmell daughter of William Gemmell (also a rare surname).

As we'll find, there were links with the surname Dunbar, and there is one woman's given name to take notice of, Justina. There was a Justina Dunbar (1759-1826) to notice. But we move on to the main mystery. On Jamaica was a planter, and "operator", Francis Graham (1778-1820). Francis arrived on Jamaica in 1797 aged about 18 and a half on Jamaica, was at Tulloch Estate in St Catherine's Parish, Jamaica, and before he died, not so old, he with others had some part in the management, and/or ownership, of about 49 sugar estates, nineteen pens (diversified farms) up to ten other plantations, and about 13,000 slaves. It is unclear if all these business entities were on Jamaica, probably not, but we have never before heard of a management team using up to 13,000 slaves! It seems unbelievable.

Is it unbelievable? And who had orchestrated such a set-up? Francis Graham (died 1820) married Jemima Charlotte Graham. Francis was son of Alexander Graham and Donna Ighaive, Donna being a woman from Fayal, The Azores. (These were Scots who got about the world, probably because times were tough for their extended families in Scotland.) This Alexander was a brother of Charles Graham the partner of Henry Davidson (died 1827) of Tulloch. Jemima Charlotte was daughter of a Lt-Colonel of the Scots Brigade, Colin Dundas Graham (of the Grahams of Drynie) and a Dutchwoman, Mary Magdalen de Janatsch (or, de Teustych?). Jemima Charlotte had a sister Margaret who married a doctor of Spanish Town, Jamaica, Dr Sir Michael Benignus (or Benjamin?) Clare (1777-1832), a noted Freemason Grand Master on Jamaica and son of a clergyman. Jemima Charlotte also had a brother Alexander (a captain in the Hanoverian Service) who married Nancy Graham a daughter of a West India sugar planter, a different Francis Graham and an untraceable Miss Jackson (which Miss Jackson was probably from Jamaica).

Jemima Charlotte married secondly, Sir George Gunn Munro (Monro) (died 1852) of Poyntzfield, Scotland. This Sir George Gunn Munro was a grandson of Sir George Gunn Munro (born 1743) who married Justina Dunbar (1759-c.1826) mentioned above. This Justina Dunbar was a daughter of William Dunbar of Forres (born 1721) and Jean Davidson, who was daughter of the Town Clerk of Cromarty mentioned above and Jean Bain (Bayne, Baine).

These Dunbars were part of the Dunbar genealogy of the noted London shipowner, Duncan Dunbar II (c.1804-1862), son of Duncan Dunbar I (1764-1825) and Phoebe Bailey (1775-1853). And it is known that Duncan Dunbar I went to Jamaica as a young man and made a fortune, though no one has ever yet explained quite how he made that fortune. The question arises, was he part of the set-up arranged by Graham and Davidson in London? Is all this part of the background to the biography of Duncan Dunbar II?

The relevant webpage at inchbrakie.tripod.com consulted here is titled Graemes and Grahams of Jamaica. At its top is a notice that the research noticed in this item, research on the Grahams of Drynie who went to Jamaica, is regarded as valid, but that the person providing the information has requested anonymity for legal reasons. This made us curious, to say the least. Otherwise, the website carries a great deal of genealogical information on Grahams drawn from a 1902 publication by Louisa Grace Graeme on her Scottish genealogy. We presently know little more than this. Except that a good deal of relevant genealogical relating to Jamaica seems to be related to an extensive business network. So far, it has proved impossible to identify the Miss Jackson married to Jamaican planter Francis Graham.

Managing 13,000 slaves?

Managing 13,000 slaves, either on Jamaica, or around the West Indies? Just one consortium? Are the questions real? The inchbrakie webpage cited above on Grahams of Jamaiaca includes selections from archived documents (British Library - Shelfmark 601M16) being Further Proceedings of the Honourable House of Assembly of Jamaica relative to a Bill introduced into the House of Commons,for effectully preventing the unlawful importation ofslaves and holding free persons in slavery in the British Colonies. To which are annexed Examinations upon oath before a Committee of that House, for the purpose of disproving the allegations of the said Bill. 1816. Some 35 people deposed remarks and/or evidence. One was Francis Graham of Tulloch Estate (on 15 Nov. 1815) in the parish of St Thomas/St Catherine, and of Farm Pen in St Catherine's. Graham said he represented solely and/or in part, 49 sugar estates, nineteen pens and ten other plantations, on which there are about thirteen thousand negroes, and that he owned a sugar estate called Tulloch, with about 450 negroes, and holds jointly with Lord Carrington the Farm Pen, with about 250 negroes. Asked about the feeding and provisioning of slaves, Graham remarked that conditions for them were improved on in past years, many had been Christianized. Graham was examined again on 19 Dec. 1815, saying that he had charge of 13,000 slaves ... and so on. Graham was what was called a Planting Attorney, having legal charge over many estates, and the consortium he answered to ran two regular vessels to Kingston, one named Tulloch Castle. What we don't know yet are the names of the consortium's members.

The Executors for Francis Graham's Will were George William Hamilton (1786-1857), Edward Sword (nil information) and John Gale Vidal (of Jamaica, some genealogy available). An agent for Sir Michael Benignus Clare was Herbert Jarrett James, a brother-in-law of John Gale Vidal. Lord Carrington would have been ... a member of the British banking family, Smith Payne Smiths, Robert Smith (1752-1828) first Baron Carrington. (genealogy available)

We wonder then how a consortium fronted by just one Planting Attorney (Francis Graham) could have grown so big by 1815? Perhaps it got its start by buying-up plantations which at the time had strong connections to American colonies, situations blasted by the progress of the American Revolution? Is this a good-enough hypothesis to follow?

This question we find can be part-answered by Nick Hide (of London, UK) who is happy to share a range of information he has collected but not yet placed on his website at www.clandavidson.org.uk/ - New work is ongoing.

Networks overlapping awkwardly

And so far, we have found not one clearly evident network, but a set of overlapping networks sharing genealogical similarities (but not including military or naval associations which so far will only muddy the waters). How "tight" the overlapping networks were might be a relevant question. A good many of the names mentioned seem so far to be still untraceable. Some names of individuals or families populating the networks are (alphabetically) as follows from 1750 to about 1850: Merchant Claud Alexander, of Calcutta about 1800 (nil genealogy yet he is often mentioned in various literature).
Alves: Archibald Alves West India merchant. Caroline Deffell Alves. Duncan Davidson Alves (c.1804-1871). Helen Baillie Alves died 1871 married Stewart Crawford Bruce. Justina Davidson Alves (1812-1882) married a Judge in India, Charles Raikes. West India merchant William Alves (died 1835) married Sarah Chandler Davidson. Planter of St Vincent, William Gemmell Alves died 1860, son of Sarah Chandler Davidson, married Emily Caroline Ross. The Alves progenitor is hard to trace.
Anderson: Duncan Anderson (died 1850) of Mincing Lane London married Anna Maria Hall (not easy to trace). Andersons seem to form a sub-network, but are hard to assess.
Barkly: West India merchant Aeneas Barkly (1768-1836 Of Highbury Park London) and Louisa Susanna Ffrith (sic, daughter of a Jamaica planter, seemingly untraceable), who produced a son a Governor of Victoria, Australia, Sir Henry Barkly (1815-1898). A hard-to-trace woman Williamina Barkly and her husband a merchant of London and Calcutta, Robert Davidson (died 1842 in Calcutta).
Mary Burgh, who married Leith Alexander Davidson connected with a hard-to-trace firm in India, Hogue, Davidson and Robertson (little information available), which sometimes dealt with people of the early colony of NSW.
Robert Charnock, a 1790s London-based East India ships husband known to be connected with at least one convict ship to NSW.
Cromarty: any variety of names at Cromarty, Scotland including: Grahams of Drynie. Plus a few Mackenzies associated with Davidsons of Tulloch.
Davidsons of Tulloch. Some Davidsons are associated with Bedford Square, London. A single woman's name, Justina, weaves in and out of many inter-connected genealogies. A very pernickety lineage to trace, with businessmen in networks still only partly outlined. Many of the men who married Davidson women are hard to trace, but they are generally affluent. One Alexander Davidson married one Elizabeth Pigou who seems impossible to trace. There is a women's surname marrying to Davidson men, Deffell (or, Diffel) which seems impossible to retrace. Also mysterious is a Davidson woman married to a rare name, Napleton (which is not Mapleton). There is a Sophia Davidson married to an unknown Horatio Nelson of Bengal Civil Service after 1800.
Davidsons of Findhorn, Scotland, are harder to trace than Davidsons of Tulloch.
The name Dunbar from Forres, County Elgin in Scotland. Genealogy is available but not all questions are answered yet re Duncan Dunbar I.
William Fairlie and John Fergusson of Fergusson and Fairlie, India. An often-mentioned firm.
Forbes: There appears a hard-to-trace military man, a General David Forbes (old generals don't die, they merely fade away!). Who was the Maria Isabella Forbes (died 1902) who married the partly-known Asia trader Michie Forbes Davidson?
Gemmell: a name in Scotland, marrying to Davidsons, seemingly impossible to trace.
Grahams of Drynie.
Jardine: Lt-Colonel Jardine, a British consul at Corunna??? (No connection apparently to Jardines of Jardine-Matheson in the Far East.)
Lennox: Yet another networked Scots business name with information uncertain. Linkages to Lennox aristocrats also uncertain. One Lennox woman married John Kincaid, but a wikipedia page explains badly about a relevant estate.
Milligan, with Robert Milligan, once on Jamaica, well-known as a co-founder of London's West India Docks, genealogy known and acceptable, but fresh questions could esily arise. Whe at Kingston, Jamaica, Milligan, as recorded in an e-book of Monumental Inscriptions of British West Indies, was partner in a firm Dick and Milligan, not otherwise well-known. A good many West India merchants Milligan could be re-examined.
Raikes: Information generally good.
Ross: the surname Ross appears in ways unclear in various inter-connected genealogies, sometimes via Jamaica. Who was Colonel George William Holmes Ross and is he connected?
David Scott Senior (1746-1805), well-known, a confidant of Henry Dundas Lord Melville and the architect of an extremely large network stretcing from New York to London to India and the Far East (see the Tomlinson citation below). His son, David Scott Junior and Co., less well-known. (For whom one William Lennox of the Lennoxs of Woodhead was a managing member of the firm, see Lennox above.)
Shakespear: The name Shakespear, active in India in military circles, is associated, but genealogy is good.
Smith Payne and Smiths bankers, re Jamaica re Robert Smith Lord Carrington, see above. Smith genealogy is excellent.
The upshot is that we have a welter of indigestible information about many names, many of whom remain untraceable. Yet with the exception of the London-based firm Davidson and Graham, most of the merchant networks mentioned are suitably well-known in British economic history. The conclusion is that far more work needs to be done before solid information can be arranged on the final impact of any given network which previously were well-or-little-known, more so when they overlap with other networks.

(More to come here as it comes to hand Cf., B. R. Tomlinson, 'From Campsie to Kedgeree: Scottish Enterprise, Asian Trade and the Company Raj', Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 36, No. 4, October 2002, pp. 769-791 from jstor at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3876474 - Cf., Kathleen Mary Butler, The Economics of Emancipation: Jamaica and Barbados, 1823-1843. University of North Carolina Press, 1995. We note here that Charles Graham died 1806 in his Will mentioned many relatives, but omitted to menton Francis Graham the deponent to this committee. Cf., online article/overview of 2007, Robert Bruce Donald, The American Revolution's Impact on Jamaica 1774-1783. B. W. Higman, Plantation Jamaica, 1750-1850: Capital and Control in a Colonial Economy. University of West Indies Press, 2005. [Seems to mostly treat the well-known Simon Taylor of Jamaica.] )


blut Updates prompted by the above on Davidson and Graham. Re Hogue and Davidson more to come. Re Phoebe Bailey wife of Duncan Dunbar 1. Re Dick and Milligan of Kingston Jamaiaca. Francis Graham is noted as a Planting Attorney in Monumental Inscriptions of British West Indies.


Some latest work for this website: Work now being re-considered by the Byrnes/Cozens research duo includes: On William Duer and other financiers associated with "the financier of the American Revolution", such as Robert Morris. A late-2007-added file is on methodology (work-in-progress) for work on merchant networks. From April 2008, many new genealogy mini-websites are being added, plus data on genealogies of  Lord Mayors (Lords Mayor?) of London - see for example at:   http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/periods/1800after/lordsmayor1.htm and the same for file2 of that series. For a fuller explanation on these Lords Mayor files, see the website's listing file at: Contents/Listing

Click here to discover ... Who links to this Merchant Networks website?

Click here to read a promotional page for this website translated into Chinese

Merchant Networks website promo

The two writers/researchers behind the Merchant Networks Project are Ken Cozens (in London) and Dan
Byrnes
(Australia).

The Cozens/Byrnes team formed in late 2005 after prolonged e-mail discussions to pursue the idea of historians working on Merchant Networks. Not work on merchants as individuals, more on the networks they are part of ...

For more on the details of the approaches adopted by this website, see The About Us page.


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